Você está na página 1de 178

 ε

F x , F a
F
m
x

m dx 2
F − F a − F x
=
dt 2 ,
c dx
F a
=
dt ,
F x
=
kx,
F = m dx 2
+ c dx dt + kx.
dt 2

x (0) = 0 x˙ (0) = 0
x
x
t

a d

a d x (k) k

 x (0) = x (k + 1) = ,

0 0, x (k) + 1 u = a x (k) 1 u = d x (k) 1

x (k)

5
4
3
2
1
k
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

×

 u (t) y (t)

5
4
3
2
1
a
a
a
d
a
a
a
d

a d

5
4
3
2
1
a
a
a
d
a
a
a
d

5

4

3

2

1

a

a

a

d

a

a

a

d

d d

5

4

3

2

1

a

a

a

d

a

a

a

d

daa d

5

4

3

2

1

a

a

a

d

a

a

a

d

(a, t 0 ) (a, t 1 ) (a, t 2 ) (d, t 3 ) (a, t 4 ) (a, t 5 ) (a, t 6 ) (d, t 7 )

5

4

3

2

1

a

a

a

d

a

a

a

d

b
a
a
0
1
2
a b
0
1
2

b

0
1
2
a
a
0
1
2
a b

b
a
a
0
1
2
a b
0
1
2

0 f (0, a) = 1 f (0, b) = 2 aa b

b

a
a
0
1
2
a b
 0 1 2

G = (X, E, f, Γ, x 0 , X m )

 X E f f : X × E → X

Γ Γ : X 2 E

x 0

X m

x 0 X X m X

2 E E

2 E

E E 2 E E

2 E = {x : x E} .

E P (E)

2 E

E = {a, b, g} E

2 E = {∅, {a} , {b} , {g} , {a, b} , {a, g} , {b, g} , {a, b, g}} .

E 2 n n E 2 E

X = {x, y, z}

E = {a, b, g}
a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z

b

x

f (x, a) = x,
f (x, g) = z,
a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z

b

f (y, a) = x,
f (y, b) = y,
y
a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z
b

f (z, a) = y,

f (z, b) = z,

z

a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z

b

f (z, g) = y,

Γ (x)

Γ (y)

Γ (z)

=

=

=

a

{a, g} ,

{a, b} ,

{a, b, g} ,

a

b

x
y

a, g

g
z

b

x 0 = x

X m = {x, z}

a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z

b

X × E

X × E Γ (x) = E, x X

a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z

b

a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z

b

G
L (G)
G L (G) G
a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z
b

E = {a, b, g}
aag ∈ L (G) bag ∈/ L (G)
a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z
b

s E

E = {a, b, g} E s 1 = a s 2 = aaa s 3 = gba s 4 = bb

u v w s = uvw s u

s u, v, w

s w

E = {a, b, g} s = abga ε a ab abg abga ε a ga bga abga bg

L E E

ε 1

s = εs = s

εε = ε

ε

E = {a, b, g} E

L 1 = {ε, a, abb}

L 2 = { ε a }

L 2 = {abg, aaa, abb, agg,

L 2 = {a} × {a, b, g} × {a, b, g}

.}

E = {a, b, g} L 3 = { a }

L 3 = {a}∪ {a}× {a, b, g}∪ {a}× {a, b, g} 2

∪ {a}× {a, b, g} n

E = {a, b, g} L 3 = {
a } G 3
L 3 L m (G 3 ) = L 3
G 3
G 3 :
a, b, g
a
0
1

L m (G 3 ) ⊆ L (G 3 )

ε ε ∈ L (G 3 ) ε / L m (G 3 )

G 3 :
a, b, g
a
0
1

E = {a, b, g} a

E E n n E

E = {a, b, g} E 5

E 5 = {aaaaa, aaaab, aaaag, aaaba,

3 5

.} = E × E × E × E × E,

2 E E n

E E

E {ε} ∪ E + ,

E + = E E 2 E 3

L E L E . s E s E

E = {a, b, g} E

E = {ε, a, b, g, aa, bb, gg, ab, ag, bg, gb, abg,

, abgaag,

.}

L 1 L 2 E L 1 L 2

L 1 L 2 = {s : s = uv, u L 1 , v L 2 } .

L 1 = {aa, bb, gg} L 2 = {a, g} E = {a, b, g}

L 1 L 2 = {aaa, aag, bba, bbg, gga, ggg} .

L E L L
L = {s ∈ E ∗ : ∃t ∈ E ∗ st ∈ L} .

L = {a, bg, gba} E = {a, b, g}
L
L = {ε, a, b, bg, g, gb, gba} .

L

¯

L

L E L

L =

i=0

L n ,

 L 0 = {ε} , L i = L i−1 L.

L = {a, bg, gba} E = {a, b, g} L

L =

i=0

L n ,

 L 0 = {ε} , L 1 = L 0 L = {a, bg, gba} , L 2 = L 1 L = {a, bg, gba} {a, bg, gba} = {aa, abg, agba, gbabg, .} ,

{a} ∪ {b} = {a, b}

{ab} ⊆ {a} ∪ {b}

{a} ∪ {a, b} = {a, b}

abb ∈ {a} {a, b}

L 1 L 2 L 2 L 1 L 1 = L 2

ε / {ε} ε

L = L = L

= {ε} {ε} = {ε}

= ε L

 u = {u} u ⊕ v = {u, v} = {u} ∪ {v}

u = {ε, u, uu, uuu, uv = {u}{v}

}

ε e E E

p q pq qp p q p q

L 1 = a (a b)

L 2 = a i b i , i N a i b i a b i

L M N E

L = M N L = ML

ε / M L = ML

N

N L = M N

ε / M L = M N

L = ML

X = AX B

N

G

L m (G) = {s E : f(x 0 , s) X m }

L x i = {s E : f(x i , s) X m }

x i

G L x L y L z x y z

a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z

b

L

L

L

x

y

z

=
aL
⊕ gL z ⊕ ε,
x
=
aL
bL y ,
x
=
(a ⊕ g) L y ⊕ bL z ⊕ ε.
a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z

b

L y = b aL x .

a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z

b

L z = b [(a g) L y ε] .

a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z

b

L z = b [(a g) b aL x ε]

a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z

b

L x = aL x gb [(a g) b aL x ε] ε.

a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z

b

G

L x = L m (G) = [a gb (a g) b a] (gb ε) .

a
b
a
x
y
g
a, g
z

b

G 1 G 2

 L (G 1 ) = L (G 2 ) , L m (G 1 ) = L m (G 2 ) .

G = (X, E, f, Γ, x 0 , X m )

x m X m

x nm X \ X m

x 1 , x 2 X f (x 1 , e) f (x 2 , e) e E x 1 x 2

x 1 , x 2 X e E

 f (x 1 , e) = f (x 2 , e) f (x 1 , e) = x 2 f (x 2 , e) = x 1

E = {a, b}
b
x
x
1
2
a
b
a, b
a, b
x 3
x
4
a

x

x

x

3

2

1

 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 b x 2 a b a, b a, b x 3 x 4

a

x 1

x 2 x 3

x 4

x
3
x
2
x
1
x 4
x 3
x 2
b
x
x
1
2
a
b
a, b
a, b
x 3
x
4

a

x 2 x 3 e = a, b

f (x, e) = x 4

x = x 2 , x 3

x
3
x
2
x
1
x 4
x 3
x 2
b
x 1
x
2
a
b
a, b
a, b
x 3
x
4

a

x 2 x 4 f (x 2 , a) = x 4

f (x 4 , a) = x 3 = x 2 f (x 2 , b) = x 4 f (x 4 , b) = x 2

x 3

x 2
x 1
x 4
x 3
x 2
b
x 1
x
2
a
b
a, b
a, b
x 3
x
4

a

x 3 x 4 f (x 3 , a) = x 4

f (x 4 , a) = x 3 f (x 3 , b) = x 4 f (x 4 , b) = x 2 = x 3

x 3
x 2
x 1
x 4
x 3
x 2
b
x 1
x
2
a
b
a, b
a, b
x 3
x
4

a

L m (G) = L (G) .

aa ∈ L (G)

aa / L m (G) L m (G)

= L (G)

a
x
y
b
a
z

G = (X, E, f, Γ, x 0 , X m )

e E

e
x
1
e
x
x
0
2
e
x
n

G ND = (X, E∪ {ε}, f ND , Γ, x 0 , X m )

 X E f ND f ND : X × E∪{ε} → 2 X

Γ Γ : X 2 E{ε}

x 0

X m

x 0 X

X m X

a
a
x
1
x 2
b

X
=
{x 1 , x 2 } ,
E
=
{a, b} ,
a
a
x
1
x 2
b

 f ND (x 1 , a) = {x 1 , x 2 } , f ND (x 2 , b) = {x 1 } , Γ (x 1 ) = {a} , Γ (x 2 ) = {b} ,
a
a
x
x
1
2
b

x 0
=
X m
=
x 1 ,
{x 1 } .
a
a
x 1
x
2
b

2 X

a
a
x
1
x 2
b

 2 X X = {x 1 , x 2 } , 2 X = {∅, {x 1 } , {x 2 } , {x 1 , x 2 }} .

a
a
x
x
1
2
b

2 X

f ({x 1 } , a)
=
{x 1 , x 2 }
,
f
({x 1 , x 2 } , a)
=
{x 1 , x 2 }
,
f
({x 1 , x 2 } , b)
=
{x 1 } .
a
a
x
x
1
2
b

x 0 = {x 1 } X m

X m = x 2 X : x x x X m ,

X m = {{x 1 } , {x 1 , x 2 }} .

a
a
x
x
1
2
b

a

a
x
x
1
2
b
a
a
{x
}
{x
, x
}
1
1
2
b

ε

ε

ε

ε

a
b
ε
x 1
x 2

ε

X
=
{x 1 , x 2 } ,
E
=
{a, b} ,
a
b
ε
x 1
x 2