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Note: Despite the appearance of the word task in the question, there were somecandidates who included additional

factors related to the


individual, the load and theenvironment which did not gain them any marks.

Question 6 Outline precautions to be taken when repair work is to be carried outon the sloping roof of a building. (8)

Precautions include an initial assessment to gauge the condition of the roof and tocheck for the presence of fragile materials. It would then be
necessary to provide safemeans of access, normally by the erection of a scaffold; to use roof ladders or crawling boards; and to erect edge
protection with guard rails and toe boards to prevent the fall of persons and materials. If the provision of this type of protectionwas not
practicable then the use of other equipment such as safety harnesses withadequate fixing points and/or nets might be necessary. It would also
be necessary to provide either barriers and signage round areas on the roof containing fragilematerials or to cover them to prevent persons
falling through. Note: Answers provided were to a reasonable standard with most candidates referringto the precautions to be taken both for
those on the roof and for those below. If therewere deficiencies, it was the lack of consideration given in some scripts to the presence of fragile
materials and the use of a waste chute

Question 7 Employees are carrying out repair work to wooden floorboardsinside a room within a building. A noisy circular saw is being used
which isstanding on the wooden floorboards.(a) Outline TWO transmission paths the noise could take from the circular sawto the workers.
(2)(b) Outline ways that noise levels could be reduced. (6)

Transmission paths such as by reflection from surfaces within the room;


structure borne, for example, through the wooden floor; and directly through the air. Manycandidates found difficulty in outlining transmission
paths the noise could take.There are a number of ways in which the noise levels might be reduced. These includeusing a quieter method of
cutting wood such as a hand saw or positioning the sawoutside the building. If neither were possible then consideration would have to begiven
to putting insulating barriers round the saw; fitting absorbent materials on thewalls; positioning the saw on damping material; using the correct
blade for the sawand maintaining it in good condition; and turning the saw off when it is not in actualuse. Note: Answers to the part (b) were to
a better standard although some candidates didexperience difficulty in differentiating between methods of sound insulation oftenreferring to
the same method in different words. The use of ear defenders and asuggestion that job rotation should be introduced were not awarded marks
becausethey would not, as the question asked, reduce noise levels.
Question 8 Outline control measures to reduce the risk of accidents fromreversing vehicles in a workplace. (8)

One of the first measures to be considered would be the elimination or reduction of the need for reversing by introducing a one way system and
providing turning circles

or loading and/or unloading areas. In circumstances where this might not be


possible,it would be necessary to ensure that safe systems of work were in place
andfollowed.Safe system of work might include the provision of segregation of movements of pedestrians and vehicles, designated reversing
areas ,and vehicles beequipped with mirrors, cameras for blind spots while using sensors or banks man andhaving audible alarms ,while
pedestrian be alert with high visibility jackets.

Question 9 An item of process equipment which has two large fixed controlpanels and a computer screen has been introduced into
a workplace. One personoperates the equipment which includes loading and unloading material by hand.An ergonomic assessment has been
undertaken.(a) Give the meaning of the term ergonomics.
(2)(b) Identify potential ergonomic problems associated with the use of thisequipment. (6)

the meaning of the term ergonomics would have been a study of the interface between the person, the equipment and the
working environment.Potential ergonomic problems that might arise from the use of the equipmentdescribed in the scenario include manual
handling issues; the control buttons and panels might be positioned out of reach; it might be difficult to see the computer screen from the
control position and additionally the screen might give off glare; andthere could be the possibility of environmental issues connected with
temperature,lighting and space constraints. Note: Part (b) of the question also caused difficulty with many candidates strugglingto identify the
potential ergonomic problems in using the equipment. Some did relateto problems arising from the use of display screen equipment and manual
handling but not to the wider issues. Others concentrated on the potential health effects rather than the problems that would cause the effect

Question 10 An employee is to use a petrol-driven chainsaw to fell a tree fromground level.Outline the hazards faced by the employee in
carrying out this task. (8)

Hazards associated with the task such as contact with the moving parts or the hotexhaust system of the chainsaw; exposure to exhaust gases;
hazards arising frommanual handling operations including the possibility of kick back; handlinglubricating oils and petrol which might lead to
dermatitis; uneven ground or wet grasswhich could lead to slips and falls; falling objects such as branches or the tree itself;contact with
overhead services, and stings or bites from insects or reptiles.There were some good answers provided for this question. There were,
however,some anomalies such as, for example, referring to an electrical hazard when themachine was stated to be petrol driven and the hazard
from working at height whenthe activity was to be carried out from ground level. As has been pointed out on
anumber of previous occasions, the need to read questions with great care is paramount.

Question 11 (a) Outline the principle of methods by which heat may betransferred during a fire.

(i) Conduction. (1)(ii) Radiation. (1)(iii) Convection. (1)(iv) Direct burning. (1)(b) Outline practical ways of achieving an adequate level of
compartmentationwithin a building. (4)

The principles of methods of conduction which involves the molecule to moleculetransfer of heat through conducting solids such as metal
beams or pipes to other partsof the building leading to the ignition of other combustible or flammable materials;radiation involves the emission
of heat in the form of infra-red radiation which canraise the temperatures of adjacent materials so that they reach their ignitiontemperatures or
flash points; convection allows hot gases to rise so that they becomeeither trapped beneath a ceiling or travel through voids and ducts to
remote parts of the building, in both cases raising temperatures; and direct burning which will causeignition as flames and heat come into
contact with combustible materials. Note: Answers were disappointing with only a few candidates showing evidence of knowledge of the
principles of heat transfer.For part (b) Ways of achieving an adequate level of compartmentation within
a building such as dividing it into discrete fire resisting zones; protecting structuralmaterials such as concrete and steel; sealing voids and
enclosing lifts by compartmentwalls; arranging for the compartmentation of roof voids, for example, by the use of fabric cavity-barriers; and
fitting fire dampers in duct work and fire stopping whereservices pass through compartments.

Note:

Answers to this part of the question were limited and it became obvious thatcompartmentation was not well understood. There were occasional
references to firedoors which were relevant and others to the provision of alarm systems and smokedetectors which were not, but little else was
offered