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De Nicaragua


Justo Rogelio Maradiaga Ortez

Melissa Kassandra

Uriel Ibarra

Influence of strategies that give motivation on oral English

communication in seventh grade in Mixta high school in Ocotal.

General objective

- To analyze the strategies that teacher use to motivate students in their

English classroom.

Specific objective

- To specify which strategies are used to motivate students in seventh


- To categorize types of oral strategies which are used in seventh grade.

- To suggest new strategies of learning for oral English communication.

Table of contents

Table of contents


1.1 Problem statement5

1.2 Relevance of the problem6

1.3 Keys terms..7

2 Literature review8

2.1 What is communication?.8

2.2 Types of communication.8

2.3 What is speaking?.8

2.4 Types of speaking forms..9

2.5 Verbal Communication.9

2.6 How teachers can motivate their students for oral


2.7 Types of motivation10

2.7.1 Intrinsic motivators10

2.7.2 Extrinsic motivators.11

2.8 Theories of Motivation12

2.8.1 Behavioral Views.12

2.8.2 Cognitive Theory Of Motivation.12

2.8.3 The Humanistic Theory of Motivation.13

3 Methodological design..14

3.1Questions research..14

3.2 Research Design14

3.3 Universe ..14

3.4 Population.14


Motivating strategies for students in English for speaking class have

been a problem for many years, through year in the first grade of high
school (seventh grade).All the students are new in the art , just
beginners on English class , and 12 of each 20 students do not like
English, because some of them consider this is not going to help them in
the future , another part think it is a hard learning language and a few
are not just interesting on this but most of them are young people, and
do not know the rough diamond English is ; they just have to polish it .
According to [ CITATION Nel \l 19466 ] without language one cannot talk
to people and understand them, one cannot share their hopes and
aspirations, grasp their history, appreciate their poetry or savor their

Knowing English idiom open other doors in the world, being an

interpreter play an important role in global business. They enhance
communication by conveying information accurately from one language
to another in different countries across the world. These interpreters
provide different services. Interpreters deal with verbal communication.

Role of interpreters in global business: Interpreters provide services in a

number of business areas, and they specialize in specific fields. Some of
the business areas in which interpreters play a key role are

1. Medical interpreters
2. Conference interpreters.

And this is what this research paper is for, it is to motivate both teachers
and students to develop high qualified English speakers, and to find out
the different strategies of motivation for students.

Problem statement

Nowadays the world is demanding high qualified English speaker cause

there are several factors that make the English language essential to
communication in our current time, according to [ CITATION Fra92 \l
19466 ] One language sets you in a corridor for life. Two
languages open every door along the way. i.e: a Mexican man and
a swede man usually use English to communicate another factor is the
internet on the internet the majority of websites are written and created
in English also many syllabi in science and engineering are written in
English in addition English language is widely used in official
communications. The abolition of English will adversely affect the office
work. Most office-goers know English, but many of them do not know
other languages besides their mother-tongue or regional language. Thus,
they communicate with each other in English for their everyday work.
So, if the office-goers are asked to bid goodbye to the English language,
they will face a great difficulty.

In many countries children are taught and encouraged to learn English

but the problem we find in Mixta high school is that most of them don't
want to learn it, ignoring how important English is, some of them just do
not have the motivation to learn it because 6 of 10 consider this boring
or just do not have interesting; and the role of the teacher here is to
encourage them to learn it , there are several strategies of motivation
and also games to make a class fun, therefore there will be more
students interesting.
Relevance of the problem

Students who want to go abroad for education will have learn to English
well. If their command over English is poor, then they may face difficulty
in adjusting with the alien environment. The importance of English in
education and students life cannot be denied. English remains a major
medium of instruction in schools. There are large number of books that
are written in English language.

Students of seventh grade have lack of motivation and sometimes they

can be shy in oral communication, they need teachers to encourage
them and teach them why speak and learn English?

Students usually are scared of speaking in the classroom and it is

understandable because they are just beginning, they lack
pronunciation, vocabulary, confidence and motivation. One of the
importance of teaching a good pronunciation in English and motivate
students to speak and learning it, is that jobs in Nicaragua about English
interpreters are not only quite required but also good paid.

Oral English communication can be develop better when students have

fun Experts are also saying, the only way to learn verbal
communication skills is to use them, especially in situation that takes
you out of your comfort zone. (College graduates need verbal
communication skills not only to conduct business and successfully
interact with colleagues once in their career, they also need to be able to
present themselves in a professional manner to land the job in the first
Key words

1. Motivation : Internal and external factors that stimulate

desire and energy in people to be continually interested and
committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a

2. Communication (from Latin commnicre, meaning "to

share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity
or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs
and semiotic rules. Retrieved from

3. Strategy is a high level plan to achieve one or more goals

under conditions of uncertainty
Literature Review

What is communication?

Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one

place to another.

Although this is a simple definition, when we think about how we may

communicate the subject becomes a lot more complex. There are
various categories of communication and more than one may occur at
any time.

Types of communication

*Spoken or Verbal Communication: face-to-face, telephone, radio or

television and other media.

*Non-Verbal Communication: body language, gestures, how we dress or

act - even our scent.

*Written Communication: letters, e-mails, books, magazines, the Internet

or via other media.

*Visualizations: graphs and charts, maps, logos and other visualizations

can communicate messages.

What is speaking?

Speaking is the delivery of language through the mouth. To speak, we

create sounds using many parts of our body, including the lungs, vocal
tract, vocal chords, tongue, teeth and lips.

This vocalized form of language usually requires at least one receptor.

When two or more people speak or talk to each other, it is called a
"dialogue". Speech can flow naturally from one person to another in the
form of dialogue. It can also be planned and rehearsed, as in the delivery
of a speech or presentation. Of course, some people talk to themselves!
In fact, some English learners practice speaking standing alone in front
of a mirror or just talk alone with subconscious.

Types of speaking forms:

Speaking can be formal or informal:

*Informal speaking is typically used with family and friends, or people

you know well.

*Formal speaking occurs in business or academic situations, or when

meeting people for the first time. (2013, June 1)

Speaking is probably the language skill that most language learners wish
to perfect as soon as possible it used to be the only language skill that
was difficult to practice online. This is no longer the case. English
learners can practice speaking online using voice or video chat and
services like Skype. They can also record and upload their voice for other
people to listen to.

Verbal Communication
Verbal communication is the spoken or written conveyance of a
message. Human language can be defined as a system of symbols
(sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the
symbols are manipulated. The word "language" also refers to common
properties of languages. Language learning normally occurs most
intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human
languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable
communication with others around them. Languages tend to share
certain properties, although there are exceptions. There is no defined
line between a language and a dialect. Constructed languages such as
Esperanto, programming languages, and various mathematical
formalism is not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by
human languages.

How can teachers motivates their students for oral


If there is one thing we know about kids, its that they have short
attention spans and prefer now to later. This is especially true at the
beginning of the year.

Teachers, more than any district or school wide programs, have the most
power to know how to motivate students because theyre on the front
lines. They can influence students in a way that kids can actually
understand: here, now, today, in this room.

Types of motivation
Intrinsic motivators include fascination with the subject, a sense of its
relevance to life and the world, a sense of accomplishment in mastering
it, and a sense of calling to it.

Students who are intrinsically motivated might say things like the

Literature interests me.

Learning math enables me to think clearly.

I feel good when I succeed in class.

Advantages: Intrinsic motivation can be long-lasting and self-

sustaining. Efforts to build this kind of motivation are also typically
efforts at promoting student learning. Such efforts often focus on the
subject rather than rewards or punishments.

Disadvantages: On the other hand, efforts at fostering intrinsic

motivation can be slow to affect behavior and can require special and
lengthy preparation. Students are individuals, so a variety of
approaches may be needed to motivate different students. It is often
helpful to know what interests ones students in order to connect these
interests with the subject matter. This requires getting to know ones
students. Also, it helps if the instructor is interested in the subject to
begin with!

Extrinsic motivators include parental expectations, expectations of

other trusted role models, earning potential of a course of study, and
grades (which keep scholarships coming).

Students who are extrinsically motivated might say things like the

I need a B- in statistics to get into business school.

If I flunk chemistry, I will lose my scholarship.

Our instructor will bring us donuts if we do well on todays

Advantages: Extrinsic motivators more readily produce behavior

changes and typically involve relatively little effort or preparation. Also,
efforts at applying extrinsic motivators often do not require extensive
knowledge of individual students.

Disadvantages: On the other hand, extrinsic motivators can often

distract students from learning the subject at hand. It can be challenging
to devise appropriate rewards and punishments for student behaviors.
Often, one needs to escalate the rewards and punishments over time to
maintain a certain effect level. Also, extrinsic motivators typically do not
work over the long term. Once the rewards or punishments are removed,
students lose their motivation.

Theories of Motivation

Motivation can be defined as a need or desire that energizes and directs

behaviour and According to [ CITATION Fir15 \l 19466 ] . The study of
motivation has been influenced by various psychological theories. Each
of these theories state different sources of motivational needs, and each
have certain drawbacks. P.(128)

Behavioral Views

This concentrate on extrinsic factors (external rewards or penalizing) and

reinforcement of desired behaviors (based on John Watsons mechanistic
concept that behaviors could be totally described in terms of observable
responses to certain stimuli). According to [ CITATION Sad15 \l 19466 ]
an extrinsically motivated students student performs "in order to obtain
some reward (good grades, teacher approval, etc.) or avoid some
punishment external to the activity itself," as opposed to a student who
is intrinsically motivated and undertakes an activity "for its own sake, for
the enjoyment it provides, the learning it permits, or the feelings of
accomplishment it evokes. Therefore It is so different when students are
motivated in an intrinsically way, in this form they can enjoy the class
while he is learning such language.

Cognitive Theory Of Motivation

Cognitive theory propose that a students behavior is influenced by what

surround them in other words the environment. Compared to the
behavioral view of external stimulus/response cognitive view use to be
more internal.

When we say the word learning, we usually mean to think using the
brain. This basic concept of learning is the main viewpoint in the
Cognitive Learning Theory (CLT). The theory has been used to explain
mental processes as they are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic
factors, which eventually bring about learning in an individual.

Cognitive Learning Theory implies that the different processes

concerning learning can be explained by analyzing the mental processes
first. It posits that with effective cognitive processes, learning is easier
and new information can be stored in the memory for a long time. On
the other hand, ineffective cognitive processes result to learning
difficulties that can be seen anytime during the lifetime of an individual.

In words of Jean Piaget equilibration, assimilation, accommodation, and

schema formation, cognitive views stress an innate desire on the part of
people to keep balance and organization in their perceptions of the world
around them. When imbalance occurs, schema are modified to regain
desired balance and organization.

A theory of cognitive dissonance, developed by [ CITATION Leo57 \l

19466 ] and based on Piagets views on disequilibrium, states that
people will act in such a way as to resolve discrepancies between
different beliefs or actions.

The Humanistic Theory of Motivation

The Humanistic Theory of Motivation is a type of motivational theory

that addresses the meaning of behavior, and the nature of healthy
human development. Abraham Maslow, an American Psychologist,
desired to know what motivated humans. He suggested that humans
were driven to fulfill certain needs. When a single need is fulfilled
humans seek to satisfy the next need, and so forth [ CITATION abr43 \l
19466 ]. He developed a five stage model that encompassed basic,
physiological, safety, love, and esteem and self-actualization needs. This
theory depending upon the individual seems never to have the needs of
all levels fulfilled at once.

Methodological design

In this chapter is explained the different features about this research

such as questions research, those will be answered in the result
discussion, research design, instruments.

Questions research

What strategies of motivation for learning can be applied in English


How games influence in teaching learning process for improving oral


Research design

This research follows a qualitative design because observations were

applied to draw results or conclusions about the effectiveness of
strategies of motivation and games for improving oral English
communication with students of seventh grade at Mixta Institute.


The researchs universe is formed by 36 students and 1 English teachers

of first grade of high school at Institute Mixta.


The researchs population is formed by 36 students, which belongs to

the total amount of students of first grade.
Sadighi, F., & Leila , A. (2015). The Importance of Motivation in Second Language Acquisition.

Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance .

Firooz , S., & Anjomshoa, L. (2015). The Importance of Motivation in Second Language Acquisition.

Mandela, N. (s.f.). Long walk to freedom. Sudafrica.

maslow, a. (1943). Hierarchy of Needs: A Theory of Human Motivation.

Smith, F. (1992). To think in laguage learning and education.