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Lecture 21-22 Chapter 8a

makes identical cells


Functions of MITOTIC Cell Division

Figure 8.1a
The Cell Cycle
Interphase G1 phase
Primary
growth phase
S phase
DNA
replication
G2 phase
Microtubule
synthesis

M phase
(MITOSIS)
Chromosomes
pull apart
C phase
(CYTOKINESIS)
Cytoplasm
divides
Chromosomes
The DNA helix is wrapped
around positively-charged
proteins, called histones

~200 nucleotides of DNA +


histones= nucleosome

During interphase, the DNA is


coiled into chromatin but not
visible chromosomes
A chromosome is a complex of
one molecule of DNA (~ 40%)
and proteins (~ 60%)
The ends of the linear
molecules are protected by
telomeres
A typical human chromosome contains about 1000 genes ^Figure 8.4
~ 140 million nucleotides in its DNA, ~5 cm in stretched length
Genome
A genome is one copy of all genetic information
(genes, regulatory sequences, and junk).

The human genome has 20-25,000 genes.

The human genome has just over 3 billion DNA base pairs.

The human genome is carried on 23 chromosomes.

We inherited one genome from each parent.

Most gametes are haploid (1n=23 for humans)


with one genomes worth of information

Most somatic (body) cells are diploid (2n=46 for humans)


Homologous Chromosomes
Diploid cells have two
SIMILAR* chromosomes see Figure 8.11
called homologous
chromosomes

Homologs have same size,


same shape, same genes in same
place (locus) but can have different
versions (alleles)
Humans have 46
chromosomes or 23 pairs of
homologs (similar
chromosomes, one from this
The chromosomes can be
persons Mom and one from
organized by size into a karyotype
their Dad) * Important
Sister Chromatids
Before a cell can divide, it
duplicates all of its
chromosomes, resulting in
two identical* copies
called SISTER
CHROMATIDS held
together at the
centromere

DNA replication occurs in


S phase (Sister, Same)

Homologs are SIMILAR*


chromosomes * Important
2 similar text books
2n 2c

1n 1c 1n 2c
2 similar text books,
4 copies (2 of each)
2n 4c
Before a cell starts
dividing, the
chromosomes
duplicate
Because the
strands of the
double helix are
complementary
A+T
C+G
an exact copy of
the DNA can be
made
An emergent
property
Chromosome
duplication (DNA
replication or
Synthesis) Figure 8.5
produces
IDENTICAL
sister chromatids

When the cell divides,


the sister chromatids separate

Each of the two daughter cells has a


complete and identical set of chromosomes
MITOSIS makes identical diploid (2n) cells
MEIOSIS makes haploid (1 n) gametes
Eukaryotic cells divide in one of two ways
Haploid gametes (n = 23)
MEIOSIS Egg cell
Occurs in germ n Figure 8.12

(reproductive) cells n
Results in the Sperm cell
production of gametes
MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION

MITOSIS Multicellular
Occurs in diploid adults Diploid
somatic (non- (2n = 46) 2n zygote
(2n = 46)
reproductive) MITOSIS
cells Key
and Haploid (n)
development
Diploid (2n)
Mitosis
Mitotic cell division allows a fertilized egg to develop
into an embryo, an adolescent and eventually an
adult

sea urchin
embryo
Mitotic Cell Cycle
M phase MITOSIS
Chromosomes pull apart
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
C phase CYTOKENESIS
Cytoplasm divides

INTERPHASE
G1 phase
Primary Growth phase
Chromosomes are
S phase
decondensed during DNA Synthesis
interphase G2 phase
chromatin Growth & Microtubule
synthesis
Prophase
Chromosomes coil

Nuclear membrane
breaks down

Spindle fibers form


see Figure 8.7
see Figure 8.7

Metaphase
Chromosomes
line up on the
midline

Spindle fibers
attach to
centromeres
Anaphase
Centromeres divide

Spindle fibers shorten

Sister chromatids
separate and move to
opposite poles

see Figure 8.7


Telophase

Cell elongates

Nuclear membrane reforms

Chromosomes uncoil

Spindle disappears

see Figure 8.7


Cytokinesis
Division of the cytoplasm

Cleave furrow forms at


equator of the cell

Constriction tightens by
contraction of filaments

Cell is divided into two


identical cells
see Figure 8.7
Cytokinesis see Figure 8.8

Animal cells Plant cells


Cleavage furrow forms, Cell plate forms,
pinching the cell in two dividing the cell
in two
Figure 8.7
Figure 8.8b
skin

Dead

- Asexual cells

reproduction,
development, Epidermis,
the outer
growth and cell layer of the
skin

replacement
are mitotic
divisions Dividing
cells

Dermis