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# The Number Glo ssa ry Divisibility Tests

## 1] Factors: A number is d ivisible by:

A positive integer f is said to be a factor of a given positive
integer n if f divides n without leaving a remainder. 1] 2, 4 & 8 when the number formed by the last, last two, last three
e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 are the factors of 12. digits are divisible by 2, 4 & 8 respectively.
2] Prime Numbers: 2] 3 & 9 when the sum of the digits of the number is divisible
A prime number is a positive number which has no factors by 3 & 9 respectively.
besides itself and unity.
3] 11 when the difference between the sum of the digits in the odd
3] Composite Numbers: places and of those in even places is 0 or a multiple of 11.
A composite number is a number which has other factors 4] 6, 12 & 15 when it is divisible by 2 and 3, 3 and 4 & 3 and
besides itself and unity.
5 respectively.
4] Factorial: 5] 7, if the number of tens added to five times the number of units
For a natural number n, its factorial is defined as: n! = 1 is divisible by 7.
2 3 4 .... n
(Note: 0! = 1) 6] 13, if the number of tens added to four times the number of
units is divisible by 13.
5] Absolute value:
7] 19, if the number of tens added to twice the number of units
Absolute value of x (written as |x|) is the distance of x from
is divisible by 19.
0 on the number line. |x| is always positive.
|x| = x for x > 0 Laws of Indices
= x for x < 0
1] am an = am + n
Factors, Multiples HCF and LCM
2] a m a n a p ..... = a m + n + p + ...

1] Factorization:
Any natural number N can be expressed as a m
b n cp .... where a, b, c, ... are all prime numbers.
3] (a ) = a
m n mn

e.g. 72 = 2 3 3 2 4] a m a n = a m n
p
The number of divisors of N is equal t o q
q
(m + 1) (n + 1) (p + 1) .... 5] a = a p where a and p are real numbers and q 0
1
The sum of divisors of N is
.6 ] a n = n a
a m +1 - 1 b n +1 - 1 cp +1 - 1
. . ..... 1
a -1 b -1 c-1
7] a n =
2] HCF and LCM: an
Product of numbers = HCF LCM 8] a 0 = 1 (where a 0)
m m
3] HCF and LCM of fractions: a a
9] (a b) m = a m b m and = m
HCF of Numerators b b
HCF of fractions =
LCM of Denominators 10 ] If a m = a n and a 1, 0, 1 then m = n.

## LCM of Numerators 11 ] If a m = b m and m 0 then

LCM of fractions =
HCF of Denominators i. a = +b for even m
4] Relatively Prime Numbers: Two positive integers are said to be ii. a = b for odd m
relatively prime to each other if their highest common factor is 1
6] Binomial theorem:
Properties o f numbers
(x + y) n = x n + n .x n 1 y + n C 2 x n 2 y 2 + n C 3 x n 3 y 3 .. .
1] For any positive integer n: ... + n.x yn1 + y n
the product of any n consecutive positive integers is divisible Hence, to find the remainder when (x + y)n is divided by x,
by n!.
find the remainder when yn is divided by x
Hence, n(n 2 1) is divisible by 6.
2] For a p rime n u mb e r p a n d wh ole n u mb e r a , (x + 1)n = xn + n.xn1 + nC2xn2 + ... + n.x + 1n
a p a is divisible by p. Hence, (x + 1)n leaves remainder 1 when divided by x
3] Square of a number can neither end with an odd number
of zeroes nor with 2 , 3, 7 or 8.
4] Product of two even numbers is even Numeric inequalities
Product of two odd numbers is odd
Product of odd and even numbers is even a + b
1. If a, b 0, then ab .
2
Algebra ic F ormulae 2. If a, b c, .. .. k are n p ositive qua ntities , th en
1] a 3 b 3 = (a b)(a 2 m ab + b 2 ) a

m
+ b m
+ cm
+ ... + k a + b + c + ... + k m
m
Hence, a3 b 3 is divisible by (a b) and (a 2 m ab + b2). >
n n
2] an bn = (a b)(an1 + an2b + an3b2 + ... + bn1)
unless m is a positive proper fraction.
[for all n]
Hence, an b n is divisible by a b for all n. a b
3. + 2, where a and b are positive numbers.
b a
3] a n b n = (a + b)(a n1 an2b + an3b 2 ... bn1)
[n-even] a b c d
4. + + + 4, where a, b, c and d are positive numbers.
Hence, an bn is divisible by a + b for even n. b c d a
4] an + bn = (a + b)(an1 an2b + an3b2 + ... + bn1) 5. a 4 + b 4 + c4 + d 4 4abcd, where a, b, c and d are positive numbers.
[n-odd]
Hence, a n + bn is divisible by a + b for odd n.
5] a 3 + b 3 + c3 3abc
= (a + b + c)(a 2 + b 2 + c2 ab ac bc)
Hence, a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc if a + b + c = 0
B a se system 4. For the quadratic polynomial ax2 + bx + c, let a and
roots.
The Decimal Number System or the Base 10 system uses the 10 b c
digits from 0 to 9 to represent any number. Then ax2 + bx + c = a (x2 + x + )
a a
Similarly, the Binary System or the Base 2 system uses 0 and = a (x a ) (x b )
1 while the Octal System or the Base 8 system uses digits from = a [x2 ( a + b ) x + ab ]
0 to 7.
Hence, we have:
Conventionally, (..XYZ) n is the representation of a number in Base b c
i) a + b = ; ii) ab =
n notation. (where X,Y,Z are the last 3 digits of the number) a a
and (..XYZ) n = ... + X (n) 2 + Y (n) 1 + Z (n) 0 4. The roots a , b are given by:
For eg. (9276) 10 = 9(10) 3 + 2(10) 2 + 7(10) 1 + 6(10) 0
-b D
(10110) 2 = 1(2) 4 + 0(2) 3 + 1(2) 2 + 1(2) 1 + 0(2) 0 a, b = ; where D = b 2 4ac is the discrim
2a
= 16 + 4 + 2 = (22) 10 1
i) If c = a, then a =
(712) 8 = 7(8) 2 + 1(8) 1 + 2(8) 0 = 448 + 8 + 2 b
= (458) 10 ii) If b = 0, then a = b

## Conversion from Decimal to any base X number system: iii) If a = m + n , then b = m n

e.g. Convert (21) 10 into binary system and iv) If a = m + in, then b = m in
convert (1 34) 10 in to octal system
5. Properties of the discriminant D :
i) If D 0, then a , b are real.
1
0 ii) If D = 0, then a = b .
6
1
0 iii) If D < 0, then a , b are complex conjugates.
0
2
(x a )(x b ) > 0 if x < a or x > b ( a < b )
\ (21) 10 = (10101) 2 \ (134) 10 = (206) 8

## Co mpa r iso n between numbers

Ratio s
1] If a > b and c > 0, then a + c > b + c,
a b a c
a c > b c, ac > bc and > 1] If = then
c c b b
1 1 a b cd a +b c+d
2] If a, b 0, then a n > b n and n < , where is positive. (i) = (ii) =
a bn b d a -b c-d
a + x a a c e
3] a < b and x > 0, then > 2] If = = = ...
b+ x b b d f
a + x a a a + c + e + ...
4] a > b and x > 0, then < then (i) =
b + x b b b + d + f + ...
1
a +b a a n + c n + e n + ... n
5] If a, b > 0, then
2
> ab (ii) = n n n

b b + d + f + ...
6] |x y| = |y x| 1
a pa n + qc n + ren + ... n
|x . y| = |x| . |y| (iii) = n n n

b pb + qd + rf + ...
|x + y| < |x| + |y|
3] If A B and B C then A C
|x + y| > |x| |y| (A = kB, B = mC A = (km)C)
4] If A C and B C, then (A + B) C and AB
1. A function of the form f(x) = ax 2 + bx + c (a 0) is called
a quadratic function. (A = kC; B = mC A + B = (k + m)C)
5] If a number is increased by x%, multiply the number
The graph of a quadratic function:
100 + x
If a>0, the graph is an upward bell-shaped curve (parabola) that by . If a number is decreased by x%,
cuts the X-axis in a maximum of two points. 100

If a<0, then the graph is an inverted bell-shaped curve that cuts 100 - x
multiply the number by
the X-axis in a maximum of two points. 100
2. An equation of the form: increase/d ecrease
6] % increase/decrease in a no. = original number 100
ax2 + bx + c = 0 (a 0) is called a quadratic equation.

## 3. The values of x which satisfy the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0

are called the roots of the quadratic equation .
The graph of the quadratic function, f(x) = x 2 5x + 6 will
look as follows:
x = 2 and x = 3 are the roots of the equation.
(x 2) and (x 3) are the factors of the
given quadratic function, i.e. x2 5x + 6 =
(x 2)(x 3)
Percentag es Profit a nd Loss
1. A fraction whose denominator is 100 is called a percentage and 1. Profit = SP CP ... (SP > CP)
the numerator of the fraction is called the rate percent. It is 2. Loss = CP SP ... (CP > SP)
denoted by the symbol %.
Pr ofit SP - CP
2. To find the % equivalent of a fraction or a decimal, express the 3. % Profit = 100 = 100
fraction with the denominator 100. The numerator is the required
CP CP
3. To find the fraction or decimal equivalent of a percentage divide 4. % Loss = 100 = 100
CP CP
the given percentage by 100.
4. To increase a number by given %, multiply the number by the Discount
5. Discount% = Marked Pr ice 100
100 + Rate
factor . 6. If two items are sold, each at Rs.x, one at a gain of p% and
100
5. To decrease a number by given % multiply the number by the
p2
the other at a loss of p%, there is an overall loss given by %.
100 - Rate 100
factor .
100
6. To find the % increase of a number: 2p 2 x
The absolute value of the loss is given by .
Total increase 1002 - p 2
% increase = Initial value 100 =
7. If CP of two items is same and % Loss and % Gain on the two
items are equal, then net loss or net profit is zero.
Final value - Initial value 8. Buy x get y free i.e., if x + y articles are sold at cost price
Initial value 100
y
7. To find the % decrease of a number: of x articles, then the percentage discount = x + y 100
Total decrease
% decrease = Initial value 100 9. By using false weight, if a substance is sold at cost price, the
overall gain % is given by
Initial value - Final 100 + Gain % True Scale or Weight
= 100 = False Scale or Weight .
Initial value 100
8. Absolute percent change 10 . In case of successive discounts a% and b%, the effective discount
| New value - Original value | ab
= Original value 100 is a + b - %
100
9. If the price of a commodity increases by r%, then reduction in M ix tures & Alliga tions
consu m p tio n , s o a s n o t to in crea se t h e exp e n dit u re is
1. If P 1 and P 2 are the prices of two quantities Q1 and Q2, then

100 %
r the average price of the mixture, given by P m is: Pm =
100 r P1Q1 + P2Q 2
10. If the price of a commodity decreases by r%, then the increase Q1 + Q 2
in consumption so as not to decrease th e exp en d itu re is 2. When two mixtures M1 and M2, each containing ingredient A and
r B in the ratio a : b and x : y, respectively, are mixed, the proportion
100 % of the ingredients A and B i.e., qA : qB, in the compound mixture
100 - r
is given by:
11. If As income is r% more than that of B, then Bs income is
r a x
100 % . M1 + M 2
less than that of A by a+b x+y
100 + r qA
= b y
12. If As income is r% less than that of B, then Bs income is more qB M1 + M 2
a+b x+y
r
than that of A by 100 % .
100 - r
3. If a vessel contains a litres of liquid A, then if b litres of
Simple & Co mpo und interest mixture be withdrawn and replaced by liquid B, and the operation
repeated n times in all, then:
1. When a sum of money is lent by A to B, A is called the lender
(creditor) and B is called the borrower (debtor). The sum lent n
Liquid A left in vessel after n th operation a-b
is called the Principle (P). =
Initial quantiry of liquid A in vessel a
2. Interest (I) is the extra money paid by the borrower to the lender
for the use of the money for a specified time.
n
3. The time for which the money is borrowed is called period (N). a-b
The interest paid per 100 rupees in a year is called rate percent
Liquid A left after n th operation a
per annum(R). The sum of interest and principal is callede the = n
Liquid B left after n th operation a-b
amount (A). A = P + I 1-
4. Simple interest is always calculated only or original principal. For a

P N R
simple interest, I =
100
5. For calculating compound interest, the interest is added back to
the principal and the interest is calculated on the sum of the interest
and the principal.
N
R
For compound interest, amount A = P 1 +
100
Time, Speed, Dista nce Lines, Angles and Triangles
1. Distance covered by a body is given by
1. Sum of the angles in a straight line = 180 (Angles in a linear pair).
Distance = Speed Time
2. Vertically opposite angles are congruent (equal).
Total distance travelled 3. If any point is equidistant from the endpoints of a segment,
2. Average speed = then it must lie on the perpendicular bisector of the segment.
Total time taken
4. When two parallel lines are intersected by a transversal, corresponding
If a part of a journey is travelled at speed s1 km/hr in t1
angles are equal, alternate angles are equal and co-interior angles are
hours and remaining part at speed s2 km/hr in t2 hours
supplementary. (All acute angles formed are equal to each other and all
then, Total distance travelled = s1t1 + s2t2
obtuse angles are equal to each other).
s1t1 + s 2 t 2 5. The ratio of intercepts formed by a transversal intersecting three
Average speed = t1 + t 2 parallel lines is equal to the ratio of corresponding intercepts formed by
any other transversal.
If equal time intervals are travelled with d ifferen t speed s,
say a and b km/hr, then the average speed is equal to For any triangle ( D ABC):
their arithmetic mean.
6. Sum of interior angles = 180.
a +b
Average speed = km/hr 7. Measure of exterior angle = Sum of remote interior angles.
2
1
If equal distances are travelled with different speed s, say 8. Area = (base) (height) = s(s - a )(s - b)(s - c)
a and b km/hr, then the average speed is equal to 2
their harmonic mean. a +b +c
(where a, b, c are its sides; s = )
2
2ab = r s (r = radius of incircle)
Average speed = km/hr
a + b
abc
3. If the ratio of the speeds of A and B is x : y, then : = (R = radius of circumcircle).
4R
the ratio of time taken to travel equal distances is y : x 9. The line segment joining the midpoint of any two sides is
the ratio of distance travelled in equal time intervals is x : y parallel to the third side and has half the length of the third
4. Relative speed side. (Midpoint theorem)
If A and B are travelling at a and b km/hr, (a > b) AD AE
10 . If DE || BC, then = .
Case (i): In the same direction DB EC
A gains (a - b) km over B in 1hour. (Basic proportionality theorem - BPT)

## x 11 . If AD is the median i.e., BD = DC, then

If they are x km apart, A will overtake B in hrs AB2 + AC2 = 2(AD2 + DC2).
a -b
(Appollonius theorem)
Case (ii): In the opposite direction
BA AE
A and B together cover (a + b) km in 1hour. 12. If ABE = EBC, then = .
BC EC
x
If they are x km apart, A will meet B in hrs (Interior angle bisector theorem)
a +b
5. Conversion units For any right angled tria ngle ( D ABC):
1 hour = 60 minutes = 60 60 seconds 13 . If ABC = 90, then AB2 + BC2 = AC2 .
1 kilometer = 1000 meters (Pythagoras theorem)

5
1 km/hr = m/sec; Special Triangles
18
Equilateral triangle:

## 2-D Mensuration Each angle = 60.

3
For any triangle ( D ABC): Height = side.
2
1 3
Area = (base) (height) Area = (side)2.
2 4
= s(s - a )(s - b)(s - c) height 2
3 3
a +b +c
(where a, b, c are its sides; s = ) Isosceles Triangle:
2
= r s (r = radius of incircle) Angles opposite to equal sides are equal.
a
abc Area = 2 2
= (R = radius of circumcircle). 4 4c - a
4R
306090 triangle:
For any right angled tria ngle ( D ABC):
3
1 Area = x2
Area = Product of perpendicular sides. 2
2

## For any equila teral triangle ( D AB C):

45 4590 triangle:
3
Area = (side)2. 2
4 x
Area =
2
Congruency & Similarity of Triangles Circle a nd its properties
For the given circle,
Cong ruency 1. Radius of the circle (OA, OB, OC) = r
Two triangles are congruent if their corresponding sides and angles are 2. Diameter of the circle (AB) = 2r
congruent. 3. Area = p r2
Tests of congruence: (SSS / SAS / AAS / ASA) 4. Circumference = 2 p r
Chord Properties:
S imila r it y 5. Chords equidistant from the the centre of a circle are
Two triangles are similar if their corresponding angles are congruent and equal.
corresponding sides are in proportion. 6. A line from the centre, perpendicular to a chord, bisects
Tests of similarity: (AA / SSS / SAS) the chord.
7. Equal chords subtend equal angles at the centre.
For two similar triangles: 8. The diameter is the longest chord of a circle.
Ratio of the sides = Ratio of heights = Ratio of Medians 9. Chord AC divides the length of the circle into two parts:
= Ratio of Angle bisectors = Ratio of circumradii. minor arc AXC
Also, Ratio of the areas = Ratio of square of the sides major arc AYC
The area bound by OAXC is a sector.
For any right angled tria ngle ( D ABC):
10. Measure of arc AXC = m AOC = q .
D ABC ~ D AMB ~ D BMC q
BM2 = AM MC 11. l (arc AXC) = 2 p r..
AB BC = BM AC 360

## Po lygo ns a nd their properties

q
12. Area (sector OAXC) = p r2
For any regular polygon: 360
(A polygon which has all its sides and angles equal) 13. Chord AC divides the area of the circle into two parts:
1. Sum of internal angles = 180(n-2). The shaded area is the minor segment, the rest is the major
180(n - 2) segment.
2. Measure of an internal angle = . 14. Area of minor segment
n
(where n is the number of sides) = Area of sector OAXC area of D OAC

## Properties of some special polygons: pq sin q ;

= r2 -
Parallelogram: 360 2
3. Opposite sides are parallel and congruent. (where q = m AOC (in degrees))
4. Opposite angles are congruent.
5. Diagonals bisect each other. Tangent Properties:
6. Area of parallelogram = Base height . PA and PB are tangents to the given
Rhombus: circle, OA is the radius.
7. Opposite sides are parallel and all sides are equal.
8. Opposite angles are congruent. 15. PA = PB.
9. Diagonals bisect each other at 90. 16. OA ^ PA.
1
10. Area = Product of diagonals. Inscribed angle / Subtended Angle:
2
ACB is inscribed in the arc ACB & subtended by arc ADB
/ chord AB.
17. m AOB = 2 m ACB.
Square: (Inscribed Angle Theorem)
11. All sides are congruent and opposite sides are parallel. All 18. Angle inscribed in a semicircle or that subtended by a
angles are right angles. diameter is a right angle.
12. Diagonals are congruent and bisect each other at 90. 19. For a cyclic quadrilateral, opposite angles are
l (diagonal) = 2 (side). supplementary.

## (diagonal)2 Secant, Tangent and Chord Properties.

13. Area = (side)2 =
2 20. If two secants viz. AB and CD, intersect at P, then AP
Rectangle : BP = CP DP.
14. Area = Length Breadth Note: This equation will hold even if the secants meet
Kite: outside the circle.
15. Two pairs of adjacent sides are congurent.
16. Diagonals intersect each other at 90 and longer diagonal 21. If a tangent (OC) and a secant (AB) meet
bisects shorter diagonal. externally at O, then OC2 = OA OB.
1 (Tangent Secant theorem)
17. Area = product of diagonals.
2
Isosceles Trapezium: 22. The angle made by chord (AB) with the tangent at A
18. One pair of opposite sides is parallel. (AD) is equal to the angle subtended by it on the opposite
19. Non-parallel sides are congruent. side.
1 (Tangent Chord Property)
20. Area = sum of parallel sides height.
2
Regular Hexagon:
3 3
21. Area = (side)2.
2
22. Six equilateral triangles are formed by joining the opposite
vertices of the hexagon.
3 D Mensuratio n Coordinate Geometry, Functions and Graphs
Solids and their associated formulae: 1. Any point P on the coordinate plane can be represented by (x,
y) where:
1. Cubo id:
Total surface area
= 2( l b + b h + h l )
Volume = l b h
Length of body diagonal

= 2 2 2
l b + h

2. Cube;
x = the x coordinate = distance of P from the Yaxis
Total surface area = 6 l 2 y = the y coordinate = distance of P from the Xaxis

## Volume = l3 2. If the value of y can be expressed in terms of x, then y is said

to be a function of x. This is expressed as y = f(x). E.g. y =
Body diagonal = 3 l 3x2 + 4x + 5. In this case, if we know the relation, y = f(x),
then the value of y can be determined for any given value of
y.
3. Right Prism (Solid with rectangular vertical
faces and bases as congruent polygons): 3. The graph of a function f(x) is the set of points of the form
Total surface area = Perimeter of base (x, y) which satisfy the equation y = f(x).
height + 2 area of base Linear F unctio n
Volume = Area of base height
1. If the value of y changes linearly with x, i.e the change in y is directly
proportional to the change in
x then y is said to be a linear
4. Right circular cylinder: function of x.
curved surface area = 2 p rh Thus, for any two points (x1,
Total surface area = 2 p r(r + h) y 1) and (x 2, y 2 ), we have
y1 - y 2
x1 - x 2 = constant, say m.
5. Right circular cone:
This constant value is called the
Slant height, l = 2 2 slope of the line.
r + h
Curved surface area = p r l 2. The graph of a linear function is a straight line.
Total surface area = p r l + p r2 3. Equation of a line may be written in the form: y = mx + c, where
m is the slope of line and c is the y intercept i.e., the line
1 meets y axis at the point (c, 0).
Volume = p r2h
3
Graph of the line
6. Sphere:
y = mx + c
Surface area = 4 p r 2
looks as follows:
4
Volume = p r2 4. Case (i) m > 0: A positive slope indicates that the line makes
3 an acute angle with the positive direction of the X-axis.
Case (ii) m < 0: A negative slope indicates that the line makes
an obtuse angle with the positive direction of the X-axis.
7. Hemisp here:
Curved surface area = 2 p r 2 Case (iii) m = 0: A zero slope indicates that the line is parallel
Total surface area = to the X-axis.
3 p r2 Case (iv) m = : An infinite slope indicates that the line is
perpendicular to the X-axis.
2
Volume = p r3 5. Equation of the X axis is y = 0.
3
8. Pyramid: Equation of the Y axis is x = 0.
Total surface area = Area of base 6. Equation of a line parallel to the X axis is of the form y =
1 a {a is the distance of the line from the X-axis}
+ Perimeter of base Equation of a line parallel to Y axis is of the form x = b{b is
2
the distance of the line from the Y-axis}
Slant height
1 7. Equation of a line with x and y intercepts as a and b respectively
Volume = Base area (i.e. which meets the X-axis and Y- axis at points (a, 0) and (0,
3
b) respectively) is
height.
x y
+ = 1 (or bx + ay = ab).
a b
8. A given pair of values for x and y, say (x1 ,y1) is said to be the Log arithms
solution of two simultaneous linear equations, if it satisfies both
the equations. If a n = b, then log b = n
a
If we draw the graphs (straight lines) of these two linear equations, Conventionally, log b represents log 10b
then the solution (x1,y1) is the point of intersection of the two
lines. 1] log b 1 = 0
Note: Solving simultaneous linear equations in two variables in-
2] log a a = 1
volves elimination of one of the variables to obtain the value
of the other variable. 1
3] log a b = OR log a b log b a = 1
Sequence, Series & Progressio n log b a
1] For an Arithmetic Progression 4] log b (m n) = log b m + log b n
a n = a 1 + (n 1)d
n n m
5] log b = log b m - log b n
Sn = [2a 1 + (n 1)d] = (a + a n ) n
2 2 1
(a 1 is the first term, d is the common difference)
6] log b (m) n = n log b (m )
2] If x, y and z are in A.P. then, y x = z y and y is the
Arithmetic Mean of x and z. log a m
7] log b m = = log a m log b a
3] For a Geometric Progression log a b
a n = a 1r n-1
a
8] log b b ( a a ) = log b a
1 - r n b
Sn = a 1
1 - r
9] log x a = log x b if and only if a = b
a1
S = if |r| < 1 Other types of functions
1-r
(a 1 is the first term, r is the common ratio) M odulus function:
1. A function f(x) is called a modulus
4] If x, y and z are in G.P. then, xz = y2 and y is the Geometric function if f(x) = P|Qx + R| + S.
Mean of x and z. 2. A special application is f(x) = |x|,
i.e., f(x) takes only
5] For the first n natural numbers the magnitude of x.
f(x) = x if x < 0
n (n + 1)
Their sum = = x if x > 0
2
Exponential function:
n (n + 1)(2n + 1)
Sum of their squares = 1. A function f(x) = ax is
6
called an exponential function.
2
n(n + 1) (a > 0 and x R)
Sum of their cubes =
2 2. The graph of the function
f(x) = 2x is as shown alongside.
Set Theory 3. The exponential functions
1] A set is a collection of objects. A set is represented in one ax will never be negative
of the following ways: for any value of x. The value of f(x)
The set of prime numbers less than 10 is written as {2,3,5,7} approaches 0 when x tends to
or {x/ x is a prime number less than 10} negative infinity.
2] The number of elements in a set is called its cardinal number
and is written as n(A). A set with cardinal number 0 is called Log a rithmic function:
a null set while that with cardinalnumber is called an infinite 1. A function f(x) = log x is called a logarithmic function.
set. 2. The graph of the function f(x) = log10 x is as shown along-side.
3] Set A is said to be a subset of Set B if each and every element
of Set A is also contained in Set B. Set A is said to be a proper Even a nd Odd Functions:
subset of Set B if Set B has at least one element that is not contained 1. A function f(x) is said to be an even function
in Set A. of x if f(x) = f(x), for all values of x.
4] The Universal set is defined as the set of all possible objects The graph of an even function is symmetrical
under consideration. Every other set is then a subset of the about the Y-axis.
universal set. 2. A function f(x) is said to be an odd function
5] Union of two sets is represented as A B and consists of of x if f(x) = f(x), for all values of x.
elements that are present in either Set A or Set B or both.
Counting Principles
6] Intersection of two sets is represented as A B and consists
of elements that are present in both Set A and Set B. PRINCIPLE OF COUNTING:
7] Venn Diagram: A venn diagram is used to visually represent
the relationship between various sets. When to MULTIPLY?
What do each of the areas in the figure represent? When two tasks are performed in succession, i.e., they are connected
a- only A by an AND, to find the total number of ways of performing the
b- only B two tasks, you have to MULTIPLY the individual number of ways.
c- on ly C eg: If there are 3 boys and 4 girls, then to select a boy AND a
d- A and B, not C girl you have to select 1 boy out of 3 and 1 girl out of 4. So,
e- A and C, not B the number of ways of selecting = 3 4 = 12.
f- B and C, not A
g- A, B and C When to ADD?
h- None of A, B or C When only one of the two tasks is performed, i.e. the tasks are
8] Some impo rta nt properties: connected by an OR, to find the total number of ways of performing
n(A U B) = n(A) + n(B) n(A I B) the two tasks you have to ADD the individual number of ways.
n(A U B U C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) n(A I B) n(A I C) eg: If there are 3 boys and 4 girls, then to select a child you either
n(B I C) + n(A I B I C) select a boy OR select a girl. So, the number of ways of selecting
a child = 3 + 4 = 7.
SPECIAL CASES: 3] Circula r a rrang ement o f n distinct items:
1] Linea r a rra ngement o f r out of n distinct items( n P Fix the first item AND then arrange all the other items linearly
r ):
The first item in the line can be selected in n ways AND w.r.t. the first item. This can be done in 1 (n 1)! = (n
the second in (n 1) ways AND the third in (n 2) ways 1 )! ways.
AND so on. So, the total number of ways of arranging r items
out of nis (n)(n 1)(n 2)...(n r + 1). 4] Selection of r items out of n distinct items( n C r):
Arrange of r items out of n = Select r items out of n AND
2] Linear arrangement of n items out of which p are alike, arrange r items out of r.
q are alike, r a re a like:
n
nP
Pr n!
Number of ways = r = n Cr r! nC
r = =
r! r ! ( n - r )!

## Permutations & Combinations - Summary Table

Sr.
Situation Number of ways
No
Linear Arrangement of:
Without n n!
'r' out of 'n' distinct items Pr =
repetition (n - r)!
Repetition
nr
allowed
Without n
Pn = n!
'n' out of 'n' distinct items
repetition
Repetition n
1 n
allowed
Without n!
'n' out of 'n' items not all distinct
repetition p! q! r!
Circular Arrangement of:

## 'n' out of 'n' distinct items Without repetition (n 1)!

(n - 1)!
'n distinct beads of a necklace Without repetition
2
Selection of:
n
n Pr n!
'r' out of 'n' distinct items Cr = =
2 r! r! (n - 1)!
Total selections from:
n n n n n
'n' distinct items C0+ nC1+ C2+ C3n+ C4 + ... + C n= 2

Partitioning
no groups n -1
C r -1
Similar Items - Distinct Groups empty
some groups n + r -1
C r -1
may be empty
some groups n
3 Distinct Items - Distinct Groups may be empty r
arrangement within a (n + r - 1)!
(E.g. 6 rings - 4 fingers)
group matters (r - 1)!
List the various possibilities and find number
Similar Items - Similar Groups of ways for each possibility
List the various possibilities and find number
Distinct Items - Similar Groups of ways for each possibility

## 4 Dearrangement of 'n' items 1 1 1 1 1

n! 1 - + + + - ...
1! 2! 3! 4! n!