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LITERATURA TCNICA

Technical Bulletin from Clariant


Div. Functional Chemicals / Mining

CATIONIC FLOTATION - Alkyl Ether Monoamines and


Alkyl Ether Diamines

Clariant S/A - Brazil manufactures a wide range of cationic surfactants - Fatty


amines and its derivatives. Besides their manifold industrial applications, they are also
used extensively in ore dressing industry as cationic collectors for the flotation of
various minerals. Significant among these reagents are Alkyl Ethers Amines and
Alkyl Ether Diamines which can be represented as follows:

Alkyl Ether Propylene Amine or


R O ( CH2 )3 - NH2
Ether Monoamine

Alkyl Ether Dipropylene Diamine or


R O ( CH2 )3 - NH - ( CH2 )3 - NH2
Ether Diamines

A large number of products belonging to the above class of chemical structures can
be manufactured with a variety of carbon chain lengths (linear or cross linked ) and
chemical constitutions. At present our company produces the following products with
the above structure in its chemical complex in Suzano ( S.P.) Brazil.

Flotigam EDA
Flotigam EDA-3
Flotigam 2835
Flotigam 2835-2
Flotigam 2835-2L
Flotigam 3135

Estas informaes correspondem ao nosso atual estgio de conhecimentos e tm a finalidade de informar sobre os nossos produtos e suas possibilidades de aplicao.
Elas no tm o intuito de garantir caractersticas especficas de nossos produtos ou de suas aptides para aplicaes definitivas. Eventuais direitos propriedade
1
industrial ou comercial devem ser respeitados. Garantia de qualidade ns damos de acordo com nossas condies normais de venda.

Clariant S. A .
Av. das Naes Unidas,18.001 CEP 04795-900
Fone : (011) 5683-7624
Fax : (011) 5683-7694
LITERATURA TCNICA

The main characteristics of these products are as follows:

Flotigam EDA Flotigam EDA-3

Chemical partially neutralized partially neutralized


Composition - alkyl (ISO C8-C10) ether alkyl (ISO C8-C10) ether
monoamine monoamine

Appearance - clear to slightly cloudy clear to slightly cloudy


light yellowish liquid light yellowish liquid

Amine Value 37 - 40 37,5 - 40,5


( ML HCL04 0,1 NG

Degree of 48 - 52 % 28 - 32 %
Neutralization

Acid Value 89,5 - 117,0 58,9 - 72,7


( mg KOH / g )

Total Amine Value 207,5 - 224,5 210 - 227,5

Flotigam 2835 Flotigam 3135

Chemical partially neutralized partially neutralized


Composition alkyl ether diamine alkyl ether diamine

Carbon Chain ISO C12 - C15 ISO C8 - C10


Length

Appearance clear to slightly clear liquid


yellowish liquid

Degree of 48 - 56 % 33 - 37 %
Neutralization

Acid Value - 126 - 162 99 - 119


mg KoH / g

Amine Value 47 - 51,5 54 - 57


ML HCL04 0,1 NG

Total Amine Value 263 - 289 295 - 310

Estas informaes correspondem ao nosso atual estgio de conhecimentos e tm a finalidade de informar sobre os nossos produtos e suas possibilidades de aplicao.
Elas no tm o intuito de garantir caractersticas especficas de nossos produtos ou de suas aptides para aplicaes definitivas. Eventuais direitos propriedade
2
industrial ou comercial devem ser respeitados. Garantia de qualidade ns damos de acordo com nossas condies normais de venda.

Clariant S. A .
Av. das Naes Unidas,18.001 CEP 04795-900
Fone : (011) 5683-7624
Fax : (011) 5683-7694
LITERATURA TCNICA

Flotigam 2835-2 Flotigam 2835-2L

Chemical alkyl ether dipropylene alkyl ether dipropylene


Composition diamine diamine

Type of carbon ISO C12 - C15 Linear C12 - C15


Chain length

Appearance Colorless to slightly yellowish liquid


Yellowish liquid

Degree of 18 - 22 % 18 - 22 %
Neutralization

Acid Value - 52,5 - 69,5 53,5 - 71,5


Mg KOH / g

Amine Value 52,0 - 56,0 53 - 58


ML HCL04 0,1 NG

Total Amine Value 291 - 315 298 - 325

Specific product leaflets and safety data sheets of the above chemicals are available
on request.

APPLICATION - METHODS

Being generally liquid in their physical state the above products can be used either
undiluted or as an aqueous solutions. Solutions from 1 to 10 %, however, have
proved successful in practice . In order to obtain improved and rapid distribution of
ether amines or ether diamines in the flotation pulp, the products should be fed in to
a conditioner or vessel with high turbulence e. g. feed box of a flotation cell.

STORAGE STABILITY

Our experience to date has shown that ether amines and ether diamines retain full
efficiency for at least one year. At higher temperatures, a reduction of the efficiency
may occur.

Estas informaes correspondem ao nosso atual estgio de conhecimentos e tm a finalidade de informar sobre os nossos produtos e suas possibilidades de aplicao.
Elas no tm o intuito de garantir caractersticas especficas de nossos produtos ou de suas aptides para aplicaes definitivas. Eventuais direitos propriedade
3
industrial ou comercial devem ser respeitados. Garantia de qualidade ns damos de acordo com nossas condies normais de venda.

Clariant S. A .
Av. das Naes Unidas,18.001 CEP 04795-900
Fone : (011) 5683-7624
Fax : (011) 5683-7694
LITERATURA TCNICA

GENERAL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

Protective gloves and goggles should be used when handling ether amines
(Flotigam EDA or EDA-3) or ether diamines (Flotigam 2835, 3135 2835-2, 2835-2L)
and their solutions. If the skin or eyes are contaminated with the products, they
must be rinsed thoroughly with plenty of water . Medical attention should be
obtained if irritation of the eyes persists or develops after washing.

FIELDS OF APPLICATION

1) The most important application of ether monoamines Flotigam EDA or


Flotigam EDA-3 to date, according to our information, is as an active
collector for quartz and silicate minerals, specially in the reverse iron
ore flotation . The pH range lies between 9 and 11 for this type of
flotation. The addition rate of reagents varies according to particle size
and the silica content of the mineral ore to be processed. This lies
generally between 20 - 120 g/t of flotation feed, of course it must be
determined experimentally in laboratory and pilot plant tests prior to
industrial use.
The addition of a depressant for the iron minerals such as gelatinized
starch ( maize, rice, potato, etc ) or dextrin improves selectivity and metal
recovery . Generally an additional use of frother is not necessary as
etheramines develop sufficient froth of their own . As iron ores have the
tendency to form slimes, it is recommended to do desliming, since the
slime can otherwice lead to a very high consumption of reagents ,
besides that, it can also impair the quality of foam which lowers the
selectivity.

Till recently , etheramines (Flotigam EDA or Flotigam EDA-3) were


considered as standard products for the reverse flotation of iron ores.
However in the recent times, with the increasing complexity of
mineralogical composition of ores (Limonite, Goethite - content, etc. ), it
has been observed that the use of mono ether amines alone is not
always sufficient. With an additional use of ether diamines (Flotigam
2835, Flotigam 2835-2 or Flotigam 3135), a substantial improvement
in selectivity and metal recovery were achieved. In some cases without
the use of ether diamines, it was not possible to float at all satisfactorily.

Estas informaes correspondem ao nosso atual estgio de conhecimentos e tm a finalidade de informar sobre os nossos produtos e suas possibilidades de aplicao.
Elas no tm o intuito de garantir caractersticas especficas de nossos produtos ou de suas aptides para aplicaes definitivas. Eventuais direitos propriedade
4
industrial ou comercial devem ser respeitados. Garantia de qualidade ns damos de acordo com nossas condies normais de venda.

Clariant S. A .
Av. das Naes Unidas,18.001 CEP 04795-900
Fone : (011) 5683-7624
Fax : (011) 5683-7694
LITERATURA TCNICA

2) Reverse Flotation of Apatite - here the impurities based on silicates or


quartz are floated off from apatite. In the case of phosphates of igneous
origin it is important first to neutralize the residual effect of anionic
collectors ( fatty acids, Flotigam V-3900-1 etc.), which are used for the
flotation of apatite . We recommend the use of phosphoric acid for this
purpose.

3) Alkyl Ether Propylene Diamine Flotigam 2835, Flotigam 2835-2L are


highly effective flotation collectors for zinc minerals. Zinc minerals
(Smithsonite, Willemit etc) can be floated with 200 - 400g/t of Flotigam
2835 or 2835/2L in the strongly alkaline range after sulfidizing with
sodium sulfide ( Na2 S ). It is advisable to use collector and sulfidizing
agents stagewise.

4) Reverse Flotation of Magnesite during which silicate minerals are


floated off, the tailings represent the concentrate. Recommended products
for this application are Flotigam 2835, Flotigam 2835-2L or Flotigam
3135.

5) Reverse Flotation of Chromite - here also silicate minerals are floated


off. Recommended products are Flotigam EDA, Flotigam 2835-2L
and Flotigam 3135.

6) Feldspar Flotation - feldspar from pegmatites or alluvial deposits is


floated after acidification of the flotation pulp with sulphuric acid to a
pH of 2,0 to 2,5 and activation of feldspar with hydrofluoric acid ( HF )
or sodium bisulfide ( NaF ). The quantity of collector is 100 - 200 g/t. A
conditioning time of 2 - 3 minutes of the flotation pulp with high solids
concentration is advantageous.
Recommended products are Flotigam 2835 and Flotigam 2835-2L.

Practical examples of the use of Flotigam grades for reverse iron ore flotation

1) A typical iron oxide ore from a client in the region of Minas Gerais in
Brazil was concentrated in our technical support lab. through the reverse
flotation process in the following manner :
The flotation feed as received from the client - already grinded and
deslimed consisted mainly of hematite, quartz and magnetite with the
chemical composition: Fe - 55,18%, SIO2 - 18,59%.
The tests were carried out with a flotation feed of 1400g in a lab.
flotation machine - Denver 1,5 liters cell.

Estas informaes correspondem ao nosso atual estgio de conhecimentos e tm a finalidade de informar sobre os nossos produtos e suas possibilidades de aplicao.
Elas no tm o intuito de garantir caractersticas especficas de nossos produtos ou de suas aptides para aplicaes definitivas. Eventuais direitos propriedade
5
industrial ou comercial devem ser respeitados. Garantia de qualidade ns damos de acordo com nossas condies normais de venda.

Clariant S. A .
Av. das Naes Unidas,18.001 CEP 04795-900
Fone : (011) 5683-7624
Fax : (011) 5683-7694
LITERATURA TCNICA

First stage: Depression of iron oxide minerals - hematite, magnetite, etc.


with gelatinized maize starch (as 1 % solution in water ) prepared with
sodium hydroxide in the ratio of 8:1. Solid content of the flotation slurry:
58 % . pH - 10,0. Dosage of starch solution : 400 g/t ( calculated as 100
% starch on the basis of flotation feed ). Conditioning time : 3 minutes.
Rotation speed : 1.300 rpm.

Second stage: Conditioning with Amine Collector

Product Type : Flotigam EDA


Dosage : 40 g / t
pH : 10,0
% solids : 58
Conditioning time : 1 minute

Third stage : Flotation (only rougher)

% Solids : 58
pH : 10,0
Flotation time : 2 minutes

Results
Feed Concentrate Tailings
Fe % 55,18 68,09 23,10
SIO2 % 18,59 0,68 63,10
Mass recovery % 71,30 28,70
Metal recovery % 88,00 12,00

2) In another example where the ore was mainly composed of hematite,


quartz, goethite and caulinit, it was observed that the alone use of
ether monoamine did not give satisfactory results. Here a combination of
ether monoamine - Flotigam EDA - and ether diamine - Flotigam 2835-2 -
was used to achieve the good selectivity and metal recovery. Following
are the flotation stages:

a) Equipment: Lab .Denver flotation machine , 1,5 liters cell

b) Flotation Feed : 750 g

Estas informaes correspondem ao nosso atual estgio de conhecimentos e tm a finalidade de informar sobre os nossos produtos e suas possibilidades de aplicao.
Elas no tm o intuito de garantir caractersticas especficas de nossos produtos ou de suas aptides para aplicaes definitivas. Eventuais direitos propriedade
6
industrial ou comercial devem ser respeitados. Garantia de qualidade ns damos de acordo com nossas condies normais de venda.

Clariant S. A .
Av. das Naes Unidas,18.001 CEP 04795-900
Fone : (011) 5683-7624
Fax : (011) 5683-7694
LITERATURA TCNICA

c) Conditioning with Depressant


-maize starch gelatinized with NaOH in proportion of 5:1
-% solids : 50
-Dosage : 500 g / t
-Conditioning time : 5 minutes

d) Conditioning with amine collectors


-Collectors : combination of Flotigam EDA and
Flotigam 2835-2
-% solids : 40
-Dosage : 90 g/t
-pH 10,5
-Conditioning time : 2 minutes

e) Flotation (rougher )
-% solids : 58
-pH 10,5
-Conditioning time : 3 minutes

f) Flotation ( cleaner )
-Collecting time : 3 minutes

Results
Feed Concentrate Tailings

Fe % 51,16 67,02 11,48


SIO2 % 23,88 0,72 81,84
Mass recovery % 71,45 28,55
Metal recovery % 93,60 6,40

N.B.Agarwal/N.M.Bartalini
June/2002

TECHNICAL BULLETIN FROM CLARIANT


Div. Functional Chemicals / Mining

Estas informaes correspondem ao nosso atual estgio de conhecimentos e tm a finalidade de informar sobre os nossos produtos e suas possibilidades de aplicao.
Elas no tm o intuito de garantir caractersticas especficas de nossos produtos ou de suas aptides para aplicaes definitivas. Eventuais direitos propriedade
7
industrial ou comercial devem ser respeitados. Garantia de qualidade ns damos de acordo com nossas condies normais de venda.

Clariant S. A .
Av. das Naes Unidas,18.001 CEP 04795-900
Fone : (011) 5683-7624
Fax : (011) 5683-7694