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2016

Crditos / Credits
1. Arquivo Plantar
2. Arquivo International Paper
3. Arquivo Duratex Linha Itapu
4. Paulo Srgio de Oliveira / Cenibra
5. Ricardo Teles / Fibria
6. Arquivo Guararapes
7. Banco de Imagens / Celulose Riograndense

Capa / Cover Contracapa / Back cover

1 2 3 4 5 6

7 7
2016
Da garantia de suprimento de
matria-prima para todos os usos
da madeira atuais de potenciais
a uma nova economia de baixo carbono,
a soluo passa pelas florestas plantadas.
Mensagem da Ib
ARQUIVO CENIBRA

Prezado leitor,

Temos a satisfao de apresentar a publicao Ib 2016, da Indstria


Brasileira de rvores, que traz os indicadores de desempenho do setor nacio-
nal de rvores plantadas referentes ao ano de 2015.
O ano de 2015 foi desafiador: a acelerao do dlar, o avano do pro-
cesso inflacionrio, a perda do selo de bom pagador por agncias de risco, e
a alta do desemprego levaram o Produto Interno Bruto (PIB) brasileiro a acu-
mular uma queda de 3,8% em 2015, a maior reduo desde 1990. Praticamente
todos os setores da economia apresentaram retraes. Apenas o setor agro-
pecurio registrou crescimento.
Frente a cenrios macroeconmicos adversos, o setor de rvores plan-
tadas figurou entre os poucos setores produtivos que reuniam condies para
atravessar o perodo, enfrentar as dificuldades e atenuar o resultado desfavo-
rvel da economia brasileira. Favorecido pela alta do dlar, o setor registrou
alta nas exportaes dos segmentos de celulose, painis de madeira e papel,
contribuindo para o saldo positivo de operaes do comrcio exterior do Pas.
Por outro lado, o desemprego e a consequente queda na renda do trabalha-
dor afetaram enormemente a demanda interna.
Para que a indstria de rvores plantadas possa continuar contribuin-
do para o desenvolvimento econmico e sustentvel do Pas, a Ib vem
trabalhando fortemente pela superao dos principais entraves ao seu
crescimento, e para o estabelecimento de uma poltica clara e consolidada
do setor de rvores plantadas no Brasil. Neste sentido, atua para que as
polticas pblicas contemplem aspectos de desonerao tributria de in-
vestimentos, resoluo dos principais entraves de infraestrutura e logstica,
melhorias na legislao trabalhista, desburocratizao de processos como
o licenciamento ambiental e registro de produtos que garantam a defesa
fitossanitria do setor.
Tambm importante destacar os esforos da Ib e de suas associadas
no combate permanente concorrncia desleal em segmentos como papel e
pisos laminados. Exemplos disso so as negociaes para a regulamentao
do RECOPI Nacional nos estados signatrios do sistema de controle de ope-
raes com papel imune, assim como a adeso de novos Estados. Em relao
aos pisos laminados, foram negociadas medidas para evitar a falsa classifica-
o do produto importado, criando condies justas de mercado.
O importante papel que as florestas desempenham sobre o clima, pela
sua alta capacidade de absoro de carbono, bem como as contribuies do
setor para a construo de uma economia de baixo carbono tambm estive-
ram na agenda prioritria da Ib. Assim, a Ib atuou junto ao Ministrio do Meio
Ambiente (MMA) para a definio das mtricas brasileiras para o acordo do
clima, e participou ativamente na Conferncia das Naes Unidas, COP21, que
estabeleceu, no final de 2015, um novo Acordo Climtico Mundial.
Entre os fruns em que a Ib participa e que discutem propostas para
os compromissos brasileiros de combate s mudanas climticas, e para a
construo de uma economia de baixo carbono, destaca-se a Coalizo Bra-
sil Clima, Florestas e Agricultura, lanada oficialmente em junho de 2015.
Trata-se de uma aliana entre associaes empresariais, empresas e orga-
nizaes da sociedade civil que tem como objetivo propor formas de con-
tribuir para a construo de uma nova economia competitiva, responsvel e
inclusiva, mas alinhada com as agendas de proteo, conservao e usos
sustentveis das florestas.
Liderado pela Ib desde maio de 2015, o International Council of Fo-
rest and Paper Assocations (ICFPA), frum da indstria global de indstria de
produtos florestais, tambm atuou fortemente na questo das mudanas cli-
mticas. O ICFPA tambm esteve presente na COP21, e promoveu um evento
paralelo que reuniu importantes atores globais para a discusso das contri-
buies desta indstria para a mitigao dos efeitos das mudanas climticas.
A associao do ICFPA aos rgos certificadores FSC e PEFC, e a criao
do prmio Blue Sky Young Researchers and Innovation Award, que visa atrair
jovens talentos para essa indstria, tambm so importantes conquistas da
atuao da Ib frente do ICFPA.
Em um cenrio futuro desafiador, as florestas esto ganhando um novo
status. Da garantia de suprimento de matria-prima para todos os usos da
madeira atuais e potenciais a uma nova economia de baixo carbono, a
soluo passa pelas florestas plantadas. Para que possamos extrair o mximo
de potencial das rvores plantadas, a Ib continuar atuando pela ampliao
de mecanismos que incentivem o consumo de produtos florestais: desde o
papel e a madeira, at combustveis mais limpos, como a biomassa, e produtos
qumicos e farmacuticos retirados das rvores.

Boa leitura!

Carlos A. Lira Aguiar


Presidente do Conselho Deliberativo
Message from Ib
Dear Reader,

We are pleased to present the 2016 annual report from the Brazilian
Tree Industry, which reports the performance indicators pertaining to the
national planted tree industry for the year 2015.
Last year was a challenging one: acceleration of the dollar,
inflation, the loss of good-payer status from ratings agencies, and high
unemployment caused an accumulated 3.8% drop in the gross domestic
product (GDP) for 2015, the largest reduction since 1990. Nearly all
areas of the economy retracted; only the agriculture and livestock raising
sector registered growth.
In the face of an adverse macroeconomic scenario, the planted
tree industry was among the few sectors that were able to get through
this period, face the challenges, and ameliorate the unfavorable results
produced by the Brazilian economy. Propelled by the strong dollar, the
industry registered record exports from the pulp, wood panel, and paper
segments, contributing to the countrys positive foreign trade balance.
Meanwhile, unemployment and the consequent drop in worker income
greatly affected domestic demand.
For the planted tree industry to continue contributing to the
sustainable economic development of the country, Ib has been taking
actions to overcome the main obstacles to growth and to establish a clear
and unified policy for the planted tree industry in Brazil. In this sense, it is
working towards public policies that include tax exemptions on investments,
resolution of the main issues with infrastructure and logistics, improvements
in labor legislation, simplification of bureaucracy related to processes such
as environmental licensing, and registration of products used to guarantee
plant health and sanitation in the industry.
It is also important to highlight the efforts made by Ib and its
member companies to continuously combat unfair competition in areas
such as paper and laminate flooring. Examples of these efforts are the
negotiations to regulate RECOPI Nacional in the states that are signatories
to this control system for paper tax exemptions, as well as the addition
of new signatory states. With regard to laminate flooring, measures were
negotiated to avoid the false classification of imported products, creating
fair conditions in the market.
The important role forests play in the climate because of their

ARQUIVO GUARARAPES
great capacity to absorb carbon, as well as the industrys contributions
to building a low-carbon economy, were also on Ibs list of priorities. Ib
worked together with the national Ministry of the Environment (MMA) to
define the Brazilian metrics for the climate agreement, and was an active
participant in the COP21 United Nations Conference that established a new
global climate agreement at the end of 2015.
Notable among the forums in which Ib participates and discusses
proposals for Brazilian commitments to combat climate change and to
build a low-carbon economy is the Brazil Coalition on Climate, Forests,
and Agriculture, which was officially launched in June 2015. This forum is
an alliance between business associations, companies, and civil society
organizations that aims to propose ways to contribute to the construction
of a new competitive, responsible, and inclusive economy that is also
in line with the agenda for protection, conservation, and sustainable use
of forests.
The International Council of Forest and Paper Associations (ICFPA), a
global forum for the forest product industry that has been led by Ib since
May of 2015, also works decisively on the issue of climate change. The
ICFPA was also present at COP21, and hosted a side event which brought
together important global actors to discuss the contributions made by this
industry to mitigate the effects of climate change. Other important strides
taken by Ib in leading the ICFPA include association with the certification
bodies the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Programme for
Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC), and the creation of the Blue
Sky Young Researchers and Innovation Award, which aims to attract young
talent to this industry.
In a challenging future scenario, forests are gaining new status. From
ensuring a supply of raw material for all current and future uses of wood
to a new low-carbon economy, the solution comes from planted forests.
So we can extract the maximum potential from planted trees, Ib will
continue to work to expand mechanisms that encourage consumption of
forest products: from paper and wood to cleaner fuels like biomass, and
chemicals and pharmaceuticals derived from trees.

Happy reading!

Carlos A. Lira Aguiar


President of the Ib Deliberative Council
From ensuring a supply of raw
material for all current and future
uses of wood to a new low-carbon
economy, the solution comes from
planted forests.
ndice / Contents
CAPTULO I / CHAPTER I
12 IB E SEUS ASSOCIADOS
IB MEMBERS COMPANIES

CAPTULO II / CHAPTER II
15 O SETOR BRASILEIRO DE RVORES PLANTADAS
THE BRAZILIAN PLANTED TREE INDUSTRY

CAPTULO III / CHAPTER III


27 GESTO DE PAISAGEM
LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT

CAPTULO IV / CHAPTER IV
30 GESTO DOS RECURSOS HDRICOS
MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES

CAPTULO V / CHAPTER V
33 MUDANAS CLIMTICAS
CLIMATE CHANGE

CAPTULO VI / CHAPTER VI
37 DESEMPENHO DAS RVORES PLANTADAS
PERFORMANCE OF PLANTED TREES
38 rea plantada / Planted area
40 rea plantada por segmento industrial / Planted area by industrial segment
41 Produtividade e rotao florestais / Productivity and forest rotation
41 rea certificada / Certified area

CAPTULO VII / CHAPTER VII


44 DESEMPENHO INDUSTRIAL
INDUSTRIAL PERFORMANCE
46 Celulose e papel / Pulp and paper
50 Painis de madeira e pisos laminados / Wood panels and laminate flooring
52 Produtos slidos de madeira / Solid wood products
53 Carvo vegetal / Charcoal
CAPTULO VIII / CHAPTER VIII
56 IMPORTNCIA ECONMICA DO SETOR
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRY
57 Produto Interno Bruto setorial / Industrial Gross Domestic Product
58 Arrecadao de tributos / Corporate taxes
60 Contribuio para a Balana Comercial / Contribution to the Trade Balance
62 Investimentos produtivos / Productive investments
62 Gerao de emprego e renda / Employment and income generation

CAPTULO IX / CHAPTER IX
64 INDICADORES SOCIOAMBIENTAIS
SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS
65 Proteo de hbitats naturais / Protection of natural habitats
66 Investimentos socioambientais / Social and environmental investments
68 Matriz energtica do setor / Energy in the sector
69 Resduos slidos / Solid waste

ANEXOS / APPENDICES
72 SRIES HISTRICAS
HISTORICAL SERIES
76 NDICE DE PREOS E PRODUTOS
PRODUCT AND PRICE INDEX
76 NDICE DE DESENVOLVIMENTO HUMANO
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
78 FINANCIAMENTO
FINANCING
84 NOTAS METODOLGICAS
METHODOLOGICAL NOTES

LISTAS / LISTS
92 LISTA DE FIGURAS
LIST OF FIGURES
94 LISTA DE SIGLAS
LIST OF ACRONYMS
ARQUIVO CENIBRA

CAPTULO I / CHAPTER I

Ib e seus associados
Ib members companies
A Indstria Brasileira de rvores (Ib) a The Brazilian Tree Industry (Ib) is the
associao responsvel pela representao ins- association responsible for institutionally
titucional da cadeia produtiva de rvores planta- representing the planted tree production chain, from
das, do campo indstria, junto a seus principais the fields to the industry with its main stakeholders.
pblicos de interesse. Fundada em 2014, rene Ib was established in 2014 and represents
empresas e entidades estaduais do setor de r- companies and state entities from the planted tree
vores plantadas e seus diversos segmentos de industry and its various areas, highlighting wood
atuao, com destaque para painis de madeira, paneling, laminate flooring, pulp, paper, charcoal,
pisos laminados, celulose, papel, carvo vegetal and biomass, as well as independent producers of
e biomassa, alm dos produtores independentes planted trees and financial investors.
de rvores plantadas e investidores financeiros. Ib advocates on behalf of the industrys
A Ib atua em defesa dos interesses do se- interests to officials and government agencies,
tor junto a autoridades e rgos governamentais, entities from the planted tree production chain,
entidades da cadeia produtiva de rvores planta- and important sectors of the economy, social and
das e importantes setores da economia, organi- environmental organizations, universities, schools,
zaes socioambientais, universidades, escolas, consumers and the press domestically and
consumidores e imprensa tanto nacional como internationally. In Brazil, the partnership with state
internacionalmente. No Brasil, a parceria com as associations allows strategies to be aligned at the
associaes estaduais permite alinhar as estrat- federal and state levels, fostering the effectiveness
gias em nvel federal e estadual, favorecendo a of activities, claims, and demands.
efetividade de aes, pleitos e demandas. With active participation in the most important
Com participao ativa nos mais importan- global forest forums and councils, Ibs international
tes fruns e conselhos mundiais de base florestal, agenda encompasses topics related to forestry,
a agenda internacional da associao engloba industry, and the environment such as certification,
temas florestais, industriais e socioambientais, good management practices, tree-related
como certificao, boas prticas de manejo, bio- biotechnology and innovation, competitiveness,
tecnologia arbrea e inovao; competitividade, waste use and recycling, support for small forest
uso de resduos e reciclagem; e apoio a peque- producers, and carbon sequestration.
nos produtores florestais e sequestro de carbono. In 2015, represented by its executive
Em 2015, representada por sua presidente president, Elizabeth de Carvalhaes, Ib assumed
executiva, Elizabeth de Carvalhaes, a Ib assumiu the presidency of the International Council of
a presidncia do International Council of Forest Forest and Paper Associations (ICFPA), the topmost
and Paper Associations (ICFPA), o cargo institucio- institutional position in the forest-based sector.
nal mximo do setor de base florestal mundial. O Today, the ICFPA represents around 60% of
ICFPA representa, hoje, cerca de 60% da produ- worldwide wood production and 90% of the worlds
o mundial de madeira e 90% da produo de paper production. This is the first time that the ICFPA
papel do mundo. Esta a primeira vez que uma is being led by an association from the southern
associao do Hemisfrio Sul filiada ao ICFPA as- hemisphere. The term of office is two years, and can
sume o seu comando. O mandato de dois anos, be extended for two more. During this period, ICFPA
prorrogvel por mais dois. Nesse perodo, a sede headquarters, which move along with its leadership,
do ICFPA, que rotativa, ser no Brasil. will be located in Brazil.

13
CAPTULO I / CHAPTER I
IB E SEUS ASSOCIADOS / IB MEMBERS COMPANIES

Empresas Produtoras / Companies


Adami S.A. Madeiras Klabin S.A.
AMATA Lwarcel Celulose Ltda.
Aperam BioEnergia MD Papis Ltda.
Arauco Forest Brasil S.A. Melhoramentos Florestal
ArcelorMittal BioFlorestas CMPC Melhoramentos
Berneck S.A. Painis e Serrados Munksj Brasil Indstria e Comrcio de Papis Especiais Ltda.
Bignardi Indstria e Comrcio de Papis e Artefatos Ltda. Oji Papis Especiais Ltda.
BO Paper Indstria de Papis Papirus Indstria de Papel S.A.
Brookfield Pisa Indstria de Papis Ltda.
BSC Bahia Specialty Cellulose Plantar
Celulose Irani S.A. Primo Tedesco S.A.
Celulose Nipo-Brasileira S.A. Cenibra Ramires Reflortec
CMPC Celulose Riograndense RMS do Brasil Administrao de Florestas Ltda.
Copapa Cia. Paduana de Papis Santa Maria Cia. de Papel e Celulose
Duratex S.A. Santher Fbrica de Papel Santa Therezinha S.A.
Eldorado Brasil Celulose S.A. Sguario Florestal S.A.
Eucatex Sonoco do Brasil Ltda.
Fedrigoni Stora Enso do Brasil Ltda.
Fibraplac Painis de Madeira S.A. Suzano Papel e Celulose S.A.
Fibria SWM Schweitzer-Mauduit do Brasil Indstria e
Floraplac MDF Ltda. Comercio de Papis Ltda.
Floresteca Timber Capital do Brasil
Gerdau Aos Longos S.A. Trombini Embalagens S.A.
Guararapes Painis S.A. TTG Brasil Investimentos Florestais Ltda.
Ibema Cia. Brasileira de Papel Unilin Arauco Pisos Ltda.
Iguau Celulose, Papel S.A. Vallourec Tubos do Brasil S.A.
International Paper do Brasil Ltda. Veracel Celulose S.A.
Kimberly-Clark Brasil Indstria e Comrcio de Produtos WestRock
de Higiene Ltda.

Associaes Estaduais / State Associations


Abaf Associao Baiana das Empresas de Base Florestal Associao Catarinense de Empresas Florestais ACR
Abaf Forest Plantation Producers Association of Bahia Santa Catarina Association of Forest Entreprises ACR
Associao Mineira de Silvicultura AMS Associao Paulista de Produtores de Florestas
The Silviculture Association of Minas Gerais AMS Plantadas Florestar So Paulo
Associao Sul-Mato-Grossense de Produtores e So Paulo State Forest Plantation Producers Association
Consumidores de Florestas Plantadas Reflore MS Florestar So Paulo
Mato Grosso do Sul Planted Forest Producers and Aretins Associao dos Reflorestadores do Tocantins
Consumers Association Reflore MS Tocantins Foresters Association Aretins
Associao Gacha de Empresas Florestais Ageflor Associao de Reflorestadores de Mato Grosso
Rio Grande do Sul Forest Companies Association Ageflor AREFLORESTA
Associao Paranaense de Empresas de Base Florestal APRE Association of the Planted Forest Mato Grosso
Paran Forest Companies Association APRE AREFLORESTA

Empresas Colaboradoras / Partners


Albany International Tecidos Tcnicos Ltda. FuturaGene Brasil Tecnologia Ltda.
ArborGen Tecnologia Florestal Pyry Tecnologia Ltda.
Akzo Nobel Pulp and Performance Qumica Ltda.

14
ZIG KOCH / KLABIN

CAPTULO II / CHAPTER II

O setor brasileiro de rvores plantadas


The brazilian planted tree industry
CAPTULO II / CHAPTER II
O SETOR BRASILEIRO DE RVORES PLANTADAS / THE BRAZILIAN PLANTED TREE INDUSTRY

As rvores plantadas para fins industriais Trees planted for industrial purposes are
so fonte de centenas de produtos e subprodu- the raw material for hundreds of products and
tos e geram diversos servios culturais, recreati- sub-products, and generate a variety of services
vos, tursticos e outros relacionados pesquisa e related to culture, recreation, and tourism, as well
regulao do fluxo hdrico e de nutrientes, alm as research and regulation of the water cycle
de gerar benefcios climticos com o sequestro and nutrients; they also generate benefits for
de carbono. Por essa importante contribuio, o the climate like carbon sequestration. Because
setor tem sido destaque na busca por solues of this important contribution, the industry has
que atendam a um dos maiores desafios do been featured in the search for solutions to meet
sculo XXI: a crescente demanda por madeira, one of the greatest challenges of the twenty-first
energia e fibras, sem esquecer-se da manuten- century: the growing demand for wood, energy
o dos recursos florestais e a incluso social. and fiber, without forgetting maintenance of forest
Se as florestas naturais e plantadas tm resources and social inclusion.
exercido papel vital no atendimento dessas ne- If forests, both natural and planted, have
cessidades, o Brasil, por sua vez, destaca-se no played a vital role in meeting these needs, Brazil
cenrio mundial por possuir extensas reas flo- stands out on the world stage for its extensive
restais nativas com possibilidade de manejo ade- areas of native forest with the possibility of
quado e florestas plantadas com perspectivas de appropriate management and its planted forests
crescimento entre as mais sustentveis do mundo. with growth prospects that are among the
O setor brasileiro de florestas tornou-se, nos worlds most sustainable.
ltimos anos, um dos mais relevantes no cenrio In recent years, the Brazilian forest sector
global. Com uma rea de 7,8 milhes de hectares de has become one of the most important in the
rvores plantadas, responsvel por 91% de toda a global arena. With an area of 7.8 million hectares
madeira produzida para fins industriais no Pas e um of planted trees, this sector is responsible for 91%
dos que apresenta maior potencial de contribuio of all wood produced for industrial purposes in
para a construo de uma economia verde. the country and has great potential to contribute
Produtos de origem florestal esto pre- to building a green economy.
sentes no nosso dia a dia e vo desde os mais Our daily lives are dominated by products
evidentes, como papel e mveis, at produtos that originate in the forests. These range from
de beleza, medicamentos, alimentos e roupas. the more obvious, such as paper and furniture, to
Entre os segmentos que usam a madeira como beauty products, medications, food products, and
principal matria-prima, podemos citar o de ce- clothing. Among the industries that use wood as
lulose e papel, o de painis de madeira, o de pi- their main raw material, we can cite producers of
sos laminados, o de serrados e compensados, o pulp and paper, wood paneling, laminate flooring,
de siderurgia a carvo vegetal e o de energia. lumber and plywood, charcoal-powered steel, and
J no setor de bens de consumo, destacam-se energy. In area of consumer goods, we can highlight
as indstrias grfica, de embalagem, moveleira, the printing, packaging, furniture, chemical, textile
qumica, txtil e farmacutica e a construo civil. and pharmaceutical, and construction industries.
No entanto, a indstria florestal tem ainda However, the forest industry still has
um enorme potencial de aplicaes que vm enormous potential for applications that are
sendo estudadas e consideradas. As tecnologias being studied and considered. In the future, more

16
mais avanadas permitiro aproveitar, no futuro, advanced technologies will make it possible for us
100% da floresta e dos produtos e subprodutos to utilize 100% of the forest and the products and
dos processos produtivos, possibilitando novos byproducts of production processes, creating new
usos como as celulose nanofibrilar e a nanoce- uses for products such as cellulose nanofibers and
lulose cristalina, empregadas na indstria de em- nanocrystalline cellulose, used in the packaging
balagens e prteses mdicas, respectivamente. industry and in medical prostheses, respectively. It
Estima-se que, em uma dcada, a fibra de carbo- is estimated that in a decade, sustainable carbon
no sustentvel, extrada da madeira e 50% mais fiber, which is extracted from wood and costs 50%
barata que a tradicional, poder ser usada na in- less than traditional carbon fiber, may be used in
dstria aeronutica e automobilstica. the aeronautics and automobile industries.
Justamente por seu valor econmico e Particularly because of its economic value
seu papel central numa economia de baixo car- and its central role in a low-carbon economy,
bono, preciso encarar a floresta como um bem we must consider forests as valuable and
precioso e estratgico. imprescindvel, alm strategic assets. In addition to recognizing their
de reconhecer sua importncia como provedora importance in providing products and services, it
de produtos e servios, adotar polticas pblicas is essential to adopt public policies that integrate
que integrem os setores de uso da terra no de- industries which use land into the development
senvolvimento de estratgias mais sustentveis. of more sustainable strategies.
ARQUIVO GUARARAPES

17
CAPTULO II / CHAPTER II
O SETOR BRASILEIRO DE RVORES PLANTADAS / THE BRAZILIAN PLANTED TREE INDUSTRY

ILPF ILPF
A Integrao Lavoura, Pecuria e Flo- Integrated Crop-Livestock-Forest
resta (ILPF), que une diferentes sistemas pro- Systems (ILPF, from the Portuguese acronym),
dutivos na mesma propriedade, uma estra- which combines different production
tgia de uso da terra com grande potencial systems on the same property, is a land use
de diversificao das receitas do produtor. strategy that has great potential to diversify
Ainda que incipiente no Brasil, esse modelo revenue for producers. Although it is still
de produo integrada sustentvel vem cres- in early stages in Brazil, this sustainable
cendo por meio de programas de fomento model of integrated production has been
com pequenos e mdios produtores rurais li- growing through development programs
gados cadeia das empresas do setor flores- geared toward small and medium-sized
tal. Alm de ter um papel social importante rural producers connected to the chain of
ao gerar emprego e renda e contribuir para forest sector companies. Besides playing
o desenvolvimento das comunidades, ele fa- an important social role by generating
vorece a proteo do solo, com culturas de employment and income and contributing to
diferentes idades em mosaico. community development, this model helps
A ILPF pode ser uma alternativa rele- protect the soil by using a mosaic model for
vante para aumentar a produo de alimen- planting crops at different ages.
tos sem necessitar de novas reas, apenas Silvopastoral agroforestry can be

RONALDO ROSA / EMBRAPA


pela sinergia e forma complementar de uso a useful alternative for increasing food
da terra entre os componentes vegetais e production without the need for new areas,
animais. O setor florestal tem importante using only synergy and complementary
contribuio nos atuais dois milhes de hec- land use between the plant and animal
tares existentes no Brasil que utilizam os di- components. The forest sector makes a
ferentes formatos da estrutura ILPF, segun- significant contribution to the 2 million
do a Embrapa, mas h ainda muita terra a hectares in Brazil that currently implement
cultivar para que se atinja a meta de cerca the different varieties of silvopastoral
de cinco milhes de hectares at 2030. Para agroforestry, according to the Brazilian
tanto, faz-se necessria, por exemplo, a im- Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa),
plementao de polticas pblicas de incen- but there is a long way to go before the goal
tivos produo, como aumento de crdito, of 5 million hectares by 2030 is reached. For
diminuio de taxas de juros, seguro agr- this to occur, it will be necessary to implement
cola amplo e eficiente e remunerao por public policies for production incentives,
servios ambientais. for example, such as increased credit,
J existem tecnologias e ferramentas decreased interest rates, broad and efficient
que permitem uma melhoria da produtivida- agricultural insurance, and compensation for
de do agronegcio brasileiro e da agricultura environmental services.
familiar. Essa implementao, no entanto, en- Technologies and tools already exist
frenta algumas barreiras, como a ausncia de that can improve the productivity of Brazilian
polticas pblicas e de linhas de financiamen- agribusiness and family farming. There are
to, alm da falta de instrumentos de mercado some hurdles to implementation, however, such
que incentivem a produo, conciliando cul- as the absence of public policies and lines of
turas, e a regulamentao ambiental. credit, in addition to a lack of market-based

18
Outra lacuna importante que implica em instruments to encourage production, bringing
uma limitao na difuso do sistema ILPF a together crops and environmental regulations.
relativa carncia de estudos abrangentes de Another important gap that affects the
avaliao econmica. A maioria ainda deixa de limited spread of the silvopastoral system is the
considerar aspectos importantes que influen- relative lack of comprehensive economic studies
ciam as decises dos produtores, como por evaluating this method. Most still fail to consider
exemplo: a sua situao socioeconmica e a important aspects that influence producers
necessidade de investimento; as implicaes decisions, such as: their socioeconomic status
da escala produtiva no padro de investimen- and need for investment; implications of the
tos, os financiamentos, os custos, as receitas e scale of production on investment, financing,
lucratividade; a anlise das barreiras relaciona- costs, revenue and profitability; analysis of the
das implementao do sistema; a avaliao barriers related to implementation of the system;
da questo da mitigao dos riscos produtivos; assessment of the issue of mitigating production
e se os potenciais benefcios socioambientais risks; and whether the potential environmental
vislumbrados realmente se aplicam e se podem benefits really apply and can be exploited as an
ser explorados como atividade econmica. economic activity.

19
CAPTULO II / CHAPTER II
O SETOR BRASILEIRO DE RVORES PLANTADAS / THE BRAZILIAN PLANTED TREE INDUSTRY

CAR/CDIGO FLORESTAL CAR/FOREST CODE


A atuao do setor brasileiro de rvo- Activities in the Brazilian planted tree
res plantadas pautada no cumprimento in- industry are founded upon unconditional
condicional da regulamentao sobre o uso compliance with land use regulations. One
da terra. Um exemplo disso o engajamento example of this is the industrys commitment
do setor na incluso das informaes de seus to including data on their properties in the
imveis no Cadastro Ambiental Rural (CAR). Rural Environmental Register (CAR). An
Institudo pelo Ministrio do Meio Ambiente initiative by the Ministry of the Environment
(MMA), o CAR um dos principais instrumen- (MMA), CAR is one of the main instruments
tos do novo Cdigo Florestal Brasileiro, e fun- of the new Brazilian Forest Code, and is
damental para auxiliar no processo de regula- fundamental to the process of environmental
rizao ambiental de propriedades e posses regularization for rural holdings and
rurais. Trata-se de um registro permanente properties. It is a permanent record that
que permitir conhecer as reas produtivas e permits recognition of productive areas and
as reas preservadas reas de Preservao preserved areas, permanent preservation
Permanentes (APPs) e de Reserva Legal (RL) , areas (APP) and legal reserves (LR), as well as

20
bem como aquelas que devero ser restaura- those areas that must be restored as part of
das no processo de regularizao. the regularization process.
O novo Cdigo Florestal Brasileiro traz The new Brazilian Forest Code
tambm outros dois importantes instrumentos also contains two important instruments
que, em conjunto com o CAR, tem grande po- that, together with the CAR, have great
tencial de melhorar a gesto ambiental e terri- potential to improve environmental and
torial do Pas: os Programas de Regularizao territorial management of the country: state
Ambiental (PRA) estaduais, que nortearo a re- environmental regularization programs (PRA),
gularizao; e os Termos de Compromisso, que which will guide regularization, and the Terms
devero ser assinados por todos os produtores of Commitment, which must be signed by all
que tiverem passivos ambientais a regularizar. producers who have environmental liabilities
O banco de dados do CAR ajudar a to regularize.
identificar passivos ambientais, monitorar reas The CAR database will help identify
sob restaurao, combater o desmatamento e environmental liabilities, monitor areas under
auxiliar os proprietrios de terra a proteger os restoration, combat deforestation, and assist
recursos naturais. , portanto, uma grande opor- landowners in protecting natural resources.
tunidade para viabilizar polticas de desenvolvi- It is, therefore, a great opportunity to achieve
mento ambiental para que o Pas possa cumprir environmental development policies so that
com os compromissos assumidos no Acordo de the country can meet the commitments it made
ZIG KOCH / KLABIN

Paris: reduo do desmatamento, restaurao in the Paris Agreement: reduce deforestation,


de florestas, recuperao de pastagens degra- restoration, restore degraded pasture, and
dadas e promoo de biocombustveis. promote biofuels.
Entre os benefcios da implementao Among the benefits of implementing
do CAR para o setor de uso da terra no Brasil CAR for the industry using land in Brazil is the
est o potencial de se tornar o maior conser- potential to become the largest preserver of
vador de vegetao nativa no mundo. Nesse native vegetation in the world. In this context,
contexto, a indstria brasileira de rvores plan- the Brazilian planted tree industry is already a
tadas j referncia, uma vez que para cada reference, since for each hectare planted with
hectare plantado com rvores para fins indus- trees for industrial purposes, 0.7 hectares is set
trial, 0,7 destinado preservao. aside for preservation.
Dada a importncia desses instrumen- Given the importance of these
tos, fundamental que os governos federal instruments, it is essential that the federal
e estaduais adotem polticas que acelerem and state governments adopt policies that
e qualifiquem a implementao do CAR e do accelerate and qualify implementation of the
PRA, com foco no desenvolvimento de polti- CAR and PRA, with a focus on developing
cas pblicas de restaurao de terras degra- public policies for restoring degraded land,
dadas, crditos e projetos de expanso e de credits, and projects involving expansion and
conservao em todo o Pas. Tambm es- conservation across the country. Integration
sencial a integrao de todos os setores da of all sectors of society is also essential for
sociedade para a implementao do Cdigo implementation of the Forest Code, along with
Florestal, com ganhos ambientais, e que re- environmental gains, and represents a new
presente um novo instrumento para a gesto instrument for environmental management in
ambiental no Pas. the country.

21
CAPTULO II / CHAPTER II
O SETOR BRASILEIRO DE RVORES PLANTADAS / THE BRAZILIAN PLANTED TREE INDUSTRY

ENERGIA ENERGY
O cenrio futuro de desafios. Pro- The vision of the future presents
jees indicam que a demanda por energia a challenge. Projections indicate that the
deve dobrar at 2030 e, segundo especia- demand for energy will double by 2030,
listas, as reservas de combustveis no reno- and according to experts, reserves of
vveis, como gs natural e petrleo, se es- non-renewable fuels such as natural gas
gotaro nos prximos cem anos. Somam-se, and oil will run out over the next hundred
ainda, as crises de preo. years. This in addition to price crises.
Em virtude disso, ganharam fora e Because of all this, policies that
espao as polticas que visam um apro- envision rational and comprehensive use
veitamento racional e integral dos recur- of available energy resources have gained
sos energticos disponveis. Destaca-se a speed and support. Notable among these
biomassa florestal, que pode ser utilizada is forest biomass, which can be used as
como fonte de energia limpa, renovvel e a source of clean, renewable energy and
geradora de empregos. Pode-se classificar job generation. Forest biomass can include
como tal o bagao da cana-de-acar, a le- sugarcane bagasse, firewood, charcoal,
nha, o carvo vegetal, os resduos agrcolas agricultural wastes, and biogas.
e o biogs. The wood from planted forests
A madeira proveniente das florestas is mainly intended to supply the needs
plantadas destinada, principalmente, para of the pulp, paper, and wood panel
atender aos segmentos de celulose, papel industries, but it also fuels steelworks,
e painis de madeira, mas tambm serve s which are the main destinations of
indstrias siderrgicas, principais destinos charcoal production. For every ton
do carvo vegetal. Para cada tonelada de of iron made with charcoal from planted
ferro feita com carvo vegetal provenien- forests, there is an environmental gain of
te de florestas plantadas h um ganho am- approximately three tons of CO2 , compared
biental de aproximadamente trs toneladas to the use of non-renewable or fossil
de CO2, em comparao ao uso de fontes sources. Considering the characteristics
fsseis ou no renovveis. Tendo em vista of charcoal and environmental demands,
as caractersticas do carvo vegetal e as major consumers of this product have
exigncias ambientais, as grandes consumi- increased the efficiency of their industrial
doras desse produto tm aumentado a efi- processes and wood carbonization.
cincia dos seus processos industriais e de The paper and pulp sector also
carbonizao da madeira. seeks to produce more with less energy
O setor de papel e celulose tambm consumption, and is even moving toward
busca produzir mais com menor consumo self-sufficiency by burning lignin, a
de energia e caminha, inclusive, para a au- byproduct of this industry. In some cases,
tossuficincia por meio da queima da ligni- surplus energy can be exported and sold
na, um subproduto dessa indstria. Em al- back to the national grid.
guns casos, j possvel exportar energia
excedente para a rede eltrica nacional.

22
DESAFIOS CHALLENGES
O setor florestal brasileiro j destaque The Brazilian forest sector is already
ao redor do mundo por ter a maior produtivi- notable on the worldwide scene for having
dade, mas, apesar da liderana mundial, ainda the highest productivity rates. But despite
h muitos entraves continuidade do cresci- this global leadership, there are still many
mento de nossa indstria. Nos ltimos anos, obstacles to the continued growth of our
a produo de madeira ficou mais cara no industry. In recent years, wood production
Pas. Em 2015, a inflao do setor de rvores has become more expensive in Brazil. In 2015
plantadas medida pelo ndice Nacional de alone, inflation in the planted tree sector
Custos da Atividade Florestal (INCAF-Pyry) measured by the National Forest Activity
, foi de 12,8%, enquanto a inflao nacional Cost Index (INCAF-Pyry) was 12.8%, while
medida pelo ndice Nacional de Preos ao national inflation measured by the Broad
Consumidor (IPCA) ficou em 10,7%. Os custos National Consumer Price Index (IPCA) was
setoriais cresceram, portanto, 2,1 pontos per- 10.7%. Consequently, costs in the industry
centuais a mais do que a mdia do aumento grew 2.1%, more than the average increase
de custos e preos da economia brasileira. A in costs and prices in the Brazilian economy.
tendncia de aumentos superiores inflao The trend of increases surpassing inflation has
j foi apontada em anos anteriores e perma- already been pointed out in previous years,
nece sendo um desafio para a manuteno da and remains a challenge to maintaining the
competitividade do setor florestal brasileiro competitiveness of the Brazilian forest sector
em nvel internacional (FIGURA 1). at the international level (FIGURE 1).
A reduo dos custos, por exemplo, pas- Reducing costs, for example, involves
sa por desafios que impactam em longo prazo, challenges that have long-term impacts,
como desburocratizar a concesso de licena such as cutting the bureaucracy involved
ambiental; simplificar a avaliao e registro de in environmental licensing, simplifying the
produtos de defesa fitossanitria; e melhorar assessment and registration of plant health
a oferta de crditos a produtores rurais. Alm and defense products, and improving the
disso, h as dificuldades intrnsecas do Pas, availability of credit for rural producers.
como a ineficincia logstica e da matriz de Additionally, there are difficulties inherent to
transporte; a impossibilidade de terceirizao the country, such as inefficient logistics and
de mo de obra e as restries de aquisio the transport network, inability to outsource
de terras por estrangeiros. Para completar o labor, and restrictions on land acquisition
cenrio, o complexo e caro sistema tributrio by foreigners. To complete the scenario, the
nacional e a falta de medidas judiciais cleres complex and expensive national tax system
contra a invaso de imveis rurais geram cus- and the lack of prompt judicial measures
tos e inseguranas. against invasion of rural properties generate
Porm, o setor florestal se beneficiar de costs and insecurity.
desenvolvimentos tecnolgicos que podero, But the forest sector will benefit from
inclusive, criar novos produtos a partir da ma- technological developments which may even
deira. Mudanas em polticas de estmulo ao create new products from wood. Changes
consumo de derivados de petrleo tambm in policies to stimulate consumption of

23
CAPTULO II / CHAPTER II
O SETOR BRASILEIRO DE RVORES PLANTADAS / THE BRAZILIAN PLANTED TREE INDUSTRY

FIGURA 1 / FIGURE 1

Aumento do custo de produo da madeira versus inflao brasileira (IPCA)


Increase in the cost of wood production versus brazilian inflation (IPCA)

400

350

300

250
ndice / Index

200

150

100

50

0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

IPCA / IPCA INCAF (R$) / INCAF (R$) INCAF (US$) / INCAF (US$)

FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)

so importantes para o setor de florestas plan- petroleum products are also important for
tadas, para que se crie um incentivo ao uso de the planted forest sector, in order to create
fontes renovveis e de biomassa florestal; e an incentive to use renewable sources and
s pesquisas envolvendo o etanol celulsico, forest biomass and to conduct research on
que podem ampliar ainda mais a importncia cellulosic ethanol, which can further expand
das florestas plantadas brasileiras no mundo. the importance of Brazilian planted forests
Criar diversificao no mercado consumidor in the world. Creating diversification in the
um desafio para minimizar efeitos das crises. consumer market is a challenge to minimize
Polticas de estmulo ao consumo sustentvel the effects of the economic crisis. Policies
e uma economia de baixo carbono so funda- to stimulate sustainable consumption and
mentais para diversificar e estimular a deman- a low-carbon economy are essential to
da por madeira e por fibras. A madeira e os diversify and stimulate demand for wood and

24
produtos de base florestal precisam ser reco- fiber. Wood and forest-based products need
nhecidos como renovveis, alm de represen- to be recognized as renewable, besides
tarem uma fonte limpa para a equalizao da representing a clean source to balance out
matriz energtica nacional. E, nesse sentido, a the national energy grid. And in this sense,
Ib tem um forte trabalho de articulao com Ibs work has a strong connection with
os governos, em todas as esferas. governments in all spheres.
Conforme a floresta ganha luz, aumen- Just as the forest grows toward light,
ta o interesse nela como uma alternativa para interest in forests is growing, as an alternative
a composio de portflios de investimento for investment portfolios with a focus on the
com foco em longo prazo. A principal vanta- long term. The main advantage of forest
gem dos ativos florestais a sua previsibilida- assets is their predictability. Generally, when
de. De uma maneira geral, onde h mercado there is a mature forest market, one that has
florestal maduro, ou seja, com competio na competition at the consumer end or stable
ponta consumidora ou com estabilidade de consumption, forest assets provide a safe
consumo, os ativos florestais proporcionam haven from the oscillations of the commodities
segurana frente as oscilaes do mercado market.
de commodities. The maturity of the market situation
A situao de maturidade do mercado can especially be seen in regions where
observada, especialmente, em regies cuja production is directed toward the pulp
produo voltada para o setor de celulose, industry, where there are no significant
onde no ocorrem oscilaes relevantes de oscillations in consumption from year to year,
consumo ano a ano; ou em regies com diver- or in regions with a diversity of markets,
sidade de mercados, como acontece no Sul such as southern So Paulo, Santa Catarina
de So Paulo, Santa Catarina e Paran, onde and Paran, where industries including pulp,
segmentos como celulose, painis, serrados e panels, lumber, and biomass coexist. Regions
biomassa coexistem. Regies cuja exposio directed predominantly toward the steelworks
predominantemente ao setor siderrgico re- sector registered a very large market
gistraram, nos ltimos dois anos, uma grande downturn over the last two years, reinforcing
retrao do mercado, reforando o desafio the challenge faced by this industry to bring
setorial de trazer novos investimentos para di- in new investments in order to diversify
versificar o consumo. consumption.
Contudo, mesmo diante dos desafios, a However, even in the face of these
demanda por produtos florestais crescente challenges, the demand for forest products is
em todo o mundo e evidente a migrao da growing around the world, and production is
produo do Hemisfrio Norte para o Sul, fato clearly migrating from the northern hemisphere
que dever suportar o crescimento do setor to the south, a fact that should support the
ao longo de muitos anos. growth of the industry over many years.
No Brasil, especialmente nas regies In Brazil, especially in regions where
com maior maturidade deste mercado, as plan- this market is more mature, forest plantations
taes florestais tm apresentado resultados have shown results that are consistent with
compatveis com investimentos tradicionais de traditional low-risk and long-term investments.

25
CAPTULO II / CHAPTER II
O SETOR BRASILEIRO DE RVORES PLANTADAS / THE BRAZILIAN PLANTED TREE INDUSTRY

baixo risco e de longo prazo. Taxas de retor- Actual rates of return almost always
no real quase sempre oscilam entre 8% e 12% oscillate between 8% and 12% per year,
ao ano, variando de acordo com a regio e a varying according to region and species.
espcie, ou seja, os investimentos em ativos In other words, investments in forest assets
florestais continuam sendo uma oportunidade continue to be a business opportunity in
de negcio em que o Brasil oferece um con- which Brazil offers a unique set of conditions
junto de condies nicas, como terras pro- such as productive land with reasonable
dutivas com razovel infraestrutura, ciclos de infrastructure, smaller crop cycles, and large
colheita menores e demanda interna grande. internal demand. Betting on forests is a
Apostar em florestas uma tendncia j expe- trend that has already been seen in more
rimentada em mercados mais evoludos, mas developed markets, but is just now starting to
que comea agora a se consolidar no Pas. appear in this country.
Entre 2007 e 2013, muitos novos investi- Between 2007 and 2013, many new
dores foram atrados para Brasil ou para o se- investors were attracted to Brazil or to the
tor, destacando-se investidores institucionais, sector, most notably institutional investors
sobretudo os fundos de penso e de investi- and especially pension and investment funds,
mento, family offices e, at mesmo, pessoas family businesses, and even individuals.
fsicas. As restries para investimentos es- Restrictions on foreign investment and the
trangeiros e o cenrio poltico-econmico bra- current political and economic scenario in
sileiro reduziram, consideravelmente, a atra- Brazil considerably reduced the countrys
o de recursos financeiros nos ltimos dois ability to attract financial resources over the
anos. Porm, a necessidade de capitalizao last two years. However, the need for some
de ativos por algumas empresas e o potencial companies to capitalize their assets and
de crescimento no setor podem, em breve, the potential for growth in the industry may
criar condies favorveis para um novo ciclo soon create favorable conditions for a new
de investimentos. investment cycle.

26
MRIO GUAS / CELULOSE IRANI

CAPTULO III / CHAPTER III

Gesto de paisagem
Landscape management
CAPTULO III / CHAPTER III
GESTO DE PAISAGEM / LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT

Historicamente, a paisagem tem sido modifi- Historically, the landscape has been
cada pela ao do homem, fazendo com que alguns modified by human activities, causing some
elementos naturais sejam cada vez mais raros, mas natural elements to become increasingly
o setor florestal tem atuado fortemente na manuten- rare. But the planted tree industry has worked
o dos ecossistemas naturais e seus servios. decisively to maintain natural ecosystems and
O bom uso da terra depende de uma mu- the services they provide.
dana nos padres atuais de consumo, da re- Good land use depends on a change
gularizao fundiria, de dilogos intersetoriais in current patterns of consumption, agrarian
transparentes e das prticas agrcolas e flores- regularization, transparent inter-sectorial dialog,
tais que considerem tecnologias e estratgias and agricultural and forestry practices that
fundamentadas no planejamento de paisagens. consider technologies and strategies which are
Atualmente, surgem no setor tcnicas que based on landscape planning.
utilizam conceitos de planejamento da paisagem Currently, techniques are appearing in the
e incorporam em suas operaes a preocupao sector that use concepts of landscape planning
em manter ou melhorar a qualidade visual de and incorporate into operations a concern
suas reas e a garantia de proviso de servios with maintaining or improving the visual quality
ambientais, como a regulao do fluxo hdrico, of areas and also guarantee environmental
a manuteno de corredores ecolgicos e o services such as regulation of water flow,
estoque de CO2eq. Isso se reflete num melhor maintenance of ecological corridors, and CO2eq
balano entre as necessidades de se praticar sequestration. This is reflected in a better
a silvicultura e a manuteno da qualidade balance between the needs to practice forestry
ambiental, com a vantagem de melhorar a and maintain environmental quality, with the
imagem do setor florestal privado no Pas. added advantage of improving the image of the
Alm das novas tcnicas de intensifica- private planted tree industry in the country.
o disponveis, as empresas do setor avaliam In addition to the new intensification
as reas elegveis para expanso, direcionando techniques which are available, companies in the
o crescimento para locais j convertidos, como industry assess areas that are eligible for expansion,
pastagens degradadas. Definido o lugar, tecno- focusing expansion on areas that have already
logias como agricultura de preciso, biotecno- been converted, such as degraded pastures. Once
logia, mecanizao da silvicultura e boas prti- the site is chosen, technologies such as precision
cas de manejo so adotadas. A construo de agriculture, biotechnology, use of satellite imagery,
mosaicos de florestas naturais entremeadas s mechanized forestry, and good management
florestas plantadas de produo, por exemplo, practices are adopted. The construction of mosaics
assegura servios ambientais como a biodiver- of natural forests interspersed with planted trees for
sidade, a absoro de carbono e a manuteno production, for example, guarantees environmental
dos recursos hdricos. services such as biodiversity, carbon absorption,
As florestas devem fornecer produtos sufi- and maintenance of water resources.
cientes para o mercado consumidor e, ao mesmo Planted trees should provide sufficient
tempo, manter habitat para a fauna, permitir o de- products for the consumer market while at the
senvolvimento rural, e oferecer locais para recre- same time maintaining wildlife habitats, allowing
ao. Estes objetivos devem ser considerados rural development, offering recreation sites. These

28
MRIO GUAS / CELULOSE IRANI

e atingidos pelos empreendimentos florestais, goals should be considered and attained by forest
sejam eles privados ou pblicos. enterprises, whether they are private or public.
No contexto internacional, o Brasil destaca- Internationally, Brazil stands out as the
-se como o pas onde o setor de rvores planta- country where the planted tree sector protects
das mais protege reas naturais. Hoje, so mais de the most natural areas. Today, there are more
cinco milhes de hectares em reas de Preserva- than 5 million hectares contained in permanent
o Permanente (APPs), reas de Reserva Legal preservation areas (APP), legal reserve areas
(RL) e Reservas Particulares de Patrimnio Natural (RL), and private natural heritage reserves
(RPPNs). Para cada hectare plantado com rvores (RPPN). For each hectare planted with trees for
para fins industriais, outro 0.7 hectare destina- industrial purposes, another 0.7 hectare is set
do preservao. Quase 14% dos 50 milhes de aside for preservation. Almost 14% of the 50
hectares de habitat naturais preservados no Brasil million hectares of natural habitat preserved
fora de unidades de conservao so de respon- in Brazil outside of protected areas are the
sabilidade da indstria de rvores plantadas. responsibility of the planted tree industry.

29
ARQUIVO CENIBRA

CAPTULO IV / CHAPTER IV

Gesto dos recursos hdricos


Management of water resources
O impacto das mudanas climticas nos Climate change is having a notable
recursos hdricos disponveis no mundo no- and growing impact on the water resources
trio e crescente. Considerado o bem mais available around the world. Considered the
essencial vida, a gua tornou-se a principal most essential commodity for life, water has
preocupao de governos, empresas e tam- become a central concern for governments,
bm do cidado comum. Embora sua quanti- companies, as well as ordinary citizens.
dade na natureza seja sempre a mesma, sua Although its quantity in nature always remains
qualidade vem se deteriorando gradualmente the same, water quality has been gradually
em funo do irreversvel processo de urba- deteriorating as a function of the irreversible
nizao. Portanto, urgente tomar medidas process of urbanization. As a result, taking
para garantir seu abastecimento. steps to ensure water supplies is critical.
Essa busca universal por proteger os re- This universal attempt to protect
cursos hdricos passa, necessariamente, pe- water resources necessarily involves trees
las florestas naturais e plantadas. Por isso, and forests, both natural and planted.
aes como plantios em sistemas de mosai- Consequently, activities such as planting
cos, monitoramento de bacias hidrogrficas in mosaic systems, watershed monitoring,
e aprimoramento de prticas de manejo so and improvement of management practices
cada vez mais presentes no setor de base flo- are increasingly present in the forest-based
restal brasileiro. sector.
No caso dos plantios em mosaico, por In the case of mosaic planting, for
exemplo, florestas naturais se intercalam example, natural forests are interspersed with
plantao para fins industriais, possibilitando trees planted for industrial purposes, which
regularidade na disponibilidade de recursos provides regularity in the availability of water
hdricos, conservao do solo e perenidade resources, soil conservation, and ongoing
das nascentes de rios. Esse sistema, to uti- preservation of springs where rivers originate.
lizado no Brasil, garante a regulao do ciclo This system, which is widely used in Brazil,
da gua. ensures the regulation of the water cycle.
J por meio das anlises e do monito- Analysis and monitoring of water basins
ramento de bacias hidrogrficas, possvel makes it possible for us to understand the
entender as condies hdricas das regies e hydric conditions of the regions and how
como as aes do homem afetam a paisagem. human activities affect the landscape. These
Esses indicadores ambientais permitem ade- environmental indicators allow management
quar as prticas de manejo de forma a garan- practices to be tailored, in order to ensure
tir a manuteno dos recursos hdricos e sua the maintenance of water resources and
disponibilidade tanto para a produo quanto their availability for both production and the
para as demandas da sociedade. demands of society.
A gesto correta do uso da gua tem Proper management of water use has
sido preocupao constante das empresas been a constant concern for forest-based
de base florestal. Alm do manejo florestal companies. In addition to sustainable forest
sustentvel, os investimentos contnuos em management, continuous investments in
tecnologia, silvicultura e manejo permitiram technology, forestry, and management allow

31
CAPTULO IV / CHAPTER IV
GESTO DOS RECURSOS HDRICOS / MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES

triplicar a produtividade florestal e realizar in- a three-fold increase in forest productivity


meras rotaes por um perodo de mais de 50 and permit numerous rotations over a
anos na mesma rea. O que demonstra que period of more than 50 years in a single
quando bem manejadas, as florestas planta- area. This demonstrates that when planted
das no so responsveis pela degradao trees are managed well, they do not lead to
dos recursos. degradation of resources.
Outro exemplo do cuidado com a dis- Another example of care taken with
ponibilidade de gua na floresta a colhei- water availability in the forest is mechanized
ta mecanizada, que deixa um grande volume harvesting, which leaves a large volume of
de resduos como cascas e folhas no campo, byproducts such as bark and leaves in the
formando uma camada que retm a umidade field, forming a layer that retains moisture
e os sedimentos, mesmo com o impacto da and sediment even against the impact of rain,
chuva, garantindo a qualidade das guas su- ensuring the quality of surface water and soil
perficiais e a conservao do solo. conservation.
Constata-se tambm que as tecnologias The water reuse technologies employed
de reso de gua empregadas na indstria de in forest-based industry also permit other
base florestal permitem que este importante uses for this important natural resource. In the
recurso natural tenha outras utilidades. Se 1970s, industries needed to capture of 180
na dcada de 1970, as indstrias precisavam to 200 m3 of water to produce a ton of pulp;
captar de 180 a 200 m3 para produzir uma to- in 2015, to produce the same amount, pulp
nelada de celulose; em 2015, para produzir producers captured only 22 to 40 m3. At the
a mesma quantidade, as indstrias captavam end of the process, out of the original volume
de 22 a 40 m3. Por fim, do volume de gua of water, 80% returns to its point of origin,
captado, 80% retornam ao seu ponto de ori- 19.7% returns to the atmosphere through
gem, 19,7% retornam atmosfera por evapo- evaporation, and only 0.3% of the captured
rao e apenas uma parcela mnima, de 0,3%, water remains in the product.
fica no produto. Awareness, management, and
Conscincia, gesto e inovao so fun- innovation are fundamental to guarantee
damentais para assegurar gua para todos. water for everyone.

32
BANCO DE IMAGENS CELULOSE IRANI

CAPTULO V / CHAPTER V

Mudanas climticas
Climate change
CAPTULO V / CHAPTER V
MUDANAS CLIMTICAS / CLIMATE CHANGE

Em essncia, a Indstria Brasileira de In essence, the Brazilian Tree Industry


rvores (Ib) representa um setor de base (Ib) represents a 100% renewable industry with
100% renovvel, cujo potencial de mitigao the potential to mitigate the effects of climate
dos efeitos das mudanas climticas direta- change which is directly proportional to the
mente proporcional capacidade de criao capacity to create and exploit carbon market
e aproveitamento de mecanismos de mercado mechanisms and integrated and coordinated
de carbono; e as polticas pblicas integradas public policies.
e coordenadas. For example, it is estimated that the
Estima-se, por exemplo, que os 7,8 mi- 7.8 million hectares of planted trees in Brazil
lhes de hectares de rea de plantio florestais are responsible for storing approximately
no Brasil so responsveis pelo estoque de 1.7 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent
aproximadamente 1,7 bilho de toneladas de di- (CO2eq) the metric used to compare
xido de carbono equivalente (CO2eq) medi- emissions of various greenhouse gases,
da mtrica utilizada para comparar as emisses based on the global warming potential of
dos vrios gases de efeito estufa, baseada no each (FIGURE 2). In addition to the carbon
potencial de aquecimento global de cada um removed and stored by planted trees, the
(FIGURA 2). Alm das remoes e estoques de industry generates and maintains carbon
carbono das rvores plantadas, o setor gera reserves on the order of 2.48 billion tons of
e mantm reservas de carbono da ordem de CO 2eq and 5.6 million hectares in the form
2,48 bilhes de toneladas de CO2eq e em 5,6 of legal reserves (LR), permanent protection
milhes de hectares na forma de Reserva Le- areas (APP), and private natural heritage
gal (RL), reas de Proteo Permanente (APP) reserves (RPPN).
e Reservas Particulares do Patrimnio Natural The productive structure of the
(RPPN). planted tree industry is divided into two
A estrutura produtiva da indstria main components: (i) the forest component,

FIGURA 2 / FIGURE 2

Estoque de carbono / Carbon stocks


Bilho (t) de CO2eq / Billion (t) of CO2eq
ARQUIVO CENIBRA
1,70
1,69

2014 2015

FONTE: PLANTAR CARBON E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: PLANTAR CARBON AND PYRY (2015)

34
de rvores plantadas divide-se em duas which represents the areas of planted trees
componentes principais: (i) florestal, que and preservation of native forests, and
representa as reas de florestas plantadas e (ii) the manufacturing component, which
de preservao de mata nativa e (ii) fabril, que corresponds to the structures for processing
corresponde as estruturas de beneficiamento da wood (production of pulp and paper,
madeira (produo de celulose e papel; carvo charcoal to produce pig iron, iron alloys
vegetal para a produo de ferro-gusa, ferro ligas and steel, boards and plywood panels,
e ao; chapas e painis compensados; madeira treated wood for construction, and bioenergy,
tratada para construo civil; e bioenergia, entre among others).
outros). The forestry component is based
A componente florestal baseada na on formation of carbon stocks through
formao de estoques de carbono por meio reforestation with planted trees (with renewable
do reflorestamento com florestas de produo cycles of planting and harvesting) and the
(ciclos de plantio e colheita renovveis) e da sustainable management of conservation areas
gesto sustentvel de reas de conservao containing native forests. The scale of carbon
de florestas nativas. A escala das remoes removal generated by increases in forest
geradas por incrementos de estoques flores- stocks and their ability to maintain carbon for
tais e a capacidade de manuteno por pra- long periods gives forests enormous potential
zos longos fazem com que a floresta tenha um to help combat climate change, especially over
potencial enorme de contribuio no comba- the coming decades. Since the country intends
te s mudanas do clima, sobretudo ao longo to reduce the overall intensity of its emissions
das prximas dcadas. Como, neste perodo, during this same period, planted trees may play
o Pas busca reduzir a intensidade geral de a very significant role for Brazil.
suas emisses, o setor de rvores plantadas Meanwhile, in the manufacturing
pode ter um papel de substancial relevncia component, many segments of forest-based
para o Brasil. industry are approaching self-sufficiency in
J na componente fabril, diversos seg- renewable energy, with minimum levels of
mentos da base florestal se aproximam da au- greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). This was
tossuficincia energtica renovvel, com nveis the result of adopting a range of measures
mnimos de emisso de gases de efeito estufa such as replacing fossil energy sources with
(GEE). Isso se deu graas adoo de vrias renewable ones, using black liquor, natural
medidas, como, por exemplo, a substituio de gas, and biomass.
fontes energticas fsseis por renovveis como We can classify the climatic benefits
licor preto, gs natural e biomassa. that describe the industrys potential into two
Existem, portanto, dois tipos de benefcios groups: (i) removal of greenhouse gas (GHG)
climticos que caracterizam o potencial do se- emissions and carbon stocks in plantation
tor: (i) remoes de gases do efeito estufa (GEE) and conservation areas, and (ii) emissions
e estoques de carbono nas reas de plantio e avoided through the use of well-managed
de conservao e (ii) as emisses evitadas por forest products instead of products with origins
meio do uso de produtos florestais bem mane- based in fossil fuels or non-renewable sources
jados ao invs de produtos de base fssil ou at different stages of the production chain.

35
CAPTULO V / CHAPTER V
MUDANAS CLIMTICAS / CLIMATE CHANGE

no renovvel em diferentes etapas da cadeia Any initiatives in the context of domestic public
produtiva. Quaisquer iniciativas, no mbito de policy or international regulations should
polticas pblicas domsticas ou de regulamen- consider these two dynamics.
taes internacionais, devem considerar essas Another highlight is the importance of
duas dinmicas. integrating public policies related to the sector
Destaca-se, ainda, a importncia de se in- into the National Policy on Climate Change
tegrar as polticas pblicas relacionadas ao se- (PNMC) and full utilization of the means to
tor com a Poltica Nacional de Mudana do Clima implement measures that have been created
(PNMC) e o aproveitamento pleno dos meios de at the international level, particularly within the
implementao gerados em nvel internacional, framework of the United Nations Framework
em especial no mbito da Conveno-Quadro Convention on Climate Change and the
das Naes Unidas sobre Mudana do Clima Paris Agreement that resulted from COP21.
e do Acordo de Paris, resultante da COP21. Na Within the framework of the Agreement,
estrutura do Acordo, merecem ateno especial special attention should be given to the use
o aproveitamento do novo mecanismo de mer- of a new market mechanism that is to be
cado a ser regulamentado com base na expe- regulated on the basis of experience with the
rincia do mecanismo j existente (Mecanismo existing mechanism (the Clean Development
de Desenvolvimento Limpo), e as iniciativas de Mechanism), and initiatives to increase forest
incremento de estoques florestais no sistema stocks within the REDD+ system (a system that
de REDD+ (sistema que gera pagamentos por generates payments for results linked to the
resultados vinculados ao combate ao desmata- fight against deforestation, degradation, and
mento, degradao e ao incremento e estoques growth in forests and carbon stocks).
de carbono florestal). Considering the opportunities for
Considerando as oportunidades de ex- expansion of planted trees and native forests
panso das florestas plantadas e nativas e do and the use of forest products in a variety of
uso de produtos florestais em diversas cadeias productive chains, it is clear that the Brazilian
produtivas, evidente que a indstria brasileira planted tree industry has great potential to
de rvores plantadas possui grande potencial contribute to combating climate change. But
de contribuio no combate mudana do cli- the development and the help provided by
ma. Porm, tanto o seu desenvolvimento quan- the sector depend on effective demand, real
to a sua ajuda dependem da demanda efetiva, appreciation of renewable forest products, and
da valorizao de fato de produtos florestais overcoming various hurdles. The construction of
renovveis e da superao de diversas barrei- public policies and carbon market mechanisms
ras. A construo de polticas pblicas e de me- that can internalize and economically promote
canismos de mercado de carbono capazes de climate benefits are, therefore, fundamental to
internalizar e de valorizar economicamente os the proper positioning of this sector in the new
benefcios climticos so, portanto, fundamen- global low-carbon economy.
tais para a insero adequada do setor em uma
nova economia global de baixo carbono.

36
RICARDO TELES / FIBRIA

CAPTULO VI / CHAPTER VI

Desempenho das rvores plantadas


Performance of planted trees
CAPTULO VI / CHAPTER VI
DESEMPENHO DAS RVORES PLANTADAS / PERFORMANCE OF PLANTED TREES

REA PLANTADA PLANTED AREA


A rea total de rvores plantadas no Brasil The area of planted trees for industrial
totalizou 7,8 milhes de hectares em 2015, cres- purposes in Brazil totaled 7.8 million hectares in
cimento de 0,8% em relao ao ano de 2014. 2015, an increase of 0.8% over 2014.
Os plantios de eucalipto ocupam 5,6 mi- Eucalyptus plantations covered 5.6 million
lhes de hectares da rea de rvores plantadas hectares of the area of planted trees in the
do Pas e esto localizados, principalmente, em country, and are mainly located in the states of
Minas Gerais (24%), em So Paulo (17%) e no Mato Minas Gerais (24%), So Paulo (17%), and Mato
Grosso do Sul (15%). Nos ltimos cinco anos, o Grosso do Sul (15%). Over the last five years, the
crescimento da rea de eucalipto foi de 2,8% a.a. growth of area planted with eucalyptus was 2.8%
O Mato Grosso do Sul se destaca com o plantio p.a. Mato Grosso do Sul stands out with 450,000
de 450 mil hectares nos ltimos cinco anos. hectares planted over the last five years.
Os plantios de pinus ocupam 1,6 milho de Pine plantations occupy 1.6 million
hectares e concentram-se no Paran (42%) e em hectares and are concentrated in Paran (42%)
Santa Catarina (34%). Nos ltimos cinco anos, a and in Santa Catarina (34%). In the last five
rea plantada com esse gnero vem caindo a years, the area planted with this genus has been
uma taxa de 2,1% a.a., devido, principalmente, decreasing at a rate of 2.1% per year, mainly due
substituio por eucalipto (FIGURAS 3 a 6). to substitution with eucalyptus (FIGURES 3 to 6).

FIGURA 3 / FIGURE 3 FIGURA 4 / FIGURE 4

rea de rvores plantadas reas de rvores plantadas no Brasil por estado


Area of planted trees e gnero, 2015 / Area of planted trees in
Milhes (ha) / Millions (ha) Brazil by state and by species, 2015

= + 0,8%
AP
0,59 0,59

1,59 1,58 MA

PA

PI

TO
7,80
7,74

BA
MT

GO
5,56 5,63
ES
MG
MS

SP
Representao da PR

dimenso da rea plantada SC


Representation of the RS
dimension of planted area
2014 2015

Eucalipto / Eucalyptus Pinus / Pine Outros / Others Eucalipto / Eucalyptus Pinus / Pine Outros / Others

FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015) FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)

38
NOTA: No Paran, o aumento observado da rea plantada com eucalipto Note: in the state of Paran, the increase seen in the area planted with
em 2015 reflete, principalmente, a incluso de reas pertencentes a peque- eucalyptus in 2015 mainly reflects the inclusion of areas belonging to small
nos produtores independentes no consideradas anteriormente. O valor independent producers, which were not considered previously. The value
publicado em 2015 foi validado atravs da anlise de imagens de satlite. published in 2015 has been validated through analysis of satellite images.

FIGURA 5 / FIGURE 5

Distribuio e evoluo da rea com plantios de eucalipto, por estado*


Distribution and evolution of area planted with eucalyptus, by state*
Distribuio em 2015 / Distribution in 2015 Evoluo da rea, 2010-2015
Change in area, 2010-2015
22% 24% Milho (ha) / Million (ha)
1,6
1,4
1,2
5% 1,0
0,8
6% 0,6
17%
0,4

11% 0,2
15% 0,0
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
MG SP MS BA RS PR Outros / Others
(*) As reas detalhadas por estado so apresentadas nos anexos. / (*) The area broken down by state is presented in the appendices.

FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)

FIGURA 6 / FIGURE 6

Distribuio e evoluo da rea com plantios de pinus, por estados*


Distribution and evolution of area planted with pine, by state*
Distribuio em 2015 / Distribution in 2015 Evoluo da rea, 2010-2015
Change in area, 2010-2015
42%
4% Milho (ha) / Million (ha)
0,8
8% 0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
12%
0,3
0,2
0,1
34% 0,0
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
PR SC RS SP Outros / Others
(*) As reas detalhadas por estado so apresentadas nos anexos. / (*) The area broken down by state is presented in the appendices.

FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)

39
CAPTULO VI / CHAPTER VI
DESEMPENHO DAS RVORES PLANTADAS / PERFORMANCE OF PLANTED TREES

REA PLANTADA POR SEGMENTO PLANTED AREA BY INDUSTRIAL


INDUSTRIAL SEGMENT
Da rea total de 7,8 milhes de hectares Of the total of 7.8 million hectares of
de rvores plantadas no Brasil em 2015, 34% planted trees in Brazil in 2015, 34% belong to
pertence s empresas do segmento de ce- companies in the pulp and paper industry.
lulose e papel. Em segundo lugar, com 29%, In second place with 29% are independent
encontram-se proprietrios independentes e fo- forest producers and outgrowers (small and
mentados (pequenos e mdios produtores), que medium-sized producers) who invest in
investem em plantios florestais para comerciali- planted trees and sell roundwood. Next is
zao da madeira in natura. Na sequncia, apa- the charcoal-fired steelworks industry, which
rece o segmento de siderurgia a carvo vegetal, represents 14% of the planted area.
que representa 14% da rea plantada. Financial investors, generally
Os investidores financeiros, em geral por through timber investment management
meio de TIMOs do ingls Timber Investment Ma- organizations (TIMOs), hold 10% of the
nagement Organizations detm 10% dos plantios planted trees in Brazil. Attracted by the
de rvores no Brasil. Atrados pelo grande potencial great potential of the countrys forests, these
florestal do Pas, esses investidores iniciaram sua investors began operations here just over
operao aqui h pouco mais de dez anos, aplican- ten years ago, participating in specialized
do em fundos especializados em ativos florestais. forest asset funds.
Os segmentos de painis de madeira e pi- The wood panel and laminate flooring
sos laminados (6%), de produtos slidos de ma- segments (6%), solid wood products (4%), and
deira (4%) e outros (3%) completam a distribui- other (3%) segments complete the distribution
o das reas de rvores plantadas (FIGURA 7). of the area of planted trees (FIGURE 7).

FIGURA 7 / FIGURE 7

Composio da rea de rvores plantadas por segmento no Brasil, 2015


Composition of the area of planted trees in Brazil by segment, 2015
34%
Celulose e papel
Pulp and paper
3%
Produtores independentes
Independent producers
4%
Siderurgia a carvo vegetal
Charcoal-fired steelworks

6% Investidores financeiros
Financial investors
Painis de madeira e pisos laminados
Wood panels and laminate flooring
10% 29% Produtos slidos de madeira
Solid wood products
Outros
Others
14%

FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)

40
PRODUTIVIDADE E ROTAO FLORESTAIS PRODUCTIVITY AND FOREST ROTATION
A indstria brasileira de base florestal mun- Brazilian forest-based industry is known
dialmente reconhecida pela alta produtividade das worldwide for the high productivity of trees
rvores plantadas no Pas. O setor brasileiro apre- planted in the country; it has the highest
senta a maior produtividade (volume de madeira productivity (volume of wood produced per unit
produzido por rea ao ano) e a menor rotao (pe- area per year) and the shortest rotation (period
rodo entre o plantio e a colheita das rvores) do between planting and harvesting of trees) in
mundo. Esses altos ndices so resultado dos inves- the world. These high rates are the result of
timentos contnuos das empresas do setor no Brasil continuous investments by companies in the
para aprimorar o manejo florestal. Brazilian industry to improve forest management.
Em 2015, o Brasil manteve sua liderana no In 2015, Brazil continued as the leader in
ranking global de produtividade florestal. A produ- the global rankings of forest productivity. The
tividade mdia dos plantios de eucalipto no Brasil, average productivity of eucalyptus plantations in
reportada pelas empresas de base florestal, foi Brazil, as reported by forest-based companies,
de 36 m/ha.ano, enquanto a dos plantios de pi- was 36 m/ha.year, while for pine plantations this
nus, foi de 31 m/ha.ano. Nos ltimos cinco anos, number was 31 m/ha.year. Over the last 5 years,
a produtividade do eucalipto aumentou em uma the productivity of eucalyptus has increased at
taxa de 0,7% a.a., enquanto a do pinus apresen- a rate of 0.7% per year, while pine presented a
tou um decrscimo de 1,1% a.a, em decorrncia da decrease of 1.1% per year as a result of conversion
converso em reas de eucalipto, especialmente into areas planted with eucalyptus, especially in
no estado do Paran (FIGURAS 8 e 9). the state of Paran (FIGURES 8 and 9).

REA CERTIFICADA CERTIFIED AREA


Uma das ferramentas adotadas pelas em- One of the tools adopted by companies
presas do setor para demonstrar a sustentabili- in the industry to demonstrate the sustainability
dade da cadeia produtiva de rvores plantadas of the planted tree productive chain and
e o comprometimento com as questes socio- commitment to environmental and social issues
ambientais a certificao florestal. is forest certification.
A certificao atesta que o manejo flores- Certification affirms that forest management
tal conduzido de forma responsvel, ou seja, is conducted in a responsible manner, which
seguindo os princpios e critrios de responsa- means that it follows the principles and criteria of
bilidade social e ambiental estabelecidos pelas social and environmental responsibility established
normas do sistema de certificao. by the standards of the certification system.
Ao certificar processos e produtos, uma By certifying processes and products,
empresa aumenta sua credibilidade e se diferen- a company increases its credibility and
cia das demais pelo fato de apresentar garantias differentiates itself from others by the fact that
quanto adoo do manejo florestal adequado. it presents guarantees about its adoption of
Alm disso, passa a dispor de um instrumento proper forest management. In addition, certified
importante para conquistar novos mercados e companies gain an important tool to conquer new
aprimorar a gesto corporativa, decorrente do ri- markets and improve corporate management,
goroso processo de avaliao e auditoria. due to the rigorous evaluation and audit process.

41
CAPTULO VI / CHAPTER VI
DESEMPENHO DAS RVORES PLANTADAS / PERFORMANCE OF PLANTED TREES

FIGURA 8 / FIGURE 8

Produtividade e rotao mdia de rvores no Brasil versus outros importantes players mundiais
Productivity and average rotation of planted trees in Brazil versus other significant players worldwide
45 90
40 80
Produtividade (m3/ha.ano)
Productivity (m3/ha.year)

35 70

Rotation (years)
Rotao (anos)
30 60
25 50
20 40
15 30
10 20
5 10
0 0
Brasil
Brazil

China
China

Amrica do Sul*
South America*

Sudeste da sia
Southeast Asia

Moambique
Mozambique

Oceania
Oceania

EUA
USA

Europa Centro-Leste
Central and Eastern Europe

Europa do Oeste
Western Europe

Rssia
Russia

Escandinvia
Scandinavia

Pases Blticos
Baltic Countries

Canad
Canada
Rotao em anos Eucalipto Rotao em anos Pinus
Eucalipto / Eucalyptus Pinus / Pine
Rotation in years Eucalyptus Rotation in years Pine
(*) Exceto o Brasil. / (*) Except Brazil.

FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)


ZIG KOCH / KLABIN

FIGURA 9 / FIGURE 9

Evoluo da produtividade do eucalipto


e pinus no Brasil, 2010-2015 / Evolution in
eucalyptus and pine productivity in Brazil,
2010-2015
m3/ha.ano / m3/ha.year

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

0
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Eucalipto / Eucalyptus Pinus / Pine

FONTE: IB (2015) / SOURCE: IB (2015)

42
No Brasil, 5,5 milhes de hectares com plan- In Brazil, 5.5 million hectares of planted
tios de rvores so certificados na modalidade ma- trees are certified for forest management.
nejo florestal. Essas certificaes so atribudas por These certifications are granted by independent
organizaes independentes, como o FSC Forest organizations such as FSC (the Forest Stewardship
Stewardship Council, e o PEFC Programme for Council) and PEFC (Programme for the
the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes, Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes),
representado no Brasil pelo CERFLOR Programa which in Brazil is represented by CERFLOR, the
Nacional de Certificao Florestal. National Forest Certification Program.
Os 5,5 milhes de hectares certificados in- The 5.5 million certified hectares include,
cluem, alm da rea produtiva, reas de conser- in addition to the productive area, conservation
vao e destinadas a outros usos existentes nos areas and area intended for other uses in the
empreendimentos certificados. Se considerada certified companies. If we consider only the area
apenas a rea de rvores plantadas, o total certifi- of planted trees, the total certified area is 3.2
cado 3,2 milhes de hectares (FIGURA 10). million hectares (FIGURE 10).
O padro SLIMF Small and Low Intensity The SLIMF standard (Small and Low
Managed Forests, por meio de processos simplifi- Intensity Managed Forests) aims to facilitate
cados e custos mais baixos, tem como objetivo faci- access to FSC certification through simplified
litar o acesso certificao FSC. So beneficiados processes and lower costs. This benefits small
pequenos produtores, comunidades e empresas producers, communities, and companies that
que manejam ou exploram reas pequenas ou de manage or utilize small areas or do so at a low
baixa intensidade. Isso aumenta a oferta de madei- intensity. In turn, this increases the supply of
ra certificada oriunda de um processo produtivo certified timber derived from a production process
com valor social e ambiental agregado. with added social and environmental value.
No Brasil, 45 mil hectares de plantios de rvores In Brazil, 45,000 hectares of planted
so certificados pelo padro SLIMF, sendo que, desse trees are certified through the SLIMF standard,
total, aproximadamente 25 mil hectares referem-se and of this total, about 25,000 hectares refer to
reas efetivamente plantadas, enquanto os demais effectively planted areas, while the rest act as
comportam reas de conservao e outros usos. conservation areas and other uses.

FIGURA 10 / FIGURE 10

rea manejada e plantada certificada por sistema de certificao, 2015


Certified managed and planted area by certification system, 2015
Certificao rea manejada* Milhes (ha) rea plantada Milhes (ha)
Certification Managed area* Millions (ha) Planted area Millions (ha)
Apenas FSC / FSC alone 2,7 1,6
Apenas CERFLOR / CERFLOR alone 0,5 0,3
FSC + CERFLOR / FSC and CERFLOR 2,3 1,3
Total / Total 5,5 3,2

(*) Inclui rea produtiva, rea de conservao e outras reas. / (*) Includes productive area, conservation area, and other areas.

FONTE: CERFLOR, FSC E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: CERFLOR, FSC AND PYRY (2015)

43
ARQUIVO GUARARAPES

CAPTULO VII / CHAPTER VII

Desempenho industrial
Industrial performance
O ano de 2015 foi desafiador para a econo- The year 2015 was challenging for the
mia brasileira. Destaca-se a acelerao do dlar a Brazilian economy. Most notably, the dollar
R$ 4 nos primeiros meses e, ao final do ano, a taxa accelerated to R$ 4 in the first few months, and by
de inflao acima de 10%. O avano do processo the end of the year the inflation rate was above
inflacionrio fez com que a taxa de juros chegasse 10%. The advance in inflation caused the interest
a 14,3% a.a., seu nvel mais alto desde 2006, o que rate to reach 14.3%, its highest level since 2006,
desestimulou os investimentos produtivos. O Pas which discouraged productive investments. Brazil
perdeu o selo de bom pagador em duas agncias lost its good-payer status with two risk ratings
de risco, viu o desemprego alcanar 9,0% no lti- agencies, saw unemployment reach 9.0% in the
mo trimestre de 2015, ante os 6,5% do ano ante- last quarter of 2015 over 6.5% the previous year,
rior, e vivenciou o recuo da renda do trabalho. and experienced a decline in work-derived income.
Em funo desses fatores, o PIB de 2015 As a result of these factors, the gross domestic
acumulou uma queda de 3,8%, a maior reduo product (GDP) in 2015 accumulated a decrease
desde 1990 (FIGURA 11). of 3.8%, the greatest loss since 1990 (FIGURE 11).
Praticamente todos os setores da economia Virtually all sectors of the economy
apresentaram retraes, com destaque para o re- presented retractions, most notably the 6.2%
cuo de 6,2% da indstria e de 2,7% dos servios. O decrease in industry and 2.7% in the service
nico setor que registrou crescimento no perodo sector. The only area that registered growth in
foi o agropecurio, com crescimento de 1,8%. the period was agriculture and livestock raising,
A desvalorizao cambial e a retrao da with an increase of 1.8%.
economia brasileira contriburam para que o The currency devaluation and retraction
Pas registrasse em 2015 um saldo positivo de of the Brazilian economy helped the country
US$ 19,7 bilhes nas suas operaes de comr- achieve a foreign trade surplus of US$ 19.7
cio exterior, maior saldo desde 2011 e bastante billion, the highest result since 2011 and a very
expressivo se comparado a 2014, quando houve notable number compared to 2014, when there
dficit de US$ 4,0 bilhes. was a deficit of US$ 4.0 billion.

FIGURA 11 / FIGURE 11

Evoluo anual do PIB brasileiro / Yearly variation in brazilian GDP


7,5%
8
5,8% 6,1%
6 5,0%
4,2% 4,4% 5,1%
3,9%
4 3,4% 3,1% 3,0%
2,5% 4,0%
2 1,0% 3,2%
2,2% 1,9% 0,1%
1,4% 1,1%
0 0,5%
0,3%
-0,5% -0,1%
-2
-4
-4,3% -3,8%
-6
1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

FONTE: IBGE (2015) / SOURCE: IBGE (2015)

45
CAPTULO VII / CHAPTER VII
DESEMPENHO INDUSTRIAL / INDUSTRIAL PERFORMANCE

O saldo positivo, entretanto, foi alcanado This positive balance, however, was
em funo da variao cambial, que ocasionou achieved due to the devaluation in the currency
uma queda das importaes muito superior that generated a drop in imports which greatly
das exportaes no perodo. Como resultado, o exceeded that of exports in the period. As a
valor total movimentado pelo Pas no comrcio result, the total value of Brazils foreign trade fell
exterior recuou aos nveis de 2010. to levels last seen in 2010.
Apesar desse cenrio, deve-se destacar Despite this scenario, it should be noted
que em 2015, mais uma vez, o setor brasileiro that in 2015, once again, the Brazilian planted
de rvores plantadas mostrou grande resilincia tree industry showed great resilience in the face
frente s adversidades da economia nacional, of the adversities in the domestic economy, and
contribuindo, assim, para atenuar o impacto do thereby helped to mitigate the impact of the
fraco resultado da economia brasileira. countrys weak economic performance.

CELULOSE E PAPEL PULP AND PAPER


Celulose Pulp
Em 2015, a produo brasileira de celulose, In 2015, Brazilian pulp production,
considerando-se processo qumico fibra curta which included short-fiber pulp (from
(eucalipto) e longa (pinus) e pasta de alto rendi- eucalyptus), long-fiber pulp (from pine), and
mento, foi de 17,4 milhes de toneladas, montan- high-yield pulp, was 17.4 million tons, 5.5%
te 5,5% superior ao de 2014. O volume exportado greater than the value for 2014. Export
atingiu 11,5 milhes de toneladas, representando volume reached 11.5 million tons, an increase
um incremento de 8,6% em relao a 2014. Con- of 8.6% compared to 2014. Considering
siderando uma importao de 400 mil toneladas, importation of 400,000 tons, the volume
o volume consumido no mercado interno atingiu consumed in the domestic market reached
6,3 milhes de toneladas, ficando praticamente 6.3 million tons, remaining practically stable
estvel em relao ao ano anterior. Com esses compared to the previous year. With these
resultados, o Brasil consolidou sua posio no results, Brazil consolidated its position in the
mercado mundial da commodity, ocupando o global commodity market, occupying fourth
4 lugar no ranking de maiores produtores. place among the worlds largest producers.

Papel Paper
A produo brasileira de papel, em 2015, Brazilian paper production in 2015
totalizou 10,4 milhes de toneladas; 0,4% menor totaled 10.4 million tons, 0.4% lower than in the
do que no ano anterior. A principal razo des- previous year. The main reason for this weak
se fraco desempenho foi a retrao das vendas performance was the retraction of domestic
domsticas, que ficaram 4,7% abaixo do volume sales, which were 4.7% below the volume
registrado em 2014. registered in 2014.
Enquanto as produes de papis de em- While production of packaging and
balagem e de papis especiais aumentaram, res- specialty papers increased by 1.8% and
pectivamente, 1,8% e 2,5%, os volumes de produ- 2.5%, respectively, production volumes of
o de tissue, papelcarto, papel imprensa e de tissue paper, paper board, newsprint, and

46
imprimir e escrever apresentaram retraes de printing and writing paper fell by 0.7%, 1.6%,
0,7%, 1,6%, 6,7% e 4,7%. 6.7%, and 4.7%.
O desempenho positivo das produes The positive performance of
de papis de embalagem e de papis especiais packaging and specialty papers is largely
consequncia, em grande parte, das expor- due to exports. These papers, particularly
taes. Esses papis, e principalmente as em- virgin-fiber packaging paper, are competitive
balagens de fibras virgens, so competitivos no in foreign markets. The lower production of
mercado externo. A retrao nas produes de tissue and paper board is explained by
tissue e papelcarto explicada pela queda no the fall in domestic consumption, influenced
consumo domstico, influenciada pela desace- by the slowdown in the national economy.
lerao da economia nacional. Brazil held 9th place in the ranking
O Brasil ocupou o 9 lugar no ranking dos of the largest producers a position
maiores produtores posio muito semelhan- very similar to that of the largest paper
te ao dos maiores consumidores de papel , de- consumers , because of the need for paper
vido necessidade das indstrias papeleiras de manufacturers to focus on their consumer
se concentrarem prximas aos seus mercados markets (FIGURES 12 to 14).
consumidores (FIGURAS 12 a 14).

FIGURA 12 / FIGURE 12

Principais indicadores do segmento de celulose / Main indicators in the pulp sector


Produo brasileira de celulose Principais produtores mundiais Destino da celulose brasileira
Brazilian pulp production Main producers worldwide Destinations for brazilian pulp
Milhes (t) / Millions (t)
Produo
= + 5,5% Pas Milhes (t)
Country Production 34%
0,5
0,5 Millions (t)
1,9
1,8 1 EUA / USA 48,0
2 China / China 17,9
3 Canad / Canada 17,7
4 Brasil / Brazil 17,4
17,4
16,5

5 Sucia / Sweden 11,5


14,2 15,0
6 Finlndia / Finland 10,5
7 Japo / Japan 9,1
8 Rssia / Russia 7,9
9 Indonsia / Indonesia 6,8 66%
10 Chile / Chile 5,2
2014 2015

Fibra curta / Short-fiber Pasta de alto rendimento Exportao / Exports


High-yield pulp
Fibra longa / Long-fiber Mercado domstico / Domestic market

FONTE: IB, SECEX, FAO E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB, SECEX, FAO AND PYRY (2015)

47
CAPTULO VII / CHAPTER VII
DESEMPENHO INDUSTRIAL / INDUSTRIAL PERFORMANCE

FIGURA 13 / FIGURE 13

Principais indicadores do segmento de papis / Main indicators in the paper sector

Produo brasileira de papis Principais produtores mundiais Destino dos papis produzidos
Brazilian paper production Main producers worldwide no Brasil / Destination of paper
Milhes (t) / Millions (t) produced in Brazil

= 0,4% Produo
Pas Milhes (t) 20%
Country Production
Millions (t)
1 China / China 108,8
2 EUA / USA 73,1
3 Japo / Japan 26,5
4 Alemanha / Germany 22,5
10,4

10,3

Coria do Sul
5 11,7
South Korea
6 Canad / Canada 11,1
7 Sucia / Sweden 10,4
80%
8 Finlndia / Finland 10,4
9 Brasil / Brazil 10,4 Exportao / Exports

2014 2015 10 Indonsia / Indonesia 10,2 Mercado domstico / Domestic market

Variao da produo brasileira (2014-2015) / Variation in brazilian production (2014-2015)

2,5%

-0,7% Papis especiais / Special papers

Tissue / Tissue
-1,6%
Papelcarto / Cardboard
1,8%
Embalagem / Packaging

-4,7% Papel imprimir e escrever


Printing and writing paper
-6,7% Papel imprensa / Newsprint

FONTE: IB, SECEX, FAO E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB, SECEX, FAO AND PYRY (2015)

A maior parte das empresas brasileiras The majority of Brazilian companies


produtoras de celulose e/ou papel esto loca- producing pulp and/or paper are located in regions
lizadas prximas ao mercado consumidor nas near the consuming market in the south and
regies Sul e Sudeste do Pas (FIGURA 14). southeast regions of the country (FIGURE 14).

48
ARQUIVO IB

FIGURA 14 / FIGURE 14

Distribuio geogrfica das empresas produtoras de celulose e papel


Geographic distribution of the companies producing pulp and paper

AM
PA MA RN
CE

PI PB
PE
TO AL
SE
BA

GO
MG
MS ES

SP
RJ

PR
Produo de celulose SC
Pulp production RS

Localizao das indstrias de papel Nvel da produo de celulose


Location of paper industries Pulp production level

FONTE: PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: PYRY (2015)

49
CAPTULO VII / CHAPTER VII
DESEMPENHO INDUSTRIAL / INDUSTRIAL PERFORMANCE

PAINIS DE MADEIRA E PISOS WOOD PANELS AND LAMINATE


LAMINADOS FLOORING
Em 2015, a produo de painis de ma- In 2015, production of reconstituted
deira reconstituda foi de 7,5 milhes de metros wood panels reached 7.5 million cubic
cbicos, uma reduo de 6,3% em relao a meters, a reduction of 6.3% in relation to
2014. As produes de MDF/HDF1, MDP2 e de 2014. Production of MDF/HDF1, MDP2, and
chapas de fibras (HB)3 diminuram 0,8%, 14,9% e HB fiberboard3 fell by 0.8%, 14.9%, and 0.4%,
0,4%, respectivamente. respectively.
A diminuio do consumo das famlias le- The decline in household consumption
vou reduo na compra de diversos produtos, led to a reduction in purchases of a variety
incluindo mveis, o principal segmento consu- of products, including the furniture sector,
midor de painis de madeira no Brasil e cuja which is the main consumer of wood paneling
retrao nas vendas em 2015 foi de 16,2% em in Brazil and saw a 16.2% reduction in sales
volume. Nesse contexto, as vendas de painis volume in 2015. In this context, sales of
de madeira reconstituda no mercado domsti- reconstituted wood panels in the domestic
co recuaram 11,3%. No entanto, as exportaes market shrank by 11.3%. Nevertheless, exports
atingiram 641 mil metros cbicos, alta de 52,3% of panels reached 641,000 cubic meters, a
em relao a 2014. gain of 52.3% compared to 2014.
A produo de pisos laminados totalizou Production of laminate flooring totaled
12,7 milhes de m2 em 2015, o que equivale a 12.7 million m2 in 2015, the equivalent of
uma reduo de 8,0% em relao produo a 8.0% reduction compared to production
de 2014. in 2014.
O segmento brasileiro de painis de ma- The Brazilian wooden panel and
deira e pisos laminados ocupou o 8 lugar no laminate flooring industry occupied eighth place
ranking mundial dos maiores produtores. in the ranking of the worlds largest producers.
Existem no Brasil 18 unidades produtoras In Brazil, there are 18 units producing
de painis de madeira reconstituda e/ou pisos reconstituted wood panels and/or laminate
laminados, sendo que a maior parte est loca- flooring; the majority of these are located in
lizada nas regies Sul e Sudeste. A FIGURA 18 the south and southeast regions. FIGURE 18
mostra a localizao das principais empresas shows the location of the main companies
produtoras de painis de madeira reconstituda producing reconstituted wood panels
(FIGURAS 15 a 17). (FIGURES 15 to 17).

(1) MDF: Medium Density Fiberboard constitudo por fibras de madeira com umidade menor que 20% na linha de formao, por processo seco, e densidade ao redor de 600 kg/m a
900 kg/m. Esse painel produzido, basicamente, sob a ao de calor e presso com adio de adesivo sinttico. HDF: High Density Fiberboard um painel produzido pela aglutinao
e compactao com resina sinttica sob a ao conjunta de presso e calor em prensa contnua, o que confere ao produto alta densidade e duas faces lisas. / (1) MDF: Medium Density
Fiberboard is composed of wood fibers with less than 20% humidity in the production line, using a dry process, and a density of around 600 kg/m to 900 kg/m. These panels are
essentially produced by the action of heat and pressure, with the addition of a synthetic adhesive. HDF: High density fiberboard is produced by agglomeration and compactation with
synthetic resin, using pressure and heat in a continuous press to achieve a high-density product with two flat faces.
(2) MDP: Medium Density Particleboard um painel produzido pela aglutinao e compactao de partculas de madeira posicionadas de forma diferenciada sob a ao conjunta de
presso e calor, com as maiores dispostas ao centro e as mais finas nas superfcies externas, formando trs camadas. / (2) MDP: Medium Density Particleboard is a panel produced by the
agglomeration and compactation of wood particles positioned in different ways under the joint action of heat and pressure. Larger particles are placed in the center and thinner ones on
the outside surfaces, creating three layers.
(3) Chapa de Fibra (HB): uma chapa de espessura fina, que resulta da prensagem a quente de fibras de madeira, costumeiramente por meio de um processo mido, que reativa os
aglutinantes naturais da prpria madeira (sem a adio de resinas) e confere ao produto alta densidade. / (3) HB fiberboard (hardboard): is a thin sheet that results from hot pressing of wood
fibers, usually using a wet process that reactivates the natural binders of the wood itself (without the addition of resins) to produce a high-density product.

50
FIGURA 15 / FIGURE 15

Principais indicadores do segmento de painis de madeira reconstituda


Main indicators in the reconstituted wood panel segment
Produo brasileira de painis Principais produtores mundiais Destino dos painis brasileiros
de madeira reconstituda Main producers worldwide Destination for brazilian panels
Brazilian production of
reconstituted wood panels Produo
Pas Milhes (m3)
Milhes (m3) / Millions (m3) Country Production 9%
= 6,3% Millions (m3)
1 China / China 83,6
0,4 2 EUA / USA 19,3
0,4
3 Alemanha / Germany 10,6
3,2 2,7 4 Canad / Canada 9,5
5 Turquia / Turkey 9,4
8,0

7,5

6 Rssia / Russia 8,9


7 Polnia / Poland 8,1
4,4 4,4 8 Brasil / Brazil 7,5
9 Frana / France 4,9
91%
10 Tailndia / Thailand 4,9
2014 2015
Exportao / Exports
MDF / MDF MDP / MDP HB / HB Mercado domstico / Domestic market

FONTE: IB, SECEX, FAO E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB, SECEX, FAO AND PYRY (2015)
GILBERTO MARQUES/DURATEX

FIGURA 16 / FIGURE 16

Produo brasileira de pisos laminados


Brazilian production of laminate flooring
Milhes (m2) / Millions (m2)

= 0,8%
13,8

12,7

2014 2015

FONTE: IB (2015) / SOURCE: IB (2015)

51
CAPTULO VII / CHAPTER VII
DESEMPENHO INDUSTRIAL / INDUSTRIAL PERFORMANCE

FIGURA 17 / FIGURE 17

Distribuio geogrfica das principais unidades produtoras de painis de madeira reconstituda


Geographical distribution of main units producing reconstituted wood panels

PA

MG

SP

PR

SC

MDF/HDF / MDF/HDF
RS
MDP / MDP
Nvel relativo da produo
HB / HB Relative level of production

FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)

PRODUTOS SLIDOS DE MADEIRA SOLID WOOD PRODUCTS


A desacelerao da construo civil nacio- The slowdown in domestic civil
nal levou a uma queda no consumo domstico construction led to a drop in domestic
de madeira serrada4, que passou de 8,0 milhes consumption of lumber4, which fell from
de metros cbicos em 2014 para 7,2 milhes em 8.0 million cubic meters in 2014 to 7.2 million
2015. Consequentemente, a produo brasileira cubic meters in 2015. Consequently, Brazilian
de serrados oriundos de rvores plantadas re- production of lumber from planted trees fell
cuou 4,3% em relao ao ano anterior, e atingiu to 8.8 million cubic meters, a 4.3% loss in
8,8 milhes de metros cbicos. relation to the previous year.
Entretanto, em decorrncia da desvaloriza- However, due to the devaluation of the
o do real frente ao dlar, houve um aumento Brazilian real against the dollar, there was an
das exportaes de madeira serrada. Em 2015, increase in lumber exports. In 2015, 1.6 million
houve crescimento de 28% em relao a 2014, to- cubic meters of lumber were exported, an
talizando 1,6 milho de metros cbicos exportado. increase of 28% compared to 2014.

(4) O segmento industrial de madeira serrada agrupa produtos obtidos por meio do processamento da madeira in natura, como tbuas, pranchas, caibros, sarrafos, vigas, ripas e vigotes.
Normalmente, esses produtos so utilizados na construo civil, no transporte de mercadorias e na produo de mveis e objetos de decorao. / (4) The lumber segment is comprised of
products obtained from the processing of roundwood, such as boards, planks, rafters, battens, beams, laths, and joists. Normally, these products are used in civil construction, in transporting
goods, and in producing furniture and decorative objects.

52
Em relao produo total de painis As for total production of plywood
compensados de rvores plantadas, em 2015 panels from planted trees, 2015 saw an
foi observado um aumento de 8,3% em relao increase of 8.3% over 2014. This production
a 2014. Essa produo atingiu 2,6 milhes de reached 2.6 million cubic meters, of which
metros cbicos, dos quais 1,5 milho foi desti- 1.5 million were destined for export.
nado para a exportao. J as vendas do pro- Meanwhile, sales of this product on the
duto no mercado domstico recuaram 9,4% em domestic market fell 9.4% in relation to 2014,
relao a 2014, totalizando 1,0 milho de metros totaling 1.0 million cubic meters in 2015
cbicos em 2015 (FIGURAS 18 e 19). (FIGURES 18 and 19).

CARVO VEGETAL CHARCOAL


Considerado um dos insumos mais impor- Considered one of the most important
tantes da indstria siderrgica nacional, o car- inputs for the domestic steel industry,
vo vegetal registrou consumo de 4,6 milhes consumption of charcoal in Brazil stood at
de toneladas no Brasil em 2015, com queda de 4.6 million tons in 2015, a 13.2% drop in
13,2% em relao ao ano anterior. comparison with the previous year.
Do total de carvo consumido em 2015, Of all the charcoal consumed in
82% foram produzidos a partir de madeira oriun- 2015, 82% was produced using wood from
da de rvores plantadas, totalizando 3,8 milhes planted trees, a total of 3.8 million tons, a
de toneladas, volume 12,4% inferior a 2014. volume 12.4% lower than 2014. Of this total,

FIGURA 18 / FIGURE 18

Produo de madeira serrada / Production of lumber

Produo brasileira de madeira serrada Destino da madeira serrada


Brazilian production of lumber Destination of lumber
Milhes (m3) / Millions (m3)
18%
= 4,3%
9,2

8,8

82%

Exportao / Exports

2014 2015 Mercado domstico / Domestic market

FONTE: IB, SECEX E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB, SECEX AND PYRY (2015)

53
CAPTULO VII / CHAPTER VII
DESEMPENHO INDUSTRIAL / INDUSTRIAL PERFORMANCE

FIGURA 19 / FIGURE 19

Produo de painis compensados / Production of plywood panels

Produo brasileira de compensado Destino do compensado


Brazilian plywood production Plywood destination
Milhes (m3) / Millions (m3)

= + 8,3%

41%

59%
2,6
2,4

Exportao / Exports

2014 2015 Mercado domstico / Domestic market

FONTE: IB, SECEX E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB, SECEX AND PYRY (2015)

Desse total, 1,6 milho de toneladas foram con- 1.6 million tons were consumed by Ib
sumidos pelas associadas Ib (FIGURA 20). member companies (FIGURE 20).
Essa retrao no consumo deve-se for- This reduction in consumption is
te reduo da atividade industrial brasileira, em due to the significant reduction in Brazilian
especial do setor automotivo, e a baixa compe- industrial activity, particularly in the
titividade dos produtos siderrgicos brasileiros automotive sector, and low competitiveness
no mercado internacional, devido a expanso of Brazilian steel products in the international
de exportao de ao pela China. market because of increased steel exports
No Brasil, existem mais de 120 inds- from China.
trias que utilizam carvo vegetal no processo In Brazil, more than 120 industries
de produo de ferro-gusa, de ferro-ligas e use charcoal in the process of producing
de ao. Em 2015, estima-se que essas inds- pig iron, steel, and iron alloys. In 2015, it is
trias operaram a uma taxa mdia de utilizao estimated that these industries operated at
de 50%; alm disso, vrios dos produtores de an average use rate of 50%; furthermore,
ferro-gusa e de ferro-liga a base de carvo ve- several charcoal-fired pig iron and iron
getal encerraram suas atividades. A FIGURA 21 alloy producers ceased their operations.
mostra os principais polos de consumo de car- FIGURE 21 shows the main centers of
vo vegetal no Pas. charcoal consumption in the country.

54
FIGURA 20 / FIGURE 20

Consumo nacional de carvo vegetal, 2007-2015 / Brazilian charcoal consumption, 2007-2015

Consumo de carvo / Charcoal consumption Evoluo da participao da madeira plantada na


Milhes (t) / Millions (t) produo de carvo / Change in the share of wood
from planted trees in charcoal production
8 7,5
7,1
6,0 5,9 100%
6 5,5 5,5 5,3
4,4 3,6 1,6 1,4 81% 82%
4,6
4,4 1,9 1,7 1,0 80% 73% 76%
0,8 69%
4 65%
1,8 60%
60%
49%
2 4,4 4,5 4,3 42%
3,5 3,6 3,8 3,8
3,1 2,6 40%

0 20%
2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

0%
2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015
Plantado / Planted Nativo / Native

FONTE: IB, PYRY E IBGE (2015) / SOURCE: IB, PYRY AND IBGE (2015)
KIKA ANTUNES / ARCELORMITTAL BIOFLORESTAS

FIGURA 21 / FIGURE 21

Principais polos de consumo de carvo


vegetal no Brasil / Main centers of charcoal
consumption in Brazil

PA MA

MG

MS ES

Consumo relativo de carvo


Relative charcoal consumption
FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)

55
GLEISON REZENDE / BSC

CAPTULO VIII / CHAPTER VIII

Importncia econmica do setor


Economic importance of the industry
PRODUTO INTERNO BRUTO SETORIAL INDUSTRIAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
Em 2015, com o crescimento do seu Pro- In 2015, with the growth of its gross
duto Interno Bruto (PIB), o setor brasileiro de domestic product (GDP), the Brazilian planted
rvores plantadas mostrou resilincia frente tree industry demonstrated resilience in the
a cenrios macroeconmicos desfavorveis, face of unfavorable macroeconomic scenarios,
tanto interno, em decorrncia da crise poltico- both internally, as a result of the political and
-econmica, quanto externo, por conta da desa- economic crisis, as well as externally, from the
celerao da economia chinesa. O PIB setorial slowdown in the Chinese economy. GDP in the
alcanou R$ 69,1 bilhes, um aumento de 3,0% sector reached R$ 69.1 billion, an increase of
em relao ao ano anterior. 3.0% over the previous year.
Com esses resultados, o setor se desta- With these results, this sector stood out
cou com desempenho superior a outros seto- with performance exceeding that of other areas
res da economia brasileira como, por exemplo, of the Brazilian economy such as agriculture/
agropecuria (+1,8%), indstria (-6,2%) e servi- livestock (+1.8%), industry (-6.2%), and services
os (-2,7%). Em relao ao PIB brasileiro, o se- (-2.7%). With regard to the Brazilian GDP, the
tor de rvores plantadas fechou o ano de 2015 planted tree industry closed 2015 with a 1.2%
com 1,2% de representao em toda a riqueza share of all the wealth generated in the country
gerada no Pas e 6,0% do PIB industrial (FIGU- and 6.0% of the industrial GDP. (FIGURES 22
RAS 22 e 23). and 23).
ARQUIVO GUARARAPES

FIGURA 22 / FIGURE 22

Produto Interno Bruto setorial a preos de


mercado, 2014-2015 / Industry Gross Domestic
Product at market prices, 2014-2015
R$ Bilhes / R$ Billions
= + 3,0%
69,1
67,0*

2014 2015

(*) Valor ajustado pela inflao (IPCA - IBGE). / (*) Price adjusted for inflation (IPCA - IBGE).

FONTE: PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: PYRY (2015)

57
CAPTULO VIII / CHAPTER VIII
IMPORTNCIA ECONMICA DO SETOR / ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRY

FIGURA 23 / FIGURE 23

Variao do PIB do setor de rvores plantadas e de outros setores da economia brasileira,


2015 em relao a 2014 / Change in GDP of the planted tree industry versus other sectors of
the brazilian economy, 2015 versus 2014

3,0%

1,8%

-2,7%

-6.2%

-3,8%

Setor de rvores plantadas Agropecuria Setor de servios Indstria em geral Economia brasileira
Planted tree industry Agriculture/livestock Service sector Industry in general Brazilian economy

FONTE: PYRY E IBGE (2015) / SOURCE: PYRY AND IBGE (2015)

ARRECADAO DE TRIBUTOS CORPORATE TAXES


O setor brasileiro de rvores plantadas The Brazilian planted tree industry
foi responsvel pela gerao de R$ 11,3 bi- was responsible for generating R$ 11.3
lhes em tributos federais, estaduais e muni- billion in federal, state, and municipal taxes,
cipais, o que corresponde a 0,9% de toda a corresponding to 0.9% of all domestic taxes
arrecadao do Pas. Os impostos recolhidos collected. Taxes collected remained almost
ficaram praticamente estveis em relao a stable in relation to 2014, mostly due to the
2014, em funo, principalmente, da retrao retraction in domestic sales of paper, wooden
das vendas domsticas de papel, painis de panels, and solid wood products (FIGURE
madeira e produtos slidos de madeira (FIGU- 24). The relative participation of the various
RA 24). A participao relativa dos diversos industrial segments that comprise the planted
segmentos industriais que compem o setor tree industry in terms of tax collection is shown
de rvores plantadas na arrecadao mos- in FIGURE 25.
trada na FIGURA 25. Of the total of taxes collected,
Do total arrecadado, R$ 9,3 bilhes refe- R$ 9.3 billion refer to tributes on income
rem-se tributao de receita e lucro; and gains;
R$ 1,7 bilho, a tributos pagos na aquisi- R$ 1.7 billion was paid indirectly in the
o de insumos e equipamentos; e acquisition of supplies and equipment; while
R$ 300 milhes foram provenientes dos R$ 300 million were generated from
salrios dos colaboradores do setor. salaries paid to employees in the industry.

58
ARQUIVO CENIBRA
FIGURA 24 / FIGURE 24

Arrecadao de tributos pelo setor


Taxes collected by the industry
R$ Bilhes / R$ Billions
11,3*

11,3

2014 2015

(*) Valor ajustado pela inflao (IPCA - IBGE). / (*) Price adjusted for inflation (IPCA - IBGE).

FONTE: PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: PYRY (2015)

FIGURA 25 / FIGURE 25

Participao relativa dos segmentos na arrecadao de impostos do setor, 2015


Relative share of industrial segments in tax collection in the industry, 2015

38%

7% Papel
Paper
Painis reconstitudos
Reconstituted panels
Celulose
11% Pulp
Produtos slidos de madeira
Solid wod products
Outros
Others
15% 29%

FONTE: PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: PYRY (2015)

59
CAPTULO VIII / CHAPTER VIII
IMPORTNCIA ECONMICA DO SETOR / ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRY

CONTRIBUIO PARA A BALANA CONTRIBUTION TO THE TRADE


COMERCIAL BALANCE
Em 2015, a receita das exportaes do se- In 2015, the export revenue from the
tor brasileiro de rvores plantadas atingiu US$ Brazilian planted tree industry reached
9,0 bilhes, aumento de 5,9% em comparao a US$ 9.0 billion, an increase of 5.9% compared
2014. Por outro lado, as importaes diminuram to 2014. On the other hand, imports fell 31.6%
31,6%, passando de US$ 1,9 bilho em 2014 para from US$ 1.9 billion in 2014 to US$ 1.3 billion
US$ 1,3 bilho em 2015. in 2015.
Com esses resultados, o saldo da balana These results caused the industry trade
comercial do setor aumentou 14,9% em relao balance to increase 14.9% in comparison with
a 2014, fechando o ano com recorde de US$ 7,7 2014, closing the year at a record US$ 7.7
bilhes. Esse marco est relacionado ao cres- billion. This milestone is related to the growth in
cimento da produo interna de celulose e domestic pulp production and the depreciation
depreciao do real frente ao dlar, fatores que of the real against the dollar, factors that have
resultaram na expressiva elevao do valor das resulted in a significant increase in the value of
exportaes dessa commodity. exports of this commodity.
Quanto aos destinos dos produtos brasi- As for the destinations of Brazilian
leiros de base florestal, as vendas para Europa forest-based products, sales to Europe and
e China representaram 52% dos valores totais China accounted for 52% of the total exported
exportados (FIGURAS 26 a 28). values (FIGURES 26 to 28).

FIGURA 26 / FIGURE 26 FIGURA 27 / FIGURE 27

Balana Comercial dos segmentos do Evoluo da Balana Comercial do setor de


setor de rvores plantadas, 2015 / Trade rvores plantadas, 2010-2015 / Change in
Balance for the segments of the planted Trade Balance for the planted tree industry,
tree industry, 2015 2010-2015
US$ Bilhes / US$ Billions US$ Bilhes / US$ Billions

Importao Exportao
7,7
Imports Exports 8
6,7
6,4
-0,3% 5,6% 5,9
5,7 5,7
6
-1,0% 2,0%

0,4% 4

0,3% Celulose / Pulp


Papel / Paper 2
0,2% Compensado / Plywood
Painis / Lumber
Serrados / Panels 0
0,4%
Outros / Others 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
FONTE: PYRY E SECEX (2015) / SOURCE: PYRY AND SECEX (2015) FONTE: PYRY E SECEX (2015) / SOURCE: PYRY AND SECEX (2015)

60
FIGURA 28 / FIGURE 28

Principais destinos dos produtos do setor brasileiro de rvores plantadas, em valor de exportao
Main destinations for products from the brazilian planted tree sector, in export value

Europa / Europe
Celulose / Pulp

China / China
Celulose / Pulp

Estados Unidos / USA


Celulose / Pulp
Papel / Paper
Painis de madeira / Wood panels
Serrados / Panels

Argentina e Chile
Argentina and Chile
Papel / Paper

13% 30%

Europa / Europe

China / China

Estados Unidos / USA 16%

Amrica Latina / Latin America

Demais pases / Other countries


22%
19%

FONTE: PYRY E SECEX (2015) / SOURCE: PYRY AND SECEX (2015)

61
CAPTULO VIII / CHAPTER VIII
IMPORTNCIA ECONMICA DO SETOR / ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRY

INVESTIMENTOS PRODUTIVOS PRODUCTIVE INVESTMENTS


Em 2015, as associadas Ib investiram In 2015, Ib member companies invested
R$ 10,5 bilhes em florestas e unidades indus- R$ 10.5 billion in forests and industrial units.
triais. Os investimentos industriais totalizaram Industrial investments totaled R$ 6.0 billion,
R$ 6,0 bilhes e o restante, R$ 4,5 bilhes, and the remainder, R$ 4.5 billion, was invested
foi investido na produo florestal. O detalha- in forest production. The details of these
mento desses investimentos apresentado investments are presented in FIGURE 29.
na FIGURA 29.
EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME
GERAO DE EMPREGO E RENDA GENERATION
Em 2015, o setor empregou, diretamente, In 2015, the industry directly employed
540 mil pessoas. Estima-se5 que, no total, o n- 540,000 people. It is estimated5 that the overall
mero de postos de trabalhos da atividade flo- number of jobs involved with forest activity
restal diretos, indiretos e resultantes do efeito (direct, indirect, and income-effect) were on the
renda , tenha sido da ordem de 3,8 milhes. order of 3.8 million.
Assumindo-se o nmero de empregos Using the number of jobs directly
gerados diretamente e o salrio mdio lquido generated and the mean net salary for workers
dos trabalhadores, a renda gerada pelo setor foi in this industry, the income generated by the
de R$ 10,0 bilhes. Desse total, R$ 9,0 bilhes Brazilian planted tree industry was calculated
foram agregados ao consumo das famlias, en- at R$ 10.0 billion. Of this total, R$ 9.0 billion was
quanto o valor restante foi direcionado pou- added to family consumption, while the remainder
pana nacional (FIGURA 30). went into domestic savings (FIGURE 30).

MRCIO BRUNO/KLABIN

(5) De acordo com os indicadores de multiplicao do Modelo de Gerao de Empregos do Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econmico e Social (BNDES). Uma exposio detalhada da
metodologia do MGE pode ser encontrada em NAJBERG E IKEDA, Modelo de Gerao de Empregos: Metodologia e Resultados. Textos para Discusso n 72. Rio de Janeiro: BNDES, 1999.
(5) According to the multiplication indicators of the job creation model from the Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econmico e Social (BNDES). A detailed explanation of the methodology
used in the job creation model can be found in Najberg and Ikeda, Modelo de Gerao de Empregos: Metodologia e Resultados. Textos para Discusso n 72. Rio de Janeiro: BNDES, 1999.

62
FIGURA 29 / FIGURE 29

Investimentos realizados em 2015 pelas associadas Ib


Investments made in 2015 by Ib member companies
Investimento industrial R$ 6,0 Bilhes Investimento florestal R$ 4,5 Bilhes
Industrial investments R$ 6.0 Billions Forest investments R$ 4.5 Billions

15%
8% 78%

77%
1%
6%
3%

3%
9%

Expanso da capacidade produtiva Formao de plantios / Plantation establishment


Expansion of productive capacity
Renovao de mquinas e equipamentos
Renovao de mquinas e equipamentos Replacement of machines and equipment
Replacement of machines and equipment
Estradas construdas / Construction of roads
Pesquisa & desenvolvimento Pesquisa & desenvolvimento
Research & development Research & development

Outros / Others Aquisio de terras / Land acquisition

FONTE: PYRY E IB (2015) / SOURCE: PYRY AND IB (2015)

FIGURA 30 / FIGURE 30

Gerao direta de renda pelo setor brasileiro de rvores plantadas, 2015


Direct income generated by the Brazil planted tree sector, 2015

Gerao de renda R$ 10 Bilhes R$ 1,0 Bilho R$ 9,0 Bilhes


Income generation R$ 10 Billions R$ 1.0 Billion R$ 9.0 Billions

Nmero de empregos
Number of jobs x Salrio lquido
Net salary = Poupana
Savings + Consumo das famlias
Family consumption

FONTE: PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: PYRY (2015)

63
EDMAR SILVA / ARQUIVO CENIBRA

CAPTULO IX / CHAPTER IX

Indicadores socioambientais
Social and environmental indicators
PROTEO DE HABITATS NATURAIS PROTECTION OF NATURAL HABITATS
A atuao do setor brasileiro de rvores Actions taken by the Brazilian planted
plantadas pautada pela busca do uso eficiente tree industry are based on the pursuit of efficient
e sustentvel dos recursos ambientais e o setor and sustainable use of environmental resources,
contribui de forma significativa para a conserva- and the sector contributes significantly to the
o, preservao e recuperao de ambientes conservation, preservation, and restoration of
naturais. Ao final de 2015, estima-se que 5,6 natural environments. By the end of 2015, it is
milhes de hectares de reas naturais estavam estimated that 5.6 million hectares of natural
protegidos em reas de preservao perma- areas were protected in areas of permanent
nente (APP), reserva legal (RL) e reservas par- preservation (APP), legal reserves (LR), and
ticulares do patrimnio natural (RPPNs). Assim, private natural heritage reserves (RPPN). For
para cada hectare plantado com rvores para each hectare planted with trees for industrial
fins industriais, outro 0,7 hectare foi destinado purposes, another 0.7 hectare was set aside
conservao. Alm disso, no mesmo ano, 45 for preservation. In addition, during this same
mil hectares de reas degradadas foram restau- year 45,000 hectares of degraded areas were
rados apenas pelas empresas associadas Ib restored by Ib member companies alone
(FIGURA 31). (FIGURE 31).
Outro princpio que pauta a atuao do Another principle underlying activities by
setor florestal o cumprimento incondicional the Brazilian planted tree sector is unconditional
da regulamentao sobre o uso da terra. Uma compliance with land use regulations. An
demonstrao disso que, ao longo de 2015, example of this commitment is the fact that
as empresas associadas Ib incluram 62% da companies in the sector registered 62% of

FIGURA 31 / FIGURE 31

Distribuio das reas conservadas do setor de rvores plantadas, 2015


Distribution of areas preserved by the planted tree industry, 2015

3%
66%
Reserva Legal (RL)
Legal Reserves (LR)
reas de Preservao Permanente (APPs)
Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs)
Reservas Particulares do Patrimnio Natural (RPPNs)
Private Natural Heritage Reserves (RPPNs)

31%

FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)

65
CAPTULO IX / CHAPTER IX
INDICADORES SOCIOAMBIENTAIS / SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS

rea total de seus imveis no Cadastro Ambien- the total area of their properties with the Rural
tal Rural (CAR). Environmental Register (CAR) during 2015.
Institudo pelo Ministrio do Meio Am- An initiative of the Ministry of the
biente (MMA), o CAR uma das principais con- Environment, CAR is one of the main triumphs
quistas do novo Cdigo Florestal Brasileiro e of the new Brazilian Forest Code, and a
um instrumento fundamental para auxiliar no fundamental instrument in the process of
processo de regularizao ambiental de pro- environmental regularization for rural holdings
priedades e posses rurais. Sua implementa- and properties. Implementation of this measure,
o, apoiada pela Ib, possibilitar definies which is supported by Ib, will permit the definition
de polticas pblicas, crditos, projetos de ex- of public policies, credits, and projects involving
panso agrcola e florestal, e de conservao expansion of agriculture and forestry, and
em todo o Pas. conservation projects throughout the country.

INVESTIMENTOS SOCIOAMBIENTAIS SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL


Em 2015, os investimentos em programas INVESTMENTS
de responsabilidade social e ambiental realiza- In 2015, investments in social and
dos pelas empresas associadas Ib totaliza- environmental responsibility programs
ram R$ 285 milhes e beneficiaram cerca de carried out by Ib member companies totaled
2,2 milhes de pessoas. R$ 285 million, and benefited nearly
Alm de seus plantios prprios, as em- 2.2 million people.
presas associadas Ib realizam plantios por In addition to their own plantations,
meio dos programas de fomento florestal, que Ib member companies created plantations
so parcerias com pequenos e mdios produ- through forest outgrower programs, which
tores. A prtica do fomento uma alternativa are partnerships with small and medium-
para abastecimento das empresas e pode tra- sized producers. Outgrower programs are
zer benefcios tanto para o produtor quanto an alternative for supplying companies and
para a comunidade. No que diz respeito ao can generate benefits for both the producer
produtor rural, os benefcios referem-se ao and for the community. For rural producers,
aumento da renda e diversificao da pro- the benefits relate to increased income and
duo. Para a comunidade, eles incluem a diversified production. For the community,
possibilidade de criao de novos negcios these include the possibility of creating new
florestais de base madeireira e a gerao de wood-based forest business and generating
empregos na regio. jobs in the region.
Em 2015, 18,7 mil pessoas foram benefi- In 2015, 18,700 people benefited from
ciadas com programas de fomento adotados the outgrower programs adopted by Ib
pelas associadas Ib, realizando o plantio member companies, planting trees for their
de rvores para consumo prprio e/ou fins own consumption and/or industrial purposes
industriais em 520 mil hectares de reas de on 520,000 hectares of areas owned by
terceiros, o que representa um crescimento third parties, which represents an increase
de 10% em relao ao ano anterior (FIGURAS of 10% over the previous year (FIGURES 32
32 e 33). and 33).

66
FIGURA 32 / FIGURE 32

Investimentos em programas socioambientais, 2015


Investments in social and environmental programs, 2015
Montante de investimento Nmero de pessoas
(R$ milhes) beneficiadas (mil)
Item / Item Exemplo de aes / Example of activities
Total investment Number of people
(R$ millions) benefited (thousand)
Treinamento, fornecimento de mudas e insumos e
Fomento
155 18,7 assistncia tcnica. / Training, providing seedlings and
Outgrower programs
inputs and technical assistance.
Programas de gerao de renda, para moradores de
comunidades locais, como agricultura familiar e incentivo
Gerao de renda
62 64 apicultora. / Income generation programs for residents of
Income generations
local communities, such as family farming and incentives
for beekeeping.
Campanhas contra uso de drogas, incentivo atividade
Sade
20 1.058 fsica e servios de nutrio. / Campaigns against drugs,
Health
encouraging physical fitness, and nutritional services.
Sociocultural Comunidade em ao e projetos esportivos.
12 629
Social and cultural Community in action and sports projects.
Educao ambiental, trilhas ecolgicas e programas de
Meio ambiente
19 157 controle ambiental. / Environmental education, ecology
Environment
trails, and environmental control programs.
Capacitao profissional, oferecimento de bolsas de
Educao e cultura
12 190 estudos e fornecimento de material didtico. / Professional
Education and culture
training, scholarships, and providing educational materials.
Outros Programas de voluntariado, entre outros.
5 65
Others Voluntary programs, among others.
Total / Total 285 2.181 -

FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)


ZIG KOCH / KLABIN

FIGURA 33 / FIGURE 33

Pessoas beneficiadas por fomento florestal


People benefiting from outgrower programs
Mil (pessoas) / Thousand (people)
= + 10%
18,7
17,8

2014 2015
FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)

67
CAPTULO IX / CHAPTER IX
INDICADORES SOCIOAMBIENTAIS / SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS

MATRIZ ENERGTICA DO SETOR ENERGY IN THE SECTOR


Diferentemente de outros setores econ- Unlike other economic sectors of Brazil,
micos do Brasil, a indstria de rvores plantadas the planted tree industry is responsible for
responsvel por gerar a maior parte da energia generating most of the energy consumed in
consumida nos seus processos produtivos. Em its production processes. In 2015, there was
2015, houve um aumento de 2% na produo de a 2% increase in energy production over the
energia em relao ao ano anterior; foram gera- previous year; 65.1 million gigajoules (GJ) were
dos 65,1 milhes de gigajoules (GJ), ou seja, 67% generated, the equivalent of 67% of the 96.8 GJ
dos 96,8 milhes de GJ consumidos pelo setor. As consumed by the industry. Besides generating
fbricas de celulose mais modernas, alm de au- energy for their own needs, more modern
tossuficientes em energia, geram excedentes para pulp mills generate surplus power for sale.
comercializao. Cerca de 11,9 milhes de GJ foram Around 11.9 GJ were sold back to the public grid
comercializados para a rede pblica (FIGURA 34). (FIGURE 34).
As empresas do setor utilizam quase que ex- The companies in the industry almost
clusivamente subprodutos de seus processos para exclusively use byproducts of their own
a gerao de energia trmica e eltrica. O licor ne- processes to generate thermal and electrical
gro, proveniente da produo da celulose, e a bio- energy. Black liquor from pulp production and
massa florestal representam 62,5% e 17,3%, respec- forestry biomass represent 62.5% and 17.3% of
tivamente, de toda energia produzida (FIGURA 35). all energy produced, respectively (FIGURE 35).

FIGURA 34 / FIGURE 34 FIGURA 35 / FIGURE 35

Balano energtico setorial, 2015 Fontes de energia utilizadas pelo setor


Energy balance in the sector, 2015 Energy sources used by the sector
Milhes (GJ) / Millions (GJ)
0,8%

11,9 1,3%

43,5 5,4% 62,5%


108,6

108,6

12,7%
96,7

65,1

17,3%

Comprada do grid Vendida para o grid Licor preto Gs natural Carvo mineral
Purchased from grid Sold back to grid Black liquor Natural gas Mineral coal
Produo de energia Consumo de energia Biomassa florestal leo combustvel Outros
Energy production Energy consumption Forest biomass Fuel oil Others

FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015) FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)

68
RESDUOS SLIDOS SOLID WASTE
As empresas do setor de rvores planta- Companies in the planted tree industry
das adotam como prtica a gesto rigorosa dos have adopted rigorous management practices
resduos slidos de suas atividades, visando re- for solid wastes generated from their activities,
duzir a gerao, assegurar a destinao correta both in forestry and industry, in order to generate
e atender aos requisitos legais e de certificao less waste, ensure adequate disposal, and to
relativos ao assunto. comply with the relevant legal and certification-
Em 2015, o setor gerou 46,8 milhes de related requirements.
toneladas de resduos slidos, sendo que, des- In 2015, the sector generated around
se total, 33,0 milhes (70,5%) foram gerados pe- 46.8 million tons of solid waste, 33.0 million tons
las atividades florestais e 13,8 milhes (29,5%) (70.5%) of which were generated in forestry
pelas industriais. activities and 13.8 million tons (29.5%) by
Na atividade florestal, 99,7% dos resduos industrial activities.
slidos, principalmente cascas, galhos e folhas, In forest activity, 99.7% of the solid
so mantidos no campo para proteo e ferti- wastes, predominantly bark, branches, and
lizao do solo. Os demais, 0,3%, entre leos, leaves, are left in the field to protect and
graxas e embalagens de agroqumicos, so en- fertilize the soil. The other 0.3% (oils, grease,
caminhados de forma a atender aos critrios le- and agrochemical packaging) are dispatched
gais at a sua destinao final. to their final destination according to legal
Na indstria, 65,9% dos resduos so desti- requirements.
nados gerao de energia por meio da queima In industry, 65.9% of waste is used to
em caldeiras, que geram vapor e, eventualmente, generate energy, by burning in boilers to
energia eltrica para o processo produtivo, elimi- generate vapor and ultimately electricity for the
nando a utilizao de combustvel fssil. Alm production process, avoiding the use of fossil
disso, 24,6% dos resduos principalmente da fuels. Furthermore, 24.6% of waste (mainly,
produo de serrados (cavacos e serragem) e residue from producing lumber like chips and
aparas de papel so reutilizados como matria- sawdust, and paper scraps) is used as a raw
-prima por outras empresas do setor. Resduos material by other companies in the industry.
como a lama de cal e a cinza das caldeiras re- Other wastes such as lime sludge and boiler
presentam 5,8% e so reutilizados, por exemplo, ash account for 5.8% of the total, and are
para produo de cimento e leo combustvel re- reused to produce cement and recycled fuel
ciclado. Os demais resduos representam 3,6% e oil, for example. The remaining waste accounts
so encaminhados para aterros industriais, aten- for 3.6% of the total and is sent to industrial
dendo aos critrios legais (FIGURA 36). landfills, in compliance with legal requirements
Em relao recuperao de papel, o (FIGURE 36).
Brasil figura entre os principais recicladores do In terms of paper recovery, Brazil is
mundo. Em 2015, estima-se que 4,6 milhes de among the worlds major recyclers. In 2015,
toneladas retornaram ao processo produtivo, o 4.6 million tons of paper were directed back
que equivale a uma taxa de recuperao de 61% into production, which is the equivalent of a
de todo o papel consumido passvel de recicla- 61% recovery rate for all the recyclable paper
gem (FIGURA 37). consumed (FIGURE 37).

69
CAPTULO IX / CHAPTER IX
INDICADORES SOCIOAMBIENTAIS / SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS

FIGURA 36 / FIGURE 36

Resduos gerados, por tipo e mtodos de disposio, 2015


Waste generated by type and disposal method, 2015

Atividade Milhes (t)


Item / Item % Destinao final / Final destination
Activity Millions (t)
Cascas, galhos e folhas Mantidos no campo, como proteo e adubao do solo.
32,9 99,7
Bark, branches, and leaves Kept in the fields to protect and fertilize the soil.
Florestal leos, graxas e embalagens
Encaminhados atendendo critrios legais at a sua destinao
Florest de agroqumicos / Oils,
0,1 0,3 final. / Dispatched to final destination in compliance with legal
(70,5%) grease, and agrochemical
requirements.
packaging
Subtotal / Subtotal 33,0 100 -
Cavacos, serragem e licor
Destinados para gerao de energia, por meio da queima em
preto / Chips, sawdust, and 9,1 66,0
caldeiras. / Used for power generation, burned to fire boilers.
black liquor
Cavacos, serragem e aparas Reutilizados como matria-prima por empresas do setor de
de papel / Chips, sawdust, 3,4 24,6 rvores plantadas. / Reused as raw materials by companies in
Industrial and paper scraps the planted tree industry.
Industry Lama de cal e cinza de
Reutilizados como matria-prima por outros setores industriais.
(29,5%) caldeiras / Lime sludge and 0,8 5,8
Reused as raw materials by other industrial sectors.
boiler ash
Compostos qumicos e outros
Encaminhados para aterros industriais atendendo aos critrios
Chemical compounds and 0,5 3,6
legais. / Sent to industrial landfills according to legal criteria.
others
Subtotal / Subtotal 13,8 100 -
Total / Total 46,8 100 -

FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)

FIGURA 37 / FIGURE 37

Evoluo da taxa de reciclagem de papis no Brasil, 2007-2015


Change in the paper recycling rate in Brazil, 2007-2015

80%

59% 60% 61%


60% 52% 54% 53% 54%
51% 50% 4,6
4,8 4,8
3,6 3,9 4,3 4,5
3,8 4,0
40%

20%

0%
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Consumo de aparas em milhes (t) / Paper scrap consumption in millions (t)

FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)

70
MRCIO BRUNO / KLABIN

Appendices
Anexos
ANEXOS / APPENDICES

SRIES HISTRICAS HISTORICAL SERIES


rea de rvores plantadas Area of planted trees
Os plantios de eucalipto ocupam 5,6 mi- Eucalyptus plantations occupied
lhes de hectares de rvores plantadas, o que 5.6 million hectares of the area of planted trees
representa 72% do total, e esto localizados prin- in the country, representing 72% of the total, and
cipalmente nos Estados de Minas Gerais (25%), are located mainly in the states of Minas Gerais
de So Paulo (17%) e do Mato Grosso do Sul (15%) (25%), So Paulo (17%), and Mato Grosso do Sul
(FIGURA 38). (15%) (FIGURE 38).
Os plantios de pinus ocupam 1,6 milho de Pine plantations occupy 1.6 million
hectares e concentram-se no Paran (42%) e em hectares and are concentrated in Paran (42%)
Santa Catarina (34%) (FIGURA 39). and in Santa Catarina (34%) (FIGURE 39).
Accia, teca, seringueira e paric esto Acacia, teak, rubber, and paric are
entre as outras espcies plantadas no Pas among the other species planted in the country
(FIGURA 40). (FIGURE 40).

FIGURA 38 / FIGURE 38

Histrico da rea plantada com rvores de eucalipto, 2010-2015


Historical area planted with eucalyptus trees, 2010-2015

Eucalipto (ha) / Eucalyptus (ha)


Estado / State
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Minas Gerais 1.400.000 1.401.787 1.438.971 1.404.429 1.400.232 1.395.032
So Paulo 1.044.813 1.031.677 1.041.695 1.010.444 976.186 976.613
Mato Grosso do Sul 378.195 475.528 587.310 699.128 803.699 826.031
Bahia 631.464 607.440 605.464 623.971 630.808 614.390
Rio Grande do Sul 273.042 280.198 284.701 316.446 309.125 308.515
Esprito Santo 203.885 197.512 203.349 221.559 228.781 227.222
Paran 161.422 188.153 197.835 200.473 224.089 285.125
Maranho 151.403 165.717 173.324 209.249 211.334 210.496
Mato Grosso 150.646 175.592 184.628 187.090 187.090 185.219
Par 148.656 151.378 159.657 159.657 125.110 130.431
Gois 116.439 118.636 115.567 121.375 124.297 127.201
Tocantins 47.542 65.502 109.000 111.131 115.564 116.365
Santa Catarina 102.399 104.686 106.588 107.345 112.944 116.250
Amap 49.369 50.099 49.506 57.169 60.025 63.026
Piau 37.025 26.493 27.730 28.053 31.212 29.333
Outros / Others 4.650 9.314 18.838 15.657 18.157 19.358
Total / Total 4.900.950 5.049.712 5.304.163 5.473.176 5.558.653 5.630.607

FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)

72
FIGURA 39 / FIGURE 39

Histrico da rea plantada com rvores de pinus, 2010-2015


Historical area planted with pine trees, 2010-2015

Pinus (ha) / Pine (ha)


Estado / State
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Paran 686.509 658.707 619.731 662.296 673.769 670.906
Santa Catarina 545.592 538.254 539.377 540.542 541.162 542.662
Rio Grande do Sul 168.955 164.806 164.832 164.174 184.585 184.603
So Paulo 162.005 156.726 144.802 127.693 123.996 124.222
Minas Gerais 136.310 75.408 52.710 46.807 39.674 37.636
Gois 12.160 10.760 16.432 9.151 9.087 8.569
Mato Grosso do Sul 13.847 11.871 9.825 8.330 7.135 6.292
Bahia 26.570 21.520 11.230 7.298 6.499 3.371
Esprito Santo 3.546 2.546 2.546 2.801 2.660 2.713
Tocantins 850 850 853 609 430 265
Amap 15 445 445 445 - -
Total / Total 1.756.359 1.641.893 1.562.783 1.570.146 1.588.997 1.581.239

FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)

FIGURA 40 / FIGURE 40

Histrico da rea plantada por outras culturas florestais, 2010-2015


Historical area planted with other forest species, 2010-2015

Outras culturas (ha) / Other cultivated species (ha)


Cultura / Species
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Seringueira / Rubber 159.500 165.648 168.848 172.448 229.059 229.059
Accia / Acacia 127.600 146.813 148.311 146.903 160.872 160.827
Teca / Teak 65.440 67.693 67.329 88.270 87.499 87.410
Paric / Parica 85.470 85.473 87.901 87.519 89.081 90.047
Araucria / Araucaria 11.190 11.179 11.343 11.360 11.122 11.038
Ppulus / Poplar 4.221 4.220 4.216 4.216 4.216 4.216
Outras / Others 8.969 8.256 33.183 46.937 6.672 6.604
Total / Total 462.390 489.282 521.131 557.653 588.521 589.201

FONTE: IB E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB AND PYRY (2015)

73
ANEXOS / APPENDICES

Consumo de madeira in natura Raw wood consumption


Em 2015, o consumo brasileiro de madeira In 2015, Brazilian consumption of
proveniente de rvores plantadas para uso in- wood from trees planted for industrial use
dustrial foi de 194,4 milhes de m3, o que repre- amounted to 194.4 million m3, representing
senta aumento de 2,2% em relao ao consumo an increase of 2.2% from consumption in 2014
de 2014 (FIGURA 41). (FIGURE 41).

Histrico de produo e consumo History of production and consumption


Na ltima dcada (2005-2015), a pro- Over the last decade (2005-2015),
duo nacional de celulose aumentou em 7,0 national pulp production increased by
milhes de toneladas, o que representa uma 7 million tons, which represents an annual
taxa anual de crescimento de 5,2%. Esse in- growth rate of 5.2%. This increase was
cremento foi acompanhado pelo aumento das accompanied by an increase in exports
exportaes para os pases da Europa e para to Europe and China, while domestic
a China, enquanto o consumo interno apresen- consumption showed little variation
tou pouca variao (FIGURA 42). Em relao ao (FIGURE 42). With regard to the paper
segmento de papel, a produo registrou alta industry, production surged to a high of 1.9%
de 1,9% a.a. no perodo, impulsionado pela de- p.a. during the period, driven by domestic
manda interna, que cresceu taxa mdia de demand, which grew at an average rate of
2,3% a.a. (FIGURA 43). Porm, se considerado 2.3% p.a. (FIGURE 43). But if we consider
apenas o ltimo ano, houve desacelerao. Por only the last year, there was a slowdown.
fim, a produo nacional de painis de madeira Finally, national production of wooden
aumentou em 3,5 milhes de m, com uma taxa panels increased by 3.5 million m, with an

FIGURA 41 / FIGURE 41

Consumo de madeira para uso industrial, 2015 / Wood consumption for industrial use, 2015

Milhes (m) / Millions (m)


Segmento / Segment Eucalipto Pinus Outras Total
Eucalyptus Pine Others Total
Celulose e papel / Pulp and paper 65,60 8,34 0,07 74,01
Painis reconstitudos / Panels 6,07 6,86 0,37 13,30
Indstria madeireira / Lumber 6,63 23,46 0,35 30,44
Carvo / Charcoal 21,25 - - 21,25
Lenha industrial / Industrial firewood 48,60 3,67 - 52,27
Madeira tratada / Treated wood 1,65 - - 1,65
Outros / Others 1,40 0,13 - 1,53
Total / Total 151,20 42,46 0,79 194,45

FONTE: PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: PYRY (2015)

74
mdia de crescimento de 6,5% a.a. nos ltimos average growth rate of 6.5% p.a. over the
dez anos. Apesar disso, a desacelerao da last ten years. Nevertheless, the slowdown
economia observada a partir de 2012 impactou of the economy observed from 2012 onward
significativamente nos indicadores de produ- significantly impacted the indicators of
o e consumo de 2015 (FIGURA 44). production and consumption in 2015 (FIGURE 44).

FIGURA 42 / FIGURE 42

Histrico da produo e consumo de celulose no Brasil, 2005-2015


Historical production and consumption of pulp in Brazil, 2005-2015
Milhes (t) / Millions (t)
20
17,4
16,5
15,1
15 14,2 13,9 14,0
12,7 13,3
12,0 11,5
11,2
10,4 10,6
10 9,4
8,2 8,4 8,5 8,5
6,5 7,0
5,4 6,2
5 6,0 6,2 6,1 6,3 6,2
5,2 5,3 5,8 5,4 5,8 5,9

0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Exportao / Exports Produo / Production Importao / Imports Consumo interno / Domestic consumption

FONTE: IB, SECEX E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB, SECEX AND PYRY (2015)

FIGURA 43 / FIGURE 43

Histrico da produo e consumo de papel no Brasil, 2005-2015


Historical production and consumption of paper in Brazil, 2005-2015
Milhes (t) / Millions (t)
15

10,0 10,2 10,3 10,4 10,4 10,4


8,7 9,0 9,4 9,4
10 8,6
9,4 9,6 9,8 9,9 9,8 9,2
8,1 8,8 8,5
7,3 7,7
5
2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,1 2,1 1,9 1,9 1,8 2,1

0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Exportao / Exports Produo / Production Importao / Imports Consumo interno / Domestic consumption

FONTE: IB, SECEX E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB, SECEX AND PYRY (2015)

75
ANEXOS / APPENDICES

FIGURA 44 / FIGURE 44

Histrico da produo e consumo de painis de madeira reconstituda no Brasil, 2005-2015


Historical production and consumption of reconstituted wood panels in Brazil, 2005-2015
Milhes (m3) / Millions (m3)
10

7,9 8,0
7,3 7,5
7,5
6,4 6,5 7,7 7,6
7,2
5,0 5,2 5,3 6,5 6,5 6,4
5,0 4,4 5,3
4,0 5,3
4,9
4,4
3,8
2,5

0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Exportao / Exports Produo / Production Importao / Imports Consumo interno / Domestic consumption

FONTE: IB, SECEX E PYRY (2015) / SOURCE: IB, SECEX AND PYRY (2015)

NDICE DE PREOS E PRODUTOS PRODUCT AND PRICE INDEX


Em relao aos produtos de base florestal With relation to forest-based products, a
nota-se uma tendncia de recuperao dos preos trend toward price recovery has been visible since
desde 2009, quando, em sua maioria, os valores 2009, when most product prices reached their
atingiram o mnimo devido crise econmica. Em lowest point as a result of the economic crisis.
relao taxa mdia anual destaca-se o crescimen- Considering the average yearly rate, the 6.6% and
to de 6,6% e 6,5% nos preos da madeira em tora 6.5% growth in the prices of eucalyptus and pine
de eucalipto e pinus, respectivamente (FIGURA 45). logs, respectively, were notable (FIGURE 45).

NDICE DE DESENVOLVIMENTO HUMANO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX


A dinamizao da economia trazida pelo The stimulation of the economy that
setor de rvores plantadas vem contribuindo sig- is the result of the planted tree industry has
nificativamente para o desenvolvimento socioeco- significantly contributed to the socioeconomic
nmico das regies produtoras de madeira, con- development of wood-producing regions, as
forme pode ser observado na anlise do ndice de can be seen in the analysis of the Municipal
Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal (IDHM). Human Development Index (MHDI).
Com periodicidade decenal, o IDHM men- Every decade, the MHDI measures
sura as trs dimenses bsicas do desenvol- three basic dimensions of human
vimento humano: renda, educao e sade. O development: income, education, and health.
ndice classifica os municpios em baixo estgio The MHDI classifies municipalities into low
de desenvolvimento (0 < IDHM < 0,4), desenvol- stages of development (0 < MHDI < 0.4),
vimento regular (0,4 < IDHM < 0,6), desenvolvi- regular development (0.4 < MHDI < 0.6),
mento moderado (0,6 < IDHM < 0,8) e alto est- moderate development (0.6 < MHDI < 0.8), and
gio de desenvolvimento (0,8 < IDHM < 1,0). high stages of development (0.8 < MHDI < 1.0).

76
FIGURA 45 / FIGURE 45

Evoluo dos preos de produtos florestais ndice base 2000=100


Changes in forest product prices Base index 2000 = 100

Madeira em tora / Roundwood Celulose / Pulp

300 200
250
150
200
150 100
100
50
50
Eucalipto1 / Eucalyptus1 6,6% a.a. Fibra curta / Short-fiber 1,2% a.a.
0 0
Pinus2 / Pine2 6,5% a.a. Fibra longa / Long-fiber 1,5% a.a.

Madeira serrada / Lumber Papel / Paper

200 2,0% a.a. 200 1,6% a.a.

150 150

100 100

50 50

0 0

Painis de madeira / Wood panels Carvo vegetal / Charcoal

200 1,2% a.a. 400 8,8% a.a.

150 300

100 200

50 100

0 0

Compensados / Plywood Cavaco / Chips

200 3,3% a.a. 200 2,7% a.a.

150 150

100 100

50 50

0 0

(1) Somente madeira fina / (1) Thick logs only.


(2) Somente madeira grossa / (2) Thin logs only.

FONTE: PYRY E SECEX (2015) / SOURCE: PYRY AND SECEX (2015)

77
ANEXOS / APPENDICES

Em relao ao IDHM mdio do Brasil, os muni- Compared to the average MHDI in Brazil,
cpios que possuem plantios comerciais de rvores municipalities with trees planted for commercial
obtiveram melhorias nos fatores educao, longevi- purposes have achieved improvements in education,
dade e renda. A FIGURA 46 apresenta a evoluo longevity, and income. FIGURE 46 presents the evolution
dos principais municpios com plantio de rvores e a of the major municipalities with planted trees and the
evoluo mdia brasileira com base nas trs ltimas average Brazilian development, based on the three
publicaes do IDHM (1991, 2000 e 2010). most recent MHDI statistics (1991, 2000 and 2010).

FINANCIAMENTO FINANCING
O crescimento e o desenvolvimento do se- The growth and development of the
tor de rvores plantadas dependem da disponibi- planted tree industry depends on the availability
lidade de investimentos que possam financiar pro- of investments that can finance projects related
jetos voltados compra de terras, equipamentos, to purchasing land, equipment, supplies
insumos e mudas, construo de infraestrutura, and seedlings, constructing infrastructure,
manuteno dos recursos hdricos, recuperao maintaining water resources, recovering
de reas degradadas, crditos de carbono, entre degraded areas, and carbon credits, among
outros. O governo federal tem mantido os instru- others. The federal government has maintained
mentos econmicos, com linhas de crdito, por economic instruments containing lines of
meio dos agentes financiadores: Banco Central credit through Brazils Central Bank and Banco
do Brasil, Banco do Brasil entre outras instituies do Brasil, among other BNDES-accredited

FIGURA 46 / FIGURE 46

Comparativo do IDHM entre os municpios florestais e a mdia nacional


Comparison of MHDI between forest municipalities and the national average
Principais municpios com plantios de rvores* Mdia do Brasil / Brazilian average
Main communities with planted trees*
1,0 1,0

0,8 0,8

= 26% 0,6 = 23% 0,6


= 20% = 14%
= 56% = 47%
= 149% 0,4 = 128% 0,4

0,2 0,2

0,0 0,0
1991 2000 2010 1991 2000 2010

Renda / Income Longevidade / Longevity Educao / Education IDHM / MHDI

(*) Municpios selecionados: Belo Oriente/MG, Caador/SC, Eunpolis/BA, Itapeva/SP, Telmaco Borba/PR e Trs Lagoas/MS.
(*) Selected municipalities: Belo Oriente, MG, Caador, SC, Eunpolis, BA, Itapeva, SP, Telmaco Borba, PR, and Trs Lagoas, MS.

FONTE: PYRY E PNUD (2015) / SOURCE: PYRY AND PNUD (2015)

78
credenciadas pelo BNDES. Entre 2007-2015 fo- institutions. Between 2007 and 2015, projects
ram realizados projetos de plantio para fins in- to plant 2.8 million hectares of trees for
dustriais de 2,8 milhes de hectares de florestas industrial purposes were carried out in Brazil;
no Brasil dos quais 1,3 milho foram de projetos of these, 1.3 million were included in projects
apoiados diretamente pelo BNDES, totalizando supported directly by BNDES, 46% of the total.
46% de participao. Os principais programas The main programs offered by the federal
ofertados pelo governo federal so: government are:
FINEM Financiamento a Empreendi- FINEM Financing for Undertakings
mentos (Apoio ao Reflorestamento, Recupera- (support for reforesting, recovery, and
o e Uso Sustentvel das Florestas); sustainable use of forests);
Programa ABC (Programa Nacional para The ABC Program (National Program
a Reduo da Emisso de Gases de Efeito Estufa to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in
na Agricultura Agricultura de Baixo Carbono); Agriculture Low-Carbon Agriculture);
PRONAF Investimento (Programa Nacio- PRONAF Investment (the National
nal de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar). Program to Strengthen Family Agriculture).
Alm dos programas federais, existem tam- In addition to the federal programs, there
bm os Fundos Constitucionais Regionais, forma- are also regional constitutional funds comprised
dos pelo Fundo Constitucional de Financiamento by the Constitutional Fund to Finance the North
do Norte (FNO), do Nordeste (FNE) e do Centro- (FNO), the Northeast (FNE), and the Midwest
-Oeste (FCO), por meio dos agentes financiado- (FCO), through the following financial agencies:
res: Banco da Amaznia, Banco do Nordeste do the Banco da Amaznia, Banco do Nordeste
Brasil e Banco do Brasil. Os programas direciona- do Brasil, and Banco do Brasil. The programs
dos atividade de rvores plantadas so: directed toward activities related to planted
FNE Verde (Apoio Conservao e Con- trees are:
trole do Meio Ambiente); FNE Green (supporting conservation and
FCO Pronatureza (Linha de Financia- environmental control);
mento de Preservao da Natureza); FCO Pro-nature (financing for natural
FNO Biodiversidade (Apoio a empreen- conservation);
dimentos sustentveis e recuperao de re- FNO Biodiversity (support for sustainable
as degradadas); projects and recovery of degraded areas);
FNO Amaznia Sustentvel (Apoio ao FNO Sustainable Amazonia (supporting
Desenvolvimento Sustentvel da Amaznia). sustainable development of the Amazon).
Esses programas so direcionados s ati- These programs are directed toward
vidades de plantio de florestas industriais para activities to plant industrial forests, particularly
abastecer, principalmente, a demanda por carvo, to supply the demand for charcoal, energy,
energia, celulose, essncias nativas e sistemas pulp, native essences, and systems involving
agroflorestais, silvipastoris e reflorestamento de agroforestry, silvopasture, and reforestation
reas de reservas legais e de preservao perma- of areas of permanent preservation and legal
nente. As condies para obteno do financia- reserves. The conditions to obtain financing
mento variam em funo da finalidade e do porte vary according to the purpose and the size of
de cada empreendimento (FIGURAS 47 e 48). each undertaking (FIGURES 47 and 48).

79
ANEXOS / APPENDICES

FIGURA 47 / FIGURE 47

Principais linhas de financiamento para o setor de rvores plantadas oferecidas pelo BNDES, 2015

rea de abrangncia Linha de crdito


Programa / Program Beneficirio / Beneficiary
Area covered Line of credit

Sociedades com sede e administrao


no Pas; empresrios individuais;
Apoio a investimentos em associaes e fundaes; pessoas
meio ambiente. jurdicas de direito pblico.
FINEM Support for investments in Companies with headquarters and
Financiamento a the environment. administration in Brazil, individual
Empreendimentos entrepreneurs, associations and foundations,
Nacional corporate entities subject to public law.
National
FINEM
Financing for Pessoas jurdicas de direito privado e
Undertakings pblico, empresrios individuais, associaes
e fundaes.
Florestal / Forest
Corporate entities governed by private
and public law, individual entrepreneurs,
associations and foundations.

ABC (Programa para ABC Recuperao / ABC Recovery


Reduo da Emisso
Produtores rurais (pessoas fsicas ou jurdicas),
de Gases de Efeito ABC Plantio Direto e Recuperao e suas cooperativas, inclusive para repasse
Estufa na Agricultura) ABC Direct Planting and Recovery
Nacional a cooperados.
National Rural producers (individuals or corporate
The ABC Program
ABC Integrao / ABC Integration entities) and their cooperatives, including
(Program to Reduce
transfers to cooperative members.
Greenhouse Gas
Emissions in Agriculture) ABC Florestas / ABC Forests

Agroecologia / Agroecology

PRONAF (Programa
Nacional de Agroindstria / Agribusiness
Fortalecimento da
Agricultura Familiar)
Nacional Agricultores familiares de diferentes categorias.
ECO / ECO
National Family farmers from different categories.
PRONAF
(the National Program
to Strengthen Family Floresta / Forest
Agriculture)

Semirido / Semi-arid

80
Main lines of financing offered by BNDES for the planted tree sector, 2015

Taxa de juros (a.a.)


Finalidade / Purpose
Interest rate (p.a.)

Regularizao de APP e RL, silvicultura, outros.


Regularization of APP and RL, forestry, other.

3,9% 7,7%

Manejo florestal sustentvel, recuperao de APP e RL, silvicultura, outros.


Sustainable forestry management, recovery of APP and RL areas, forestry, other.

Reduo das emisses de gases de efeito estufa, reduo do desmatamento, ampliao da produo
agropecuria em bases sustentveis, adequao das propriedades rurais legislao ambiental, ampliao
da rea de florestas cultivadas e estimulao da recuperao de reas degradadas.
7,5% 8,0 %
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, reducing deforestation, expanding agricultural production on a
sustainable basis, bringing rural properties into compliance with environmental legislation, expanding
the area of cultivated forests, and stimulating the recovery of degraded areas.

Sistemas agroecolgicos e orgnicos de produo.


Agro-ecological and organic production systems.

Implantao, ampliao, recuperao ou modernizao de unidades.


Establishment, expansion, rehabilitation, or modernization of units.

Silvicultura e outros.
1,0% 5,5%
Forestry and other.

Manejo florestal sustentvel, recuperao de APP e RL, silvicultura, outros.


Sustainable forestry management, recovery of APP and RL areas, forestry, other.

Sustentabilidade dos agroecossistemas.


Sustainability of agroecosystems.

FONTE: PYRY E BNDES (2015) / SOURCE: PYRY AND BNDES (2015)

81
ANEXOS / APPENDICES

FIGURA 48 / FIGURE 48

Principais linhas de financiamento para o setor de rvores plantadas oferecidas pelos


Fundos Constitucionais, 2015

rea de abrangncia Linha de crdito


Programa / Program Beneficirio / Beneficiary
Area covered Line of credit

Produtores rurais, suas cooperativas e


associaes; empresas rurais, industriais,
Apoio conservao e controle
agroindustriais, comerciais e de prestao
FNE Verde Nordeste do meio ambiente.
de servios.
FNE Green Northeast Supports conservation and
Rural producers, their cooperatives and
environmental control.
associations; industrial, agro-industrial,
commercial, and service companies.

Conservao da natureza.
Nature conservation.
Produtores rurais (pessoas fsicas e jurdicas)
FCO Programa ABC Centro-Oeste e suas cooperativas e associaes.
FCO ABC Program Midwest Region Integrao lavoura, pecuria Farmers, individuals or corporate entities,
e floresta. as well as associations and cooperatives.
Integrating crops, livestock,
and forests.

Pessoas fsicas e jurdicas de direito privado


do setor rural, populaes tradicionais da
Apoio recuperao de APP e RL. Amaznia no contempladas pelo Pronaf.
Support to recover APP and RL areas. Individuals and legal private-law entities in
the rural sector, traditional populations in
Amazonia that are not covered by Pronaf.

FNO Biodiversidade Norte


FNO Biodiversity North Sociedades com sede e administrao
no pas, empresrios individuais,
associaes e fundaes, pessoas
Apoio aos empreendimentos
jurdicas de direito pblico.
sustentveis.
Companies with headquarters and
Support to sustainable ventures.
administration in Brazil, individual
entrepreneurs, associations and foundations,
corporate entities subject to public law.

Pessoas jurdicas de direito privado,


FNO Amaznia Apoio ao desenvolvimento inclusive empresas individuais, associaes
Sustentvel Norte sustentvel da Amaznia. e cooperativas.
FNO Sustainable North Support for sustainable Corporate private-law corporate entities
Amazonia development of the Amazon. including individual entrepreneurs,
associations, and cooperatives.

82
Main lines of financing offered by Constitutional Funds for the planted tree sector, 2015

Taxa de juros (a.a.)


Finalidade / Purpose
Interest rate (p.a.)

Manejo florestal sustentvel, silvicultura, recuperao de APP e RL, outros.


5,0% 10,0%
Sustainable forestry management, forestry, recovery of APP and RL areas, forestry, other.

Manejo florestal sustentvel, silvicultura, recuperao de APP e RL, outros.


Sustainable forestry management, forestry, recovery of APP and RL areas, forestry, other.

4,0% 8,5%
Silvicultura e outros.
Forestry and other.

Recuperao de APP e RL.


Recovery of APP and RL areas.

3,5% 4,1%

Manejo florestal sustentvel, silvicultura, e outros.


Sustainable forestry management, forestry, other.

Viabilizao de empreendimentos do segmento industrial de transformao de produtos florestais.


3,5% 4,1%
Viability of enterprises in the industrial segment of processing forest products.

FONTE: PYRY E BNDES (2015) / SOURCE: PYRY AND BNDES (2015)

83
ANEXOS / APPENDICES

NOTAS METODOLGICAS METHODOLOGICAL NOTES


rea de rvores plantadas Area of planted trees
A rea de rvores plantadas no Brasil foi The area of planted trees in Brazil was
estimada a partir de dados obtidos em: estimated using data obtained from:
Questionrios respondidos pelas empre- Questionnaire responses from member
sas associadas e associaes estaduais filiadas companies and state associations which are
Indstria Brasileira de rvores (Ib); affiliated with the Brazilian Tree Industry (Ib);
Documentos oficiais e dados de instituies Official documents and data from government
governamentais e autarquias, como secretarias es- institutions and local authorities such as state-level
taduais, institutos, fundaes e universidades; departments, institutes, foundations, and universities;
Contato com empresas da cadeia produ- Contact with companies in the planted tree
tiva de rvores plantadas no associadas Ib. productive chain which are not associated with Ib.
Como as informaes de rea plantada Since the information about planted
no Brasil foram apresentadas pelos estados da area in Brazil was presented by state, the
Federao, a metodologia de obteno dessas methodology for obtaining those estimates is
estimativas est detalhada a seguir, por estado: detailed below by state:
Amap: rea estimada a partir do conta- Amap: area estimated through direct
to direto com empresas da cadeia produtiva de contact with companies in the planted tree
rvores plantadas no associadas Ib. Estima- productive chain which are not affiliated with Ib.
-se que a margem de erro pode variar 10%. The margin of error is estimated at 10%.
Bahia: rea estimada a partir dos question- Bahia: area estimated through responses
rios respondidos pelas empresas associadas Ib to questionnaires by Ib member companies and
e pelo contato direto com empresas da cadeia pro- direct contact with companies in the planted tree
dutiva de rvores plantadas no associadas Ib. productive chain which are not affiliated with Ib.
Estima-se que a margem de erro pode variar 10%. The margin of error is estimated at 10%.
Esprito Santo: rea estimada a partir dos Esprito Santo: area estimated through
questionrios respondidos pelas empresas as- responses to questionnaires by Ib member
sociadas Ib e pelo contato direto com empre- companies and direct contact with companies
sas da cadeia produtiva de rvores plantadas in the planted tree productive chain which are
no associadas Ib. Estima-se que a margem not affiliated with Ib. The margin of error is
de erro pode variar 10%. estimated at 10%.
Gois: rea estimada a partir do contato Gois: area estimated through direct
direto com empresas da cadeia produtiva de r- contact with companies in the planted tree
vores plantadas no associadas Ib. Estima-se productive chain which are not affiliated with Ib.
que a margem de erro pode variar 10%. The margin of error is estimated at 10%.
Maranho: rea estimada a partir dos Maranho: area estimated through
questionrios respondidos pelas empresas as- responses to questionnaires by Ib member
sociadas Ib e pelo contato direto com empre- companies and direct contact with companies
sas da cadeia produtiva de rvores plantadas in the planted tree productive chain which are
no associadas Ib. Estima-se que a margem not affiliated with Ib. The margin of error is
de erro pode variar 10%. estimated at 10%.

84
Mato Grosso: rea estimada a partir dos Mato Grosso: area estimated through
questionrios respondidos pelas empresas as- responses to questionnaires by Ib member
sociadas Ib e pelo contato direto com empre- companies and direct contact with companies
sas da cadeia produtiva de rvores plantadas in the planted tree productive chain which are
no associadas Ib. Estima-se que a margem not affiliated with Ib. The margin of error is
de erro pode variar 10%. estimated at 10%.
Mato Grosso do Sul: rea estimada a par- Mato Grosso do Sul: area estimated
tir dos questionrios respondidos pelas empre- through responses to questionnaires by Ib
sas associadas Ib, pela Reflore e pelo contato member companies, by Reflore, and by direct
direto com empresas da cadeia produtiva de r- contact with companies in the planted tree
vores plantadas no associadas Ib. Estima-se productive chain which are not affiliated with Ib.
que a margem de erro pode variar 15%. The margin of error is estimated at 15%.
Minas Gerais: rea estimada a partir dos Minas Gerais: area estimated through
questionrios respondidos pelas empresas as- responses to questionnaires by Ib member
sociadas Ib e pelo contato direto com empre- companies and direct contact with companies
sas da cadeia produtiva de rvores plantadas in the planted tree productive chain which are
no associadas Ib. Estima-se que a margem not affiliated with Ib. The margin of error is
de erro pode variar 10%. estimated at 10%.
Par: rea estimada a partir dos ques- Par: area estimated through
tionrios respondidos pelas empresas associa- responses to questionnaires by Ib member
das Ib e pelo contato direto com empresas companies and direct contact with companies
da cadeia produtiva de rvores plantadas no in the planted tree productive chain which are
associadas Ib. Estima-se que a margem de not affiliated with Ib. The margin of error is
erro pode variar 20%. estimated at 20%.
Paran: rea estimada a partir dos ques- Paran: area estimated through
tionrios respondidos pelas empresas associa- responses to questionnaires by Ib member
das Ib, pela Apre, pela Afubra e pelo contato companies, by Apre, by Afubra, and by direct
direto com empresas da cadeia produtiva de r- contact with companies in the planted tree
vores plantadas no associadas Ib. Estima-se productive chain which are not affiliated with Ib.
que a margem de erro pode variar 15%. The margin of error is estimated at 15%.
Piau: rea estimada a partir dos question- Piau: area estimated through responses
rios respondidos pelas empresas associadas Ib to questionnaires by Ib member companies and
e pelo contato direto com empresas da cadeia pro- direct contact with companies in the planted tree
dutiva de rvores plantadas no associadas Ib. productive chain which are not affiliated with Ib.
Estima-se que a margem de erro pode variar 10%. The margin of error is estimated at 10%.
Rio Grande do Sul: rea estimada a partir Rio Grande do Sul: area estimated
dos questionrios respondidos pelas empresas through responses to questionnaires by Ib
associadas Ib, pela Ageflor, pela Afubra e pelo member companies, by Ageflor, by Afubra, and by
contato direto com empresas da cadeia produtiva direct contact with companies in the planted tree
de rvores plantadas no associadas Ib. Esti- productive chain which are not affiliated with Ib.
ma-se que a margem de erro pode variar 18%. The margin of error is estimated at 18%.

85
ANEXOS / APPENDICES

EDUARDO MOODY / VERACEL

Santa Catarina: rea estimada a partir Santa Catarina: area estimated


dos questionrios respondidos pelas empre- through responses to questionnaires by Ib
sas associadas Ib, pela ACR, pela Afubra e member companies, by Ageflor, by Afubra,
pelo contato direto com empresas da cadeia and by direct contact with companies in the
produtiva de rvores plantadas no associadas planted tree productive chain which are
Ib. Estima-se que a margem de erro pode not affiliated with Ib. The margin of error is
variar 20%. estimated at 20%.
So Paulo: rea estimada a partir dos So Paulo: area estimated through
questionrios respondidos pelas empresas as- responses to questionnaires by Ib member
sociadas Ib e pelo contato direto com empre- companies and direct contact with companies
sas da cadeia produtiva de rvores plantadas in the planted tree productive chain which are
no associadas Ib. Estima-se que a margem not affiliated with Ib. The margin of error is
de erro pode variar 20%. estimated at 20%.

86
Tocantins: rea estimada a partir dos Tocantins: area estimated through
questionrios respondidos pelas empresas as- responses to questionnaires by Ib member
sociadas Ib, pela Aretins e pelo contato dire- companies, by Aretins, and by direct contact with
to com empresas da cadeia produtiva de rvo- companies in the planted tree productive chain
res plantadas no associadas Ib. Estima-se which are not affiliated with Ib. The margin of
que a margem de erro pode variar 20%. error is estimated at 20%.
Demais Estados: rea estimada a partir Other states: area estimated through
dos questionrios respondidos pelas empresas responses to questionnaires by Ib member
associadas Ib e pelo contato direto com em- companies and direct contact with companies
presas da cadeia produtiva de rvores planta- in the planted tree productive chain which are
das no associadas Ib. Estima-se que a mar- not affiliated with Ib. The margin of error is
gem de erro pode variar 15%. estimated at 15%.

Consumo de madeira in natura Raw wood consumption


O consumo de madeira in natura foi esti- Consumption of raw wood was estimated
mado a partir de dados fornecidos pelas empre- from data provided by Ib member companies
sas associadas Ib e pelo contato com diver- and by contact with various companies that are
sas empresas no associadas. not affiliated with Ib.

Desempenho industrial Industrial performance


Para compor a srie histrica de produo Data from the following institutions
e consumo do setor brasileiro de rvores planta- were used to create the historical series of
das foram utilizados os dados publicados pelas production and consumption in the Brazilian
instituies identificadas a seguir: tree sector:
Celulose e papel: Indstria Brasileira de Pulp and paper: The Brazilian Tree
rvores (Ib); Industry (Ib);
Painis de madeira reconstituda e pisos Reconstituted wood panels and laminate
laminados: Indstria Brasileira de rvores (Ib); flooring: The Brazilian Tree Industry (Ib);
Produtos slidos de madeira: levanta- Solid wood products: survey conducted
mento realizado pela Pyry; by Pyry;
Siderurgia a carvo vegetal: levanta- Charcoal-fired steelworks: survey
mento realizado pela Pyry; conducted by Pyry.

Produto Interno Bruto Setorial Industrial Gross Domestic Product


O Produto Interno Bruto Setorial (PIBS) o The gross domestic product for the sector
indicador que quantifica o faturamento do setor (GDP) is the indicator that quantifies the revenue
brasileiro de rvores plantadas. for the Brazilian planted tree sector.

Arrecadao de tributos Tax collected


As estimativas quanto arrecadao de Using the estimated GDP for the sector
tributos foram realizadas tomando por base a and the relative percentages for the taxes

87
ANEXOS / APPENDICES

estimativa do PIBS e o percentual relativo ao applicable to the Brazilian planted tree sector,
recolhimento de tributos, a fim de se estimar the total amount of taxes collected in this sector
o valor correspondente ao montante de tribu- was obtained.
tos arrecadado pelo setor brasileiro de rvores
plantadas. Contribution to the Trade Balance
The data relating to the forest product
Contribuio para a Balana Comercial Trade Balance, in the monetary values for
Os dados referentes Balana Comercial exports and imports, were obtained from the
de produtos florestais, em valores monetrios AliceWeb System of the Bureau of Foreign
de exportao e de importao, foram obtidos Trade (SECEX) in the Ministry of Development,
no Sistema Alice Web, da Secretaria de Comr- Industry, and Foreign Trade (MDIC). These
cio Exterior (SECEX) do Ministrio do Desenvol- statistics were extracted using Common
vimento, Indstria e Comrcio Exterior (MDIC). Mercosur Nomenclature (NCM) related to
Tais estatsticas apuradas foram extradas a par- forest products for the year 2015, and thus
tir da Nomenclatura Comum do Mercosul (NCM) produced export values for the products
relativa aos produtos florestais para o ano de considered to originate specifically from
2014, obtendo assim os valores de exporta- planted trees.
o relativos aos produtos considerados como
oriundos especificamente de rvores plantadas. Productive investments
Productive investments were estimated
Investimentos produtivos from data provided by Ib member companies.
Os investimentos produtivos foram esti-
mados a partir de dados fornecidos pelas em- Employment and income generation
presas associadas Ib. In order to estimate the number of direct
and indirect jobs as well as the income effect
Gerao de emprego e renda of the Brazilian planted tree sector, we used
Para a estimativa do nmero de empre- the Model of Job Creation (MGE) published by
gos diretos, indiretos e de efeito-renda do setor BNDES, which considers that the number of
brasileiro de rvores plantadas, utilizou-se o Mo- jobs generated is proportional to each sector
delo de Gerao de Empregos (MGE) publicado of the economys increase in production.
pelo BNDES, que considera que o nmero de According to this model, the jobs can be
empregos gerados proporcional ao aumento classified into three categories:
na produo de cada setor da economia. Se- Direct jobs: labor employed by the
gundo esse modelo, os empregos podem ser sector that produces a particular product.
classificados em trs categorias: Any increase in demand implies a production
Empregos diretos: mo de obra empre- increase of equal magnitude in the sector
gada pelo segmento que produz determinado where this increase was seen, considering
bem. Qualquer incremento de demanda implica constant productivity.
um aumento de produo de igual magnitude Indirect jobs: labor employed by the
no setor onde se verificou esse aumento, consi- sectors that comprise the entire production
derando a produtividade constante. chain (intermediate goods) of a particular

88
ARQUIVO CENIBRA

Empregos indiretos: mo de obra em- product. Increased demand in a specific sector


pregada pelos segmentos que compem toda causes an increase in production throughout
a cadeia produtiva (bens intermedirios) de um the production chain, feeding back into the
determinado bem. O aumento de demanda em process of job creation.
um setor especfico provoca um aumento de pro- Income-effect employment: labor
duo ao longo de toda a cadeia produtiva, rea- employed in the production of various goods
limentando o processo de gerao de emprego. and services. Part of the income received
Emprego efeito-renda: mo de obra by workers and entrepreneurs in the form
empregada na produo de bens e servios of salaries and/or dividends is converted
diversos. Parte da renda recebida por trabalha- into private consumption, which stimulates
dores e empresrios em forma de salrios e/ou production in other sectors of the economy,
dividendos convertida em consumo privado, o feeding back into the process of job creation.
qual estimula a produo de outros setores da In this way, increased production provides an

89
ANEXOS / APPENDICES

economia, realimentando o processo de gerao increase in income, which in turn generates an


de emprego. Dessa forma, o aumento de produ- increase in private consumption.
o proporciona o aumento de renda, que, por The income directly generated by the
sua vez, gera aumento de consumo privado. sector was estimated from the number of jobs
A renda gerada diretamente pelo setor foi directly generated by associated companies
estimada a partir do nmero de empregos ge- and from the net average wages for workers in
rados diretamente pelas associadas e o salrio forest-based industry.
mdio lquido dos trabalhadores da indstria de
base florestal. Social and environmental investments
Productive investments were estimated
Investimentos socioambientais from data provided by Ib member companies.
Os investimentos socioambientais foram
estimados a partir de dados fornecidos pelas Regional development
empresas associadas Ib. Regional development data were
obtained through the Municipal Human
Desenvolvimento regional Development Index (MHDI) which is distributed
Os dados referentes ao desenvolvimento via the United Nations Development Program
regional foram obtidos por meio do ndice de (UNDP) and measures the three basic
Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal (IDHM), dimensions of human development: income,
divulgado pelo Programa das Naes Unidas education, and health.
para o Desenvolvimento (PNUD), que mensura The MHDI can vary from 0 to 1,
as trs dimenses bsicas do desenvolvimento classifying municipalities as being at low
humano: renda, educao e sade. stages of development (0 < MHDI < 0.4), regular
O IDHM pode variar entre 0 e 1, o que development (0.4 < MHDI < 0.6), moderate
classifica os municpios em baixo estgio de de- development (0.6 < MHDI < 0.8) and high stages
senvolvimento (0 < IDHM < 0,4), desenvolvimen- of development (0.8 < MHDI < 1.0).
to regular (0,4 < IDHM < 0,6), desenvolvimento
moderado (0,6 < IDHM < 0,8) e alto estgio de Energy in the sector
desenvolvimento (0,8 < IDHM < 1,0). Energy in the sector was estimated from
data provided by Ib member companies and
Matriz energtica do setor by contact with various companies that are not
A matriz energtica do setor foi estimada affiliated with Ib.
a partir de dados fornecidos pelas empresas
associadas Ib e pelo contato com diversas Solid waste
empresas no associadas. Information on solid waste was estimated
from data provided by Ib member companies
Resduos slidos and by contact with various companies that are
As informaes sobre resduos slidos not affiliated with Ib.
foram estimados a partir de dados fornecidos
pelas empresas associadas Ib e pelo contato
com diversas empresas no associadas.

90
ARQUIVO FLORESTECA

Lists
Listas
LISTAS / LISTS

LISTA DE FIGURAS / LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURA 1 Aumento do custo de produo da madeira versus inflao brasileira (IPCA)


24
FIGURE 1 Increase in the cost of wood production versus brazilian inflation (IPCA)
FIGURA 2 Estoque de carbono
34
FIGURE 2 Carbon stocks
FIGURA 3 rea de rvores plantadas
38
FIGURE 3 Area of planted trees
FIGURA 4 reas de rvores plantadas no Brasil por estado e gnero, 2015
38
FIGURE 4 Area of planted trees in Brazil by state and by species, 2015
FIGURA 5 Distribuio e evoluo da rea com plantios de eucalipto, por estado
39
FIGURE 5 Distribution and evolution of area planted with eucalyptus, by state
FIGURA 6 Distribuio e evoluo da rea com plantios de pinus, por estados
39
FIGURE 6 Distribution and evolution of area planted with pine, by state
FIGURA 7 Composio da rea de rvores plantadas por segmento no Brasil, 2015
40
FIGURE 7 Composition of the area of planted trees in Brazil by segment, 2015
FIGURA 8 Produtividade e rotao mdia de rvores no Brasil versus outros importantes players mundiais
42
FIGURE 8 Productivity and average rotation of planted trees in Brazil versus other significant players worldwide
FIGURA 9 Evoluo da produtividade do eucalipto e pinus no Brasil, 2010-2015
42
FIGURE 9 Evolution in eucalyptus and pine productivity in Brazil, 2010-2015
FIGURA 10 rea manejada e plantada certificada por sistema de certificao, 2015
43
FIGURE 10 Certified managed and planted area by certification system, 2015
FIGURA 11 Evoluo anual do PIB brasileiro
45
FIGURE 11 Yearly variation in brazilian GDP
FIGURA 12 Principais indicadores do segmento de celulose
47
FIGURE 12 Main indicators in the pulp sector
FIGURA 13 Principais indicadores do segmento de papis
48
FIGURE 13 Main indicators in the paper sector
FIGURA 14 Distribuio geogrfica das empresas produtoras de celulose e papel
49
FIGURE 14 Geographic distribution of the companies producing pulp and paper
FIGURA 15 Principais indicadores do segmento de painis de madeira reconstituda
51
FIGURE 15 Main indicators in the reconstituted wood panel segment
FIGURA 16 Produo brasileira de pisos laminados
51
FIGURE 16 Brazilian production of laminate flooring
FIGURA 17 Distribuio geogrfica das principais unidades produtoras de painis de madeira reconstituda
52
FIGURE 17 Geographical distribution of main units producing reconstituted wood panels
FIGURA 18 Produo de madeira serrada
53
FIGURE 18 Production of lumber
FIGURA 19 Produo de painis compensados
54
FIGURE 19 Production of plywood panels
FIGURA 20 Consumo nacional de carvo vegetal, 2007-2015
55
FIGURE 20 Brazilian charcoal consumption, 2007-2015
FIGURA 21 Principais polos de consumo de carvo vegetal no Brasil
55
FIGURE 21 Main centers of charcoal consumption in Brazil
FIGURA 22 Produto Interno Bruto setorial a preos de mercado, 2014-2015
57
FIGURE 22 Industry Gross Domestic Product at market prices, 2014-2015
Variao do PIB do setor de rvores plantadas e de outros setores da economia brasileira, 2015 em
FIGURA 23
relao a 2014 / Change in GDP of the planted tree industry versus other sectors of the brazilian 58
FIGURE 23
economy, 2015 versus 2014
FIGURA 24 Arrecadao de tributos pelo setor
59
FIGURE 24 Taxes collected by the industry

92
FIGURA 25 Participao relativa dos segmentos na arrecadao de impostos do setor, 2015
59
FIGURE 25 Relative share of industrial segments in tax collection in the industry, 2015
FIGURA 26 Balana Comercial dos segmentos do setor de rvores plantadas, 2015
60
FIGURE 26 Trade Balance for the segments of the planted tree industry, 2015
FIGURA 27 Evoluo da Balana Comercial do setor de rvores plantadas, 2010-2015
60
FIGURE 27 Change in Trade Balance for the planted tree industry, 2010-2015
FIGURA 28 Principais destinos dos produtos do setor brasileiro de rvores plantadas, em valor de exportao
61
FIGURE 28 Main destinations for products from the brazilian planted tree sector, in export value
FIGURA 29 Investimentos realizados em 2015 pelas associadas Ib
63
FIGURE 29 Investments made in 2015 by Ib member companies
FIGURA 30 Gerao direta de renda pelo setor brasileiro de rvores plantadas, 2015
63
FIGURE 30 Direct income generated by the Brazil planted tree sector, 2015
FIGURA 31 Distribuio das reas conservadas do setor de rvores plantadas, 2015
65
FIGURE 31 Distribution of areas preserved by the planted tree industry, 2015
FIGURA 32 Investimentos em programas socioambientais, 2015
67
FIGURE 32 Investments in social and environmental programs, 2015
FIGURA 33 Pessoas beneficiadas por fomento florestal
67
FIGURE 33 People benefiting from outgrower programs
FIGURA 34 Balano energtico setorial, 2015
68
FIGURE 34 Energy balance in the sector, 2015
FIGURA 35 Fontes de energia utilizadas pelo setor
68
FIGURE 35 Energy sources used by the sector
FIGURA 36 Resduos gerados, por tipo e mtodos de disposio, 2015
70
FIGURE 36 Waste generated by type and disposal method, 2015
FIGURA 37 Evoluo da taxa de reciclagem de papis no Brasil, 2007-2015
70
FIGURE 37 Change in the paper recycling rate in Brazil, 2007-2015
FIGURA 38 Histrico da rea plantada com rvores de eucalipto, 2010-2015
72
FIGURE 38 Historical area planted with eucalyptus trees, 2010-2015
FIGURA 39 Histrico da rea plantada com rvores de pinus, 2010-2015
73
FIGURE 39 Historical area planted with pine trees, 2010-2015
FIGURA 40 Histrico da rea plantada por outras culturas florestais, 2010-2015
73
FIGURE 40 Historical area planted with other forest species, 2010-2015
FIGURA 41 Consumo de madeira para uso industrial, 2015
74
FIGURE 41 Wood consumption for industrial use, 2015
FIGURA 42 Histrico da produo e consumo de celulose no Brasil, 2005-2015
75
FIGURE 42 Historical production and consumption of pulp in Brazil, 2005-2015
FIGURA 43 Histrico da produo e consumo de papel no Brasil, 2005-2015
75
FIGURE 43 Historical production and consumption of paper in Brazil, 2005-2015
FIGURA 44 Histrico da produo e consumo de painis de madeira reconstituda no Brasil, 2005-2015
76
FIGURE 44 Historical production and consumption of reconstituted wood panels in Brazil, 2005-2015
FIGURA 45 Evoluo dos preos de produtos florestais ndice base 2000=100
77
FIGURE 45 Changes in forest product prices Base index 2000 = 100
FIGURA 46 Comparativo do IDHM entre os municpios florestais e a mdia nacional
78
FIGURE 46 Comparison of MHDI between forest municipalities and the national average
FIGURA 47 Principais linhas de financiamento para o setor de rvores plantadas oferecidas pelo BNDES, 2015
80
FIGURE 47 Main lines of financing offered by BNDES for the planted tree sector, 2015
Principais linhas de financiamento para o setor de rvores plantadas oferecidas pelos Fundos
FIGURA 48
Constitucionais, 2015 / Main lines of financing offered by Constitutional Funds for the planted tree 82
FIGURE 48
sector, 2015

93
LISTAS / LISTS

LISTA DE SIGLAS / LIST OF ACRONYMS

Sigla / Acronym Significado / Meaning


1G 1 gerao
1G 1st generation
2G 2 gerao
2G 2nd generation
3G 3 gerao
3G 3rd generation
a.a. ao ano
p.a. per annum
ABAF Associao Baiana das Empresas de Base Florestal
ABAF Florest Plantation Producers Association of Bahia
ACR Associao Catarinense de Empresas Florestais
ACR Santa Catarina Association of Forest Enterprises
AFUBRA Associao dos Fumicultores do Brasil
AFUBRA Brazilian Tobacco Growers Association
AGEFLOR Associao Gacha de Empresas Florestais
AGEFLOR Rio Grande do Sul Forest Companies Association
AMS Associao Mineira de Silvicultura
AMS The Silviculture Association of Minas Gerais
APP rea de Preservao Permanente
APP Area of Permanent Preservation
APRE Associao Paranaense de Empresas de Base Florestal
APRE Paran Forest Companies Association
AREFLORESTA Associao de Reflorestadores de Mato Grosso
AREFLORESTA Mato Grosso Foresters Association
ARETINS Associao dos Reflorestadores do Tocantins
ARETINS Tocantins Foresters Association
BHKP Bleached Hardwood Kraft Pulp
BHKP Bleached Hardwood Kraft Pulp
BNDES Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econmico e Social
BNDES National Social and Economic Development Bank
BSKP Bleached Softwood Kraft Pulp
BSKP Bleached Softwood Kraft Pulp
CAR Cadastro Ambiental Rural
CAR Rural Environmental Register
CERFLOR Programa Brasileiro de Certificao Florestal
CERFLOR Brazilian Forest Certification Program
CH4 Metano
CH4 Methane
CO2 Dixido de carbono
CO2 Carbon dioxide
EUA Estados Unidos da Amrica
USA United States of America
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FCO Fundo Constitucional de Financiamento do Centro-Oeste
FCO Constitutional Fund to Finance the Midwest
FINEM Financiamento a Empreendimentos
FINEM Financing for Undertakings

94
Sigla / Acronym Significado / Meaning
FLORESTAR Associao Paulista de Produtores de Florestas Plantadas
FLORESTAR So Paulo State Forest Plantation Producers Association
FNE Fundo Constitucional de Financiamento do Nordeste
FNE Constitutional Fund to Finance the Northeast
FNO Fundo Constitucional de Financiamento do Norte
FNO Constitutional Fund to Finance the North
FSC Forest Stewardship Council
FSC Forest Stewardship Council
GJ Gigajoule
GJ Gigajoule
Ha Hectares
Ha Hectares
HB Hardboard
HB Hardboard
HDF High Density Fiberboard
HDF High Density Fiberboard
Ib Indstria Brasileira de rvores
Ib Brazilian Tree Industry
IBGE Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatstica
IBGE Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
IDHM ndice de Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal
MHDI Municipal Human Development Index
IEA Instituto de Economia Agrcola
IEA Agricultural Economics Institute
IPCA ndice Nacional de Preos ao Consumidor Amplo
IPCA Extended National Consumer Price Index
m2 Metro Quadrado
m2 Square Meter
m3 Metro Cbico
m3 Cubic Meter
MDF Medium Density Fiberboard
MDF Medium Density Fiberboard
MDIC Ministrio do Desenvolvimento, Indstria e Comrcio Exterior
MDIC Ministry of Development, Industry, and Foreign Trade
MDP Medium Density Particleboard
MDP Medium Density Particleboard
MGE Modelo de Gerao de Empregos
MGE Job Generation Model
NCM Nomenclatura Comum do Mercosul
NCM Mercosur Common Nomenclature
PE Polietileno
PE Polyethylene
PEFC Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification
PEFC Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification
PIB Produto Interno Bruno
GDP Gross Domestic Product
PIBS Produto Interno Bruno Setorial
PIBS Industrial Gross Domestic Product
PNUD Programa das Naes Unidas para o Desenvolvimento
UNDP United Nations Development Program

95
LISTAS / LISTS

Sigla / Acronym Significado / Meaning


PP Polipropileno
PP Polypropylene
PRONAF Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar
PRONAF National Program to Strengthen Family Agriculture
R$ Real
R$ Brazilian Real
REFLORE Associao Sul-Mato-Grossense de Produtores e Consumidores de Florestas Plantadas
REFLORE Mato Grosso do Sul Planted Forest Producers and Consumers Association
RL Reserva Legal
LR Legal Reserve
RPPN Reserva Particular do Patrimnio Natural
RPPN Private Natural Heritage Reserve
SECEX Secretaria de Comrcio Exterior
SECEX Foreign Trade Secretariat
SLIMF Small and Low Intensity Managed Forests
SLIMF Small and Low Intensity Managed Forests
t Tonelada
t ton
TIMOs Timber Investment Management Organizations
TIMOs Timber Investment Management Organizations
US$ Dlar
US$ US Dollar

96
ARQUIVO DURATEX

97
Presidente do Conselho Consultivo O Relatrio Ib 2016 uma publicao da Indstria Brasileira
President of the Consultive Council de rvores. A reproduo das informaes permitida
Daniel Feffer desde que citada a fonte. / Ib 2016 is a report of the
Brazilian Tree Industry. Reproduction is permitted, provided
Presidente do Conselho Deliberativo the source is mentioned.
Chairman
Carlos A. L. Aguiar Coordenao / Coordination
Equipe de Comunicao & Marketing Institucional da Ib
Presidente Executiva com apoio das seguintes reas: Assuntos Florestais, Poltica
Executive President Industrial, Estatstica, Relaes Internacionais, Relaes com
Elizabeth de Carvalhaes Stakeholders, Relaes Governamentais e Institucionais e
Sustentabilidade e das empresas associadas. /
Ib Communication & Institutional Marketing, supported
by the following areas: Forestry Affairs, Industrial Policy,
Statistics, International Relations, Stakeholders Relations,
Government and Institutional Relations and Sustainability
and member companies.

Elaborao / Developed by
Pyry Consultoria em Gesto e Negcios Ltda.

Redao / Writing
GWA Comunicao Integrada

Traduo / Translation
Tracy Smith Miyake

Projeto grfico e editorao / Design and DTP


Studio 113

Endereos / Addresses
So Paulo
Rua Olimpadas, 66 9 andar
CEP 04551-000 So Paulo SP
Tel.: (55 11) 3018-7800

Braslia
SAS, Quadra 1, Bloco N, Lotes 1/2
Edifcio Terra Brasilis, salas 1205/1206
CEP: 70070-010 Braslia DF
Tels.: (55 61) 3224-0108 / 3224-0109
Fax: (55 61) 3224-0115

www.iba.org