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Hydraulics 111 Laboratory procedures

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Fellow group members

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Date of experiments:

1. The laboratory experience is an important part of your training because it gives you exposure to
experimental work, that is, how experiments should be planned and prepared for, how readings
should be noted and results interpreted and presented. It furthermore gives you an opportunity to
work hands-on with engineering laboratory equipment. See it as an opportunity to learn things that
would help you to understand the theory encountered in class as well as to prepare you for your
engineering career.

2. The subsequent calculations and report can be done after the session.

3. Practical must be performed in groups of five students per group. You may work together in doing
the necessary calculations after the lab session, but every student must give in his or her own
report (with individual conclusions). Use the spaces provide above to write your last name and
initials and student number as well as the names of the fellow students in your group.

4. The report should consist of this handout filled in completely along with additional comments
where asked. Add pages wherever necessary. This work, together with your assignments will count
20% of your final mark. Neatness and clarity of work are important. It must be submitted in class to
the lecturer (or by arrangement with the Lab assistant) within five days after the experiments.

5. Take an active part in the lab session. Enjoy the learning experience. Please attend to instructions
from the lab assistant. Ask if you do not understand. Concentrate and work quickly.

6. Do not touch or fiddle around with any equipment that you are not supposed to be working
with.
EXPERIMENT 1:

H-Q CHARACTERISTIC CURVE OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP


AIM:

To draw the H-Q characteristic curve of a Centrifugal Pump using total pressure head and a second
curve using only Delivery Head. (Your conclusion about the practical use of the H-Q curve must be
decided from the two curves that your draw)

THEORY:

The total head of a pump consists of the difference of Water Power as per unit between the delivery
and the suction:

2 2 ( ) 2 2
H = (z + + ) - (z + + ) = (zd zs) + +
2 2 2

Where:

(zd zs) = difference in height between delivery and suction sections in meters .

( ) = difference between pressure values in Pascal.

( 2 2 ) = difference between the squares of the velocities at delivery and suction expressed in m 2/s2.

The term:

( )
h= = the pump delivery head.

In theory, the H-Q curve of a pump shows delivery values (flow rate) on the x-axis and the
corresponding values of total head on the y-axis
APPARATUS:

Pelton wheel-Francis Turbine-Centrifugal Pump Modular Set.

PRECAUTIONS:

1) Check to see that all valves are closed


2) Check water level in the tank is well above suction pipes of pumps. (i.e. end of the draft tube)

PROCEDURE:

1. Arrange the plant such that only pump 1 is functioning.

2. Switch on pump 1.

3. With the delivery valve closed, note the following: (Make a note of the unit of measurement on
all the meters and gauges)

Flow meter reading [Qv (m3/h)]

Suction pressure of pump-1 (ps)

Delivery pressure on pump-1 (pd)

4. Open the delivery valve on the pipe delivering water to the tank so that the flow rate increases
by about 20% of the maximum flow rate of the pump. (The maximum flow rate of the pump is
about 30m3/h).

5. Repeat the steps in 3.

6. Repeat the steps 4 and 5 till the delivery valve if fully opened.

7. Close the delivery valve after all readings have been noted

8. Stop the pump.

NOTE:

zd zs = 190 mm always.

The diameter of the suction pipe = 81,6 mm,

Diameter of the delivery pipe = 53,8 mm


CALCULATIONS:

Tabulate the following:

For each value of Qv note:

The value of zd zs.


105 ( )
Delivery head h = where h is in metres of water, pd and ps are in bars. (1 bar = 105 Pa)

4
Velocity of water in delivery: d = : where d is in m/s and Qv is in m3/s
D2

4
Velocity of water in suction: s = : where s is in m/s and Qv is in m3/s
2

2 2
The kinetic head:
2

Total head = sum of static head + delivery head + kinetic head in delivery.

READINGS:

Trial Qv Ps Pd zd zs h 2 2 H
(m3/h) (bar) (kg/cm2) 2

1 0

RESULTS:

On the same set of axis

Draw a graph of H versus Q

Draw a graph of h versus Q


SHOW SAMPLE CALCULATIONS:
CONCLUSION:

Write down your conclusion with respect to your observations of the graph. Note if there is a
significant difference between the two curves.
EXPERIMENT 2

H-Q CHARACTERISTIC CURVE OF PARALLEL-CONNECTED CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS


AIM:

To draw the H-Q characteristic curve of TWO IDENTICAL, PARALLEL-CONNECTED Centrifugal


pumps.

The term:
( )
h= ; is the pump delivery head where pressure is in Pascal.

In theory, H-Q curves of a pump show delivery values on the x-axis and the corresponding values of
total head on the y-axis

In practice, only delivery head is considered instead of total head because the difference between the
two curves is negligible.

APPARATUS:

Pelton Wheel-Francis Turbine Centrifugal Pump Modular Set.

PRECAUTIONS:

1) Check to see that all valves are closed.


2) Check water level in the tank is well above suction pipes of pumps. (i.e. end of the draft tube)

PROCEDURE:

1) Arrange the plant so that pumps 1 and 2 are functioning in PARALLEL mode.
2) Switch pump 1 on, wait for the ammeter to become steady and then switch pump 2 on..
3) With the delivery valve closed, note the following: (Make a note of the unit of measurement on
all the meters and gauges)
a. Flow meter reading [Qv(m3/h)]
b. Suction pressure on pump 1(ps). (reading necessary for one pump only as suction is
at the same height for both)
c. Delivery pressure for pump 1 and delivery pressure for both pumps.
4) Open the delivery valve on the pump delivering water to the tank so that the flow rate
increases.
5) Repeat steps 3a to 3c
6) Repeat steps 4 and 5 till you have enough readings to draw the graphs.
7) Close the delivery valve after all readings have been noted
8) Stop the pumps
CALCULATIONS:

Tabulate the following

For each value of Qv calculate and note (Remember to convert all units to SI units):

105 ( )
1) Delivery head h =

READINGS:

Trial Qv ps pd pd h1 h1
(m3/h) (kg/cm2) (bar) (bar)
(single) (comb.)
(single) (comb.)

RESULTS:

On the same axes:

Draw a graph of h1 (using the pressure gauge at the delivery of the single pump) versus Q for single
pump, assuming the pump was contributing half of the total flow.

Draw a graph of h1 (using the pressure gauge at the delivery of the single pump) versus Q for both

pumps working in parallel.


SHOW SAMPLE CALCULATIONS:
CONCLUSION:

Write down your conclusion with respect to your observation of the graph.

How does the performance compare to that of a single pump connection?


EXPERIMENT 3

H-Q CHARACTERISTIC CURVE OF SERIES-CONNECTED CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS


AIM:

To draw the H-Q characteristic curve of TWO IDENTICAL SERIES-CONNECTED Centrifugal Pumps.

THEORY:

The total head of a pump consists of the difference of Water Power as per weight unit between the
delivery and the suction and it will be the sum of the total delivery heads of the individual pumps:

2 2 ( ) 2 2
H = (z + + ) (z + + ) = (zd zs) + +
2 2 2

Where:

(zd zs) = difference in height between delivery and suction sections in meters.

(pd ps) = difference between pressure values in Pascal.

( 2 2 ) = differences between the squares of the velocities at delivery suction expressed in m 2/s2.

The term:

( )
h= = the pump delivery head.

In theory, H-Q curves of a pump show delivery values on the x-axis and the corresponding values of
total head on the y-axis.

In practice, only delivery head is considered instead of total head because the difference between the
two curves is negligible.
APPARATUS:

Pelton Wheel-Francis Turbine Centrifugal Pump Modular Set.

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Check to see that all valves are closed.


2. Check water level in the tank is well above suction pipes of pumps. (At the end of the draft
tube)

PROCEDURE:

1) Arrange the plant so that pump 1 and 2 are functioning in SERIES mode.
2) Switch the pumps on.
3) With the delivery valve closed, note the following: (Make a note of the unit of measurement on
all the meters and gauges)
a. Flow meter reading [Qv (m3/h)]
b. Suction pressure on pump 1 (ps)
c. Delivery pressure on combined system (pd)
4) Open the delivery valve on the pipe delivering water to tank so that the flow rate increases.
5) Repeat steps 3a to 3c.
6) Repeat steps 4 and 5 at least twice, till the delivery valve is fully opened.
7) Close the delivery valve after all the readings have been noted
8) Stop the pumps.

NOTE: zd zs = 190 mm always.

CALCULATIONS:

Tabulate the following

For each valve of Qv note:

1) The value of zd zs.


105 ( )
2) Delivery head h =

4
3) Velocity of water in delivery d =
D2
4
4) Velocity of water in suction s =
2
2 2
5) The kinetic head:
2
6) Total head = sum of static head + delivery head + kinetic head in delivery.
READINGS:

Trial Qv ps pd h1 H
(m3/h) (kg/cm2) (bar) (m) (m)

RESULTS:

Draw a graph of H versus Q

Draw a graph of h versus Q


SHOW SAMPLE CALCULATIONS:
CONCLUSION:

Write down your conclusion with respect to your observation of the graph. Note if there is any
significant difference between the two curves.

How does the performance compare to that of a single pump connection?