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Laboratory for Radiometry and Photometry

1) Define physical quantities that are important for environment.

Light plays crucial role in life of humans and all other living world. According to DIN 5031, the terms
optical radiation refers to electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range between 100 nm and
1mm. The terms light or visible radiation (VIS) refer to the wavelength range between 400 nm and
800 nm, which can be perceived by the human eye.

Both outdoors light coming from sun, and indoors (artificial lighting) can influence human health in
various ways. Measurements techniques can be subdivided into photometry and radiometry.

Radiometry deals with the measurement of energy per time ( = power, given in watts) emitted by
light sources or impinging on a particular surface so the units of all radiometric quantities are based
on watts (W). When the radiation energy is attributed to particular wavelength interval of radiation
one deals with spectroradiometry and spectral quantities. Photometry is the determination of optical
quantities related to the sensitivity of the human eye. Its basic unit is lumen (lm). The sensitivity of
the human eye to light of a certain intensity varies strongly over the wavelength range between 380
and 800 nm. Under daylight conditions, the average normal sighted human eye is most sensitive at a
wavelength of 555 nm, resulting in the fact that green light at this wavelength produces the
impression of highest brightness when compared to light at other wavelengths. As an example, the
photopic sensitivity of the human eye to monochromatic light at 490 nm amounts to 20% of its
sensitivity at 555 nm. As a consequence, when a source of monochromatic light at 490 nm emits five
times as much power (expressed in watts) than an otherwise identical source of monochromatic light
at 555 nm, both sources produce the impression of same brightness to the human eye. This is the
motivation for introduction of luminous physical quantities.

Physical quantities important for light measurements are characteristics of light sources, light
detectors and materials.

The basic quantities are:


1. Radiant intensity and derived (radiant flux, spectral power, etc...)
2. Luminous intensity and derived (luminous flux, Illuminance, exposure, etc...)
3. Transmittance, absorbance and reflectance of materials

Photometry part of the Laboratory is responsible for the measurements dealing with measurements
involving the physical measurement quantity - luminous intensity and its SI unit, the Candela, as well
as of its derived quantities illuminance and luminance. With the help of suitable transfer standards
(light sources or measurement devices) the units and the photometric responsivity of calibrated
measurement devices are disseminated to customers from industry and science. The traceability of
new measurement methods in the field of photometry as well as the development of new transfer
standards for innovative (e.g. LED-based) lighting. is part of its business.

Spectroradiometry part of the Laboratory is responsible for realisation, maintenance and


dissemination of the spectral irradiance measurements in wide spectral range (200 nm - 2500 nm).
Focus is on radiometry for high UV-irradiances as well as a transfer of standards and calibration
procedures for radiometric units to customers from industry and research.
2) Describe their importance for health, safety, agriculture, mariculture, etc.

Optical radiation, not percieved by human eye, with wavelengths shorter than 400 nm is called
ultraviolet (UV) radiation and is further subdivided in UV-A, UV-B and UV-C ranges. Similarly, infrared
(IR) radiation covers the wavelength range above 800 nm and is subdivided in IR-A, IR-B and IR-C
ranges (DIN 5031, part 7). There are some negative effects of light to consider. Naturally occurring
optical radiation, especially in the UV range of the solar spectrum,poses a potential health risk to
outdoor workers and others who spend a significant amount of time outdoors. Damages to skin and
eye, and in particular skin cancer and cataracts are important public health concerns.

The most serious long term consequence of UV exposure is the formation of malignant melanoma of
the skin, a dangerous type of cancer. Increased levels of UV due to ozone layer depletion have serious
consequences for living organisms.

Skin cancer is the most frequently contracted type of cancer, and since the 1970s, the incidence rates
of malignant melanoma have more then doubled. Supranational networks of solar UV detectors have
been established recently to monitor solar UV levels and the World Meteorological Organization
issued guidelines for UV monitoring.

Also, the growing use of high powered lamps in radiation therapy, radiation cosmetics, UV radiation
curing, UV sterilization, vehicle headlamps, lighting equipment, etc increases the health risks. The
high proportions of UV and blue light in the emission spectra of these lamps can, in addition to their
desired effects, also result in radiation damage through both direct and indirect contact if the
maximum permitted exposure levels are exceeded.

High levels of optical radiation poses health hazards for eye. If optical radiation with wavelengths
between 380 and 1400 nm of sufficient intensity reaches the retina it can cause photochemical and
thermal injury. Radiation in the "blue" part of the spectrum from 380 to 700 nm (effectively 380 to
550 nm) triggers photochemical reactions, if the photon energy in the radiation is high enough,
converting chemically unstable molecules into one or more other molecule types.

3) Describe legal basis for their importance (directives, laws, regulation, cumpulsory reports, etc.

The International Commission on Illumination - CIE, is devoted to developing standards and


procedures of metrology in the fields of light and lighting. Some of their technical reports on UV
protection and standard sources of radiation are given below.

ICIE Collection in Photobiology and Photochemistry, 1999


CIE 134-1999
ISBN 978 3 900734 94 7
134/2 TC 6-30 report: UV Protection of the Eye

This report provides a review on the current methods for UV dosimetry for the human cornea. The
contents include a human action spectrum, the dosimeters, the methodology for calibration and the
calculation of cumulative exposures. Based on the existing data, the levels of protection for the UV-A
band and the UV-B band are recommended. A set of guidelines for ocular protection is proposed to
assist medical practitioners in providing eye protection for patients.
134/3 TC 6-38 report: Recommendation on Photobiological Safety of Lamps. A review of Standards

There are well known optical radiation hazards associated with some lamps and lamp systems.
However, serious concerns about optical radiation hazards from lamps are rare except with regard to
very special applications. Aside from solaria and germicidal lamps the lighting community has seldom
had to be concerned with photobiological hazards of lamps. In most general illumination and
industrial applications the ultraviolet radiation (UV), visible light and infrared energies emitted by
artificial sources are not hazardous. However, in some unusual situations, potentially hazardous levels
are accessible, and excessive light and infrared radiation are typically filtered or baffled to reduce
discomfort. The natural aversion response of the eye to bright light, as well as thermal discomfort
sensed by the skin normally will limit potentially hazardous exposure.

In some applications, questions have been posed as to whether human exposure may be potentially
hazardous. For example, heat lamps used for treating plastics; the use of some arc lamps in research
laboratories; the use of very high intensity flash lamps in photography; infrared lamps used in
surveillance and in heat treating; in some diagnostic medical applications and testing; and even in
printing and photocopying.

CIE TC 6-38 investigates in the present Technical Report the potential photobiological hazards,
reviews the world wide activity in the field of producing a photobiological lamp safety standard, and
recommends that the CIE prepare a lamp safety standard using as the basis, the North American
IESNA standards. The philosophy embodied in those standards have addressed the concerns of
occupational health and safety professionals and have been worked out and tested over a number of
years. Most major lamp companies have participated in the IESNA development effort, and it is in
consonance with ICNIRP guidelines. Requirements for lamp types, including labelling would be
developed by IEC TC/34.

UV-A PROTECTION AND SUNSCREENS


CIE 186:2010
ISBN 978 3 901 906 80 0

Technical Committee TC 6-24 was formed in 1992 due to the importance of the deleterious effects
associated with exposure to UV-A radiation and because of a lack of existing guidance/regulations on
tests for UV-A protection. The objective was to arrive at an international consensus on such tests. By
1997 the committee had identified one in vivo method worth pursuing, i.e. Persistent Pigment
Darkening, and several in vitro methods that had not yet been validated. It was not possible to reach
a consensus at that time, however. In the meantime the development of methods to assess UV-A
protection continued and is still on-going, especially on in vitro methods. Furthermore, the computer-
aided calculation of sunscreen performance - referred to as in silico - became more sophisticated and
useful. Rather than trying to find a consensus on sunscreen testing the objective of the reactivated TC
6-24 has now been reduced to giving, in the form of a Technical Report, a comprehensive overview as
well as an assessment and ranking of the UV-A methods currently under discussion. This report starts
with the general principles of UV protection and an overview of UV-A and broad-spectrum UV filters.
Then a description and assessment of in vivo, ex vivo, in vitro and in silico methods is given.
Selected Colorimetric Tables
The tables provide the most frequently used data defined by CIE for colorimetry and colorimetric
calculations.

Characterization of the Performance of Illuminance Meters and Luminance Meters


Joint ISO/CIE International Standard
ISO/CIE 19476:2014(E) (former CIE S 023/E:2013)

This joint ISO/CIE International Standard is replacing CIE International Standard CIE S 023/E:2013
without modification of its technical content.
The standard defines quality indices characterizing the performance of illuminance and luminance
meters in a general lighting measurement situation, as well as measurement procedures for the
individual indices and standard calibration conditions.
Measurements of illuminance or luminance and their accuracy are influenced by various parameters,
such as operational conditions, properties of light sources, as well as characteristics of the applied
photometers. The characteristics of these photometers alone do not allow the determination of the
measurement uncertainty for a specific measurement task. Nevertheless, it is generally true that
instruments with better characteristics in most cases produce smaller uncertainties than
instruments with worse properties. This standard has been written to:
give clear and unambiguous definitions for the individual quality indices;
define measurement procedures and methods for numerical evaluation of these quality indices;
define calibration conditions for illuminance meters and luminance meters.

4) Describe existing capabilities for measurement and traceable calibration in Croatia-


determining the needs for the establishment of capabilities.

5) Describe the neccesary equipment and lab facilities and estimate the cost of purchase.

In order to preform traceable and reliable radiometric and photometric measurements following
equipment is planned:

Integrating sphere, spectral irradiance standard lamps, luminous flux standard lamps, photometer

Budgatory estimate: 200.000,00 EUR

6) Describe the duration and cost of quality documentation and EA-MLA accreditation.

7) Estimate the duration and cost of interlaboratory comparisons and submission of CMCs to
BIPM KCDB App. A and App.C
8) Describe the points of cooperation with Norwegian partners.

9) Describe the possibilities for cooperation in the region.

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