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Nam READ THE PASSAGE Think about the main idea of each paragraph. Hidden Cities Beneath Our Feet In big cities, people dig all the time. Construction workers dig to make foundations for new buildings and homes. Utlity companies dig to access broken water pipes or bad electrical wires. City governments dig to make the land more usable. Otten while digging, people find items from the past, such as old shoes, bottles, or plates. Although these items can be interesting, they are usually not extraordinary. In 1978, electric company workers in Mexico City, Mexico, made an amazing discovery. They were digging in the middle ofthe city when they uncovered a monumental carved stone disk that was 500 years old. The object weighed more than eight tons and showed the image of the striking Aztec moon goddess, Coyolxauhqui ‘As surprising as the discovery was, it was only the beginning. The disk turned out to be one small part cof the ruins of the ancient capital of the Aztec empire, Tenochtitlan. Historians knew that Tenochtitlan had been destroyed in 1521 when Spanish conquerors tore down buildings and began to build new structures on top of the ruins. But no one knew exactly where the ruins were, nor how much stil existed. Despite years of searching, the ancient city’s location remained a mystery until those lucky electricians unearthed the first huge clue. ‘iter the discovery of the carved disk, workers uncovered more remains of the city, including a large pyramid-shaped temple that was a ceremonial center of Tenochtitlan. Today, visitors to Mexico City can tour the original site and visit the Templo Mayor Museum. The museum has eight halls featuring thousands of objects that have been excavated, or dug up, from beneath the modern city, This vast treasure includes shells, carved figures, skeletons, ceramics, mosaics, weapons, and statues. SKILL PRACTICE Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1. The first paragraph is mostly about @ tools used by ancient Aztecs of Tenochtitlan are a “vast treasur © how workers find old objects @® The stone disk weighed more than eight tons. ® Tenochtitlan had been destroyed in 1521. © The temple was shaped like a pyramid, 3. Which detail best supports the idea that the ruins © the unexpected discovery of a stone disk © how scientists learn about other cultures © Thousands of ancient objects were discovered, 2. Why were historians surprised to find the ruins of ‘Tenochtitlan? 4, Which of these statements best tells the main idea ® They thought the ruins had been completely of the passage? destroyed. @ Tenochtitlan was destroyed in 1521 © They believed the city was buried much deeper ® Many people visit Mexico City to see the ruins underground. ‘of the Aztec people. © They thought the ruins were somewhere else © Construction workers helped Mexico City © They had never known where the city was discorerdia enclent part located. © Coyolxauhqui was an Aztec moon goddess who is represented on an ancient stone disk STRATEGY PRACTICE) Underline any parts you did not understand. Reread only those parts. © Evan-Moor Carp, + EMC 8487 * Dally Reading Comprehension a7 ‘Submarine Basics ‘Submarines are boats that are designed to operate and travel underwater, Because they are full of air, like a balloon, submarines do not sink. The air makes them less dense than the water around them. Many kinds of boats use “ballast,” which is any material that adds weight to make the boat more stable. Ballast | deep into the ocean. In order to store the water it takes in, a submarine has large ballast tanks, which can hold different ‘amounts of water. To make the submarine dive, special operators pump water into the ballast tanks. Once the controllers have pumped in enough water, the submarine can begin its journey into the ocean depths. ‘The speed at which the submarine dives is partially controlled by how quickly the ballast tanks take in water. When the submatine is underwater, operators maintain a steady depth by pumping some air back into the ballast tanks. inthis stato, known as “neutral buoyancy,” a submarine can travel around without rising or falling. in order to move through water, the submarine has propellers. The propellers are curved in such a way that they push water forward or backward depending on which way the propellers are spinning. The faster the propellers spin, the faster the submarine will travel. Navigators use special equipment that helps pilots steer submarines safely in dark or murky waters. ‘To return the submarine to the surface, air is pumped into the ballast tanks, which pushes all ofthe ‘water out. As the amount of ballast in the submarine decreases, the craft once again becomes less dense and begins to rise. Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1. What is the passage mostly about? 3, A submarine can sink when it__. @® ocean density and buoyancy @ is denser than ocean water © how to navigate a submarine © is navigating through dark water © different kinds of ballast © turns on its propellers © how submarines operate © is pumped full of air 2. Which of the following is an example of using water 4, When a submarine is at “neutral buoyancy,” as ballast? @® spinning propellers to move forward @® pumps air to rise to the surface © pumping in water to become more dense © stays at the same depth underwater © navigating through underwater obstacles © adds water to become faster © measuring the density of ocean water © iseasy to navigate through the dark [ISTRAYEGVIPRACTICR) Visualize what you read about. On a separate sheet of paper, sketch a submarine, including its ballast tanks. 48 Daily Reading Comprehension * EMC 3457 «© Evan-Moor Corp. Name: READ THEPASSAGE Pay attention to the order of events in the passage. Running Late Natasha ran as fast as she could to the tennis courts. The yearbook meeting had run long, and practice was already starting. Coach Parks made the players who showed up late collect all the tennis balls after latasha thought as she tightened the laces on her tennis shoes, “that means Il be late for my guitar lesson.” The day had been a blur of activities, classes, clubs, and projects. Natasha felt sure there was something she was forgetting, ‘When practice was over, Natasha raced around the court, scooping the fuzzy yellow tennis balls into a large plastic bucket. Her mind was already working on the apology for her guitar teacher, Mr. Takanawa, when she heard the familiar honk of her mother’s car horn, Natasha returned the balls and bucket to the equipment room and hopped in the front seat. “Do you think Mr. Takanawa will be upset that I'm late?" "We moved your guitar lesson to next Monday sweetie?” Natasha thought back carefully. “Well, yesterday was science club and swim practice, and tomorrow is dance class and then volunteer time at the library, so that means today is Wednesday. | didn't forget.” “You're right, itis Wednesday. Wednesday the 18". Which means...” practice was over. "Great, Mom said, smiling. "Did you forget what day itis today, Natasha's face flushed bright red, “Oh no! How could | forget my own birthday dinner? Well, atleast this. means | won't have to apologize to Mr. Takanawa for being late!” SKILL PRACTICE Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1. According to the passage, when docs Natasha 3. Which event caused Natasha to be late for usually have guitar lessons? tennis practice? @® Tuesday, after swim practice @® acanceled guitar lesson ® Wednesday, before yearbook club © along yearbook meeting © Wednesday, after tennis practice © cleaning up the tennis equipment ® Tuesday, before science club © attending her birthday dinner 2. Which of Natasha's activities happens latest 4, On which day of the week does Natasha have in the week? the most activities? @® guitar lesson ® Monday © dance class © Tuesday © tennis practice © Wednesday © volunteer time at the library © Thorsday red Sequence (J \GJ STRATEGY PRACTICE) Ona separate sheet of paper, make a chart of Natasha's weekly schedule, Then compare your chart toa partner's. © Evan-Moor Corp, * EMC 3487 « Daily Reading Comprehension 49 read Sequence (JV G3) i) As you read, visualize each step the author gives for surviving a bear attack. How to Survive a Bear Attack | ‘Thousands of nature lovers see black bears and grizzly bears each year, and most walk away with exciting memories and photographs. But for the unlucky few, bear encounters can lead to serious injury or | death. If you come upon a bear in its natural setting, your first instinct may be to panic. But staying safe | depends on acting carefully and calmly. | There are many theories about how a person should react when faced with a giant bear. Some people would suggest running away, but bears can run much faster than humans can. Others say a person should drop to the ground, curl up, and play dead. That turns out to be good advice in some situations but not in others. Itis best to be as educated as possible about different bear behaviors before you head into the wild. Ia bear is coming toward you, you rust first determine if the bear attack is defensive (such as when defending cubs) or predatory (such as when hunting). Black bears and grizzly bears tend to attack for different reasons. Most grizzly bear attacks are defensive. When a bear is defensive, itis feeling threatened. Dropping to the ground is an effective way to show the bear that you are not a threat. | Black bears do not often challenge humans, but when they do, their attacks are usually predatory. | Bears do not fee! threatened when they are hunting, so playing dead will not help you stay safe. During a ~ predatory bear attack, the first thing you should do is drop any food you have and back away. if the bear still ‘comes toward you, make as much noise as possible by shouting and banging objects. Your own aggressive behavior can convince the bear to back down. You can also use pepper spray during a bear attack. Always bring it with you in the wild, and have it ready to use immediately. (SRIUDERAGEEED Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer, 1. Ifa bear is coming toward you, the first thing you 3. What should you do before hiking in an area need to do is determine. where you might encounter bears? ® whether you have pepper spray @ learn to identify black bears and grizzly bears © how far away the bear is @® practice dropping to the ground and © ifthe attack is defensive or predatory playing dead © act aggressively, making loud noises © where the nearest hiding place is © train yoursélfto run very quickly 2, At what point is it a good idea to drop down and play dead? 4. During a predatory bear attack, you should make @ after determining that the bear is defensive loud noises © at the first sign that a bear is nearby ® while looking for pepper spray © after trying to run away © before dropping down and playing dead © before making noise © while running for safety © after dropping any food you have (ISPHATEGYIBRACHICE) Write three details from the passage that were easy for you to visualize. 50 Dally Reading Comprehension + EMC 3457 © Evan-Moor Corp, Main Idea and Details Bagg Sequence QU \ 4} READ THE PASSAGE Think about the order of steps used to create stop-motion animation. ‘Stop-Motion Ar ‘Stop-motion animation uses multiple photos of real objects to create the appearance of movement, To make your own stop-motion movie, you will need a digital camera, a tripod (camera stand), one or more background sets, editing software, and your story's characters. Your characters can be anything you can move: action figures, stuffed animals, or clay creatures of your own design. First, place your camera on a tripod to keep the camera stil. Even though you are creating the illusion of movement, the camera should not move at all. With the camera in place, set up your first background set. You will take about 10 pictures for each second of your animation. Think about the movements you ‘want to create and the story you want to tell. To begin shooting, place your character and take a picture. ‘Then move the character a small amount and snap another picture. Keep repeating this process, and you will have a series of photos that you can upload into your editing software. Remember that the speed your characters move during the animation will be determined by how much you moved them in between photos, For example, if you want a character to walk from one side of the screen to the other in two seconds, you ‘will need to break the movement into 20 pictures. When you are editing your movie, you can add dialogue, sound effects, and music. You can also add ation titles and special effects, such as zooming In on a character. When you have finished, you can share your masterpiece with the world, PRACTICE Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1, The passage is mostly about ® the history of stop-motion animation © how to use movie-editing software © using the movie setting om a digital camera 3. What should you always try to do while taking the pictures? @® use action figures © add music and special effects © how to make a stop-motion movie © keep the camera from moving ® 200m in on characters 2. ‘To make a stop-motion movie, which of the following should you do first? 4, One of the final steps in making a stop-motion movie is adding @ atitle ® movement ® move your character a small amount ® put your camera on a tripod © upload photos into editing software © add special effects © characters © abackground STRATEGY PRACTICE) Did you understand the directions for making a stop-motion movie? Why or why not? ‘© Evan-Moor Corp. * EMC 8457 + Dally Reading Comprehension 51 Nam _ Proce) Main Idea and Details QL7.V@il READ THE PASSAGE As you read, think about each paragraph’s main idea. Gigantic Prehistoric Sloths (One of the largest mammals to ever walk the earth was the prehistoric giant ground sloth. Giant ground sloths lived primarily in South and Central America until they became extinct, or died out completely. Giant ‘ground sloths became extinct about 10,000 years ago, during the end of the lee Age. ‘The scientific name for the prehistoric giant ground sloth is Megatherium, which means “gigantic beast.” ‘And indeed, giant ground sloths were massive creatures. Bigger than most elephants, they weighed around five tons. When standing on their powerful hind legs, giant sloths were about 20 feet tall, or about twice the height of a basketball hoop stand. Megatheriums had huge, 12-inch claws on each of their front paws. They used these claws primarily for reaching and removing choice leaves from trees and bushes. The sloths also had claws on their back paws, but the size of those claws was much less threatening. Despite the power of the sloths’ claws, most scientists believe they were most likely used only for gathering food. Giant ground sioths were very slow-moving animals that ate only plants. When they were standing, the sloths used their muscular tails for balance. Otherwise, they walked very slowly on all four feet. Modern-day sloths are small tree-hanging animals that are roughly the size of small dogs. They are also extremely slow= ‘moving, but they are much smaller and less dangerous than thelr awesome ancestors. The prehistoric giant ‘ground sloths were far too large to dwell in trees as their modern-day relatives do. Most likely, they could have easily reached the tops of most trees by simply standing up and reaching out with their enormous claws. SKILL PRACTICE Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1. What is the passage mostly about? 3. How did giant ground sloths balance themselves when they were standing up? @ with their claws ® with their tails © with their front legs © with tree branches @ large mammals © the Ice Age © giant ground sloths © prehistoric animals . Prehistoric ground sloths were different from ‘modern-day sloths because prehistoric ground 4, Which detail supports the idea that giant ground sloths sloths were huge animals? @® were bigger @® They moved very slowly. © were slower © Their claws were powerful weapons. © ate fewer plants © They could stand on their hind legs. © did not become extinct © They weighed around five tons. STRATEGY PRACTICE Did you understand the main ideas the author presented? Why or why not? © Evan-Moor Corp. * EMC 8457 + Dally Reading Comprehension 83 Name: Idea and Details ee ENDIYHEPASSAGE? Look for details that help you visualize what the titan arum looks like. The Smelliest Plant Here is one flower you would not want to give as a gift—at least not to anyone you like! Itis the | emelliost member ofthe plant kingdom, and itis called the titan arum. The word “titan” describes something | gigantic, and this plant certainly lives up to Its name. | “The titan arum grows in the tropical forests of Sumatra, Indonesia. When the plant is in bloom, its stem | is about 10 feet tal, and its “flower” spans a diameter of three to four feet. The bloom is actually @ funnel | shaped leaf that opens, giving access to hundreds of tiny flowers inside. Visitors flock to botanical gardens | in the United States to see these gigantic plants in bloom, but their noses should also be prepared for a | Unique experience. Besides its enormous size, the titan arum is also known for its hideous smell ‘The titan arum's odor, which is strongest at night, can be smelled from a distance of a haif mile away. | People describe the terrible odor as the smell of rotting flesh, a stench that creates huge, stomach-turing | waves of nausea in those who get a whiff. Because of its similarity to decaying flesh, the titan arum is best known by its common name—the corpse flower. | ‘What is the point ofthis plant's horrible smell? The answer is surprisingly simple, The smal! beetles and | flies that pollinate, or fertilize, the plant love its stinky smell. These insects smell the odor, think itis actual decaying flesh, are attracted to it, and end up polinating the plant. The titan arum needs its awful smell to | survive. Without the smell and the insects it attracts, the titan arum might not be able to continue as a species (ERIUOERAETICED Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1. Which characteristic gives the titan arum its 3. At which time of day is the odor of the titan arum nickname of “corpse flower”? the strongest? @ It comes from tropical forests. @ atnight @ Itisa gigantic plant. © early in the morning © Itis pollinated by small beetles. © early in the afternoon © Ithas a terrible odor. © inthe early evening 2. When a titan arum is in bloom, how tall is 4, Which detail supports the idea that there is a the stem? reason the titan arum has such a horrible smell? @® Wheet @® The plant smells like rotting flesh. © 304 feet ® The insects that pollinate the plant are © 7 feet attracted by its smell. © rect © The plant can be sma froma stance © Human beings do not like the smell. “Which details from the passage helped you best visualize a titan arum? 84 Dally Reading Comprehension + EMC 8487 + © Evan-Moor Corp. Name occer) Sequence QJ. VJ READ THE PASSAGE Pay attention to the series of steps involved in measuring a pepper’s heat. How Hot Is That Pepp: You are at a party and are sampling the munchies. You pop a harmless-looking pepper into your mouth, chew it, and swallow it. Yikes! As the pepper burns every part of your mouth, you look frantically for water, ice, of something sweet to make the burning stop. ‘Some peppers are so hot that they can lead to vomiting, digestive problems, and hospitalization. The simplest way to check the hotness of a pepper isto taste it. There is, however, a safer way to tellin advance how hot a pepper will be: find out where it rates on the Scoville scale. The Scoville scale, the classic way to determine the hotness of a pepper, was developed by an ‘American chemist, Wilbur Scoville in 1912. The chemical that causes the sensation of heat in a pepper is called capsaicin, and Scovile discovered a method for measuring the amount oft. Since the amount of capsaicin did not mean much to pepper consumers, Scoville devised a method of rating peppers To rate peppers, Scoville followed a series of steps. First, he blended ground peppers in a solution of sugar and water. Then, he had a panel of trained tasters sample the solution. If the tasters found the solution hot, the solution was diluted with additional water and sugar. The tasters continued with this process until they no longer felt the sensation of heat. The Scoville scale measures the number of times the solution needs to be diluted for the tasters to sense no heat at all. The number of dilutions is the number of heat units. Scoville then listed the peppers tested in order by their heat unit range. ‘The next time you are hungry and are thinking about eating a random pepper, be sure to check the Scoville scale first. Your tongue and your stomach will thank you. SKILL PRACTICE Read cach question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1. What should a person do before eating a random 3. What did Scoville do first to rate the hotness pepper? of peppers? @® drinka glass of water @ He diluted a pepper solution. ® check the pepper's Scoville rating @® He created an easy-to-use scale. © make a solution of water and sugar © He ground up peppers with sugar and water. © find a group of trained testers © He had tasters eat a pepper solution. 2. What did Wilbur Scoville learn before he decided 4, What is the last step in rating the hotness of to develop his scale? a pepper? @® how to dilute peppers @® checking the amount of capsaicin ® how to train pepper tasters © blending the pepper with sugar and water © the number of times a pepper must be diluted. © recording when the solution no longer © the amount of capsaicin in peppers tastes hot © having tasters taste the solution STRATEGY PRACTICE Which parts of the passage best helped you understand the Scoville scale? © Evan-Moor Corp. * EMC 3487 + Dally Reading Comprehension 85 Name: rer Sequence (JNJ PASSAGE Pay attention to the steps involved in learning flamenco dancing, Learning Flamenco Dancing So you want to learn to dance the highly expressive Spanish dance form, flamenco. This is not a dance you can master in a day or even in a week. Learning flamenco dancing takes time, patience, determination, and a certain amount of personal flair “The first step is to find a good teacher. Research lesson prices and the qualifications of the teacher. Talk with people who have already taken lessons from the teacher to find out i they were satisfied customers. ‘Once you have chosen your teacher or class, you will then need to purchase dancing shoes. Female dancers also need a practice skirt. In your classes, you will learn how to move your whole body the flamenco way. The dance style ineludes intricate hand and arm movements, the zapateado (stepping movements that create distinctive tapping sounds), and specific body movements. It takes a lot of practice to leam flamenco dance steps and to perform them rapidly with the precise rhythm the dance requires. ‘As the movements become more familiar, you must leam what is by far the most important aspect of flamenco—dancing with heart! The flamenco dancer must have a deep understanding of the music and dance with passion and emotion. ‘Once you are ready to perform, you will need a costume, In addition to dancing shoes, female dancers usually wear a long ruffled dress. Male dancers often wear tight pants and long-sleeved shirts. If you are in doubt about your costume choice, check with your teacher to find out what he or she recommends. To win ‘over the crowd, you will need more than a costumme—you must have the courage to let your passion for the dance shine. Read each question, Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1. What do you need to do first to learn flamenco 3, According to the passage, what is the last thing dancing? ‘you must learn to properly dance flamenco? @® dance with emotion @ todance with rhythm © learn specific steps © to learn specific movements © buya dancing costume © to dance with heart © find a good teacher © tolearn the zapateado 2. What do you need to buy before your first lesson? 4, What do you need after you are ready to perform? @® a performance costume @ the proper costume © dancing shoes @ intricate arm movements © along-sleeved shirt © passion and emotion © practice music © a good sense of rhythm [STHATEGYBARETIGED Were you able to visualize people doing flamenco dancing? Why or why not? 86 Daily Reading Comprehension * EMC 3457 + © Evan-Moor Corp. Name: Idea and Details Sequence READ THEPASSAGE If you do not understand the main idea in a paragraph, reread the paragraph slowly. The Northwest Passage At the end of the fifteenth century, Western explorers began looking for the Northwest Passage—a water route through the Arete that is north of the Canadian mainland and connects the Alantic and Pacific oceans. Early in the nineteenth century, a passage was discovered, but it proved to be ice-bound and impossible to navigate. Recently, however, the situation has begun to change. In August 2007, scientists confirmed that Arctic sea ice had shrunk to its lowest levels since records have been kept. As a result, the entire length of the Northwest Passage was ice-free and navigable for the etite month that August. Why did this happen? The answer is believed to be global warming. The planet's ‘ising temperatures caused Arctic ice to thaw at arate faster than scientists had predicted. Because sea ice is white and reflective, most of the sun's rays bounce ofits surface. When sea ice melts, however, dark ocean waters are exposed. These dark waters absorb the sun's light instead of reflecting it, which causes the water to warm. In warmer water, new ice has trouble forming, which then causes more ice to melt and less ice to form in the years to come. Scientists are not predicting that the Northwest Passage with be open year-round in the foreseeable future, Global warming has no effect on the tit of Earth's axis, which is what makes winter in the Arctic extremely harsh. But if global warming continues, sailors of the future may one day be able to claim the Northwest Passage for good, ‘SKILL PRACTICE Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1. What is the passage mostly about? @® why the Northwest Passage opened in 2007 © the expeditions of Western explorers © what causes global warming © the long search for the Northwest Passage 2. Which event happened after the Arctic sea ice shrank to its lowest level? @® The Northwest Passage was ice-free and navigable for an entire month. ® The presence of sea ice began increasing at alarming rates. © Global warming began to affect Earth’s axis. © Explorers tried unsuccessfully to find and navigate the Northwest Passage. 3. How did Arctic sea ice change in 20072 @ Itblocked the passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. © It melted more than it had since measuring began. © Utstarted reflecting the sun's rays. © Itopened the Northwest Passage for good. 4. What happens after dark ocean waters are exposed? @® The water reflects more of the suns light. ‘New ice forms deep in the ocean. © The water absorbs the sun's energy and gets warmer. © Winters in the Arctic become harsher. STRATEGY PRACTICE Describe something in the passage that you better understood after rereading it. (© Evan-Moor Corp, * EMC 3457 + Dally Reading Comprehension 87 Name READ THE PASSAGE As you read the passage, look for details that support the main idea. The Elephant’s Steward When many people think of India, they think of elephants. This beautiful ancient country is home to more than 50% of the total wild elephant population in Asia. Elephant sculptures, paintings, and poetry— land even an elephant god—have been an important part of India’s culture for centuries. Live Asian elephants can be found at temples, in city parks, and walking in the streets of some towns. It would be difficult to imagine the country without its many elephants. Long ago, the forests of India were crammed with these dynamic creatures. Although exact numbers are not known, many elephant experts believe that there were easily more than one milion wild elephants in the forests and plains of India. Today, fewer than 35,000 Asian elephants remain in the wild in India. Many ‘species around the world are harmed by habitat loss and conflict with humans. Sadly, India's elephants are being negatively affected by these problems as well. ‘There is hope for the wild elephants, however. Leaders in India have recognized the importance of protecting the species. Large national parks have been established to keep the animals safe, and groups and agencies have formed to monitor elephants and protect them from poaching, or illegal hunting. Given India’s massive population and competing human concerns, such as poverty and sanitation, it has been difficult to find the resources to keep the parks and programs running. Fortunately, the deep love that people in India fee! toward elephants has helped. Most people in India are ready to do their part to protect the country's most beloved animals. SKILL PRACTICE Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1. Which of the following best represents the main idea of the passage? ® Wild elephant numbers are declining, ® People in India create elephant art to show they care about elephants. © India has a long-standing and personal relationship with elephants, © Protecting elephants in India isa difficult task for many reasons. 2. The passage is mostly about @® the meaningful decorations in India’s temples ® why some people choose to poach elephants © elephant habitats throughout the world © how the elephant population in India has changed 3. Which detail supports the idea that India used to have a massive elephant population? @ India holds more than 50% of Asia’s wild elephant population, ® More than one million wild elephants used to live in India’s plains and forests. © Fewer than 35,000 elephants now live in India. © India has national parks and agencies to protect elephants. 4. Which word best describes how most people in India probably feel about elephants? @® caring ©® annoyed © fearful © indifferent STRATEGY PRACTICE Did you understand the main point the author is trying to make? Why or why not? ‘© Evan-Moor Corp, * EMC 3457 + Dally Reading Comprehension 119 Name: READ THE COLUMN) Proce) Main Idea and Details (ZN @4 Look for details about levees in the question-and-answer column. Dear Mr. Know-It-All: I've been reading New Orleans. What's a levee? Dear Alan: Thank you for your question! Allevee is a natural or artificial embankment that runs parallel to a river. A natural levee is made up of ridges that are created when a river floods, As river water rises, it carries sediment with it. After the river level returns to normal, ‘the sediment remains along river banks—and you have levees. People build artificial levees to prevent, flooding near a river or other body of water. The levees in New Orleans were built for two different purposes. Levees that run along the 1, What is the main idea of the column? @ Levees are natural or artificial ridges that help control flooding. ® Artificial evees are more important than natural levees. © New Orleans has an extensive system of levees that serve two purposes. © Levees are wider at the base and narrower at the top. 2. Natural levees are made of. @ flood water ® cement © sediment © clay materials “STHATEGY PRACTICE. 120 Mississippi River protect that side of the city against flooding from the river; levees on the other side of the city protect against flooding from Lake Pontchartrain. Most of the new levees in New Orleans are between 10 and 20 feet tall. Artificial levees are usually made of clay, cement, or another material that is less, absorbent than soil to keep water from seeping through. Levees are wider. at the base and narrower at the top, creating a gradual slope down to the river bed. In addition to controlling flooding, levees also affect the rate of water Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 43. Building a levee next to a river is likely to cause @® an increase in the speed of the river's water flow © a decrease in the speed of the river’s water flow © an inctease in the chance of flooding in the area © a decrease in the depth of the water in the river 4, Where are levees placed in relation to rivers? @® across them © parallel to them © inthe middle of them © 20 feet away from them ‘Ona separate sheet of paper, sketch a levee as described in the passage, Daily Reading Comprehension + EMC 3457 + Evan-Moor Corp, rraery Sequence (LV) READ THEPASSAGE Pay attention to the order of events in the passage. A Famous Dark and Stormy Night You might not imagine that sitting around with some friends telling ghost stories could lead to the publication of one of the most popular novels inthe world, but that is exactly what happened to Mary Shelley. Little did she know when the evening began thet it would eventually lead to Frankenstein. in the summer of 1816, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin was just 18 years old. She and her soon-to-be husband, Percy Bysshe Shelley, were visting thelr friend, Lord Byron, at his home near Lake Geneva in Switzerland. The weather around the world that fateful summer was greatly affected by an Indonesian volcano eruption the year before. The volcano had caused many changes in the weather, and a violent storm took place during Godwin's visi ‘Tremendous amounts of rain and lightning kept Godwin and her friends trapped inside, so they passed the hours talking around the fire. One topic was galvanism, which is the use of electricity to cause muscles to move. Godwin and her friends discussed the possibilty of using electricity to bring organisms back to life. ‘The group then decided to read aloud some German ghost stories. Inspired by a story in which travelers relate their own experiences of the paranormal, Lord Byron challenged everyone to write their own supernatural tales. ‘The next night, the group shared what they had written, but Godwin was disappointed because she had not been inspired with an idea. Some days later, however, she had an intense nightmare in which “a pale student of the unhallowed arts” created a being from pleces of corpses. When Godwin published her novel (as Mary Shelley) two years later, the pale student of her dreams entered the world as Victor Frankenstein, fa scientist who used electricity to Investigate the shadowy line between life and death. SKILL PRACTICE Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1, Which of the following events happened before 3, When did Godwin begin to write Frankenstein? Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin visited Lord Byron? @ after she had a nightmare @® Godwin married Percy Shelley. © during the groups discussion © A volcano erupted in Indonesia. © before the violent storms began © Aneavy storm kept friends indoors. © the night after Lord Byron’s challenge © Godwin wrote Frankenstein. 4, In which year was Frankenstein published? 2. When did Lord Byron challenge his friends to @ 1815 write their own scary stories? @® before Godwin’s trip to Switzerland © 186 © before the Indonesian volcano eruption ow © 1818 © after Godwin got married © after reading ghost stories STRATEGY PRACTICE Ona separate sheet of paper, draw a timeline of the main events in the passage. © Evan-Moor Corp.» EMC 9487 « Daly Reading Comprehension 121 Name: rary Sequence QJ.\ GJ {READ-THE PASSAGE!) Visualize the sequence of events as they happen in the passage. Eating at Ellie’s | knew | would not see an actual person named Ele at Eli's Eatery because, like most now restaurants these days, le’ is robo-restaurant. \When | walked in, acute litle manager robot appeared, looking rather ike a toaster with blinking blue | eyes. it escorted me toa nice table in the back. The menu monitor popped out of my table and showed me pictures of my dining options. | tapped my choices and clicked OK, and the screen sid back down | watched as ful plattors rode the conveyer bets that zoomed along each aise of tables. Injust a few minutes, my appetizer stopped at my table, and | took it from the belt. Later, placed my empty plate back cn the conveyer belt, and it was whisked of into the kitchen to be cleaned | watched the itl toaster showing customers to tables while I ate my main course. The food was tasty, but | was starting to feel annoyed because dealin with robots alvays makes me feel inhuman. Pretty soon, | wanted to talk to someone real, even iit was just afew sentences. | ‘So when my dessert arrived, | took action. | smashed my plate on the floor with a satisfying crash. | | was so happy when | saw the manager toaster’ eyes blink red—at last, area ve person would arivel | Butinstead, a crew of wo robete quick appeared. Arobet broom shed over an start sweep | | the pieces ofthe broken plate into robot dust tray. They finished and whooshed back int the kitchen. My plan to get a litle realty into Ellie's Eatery falled miserably | hope the robo-restaurant craze ends soon. | want fo deal with people again! Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1. Which event happened first in the passage? 3. The narrator broke a plate in order to @® The narrator ordered from a menu. @® try to get human service © The manager robot's eyes blinked red. ® get more attention from the robots © The narrator arrived at Ellie's Eatery. © show that the food did not taste good © Food arrived on a conveyer belt. © putan end to the robo-restaurant craze 2. What happened after the narrator ate the 4, Which word best describes how the narrator felt appetizer? at the end of the story? ® Two robots cleaned up a broken dish. ® satisfied ® The menu popped out of the table. © playful © The narrator put the empty plate back on the © hungry conveyer belt. © disappointed © The manager robot showed the narrator to a table at the back. {fEGYIPRAGTICE)) Which parts of Ellie's Eatery were you able to visualize easily? Why? 122 Dally Reading Comprehension + EMC 8457 + © Evan-Moor Corp. Name: Main Idea and Det: A ae Sequence (JV A} Look for details in the passage that tell how Victor Hess proved his scientific ideas, READ THE PASSAGE jiscovering Cosmic Radiation In the early twentieth century, many scientists wore investigating radioactivity. The scientists were able to measure levels of radioactivity at different places around the world using special measuring tools. They all agreed that radioactivity existed, but where did it come from? This question led to a fierce scientific debate, Most scientists assumed that all of the radioactivity being measured was produced by minerals in the ground. An Austrian physicist named Victor Hess challenged this idea. Hess doubted that all radioactivity came from ground minerals and hypothesized that it could come {from the sky. To test his theory, Hess decided to conduct several experiments using hot air balloons. He concluded that if the source of radioactivity was the ground, the levels should be far lower up in the air. After designing tools that would give accurate readings at high altitudes, Hess conducted 10 balloon flights from 4911 to 1912, He discovered that the levels of radioactivity did not decrease as he rose higher. In fact, when the balloon was several miles above Earth, the radioactivity level was many times greater than it was on the (ground, Hess felt confident in his theory that radiation enters Earth's atmosphere from above. ‘One possible source of the radiation was the sun, but Hess conducted balloon flights both during the day and at night. In 1912, he conducted a balloon experiment during a total eclipse of the sun. Even though the sun's light was almost completely blocked, the levels of radioactivity were the same. Hess argued that the sun could not be the only source of radiation—there were even more sources beyond thet, in outer space. ‘Scientists gradually acknowledged their mistaken thinking and accepted Hess's theories. In 1925, Robert Millikan named the effect that Hess investigated cosmic radiation. In 1936, Hess won the Nobel Prize for his work in discovering this fundamental feature of the universe. SKILL PRACTICE Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1. Victor Hess’s experiments proved that radioactivity. @ is not produced at night © is produced by ground minerals © decreases at higher altitudes © primarily comes from outer space 2. What did Hess have to do before he could conduct in-air experiments to test his theory? @ study a total eclipse of the sun © design tools for use at high altitudes © prove that minerals were not radioactive © collaborate with other scientists STRATEGY PRACTICE Wr 3. After Hess proved that radiation enters the atmosphere from above, he ® took his first trip in a hot air balloon ® developed a theory about ground radiation © created the term cosmic radiation © determined there were other radiation sources 4, What @ Scientists often disagree about unproven theories ® Victor Hess used hot air balloons in his experiments. © Victor Hess discovered cosmic radiation by diligently testing his own theory. © The Nobel Prize is an award for people who study radioactivity. the main idea of the passage? one word you found confusing and describe how you figured out its meaning. © Evan-Moor Corp. * EMC 3457 + Dally Reading Comprehension 123 Nam _ WEEK 25, Main Idea and Details (U7.\ 4) READ THE PASSAGE Think about the main idea of each paragraph in the passage. The Gaucho: A South American Legend In the United States, cowboys have a special place in folkiore as free-spirited, adventurous, and noble ‘men. In Argentina and Uruguay, people have a similar larger-than-lte historical hero: the gaucho. Like the North American cowboy, the gaucho was generally regarded as a strong, tough man who worked hard. Gauchos were nomadic, preferring to camp on prairies rather than in towns or on farm settlements. Above al, they were skilled riders, hunters, and cow herders, quite capable of living completely off the land, Often, a gaucho's horse was his only worldly possession. For more than 400 years, gauchos roamed the Pampas, an immense grassy expanse of land covering bout 800,000 square miles of Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, and Brazil. In the beginning, gauchos were widely regarded as little more than savages who stole or hunted free-roaming cattle. But in time, as their legend grew, they became known for their fierce independence, fiery tempers, and unparalleled horsemanship, The gaucho's attire was quite diferent from that of the North American cowboy. A typical gaucho outfit included a chambergo (a flat, wide-brimmed hat tied under the gaucho's chin with a leather cord), a large knife, and a leather whip. Gauchos wore trousers that were baggy around the thighs and tapered at the ankles to fit into their boots. They also wore ponchos, which could also be used as saddle blankets or sleeping gear. Whereas the cowboy always started his day with strong black cotfee, the gaucho's preferred drink was yerba mate, a hot, bitter herbal drink. Today, very few true gauchos remain, But, much lke the old-fashioned cowboys in North America, their exciting and inspiring legends continue to entertain people throughout South America, SKILEPRACTICE Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1. What is the passage mostly about? 3. Which phrase best describes the trousers worn ® the history and description of gauchos by gauchos? @ attached toa poncho © loose around the ankles © tied on with a leather cord © baggy around the thighs ® how gauchos and cowboys made a living © what gauchos traditionally wore © where gauchos are living today 2, How did gauchos support themselves? @® They farmed cattle. 4, What are the Pampas? @® farm settlements ® open grassland ® They competed in rodeos. © They developed special clothing. © They lived off the land. © free-roaming cattle y @ historical cowboys STRATEGY PRACTICE List two words you found confusing and how you figured out their meanings, © Evan-Moor Corp. * EMC 3457 + Daily Reading Comprehension 155 _ WEEK 25 Main Idea and Details QJ.\ 44 [READ THE PASSAGE? As you read, look for details that support the main idea. The Snake Dens of Manitoba Do you love snakes? Are you fascinated by these thin, legless reptiles as they slither along the ground, eyes wide open, forked tongues flicking to catch scents? If so, the Interlake region of Manitoba, Canada, is | where you want to be during April and May. For snake enthusiasts, itis a feast for the eyes as tens of | thousands of red-sided garter snakes emerge from the depths of the earth onto the plains to mate. It is the | targest gathering of snakes on the planet. | | ‘As Canada's harsh winter approaches, the red-sided garter snakes slip underground to nestin roomy | limestone dens, or caverns. Like all snakes, garter snakes are cold-blooded. They would die in Manitoba's winter temperatures, which can drop to -34°C (-0°F). However, both the snakes’ body temperature and the air temperature in the caverns stay just above freezing, around 4°C (39°F). The snakes spend this time underground in a limited-activty state similar to hibernation. Male snakes emerge first. Warming themselves up in the sunlight, they wait patiently for the females. “The snakes mate and then head for the swamps and marshes. Each snake has lost approximately 10% of its body weight over the winter and continues to lose weight once it emerges from its den. For this reason, after mating, eating is an absolute priority. Fortunately, the numerous lakes in Manitoba have an abundance | For snakes and snake fans alike, in late spring, Manitoba is the place to be! | | | | | | of frogs and rodents for the snakes to feed on. (USKILUPRACTIEED Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1. Which statement best summarizes the main idea 3. Which detail best supports the idea that snake of the passage? lovers would enjoy Manitoba in the spring? @® Male garter snakes come out of the @ Visitors can see thousands of snakes at a time, ground first. © The snakes warm themselves in the sunlight. © Manitoba's garter snakes spend the winter in © The snakes are thinner in the spring underground dens. ¥ Noenlecnsen © Snakes are legless reptiles that smell with © Visitors cansesthe snakes a tiom their tongues. 4, Which word best describes the snake dens in © Manitoba is a popular place for snakes and the winter? snake enthusiasts. ® bright 2. Why are garter snakes ina hurry to eat in ® cramped the spring? © cold @® Food is scarce in spring. © wet ® They have lost weight over the winter. © Garter snakes are always hungry. © The males and females compete for food. \SSTRATEGYPRAGTICE) Which details from the passage helped you visualize the Manitoba snakes? 156 Daily Reading Comprehension + EMC 2457 + © Evan-Moor Corp. Name: Becoming a Meteorologist What do you think of when you hear the word meteorologist? Most likely, itis the person on TV who presents the weather forecast each day. However, many of these TV personalities are not meteorologists at all but are simply people who report the forecasts made by actual meteorologists. Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere. Meteorologists investigate the forces that shape the weather and the effects human activity can have on the climate. Very few meteorologists work for TV or radio stations. Most work for the government at the National Weather Service or at NASA, but many have careers in private companies. These companies may do weather research, provide weather information to other companies, or develop atmospheric measurement technologies. It you think you might want to become a meteorologist, begin by asking yourself a few questions. Do you have a deep curiosity about the physical world around you? Have you always watched the sky, read articles about weather, or found yourself fascinated by storms? Are you already keeping your own weather diary? Do you enjoy and do well in math, science, and computer courses? Next, take physics, chemistry, math, computer science, and environmental science courses in high school. Also, develop your written and spoken skills, as you will need these to explain scientific concepts. After high school, plan on four years of college to earn a degree in meteorology. Talk to your high ‘schoo! guidance counselor for help choosing the right college for you. After you have gotten basic college classes out of the way, your college advisor can steer you toward more specialized classes for the type of meteorology career you choose. SKILLPRACTICE Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1, What is the first thing you should do to become 3. What step does the author suggest if you need a meteorologist? help choosing a college? @® Ask yourself questions. ® Consult your weather diary. © Watch TV weather forecasts. © Talkwith your guidance counselor, © Takea computer course, © Talk with a college advisor. © Talk with a meteorologist. © Read articles about weather: 2. What should you do second? 4, According to the passage, when should you ® Apply at the National Weather Service ® Study science and math in college. © Choose your high school classes carefully, © Develop a fascination with storms. @ after you have earned your degree © when you first decide to study science © before you begin high school © after you start college STRATEGY PRACTICE Write two facts you did not already know before reading the passage. READ THEPASSAGE As you read, pay attention to the order of the steps needed to become a meteorologist. decide on a specific career within meteorology? (© Evan-Moor Corp, * EMC 3487 « Daily Reading Comprehension 157 Name: EADITHE PASSAGE) Pay attention to the sequence of steps needed to customize a T-shirt. | Print Your Own T-Shirts | How mary nes av yu ste Tai th doin on tha mae youn st ou cook poe something better? Here I simple way to bring your personal design fom idea to shi | 4. First, get your supplies ready. You will need a T-shirt, a design to trace, an embroidery hoop, nylon pantyhose, water-resistant glue, fabric pant, a large piece of cardboard, a paintbrush, and a pene 2, Stretch the pantyhose over he embroidery heop a tightly as possibie without causing tears. Lay the hoop over te design and trace is outine witha penci | 8, Spread the water-resistant gue over the pantyhose, but fil n oly the negative space. This means puting the glue clong the pats ofthe pantyhose where you do not want pant io seep through onto | the Tshirt | 4, Once the glue has cried, place the hoop on top ofthe T-shirt facing down, wit the nylon touching the shirt, Also place the piece of cardboard inside the T-shirt, between the front and back. This will prevent the paint from bleeding through. 5, Add enough fabric paint to cover the design. Use a paintbrush to sprea the paint gently and evenly. Be careful not to move the hoop. (You may wish to weigh down the hoop so that it does not move.) 1 Let the paint sit for a few minutes and then slowly peel the hoop away from the T-shirt 6. Let the T-shirt sit for a few hours until the paint is completely dry. Then put a piece of paper over the design and iron the T-shirt slowly for a few minutes to help the design set. Now itis ready to wear! (ESKILEPAACTICE) Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1, What should you do right before adding fabric 3. Which pair of supplies do you use first? paint to the pantyhose? @ aT-shirtand a design @ trace a design on the pantyhose with a pencil fabric paint and glue © place cardboard between the Tshirt layers © anembroidery hoop and pantyhose © gather together all of the supplies © a design and a pencil © iron the T-shirt to help the design set 4, What would happen if someone forgot to do 2. When do you trace the design in pencil on step 3? the pantyhose? @® The pantyhose would tear @® after you stretch the pantyhose over the hoop ® The design would not show up. after peeling the hoop from the shirt © The paint would not dry onthe shirt © after adding glue to the pantyhose © The T-shirt would stick to the pantyhose. © after you let the paint design dry STRATEGY PRACTICE) On a separate sheet of paper, sketch illustrations to accompany steps 2 through 5. 158 Daily Reading Comprohension + EMC 3457 +@ Evan-Moor Corp. Name Main Idea and Details Sequence READ THE PASSAGE) Pay attention to the details and to the order of the steps in the jousting process. Medieval Jousting: An Extreme Sport ‘Are you an extreme sports enthusiast? Do you lve for motocross, ice climbing, or windsurfing? I so, chances are that if had you lived around the fiteenth century, you might have loved jousting ‘Jousting was a sport played in the Middle Ages by two armored knights mounted on horses. The sport took place at tournaments—a series of contests that continued until one contestant won the final round. Tournaments also had the advantage of keeping knights in excellent physical and mental condition in case they were called upon to fightin a war ‘Jousting knights rode for a local noble, a respected leader from a higher class. Often, their horses were decorated with emblems representing those nobles. Sometimes, knights also carried hair ribbons or handkerchiefs representing women who were married and from a higher class than the knights. ‘To start a jousting match, the knights mounted their horses and set their lances, or wooden spears, in the resting position. Then they waited for the herald, the official who made announcements at the tournaments, to give the signal to charge. Upon hearing the signal, the knights galloped straight toward ‘each other. The object of the joust was to knock the opponent off his horse using a lance. If both knights remained seated and unhurt, they wheeled their horses around and began the charge again. Charging continued until one of the knights—and often his horse, as well—was knocked to the ground, Jousting offered participating knights substantial prize money, as well as the adoration of the crowd. However, it was an extremely dangerous sport that could be bloody and brutal. Knights often broke bones as they fel rom their horses or were injured when hit by thelr opponent's lance. At least in motocross, no cone is trying to make you fall SKILLPRACTICE Read each question. Fill in the bubble next to the correct answer. 1. What is the main idea of the passage? 3, Which detail best supports the idea that jousting, ® Knights used jousting to fight wars. was a dangerous sport? ® Knights jousted for the respect of local nobles ® Knights usually rode for a local noble. and the crowd. © Knights often broke bones. © Jousting was an exciting and dangerous sport. © Knights were ready to go to war. © Jousting kept knights in top physical and © Knights competed for prize money. mental condition, 4. What happened if the knights remained seated 2. When did a contest between two knights end? after the first charge? @® when the herald said it was over @® The knights mounted their horses. © after the first charge was completed ® The knights set their lances in a resting © when the herald signaled the charge position. © when one of the knights was knocked off © The knights charged each other again. his horse © The knights waited for the herald’ signal STRATEGY PRACTICE How did rereading the passage help you better understand what jousting was like? © Evan-Moor Corp, + EMC 8487 « Daily Reading Comprehension 159