Você está na página 1de 4

HEALTH EDUCATION

ARTICLE ABOUT HYPERTENSION

DISUSUN OLEH:

CINDRA UMAR HASAN

KIKY AMELIA RASSA

SRI YOLANDA S. DAUD

VEGI BUMULO

FAHRIN AHMAD

PROGRAM STUDI KEPERAWATAN

FAKULTAS ILMU KESEHATAN

UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH GORONTALO

2016
ARTICLE ABOUT HYPERTENSION

Definition

Hypertension is high blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing
against the walls of arteries as it flows through them.

Causes of Hypertension

As acute stress, intense exercise and other factors can briefly elevate blood
pressure even in people whose blood pressure is normal, a diagnosis of hypertension
requires several readings showing high blood pressure over time. Blood pressure does
vary throughout the day, lowering during sleep and rising on awakening. It also rises in
response to excitement, anxiety and physical activity.

Blood pressure also increases steadily with age as arteries become stiffer and
narrower due to plaque build-up. Vascular and heart disease also contribute to rising
blood pressure in older adults, and a high systolic reading is a major risk factor for
cardiovascular disease in adults over 50 years old. Other key contributors include
lifestyle factors, such as:

1. Physical inactivity
2. A salt-rich diet associated with processed and fatty foods
3. Alcohol and tobacco use.

Certain diseases and medications (as described below) can cause high blood
pressure, and there are a number of general risk factors for hypertension, including:
1. Age - everyone is at greater risk of high blood pressure as they get older.
Prevalence of hypertension is higher in people over 60 years of age
2. Race - African-American adults are at higher risk than white or Hispanic American
adults
3. Size - being overweight or obese is a key risk factor for hypertension
4. Sex - males and females have different risk profiles. While lifetime risk is the same
for everybody, men are more prone to hypertension at a younger age and women
have a higher rate of hypertension at older ages
5. Lifestyle - greater intake of dietary salt, excessive alcohol, low dietary potassium,
and physical inactivity all contribute to an increased risk of hypertension.

Signs and Sympoms of Hypertension

1. Breathlessness
2. Headache
3. Bleeding from the nose
4. Fatigue and Sleepiness
5. Confusion
6. Tinnitus or ringing in the ears
7. Vomiting
8. Profuse sweating
9. Blurred vision

Treatment of Hypentension

1. Lifestyle Changes to Treat High Blood Pressure


A critical step in preventing and treating high blood pressure is a healthy lifestyle.
You can lower your blood pressure with the following lifestyle changes:
1) Losing weight if you are overweight or obese
2) Quitting smoking
3) Eating a healthy diet, including the DASH diet (eating more fruits, vegetables,
and low fat dairy products, less saturated and total fat)
4) Reducing the amount of sodium in your diet to less than 1,500 milligrams a day if
you have high blood pressure; healthy adults should try to limit their sodium
intake to no more 2,300 milligrams a day (about 1 teaspoon of salt).
5) Getting regular aerobic exercise (such as brisk walking at least 30 minutes a day,
several days a week)
6) Limiting alcohol to two drinks a day for men, one drink a day for women
2. Pharmacologic therapy

If lifestyle modifications are insufficient to achieve the goal BP, there are several
drug options for treating and managing hypertension. Thiazide diuretics, an
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotension receptor blocker
(ARB), or calcium channel blocker (CCB) are the preferred agents in nonblack
populations, whereas CCBs or thiazide diuretics are favored in black hypertensive
populations. [8] These recommendations do not exclude the use of ACE inhibitors
or ARBs in treatment of black patients, or CCBs or diuretics in non-black persons.
Often, patients require several antihypertensive agents to achieve adequate BP
control.