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1 GRAMMAR

Unit One

GRAMMAR

SUMMARY

BOOK 1

Chapter One: The Sentence

A sentence always has a subject and a verb. Many sentences also have an object.

Basic Sentence Order Subject Verb Object

William

shot

the arrow.

Capitalization Rules

Rules

Examples

Capitalize the first word in a sentence. Capitalize the pronoun I. Capitalize all proper nouns.

He ran home.

I

like oatmeal.

John Smith lives there. Boston is cold in the winter. We leave on Saturday.

Chapter Two: Objects and Complements

Definitions

Examples

Objects can be nouns, pronouns, or noun phrases. They are produced by the action of the subject and verb.

I

eat big meals.

He saw her yesterday.

I

threw away the old, broken television.

Complements can be nouns, noun phrases, or adjectives. They follow linking verbs such as be, become, look, appear, seem, and feel.

The boy looked sick.

I

am a trained engineer.

Watching too much television is bad for you.

Punctuation Begin sentences with a capital letter and end them with a period (.), an excla- mation point (!), or a question mark (?).

Capitalization Rules

Rules

Examples

Capitalize the names of nationalities, races, languages, and religions. Capitalize the names of special days.

Japanese, American, Hungarian, Muslim, Christian, Chinese New Year’s Day, Easter, Halloween, Hanukkah

Unit Two

1 GRAMMAR

Unit Two

Chapter Three: Adjectives

Definition

Examples

An adjective is a word that describes

Sam bought a used car. The girl had a red balloon. The little dog bites.

noun. It usually answers the question What kind?”

a

Adjectives are the same with both singular and plural nouns.

Dad makes great sandwiches.

We saw huge buildings.

Adjectives come before nouns.

I love a cold drink on a hot day.

Adjectives can also come after the verb to be.

The drink is cold.

Chapter Four: The Comparative Form of Adjectives

Rules for Forming the Comparative

Examples

In most cases, add -er to the adjective and put than after the adjective.

fast, faster green, greener sad, sadder fat, fatter red, redder happy, happier easy, easier Los Angeles is more polluted than San Francisco. That house is more expensive than yours.

If

the adjective ends in one consonant and

there is one vowel before it, double the consonant.

If

the adjective ends in –y, change y to i

and add -er. Then put than after it. When the adjective has two syllables or more and does not end in -y, put more in front of the adjective and than after it.

Unit Three

Chapter Five: Using when

Rule

Examples

Use when to show two things happening at the same time. A comma follows the first clause in a sentence when it begins with when.

Amanda drinks tea when she has a cold. When she has a cold, Amanda drinks tea.

Chapter Six: Adverbs

Definition

Examples

An adverb modifies or tells you something about a verb. It answers the question “How?” and usually follows the verb.

He eats quickly. Snow is falling slowly. The police officer is shouting loudly.

1 GRAMMAR

To form an adverb, we usually add -ly to an adjective.

Adjectives

Adverbs

serious

seriously

shy

shyly

nervous

nervously

bad

badly

Unit Four

Chapter Seven: Count and Noncount Nouns

 
 

Count nouns name things that can be counted. Noncount nouns name things that cannot be counted.

A

noun is a count noun when

Examples

You can put a or an in front of it.

 

He has a cat. Sheila has an apple. We have many cats. one cat two apples

It

has a plural form.

You can put a number in front of it.

 

A

noun is a noncount noun when

Examples

You cannot put a or an in front of it.

She buys cheese. There is lots of money. I’d like some milk.

It

usually does not have a plural form.

You cannot put a number in front of it.

Chapter Eight: Prepositional Phrases

 

A

prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and

ends with an object. The object can be either a noun or pronoun.

Prepositional Phrases

Prepositions

Objects

in the house behind him among her friends without help

in

house

behind

him

among

friends

without

help

Unit Five

Chapter Nine: Writing Instructions/New verbs

When you write instructions, the verb comes first and does not change its form.

Fill the kettle with water. Boil the water. Put some tea into the teapot. Fill the teapot with boiling water. Pour the tea into the cup. Leave for a few minutes.

Chapter Ten: The Pronouns it and them

Use it to replace singular nouns:

Use them to replace plural nouns:

He gave the book to me. I liked it. I see the building. It is very tall.

Mike opened the doors then closed them. We race cars, but we don’t wreck them.

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Unit Six

Chapter Eleven: Comparing Things with as

as

Things to be compared

Adjective

Use of as

as

girl, boy your house, my house this cake, those cookies

big

The girl was as big as the boy. Your house is as nice as my house. This cake is not as sweet as those cookies.

nice

sweet

Chapter Twelve: Using too and very + Adjective

Rules

Examples

Very goes before an adjective and emphasizes it. It usually has a positive meaning. Too has a negative meaning when placed before an adjective; it means “also” at the end of an affirmative sentence.

He is very happy today.

That coat is too big for you. I would like to go, too.

Unit Seven

Chapter Thirteen: Prepositions of Time

Prepositions

Rules

Examples

in

Use in with years or months.

Jason graduated in 1998. In April, we’re going home. We read from nine to eleven at night. He was away from March 15 to March 28. He was away for 13 days.

from

to

Use from for the beginning of an action and to for the end of an action.

for

Use for to show how long.

Chapter Fourteen: Different Ways of Saying when

Substitutes for when

Examples

At age The next year, The following year, One, two, three years later

At age 4, she went When she was 5, she went to Hollywood. The following year, she went When she was 7, she returned to Madison, Wisconsin. Two years later, she returned

1 GRAMMAR

Unit Eight

Chapter Fifteen: Review of Parts of Speech

Definitions

Examples

A

noun is a word that names a person, place,

Bob, office, table

or thing.

A

verb is a word that describes an action or a state.

buy, bought open, opened I eat, she eats a cold drink dry clothes The rain fell heavily. The man ran quickly.

Every sentence has a verb, which changes form depending on tense and number.

An adjective describes a noun or pronoun.

Adverbs can be used to describe how an action is done.

Chapter Sixteen: Paraphrasing

When you paraphrase a sentence, you say or write it again in your own words.

Example: Actions speak louder than words.

Paraphrase: What you do is more important than what you say.