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A new protocol for measuring


bituminous mastic viscosity as a
function of its filler concentration
a a a
Ebrahim Hesami , Bjrn Birgisson & Niki Kringos
a
Division of Highway and Railway Engineering, Department of
Transport Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44
Stockholm, Sweden
Published online: 23 Jan 2014.

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To cite this article: Ebrahim Hesami, Bjrn Birgisson & Niki Kringos (2014) A new protocol for
measuring bituminous mastic viscosity as a function of its filler concentration, Road Materials and
Pavement Design, 15:2, 420-433, DOI: 10.1080/14680629.2013.876926

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2013.876926

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Road Materials and Pavement Design, 2014
Vol. 15, No. 2, 420433, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2013.876926

A new protocol for measuring bituminous mastic viscosity as a function of


its ller concentration
Ebrahim Hesami , Bjrn Birgisson and Niki Kringos

Division of Highway and Railway Engineering, Department of Transport Science, KTH Royal Institute of
Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Madras] at 23:11 17 April 2015

(Received 26 February 2013; accepted 13 December 2013 )

In this contribution the development and results of a new test protocol for measuring the
viscosity of bituminous mastics are presented. The paper describes the various considerations
that need to be taken into account when dealing with mastics, gives a detailed description of
the sample preparation, the test set-up and the actual test performance. A demonstration of the
use of the test procedure is given by developing three types of mastics in which dierent ller
types, but a similar bitumen base, were used. From the results it can be seen that the developed
protocol is sensitive enough to allow for detailed studies of the eect of ller shape, chemistry
and size distribution. In continuation of this work, more types of mastics will be investigated
and the test results will be linked to additional chemical and mechanical test results to further
enhance the fundamental understanding of mastics.
Keywords: asphalt mastics; viscosity; llers; Rheology

1. Introduction
1.1. The importance of understanding mastic behaviour
Achieving a correct asphalt concrete density after compaction in the eld is one of the impor-
tant eld parameters that can prevent many premature distresses such as rutting. It is therefore
of great importance to be able to better control and predict workability and compactability of
asphalt mixtures. Workability of mixtures is correlated to its free binder and binder stiness,
while compactability describes the ability of mixture to rearrange its structure while reducing its
pore space. The behaviour of the mastic phase therefore plays a crucial role (Anderson, Bahia, &
Dongre, 1992; Shenoy, Stuart, & Mogawer, 2003; Chen, Kuo, Lin, Huang, & Lin, 2008). Prop-
erties such as mastic viscosity, its temperature dependency and the physio-chemical interaction
between ne particles and the bitumen all inuence the bond between the binder and the large
aggregates (Zeng & Wu, 2008).
At constant temperatures, the viscosity of mastics may have a predominant eect on the worka-
bility of asphalt mixtures (Gudimettla, Cooley, & Brown, 2004). Traditionally when designing the
mixing and compaction temperatures, viscosity of neat bitumen is used. Considering that even for
unmodied mixes this can give wrong results, given the unknown behaviour of the llers and the
masticaggregate interaction, doing so for modied bitumen may give inherently wrong design of
mixing and compaction temperatures (Bennert, Reinke, Mogawer, & Mooney, 2010). Modied
binders mostly display non-Newtonian behaviour and do not have a linear relationship between the
viscosity and temperature, nor between the shear stress and shear rate. In addition to this, the eect
Corresponding author. Email: Hesami@kth.se

2014 Taylor & Francis


Road Materials and Pavement Design 421

of an additive may be dependent on the ller type present (Hesami, Birgisson, & Kringos, 2013).
So, it is more rational to use the viscosity of mastic for determining the mixing and compaction
temperature to achieve desire workability and compactability. But, in the outset, it would be even
better if the viscosity of mastics can be tailor made towards the needed behaviour. This means
that a fundamental understanding of the interaction between the llers and the bitumen is needed.

1.2. Focus of this paper


It is known that a ller with a higher surface area enlarges the interaction between the ller
and the bitumen (Jimnez, Recasens, & Martnez, 2008; Hesami, Birgisson, & Kringos, 2013).
Also, llers that are embedded inside the bitumen can absorb part of the bitumen and form
an absorbed layer on the outside of the particle, changing thus locally the ow properties of
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the bitumen (Hesami, Jelagin, Kringos, & Birgisson, 2012). These new ow conditions in the
presence of the ller can signicantly change the behaviour of the neat bitumen and should thus be
understood. Unfortunately, there is today still very little fundamental reasoning behind the choice
of ller and bitumen combinations (Clopotel, Velasquez, & Bahia, 2012). Of course the general
stiening eect of llers inside the visco-elastic binder is known (Faheem & Bahia, 2010). But
most parameters that aect the nal behaviour are not taken into consideration, even though they
have a visible inuence on the rheological behaviour of bituminous mastics. Not understanding
these parameters means, eectively, that we cannot design for them and will never be able to
optimise the mastic and thus the asphalt concrete response.
For these reasons, a new study has been started that focusses on developing more understanding
on the design parameters of mastics. This paper describes the eorts towards enhancing the ability
to measure mastics viscosity as a function of ller concentration. This study is closely linked to
developing a model that enables the viscosity prediction or design as a function of the fundamental
bitumen and ller properties. The latter is not being discussed in much detail in this paper, since
the main focus is on the protocol development for accurate measurements.
Conventional methods that are currently used for measuring viscosity of bitumen are designed
for bituminous behaviour and are not particularly suitable for mastics. Other methods can be
found that are able to measure the viscosity of mastics at lower and intermediate temperatures.
This, however, does not give enough information for designing the temperature of mixing or
compaction of asphalt mixtures, since the ow behaviour of the material will be signicantly
dierent at those higher temperatures. Additionally, viscosity of mastic as a suspension is highly
dependent on various parameters such as particle shape, particle size, particle size distribution or
shear rate dependency. Hence, to enable control on the mastic viscosity design, a method should
be used that is sensitive enough to notice the eect of these parameters on the mastic viscosity
and produce reliable and repeatable results.
In this paper a new method for doing this is presented, which has been developed after measuring
the viscosity of large set of mastic with varying bitumen, llers and additives. The paper gives
details of the protocol, the considerations while developing it as well as some of the results.

2. The need for a new test


Due to the signicant inuence of bitumen rheology on asphalt mixtures performance, determining
rheological properties of bitumen has received a great deal of interest over the years. A lot of
research has been conducted for measuring the viscosity of bitumen using dierent equipment
set-ups and several test standards were established such as, among others: kinematic viscosity of
asphalts (bitumen) (ASTM D2170/D2170M, 2010), Viscosity of Asphalts (bitumen) by Vacuum
Capillary Viscometer (ASTM D2171/D2171M, 2010), Saybolt Viscosity (T072-10-UL, 2010)
422 E. Hesami et al.

and Test for Viscosity Determination of Asphalt Binder Using Rotational Viscometer (T316-
11-UL) (ASTM D4402/D4402M, 2012). In all these standard test methods, however, bitumen
without an additive or ller is considered as the testing material.
It would of course be easier to use an existing viscosity test procedure for mastics, but such a test
must be suitable for the rheological behaviour of the mastic particularities and its dependencies.
Even for the modied bitumen, without the mineral fraction, many dierent standards have been
developed, e.g. Standard Test Method for Apparent Viscosity of Asphalt Emulsion Residues
and non-Newtonian Bitumen by Vacuum Capillary Viscometer (ASTM D4957, 2010), Standard
Test Method for Viscosity of Emulsied Asphalt by Saybolt Furol Viscometer (ASTM D7496,
2011) and Standard Test Method for Determining the Viscosity of Emulsied Asphalts Using a
Rotational Paddle Viscometer (ASTM D7226, 2011).
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Despite the fact that there is currently no standardised mastic rheology protocol, some earlier
eorts have been made to measure mastic properties. In most of these focus was placed on low
and intermediate temperatures and often a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) was utilised. Next to
the DSR, Di Benedetto and his co-workers (Di Benedetto, Olard, Sauzat, & Delaporte, 2004;
Delaporte et al., 2007; Delaporte, Di Benedetto, Chaverot, & Gauthier, 2009) introduced an
annular shear rheometer for measuring the G*.
In this paper a new test was developed, which enabled the detailed investigation of ller particles
and is focused to linking the mastic level to asphalt mixture workability on the larger scale. In
the following, the details of the test are further described.

3. Test development
3.1. Introduction
Measuring the viscosity of bituminous mastic is an important but also a challenging task. As all
parameters which were discussed earlier have a signicant inuence on the measurements, it is
essential to understand their eect by having a method that is sensitive enough to note and exible
enough to vary them. To have a standardised protocol for such a complex material, it is of crucial
importance that the entire protocol is extremely well dened since any variation could lead to
signicantly dierent results leading to erroneous conclusions as to the eect of other parameters.
The repeatability of the test result is therefore an important aspect to which a lot of attention has
been given in this research.

3.2. Temperature dependence


The temperature is an important parameter, which can aect the viscosity result dramatically
(Airey & Westwood, 2004). In two stages temperature plays an important role in the protocol:
during the ller and bitumen mixing and during the actual measurement. The latter one is more
often controlled and the rst, in the case of the history dependence materials, such as mastics, can
be of increasingly importance and should be carefully controlled. Furthermore, during the mixing
process, an optimum temperature is needed to provide suitable bitumen viscosity. Low viscosity
bitumen increases the possibility of perfect mixing to achieve a homogeneous mix with uniformly
distributed and equally coated particles inside the bitumen. Too low a mixing temperature may
lead to imperfect mixing and too high a mixing temperature may lead to segregation of particles
during the mixing and may also enhance the ageing eect. Hence, for llerbitumen mixtures the
mixing temperature should be designed carefully. At lower ller concentrations due to relatively
high amounts of bitumen, mixing at lower temperature may also be possible; while at higher
concentration the mixture becomes too sti to be mixed and makes an inhomogeneous mastic.
Therefore, to be able to compare the viscosity result of mastics and making conclusions on their
Road Materials and Pavement Design 423

fundamental parameters, the mixing temperature should be kept the same and should thus be
suitable for all ller concentrations.
The test temperature can be designed according to the aim of the test. There are, however, some
limitations for choosing the test temperature when testing mastics. According to Stokes law, the
speed of sedimentation of particles inside a liquid is a function of the weight of the particle and
the viscosity of the liquid. Hence, the combination of higher temperature and longer testing time
may increase the risk of ller sedimentation. On the other hand, if the testing temperature is too
low, the viscosity result may not be representative of or relevant for the viscosity behaviour of
bituminous mastic, especially for the modied bitumen.

3.3. Filler behaviour


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Due to the inuence of the particle size on the viscosity of mastic, it is important to have a good
control on the homogeneity of the ller size. It can be even more important when the mastics are
tested at dierent concentrations for comparing the eect of the ller content on the viscosity of
mastics. The storage procedure may result in a segregation of the ller, leading to a ner ller on
the bottom and coarser ller at top the top. Care should therefore be taken to take a representative
sample of the ller when adding it into the bitumen to avoid erroneous conclusions.
Adding the ller to the bitumen is an action which seems simple, but it can also aect the rate
of agglomeration. Agglomerated particles make a bigger articial particle that can act as a coarser
particle if the individual grains do not get separated through the mixing and therefore have an
eect on the viscosity of mastic (Hesami, Bidewell, Birgisson, & Kringos, 2013). For this reason,
the adding procedure of the llers to the bitumen should also be standardised as much as possible
to avoid introducing additional variables into the mixtures.

3.4. Eect of enclosed air pockets


As viscosity is dened as the relationship between shear stress and shear rate, anything that can
aect these two parameters will inuence the measured viscosity. Air pockets or enclosed bubbles
are an unfortunate reality from the mixing process and can have a signicant eect on the shear
stress and thus seemingly change the measured viscosity result. Air bubbles can be introduced
into the mastic during the ller adding into the mastic mixing process. Therefore, when modifying
the ller adding process this issue must be taken into account.

3.5. Eect of viscometer cylinder geometry


Deciding on the appropriate viscometer cylinder geometry is quite challenging since various
geometries are available on the market, but for converting the measured torque and velocity to the
correct shear stress and shear rates, some considerations must be made. First of all, some of these
geometries are suitable for the Newtonian material and others for non-Newtonian. The theoretical
equations for calculating shear stress and shear rate usually are based on the assumption that the
material moves instantly with the inner cylinder. This means that the system should not have any
slipping on inner and outer cylinder walls. The zero shear, or plug, zone is also a non-negligible
phenomenon that can occur for some stier mastic or for very low shear rate test, so the geometry
of the cylinders should be designed to avoid this zero shear zone for all ller concentrations.

3.6. Eect of the test procedure


In addition to all the above aspects, designing a suitable test procedure with appropriate boundary
conditions is a main key of achieving accurate and sucient information about the viscosity
424 E. Hesami et al.

behaviour of bituminous mastic. Bitumen is a Newtonian material, meaning that the viscosity of
bitumen under dierent shear rates is constant, yet it is possible that bituminous mastic does not
follow Newtonian behaviour for certain ller concentrations (Zelelew & Papagiannakis, 2012).
When applying a shear rate that is quite low, the mastic viscous behaviour may show a linear
relation between the shear stress and shear rate. When dealing with a shear thinning, mastic,
the relationship between shear stress and shear rate at a lower shear rate can also initially show
linear and later nonlinear behaviour. If choosing, on the other hand, directly too high a shear rate
it is possible that the structure of the mastic is destroyed or turbulent ow is generated. Since
testing time must be as short as possible to avoid sedimentation of the llers which will result in
stiness gradient over the height of the specimen, the procedure should be capable to give enough
information in a short testing time.
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4. Standardised test protocol


4.1. Sample preparation
The rst step for measuring the viscosity of bituminous mastic is the preparation of the mastic
samples. Because of the importance of the volumetric characteristics of the llers and bitumen,
the amount of ller content was calculated by volume instead of weight. The weight of volume for
a specic concentration was calculated by measuring the density of the llers and the bitumen at
the temperature at which the mastic viscosity will be measured. For calculating the concentration
of the ller, the following equation was used:
VF
= , (1)
Vb + V F
where VF is the volume of ller and Vh is the volume of bitumen.
To make sure that for all samples the ller size distribution is the same and segregation does
not have any eect on the ller size, sucient amounts of ller for all samples were collected
and stirred to ensure a representative ller distribution. Then, the ller was divided into dierent
portions for the mastic samples. At that point, the ller was placed in the oven for 24 h to completely
dry it and also heat to the mixing temperature. To mix the bitumen with the ller, the bitumen
was also heated to the mixing temperature. For this 200 g of bitumen was placed in the oven for
1 h.
All mastic samples were mixed at the same temperature (140 C) to reduce the temperature
eect of the mixing procedure. This temperature was chosen such that it would be appropriate
for mixing the bitumen and llers at all percentages. Mixing of the bitumen with the llers was
done with a mechanical high shear mixer. During this process attention was placed on creating a
homogeneous mastic and avoiding ller agglomeration as much as possible. To prevent adding
air bubbles into the mix, the ller was gradually spread in the bitumen during the mixing. The
mastic was kept in an oven at 140 C for 2 h to give the samples time to release any remaining
air bubbles. To ensure a homogeneous mixture, the mastic was mixed again at the relevant test
temperature before pouring mastic into the cup of the viscometer.

4.2. Test conditions


As a test temperature 100 C was chosen. This temperature was selected as the optimum temper-
ature viscosity test for bituminous mastic after several trials. The main reason to note this as the
optimum is that, at this temperature, the ller sedimentation speed is moderate and the mastic has
more time to be tested as a homogeneous material and still give a repeatable result. Furthermore,
Road Materials and Pavement Design 425

at this temperature, all tested mastics had sucient uidity, even at high ller concentrations.
Finally, the tested mastics still show behaviour in the hydrodynamic regime at this temperature
(Hesami et al., 2012). To keep the temperature constant, the testing chamber should cover the
heater and all parts of the viscometer which are in contact with mastic should be heated to the test
temperature before starting the test.
The used viscometer must be able to apply a constant shear stress in each measurement since,
for a Newtonian material, at each shear stress only one shear rate and, consequently, one viscosity
will be found. So for a correct reading, it is essential to apply a constant shear stress when the
instrument is collecting data. The range of the applied shear rate was chosen to be appropriate to
the mastics ow behaviour.
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4.3. Test set-up


To satisfy all the above conditions, a rotational co-axial viscometer was utilised. This viscometer
was found to be able to apply the accurate range of shear stress at dierent magnitudes for mea-
suring the mastic viscosity with a varying range of viscosity, relevant for mastics. Due to varying
ow behaviour of the tested mastics with the dierent ller concentration, it was considered that
an accurate measurement should be possible when mastics display a dierent type of behaviour
such as Bingham ow, shear thinning or thixotropy.
Information obtained from the shear stress control test can show dierent behaviour compared
with a shear rate control test in the case of shear thinning mastic. That is why the geometry and
the gap between inner and outer cylinder were chosen very carefully to avoid the inuence of the
boundaries on the measurements. The DIN standard (3219:1993(E)) gives the geometry of inner
cylinder (rotor) for Newtonian materials (Figure 1). In this standard, the converting equations are
based on the assumptions of dealing with a Newtonian material. As such, the shear stress gradient
in the gap between inner and outer cylinder is considered linear, there is no plug zone and no
slippage on the wall of inner and outer cylinder. From these assumptions, the limitations of using
the cylindrical rotor are considerable. As long as mastics behave like a Newtonian material, the
shear gradient can be considered linear in the gap of the coaxial cylinder. The shear zone thickness
is, however, a function of the shear stress, the shear rate and the viscosity of material. Since the
gap of the coaxial cylinder is constant and the viscosity of material is the nature of material, to
avoid creating a plug zone, applying the correct shear stress and shear rate is crucial. To reduce
this problem, the gap is chosen as narrow as possible to make sure that for most shear stress and
shear rate ranges applied for mastics, the plug zone will not occur. For these reasons, the radiuses
of inner and outer cylinder were chosen such as to create a 1.0 mm gap.
When increasing the ller concentration, mastic starts to behave more non-Newtonian. From
the particular ller concentration that this behaviour is noted, the use of the cylindrical rotor
to measure the viscosity is no longer appropriate since a boundary bias starts to occur and due
to diculties for the inner cylinder to be placed inside the stier mastics. In addition to these,
slippage on the wall of the inner cylinder must be prevented, the risk of which becomes quite
high for the cylindrical geometry at the higher concentration. For these reasons, a vane-shaped
rotor (Figure 1(d)) was chosen in this study for the higher ller concentration. The range of
ller concentration for using the two rotors can vary from one type of mastic to the other and it
highly depends on the ller size. From the tested mastics, however, most of the mastics showed
that around 20% ller concentration by volume can be a suitable boundary for shifting from the
cylindrical rotor to a vane-shaped rotor. This threshold could also become a material parameter
which later on could be used for comparison and/or design of mastics.
To avoid the slippage on the wall of the outer cylinder as much as possible, an outer cylinder
with small grooves on the inner wall of the cup was used (Figure 1(b). Considering the important
426 E. Hesami et al.
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Figure 1. (a) The TA rheometer (viscometer), (b) grooved cup, (c) cylindrical rotor and (d) vane-shaped
rotor.

eect of temperature on the asphalt mastic viscosity, having an accurate control on the temperature
is essential for any viscosity measurement. For this reason, the whole system was placed in the
Peltier concentric cylinder jacket to provide the required temperature. The Peltier jacket with an
associate cooler can provide a range of temperature from 0 C to 150 C.

4.4. Viscosity measurements


The procedure for running the viscometry test was dened according to the mastic properties, after
running some simple tests. To investigate the eect of the llers on the mastic properties, mastics
with a wide range of ller concentrations were tested in this study. With both the cylindrical
Road Materials and Pavement Design 427

and vane-shaped rotors, tests were done on shear rate control from 5 103 to 0.4 rad/s for
most tests and were varied occasionally for some samples to optimise the measurement. The
continuous-ramp procedure was designed into two steps, with rst a continuous increase in the
shear rate, followed by a continuous decrease. This procedure allows for the initial investigation
of the mastics behaviour, since samples that do not behave Newtonian or Bingham-like and may
need dierent procedures during the shear rate increasing and decreasing procedures.
As mentioned earlier, at elevated temperatures the particles have a tendency to sediment rather
rapidly as the speed of the sedimentation is related to the weight of the particle and the viscosity
of the medium. For this reason, the testing time was held as short as possible to avoid sedimen-
tation of the llers in the bitumen. Eectively, each ramp took 120 sec during which period 180
measurements for the shear rate sweep were made. For each mastic type, at least three tests were
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done to ensure that a repeatable and reliable result was found. Eventually, the relative viscosity
for all samples for certain shear rate was computed by normalising the viscosity of the sample
with the viscosity of the neat bitumen.

5. Discussion of test results


To ensure the applicability and repeatability of the test protocol as described above, as well as
studying the eect of dierent llers and ller concentrations, an extensive laboratory programme
was performed. The tested mastic types included three dierent types of mineral llers: two
silica-based ller (M10 and M600) and y ash. For all samples presented in this paper, a standard
70/100 bitumen from Nynas was used. The llers were selected to enable the study of a range
of parameters, such as ller chemistry, surface area and particle shape on the viscosity of the
mastic. Silica-based llers have a completely dierent shape compared with y ash. The silica-
based llers are angular while y ash has spherical particles. M10 and M600 are both from
silica-based mineral, however M600 is much ner than M10, having thus a much higher surface
area and, consequently, behaving very dierently in terms of the bitumenller interaction and
agglomeration.
The mastic samples were prepared with dierent ller contents ranging from 5% to 50% or
more, depending on the stiening eect of the ller on the bitumen. Most of the samples were
utilised for developing and calibrating the test method to ensure repeatable and reliable viscosity
measurement results. After this calibration and validation procedure, an extensive set of samples
were tested for their viscosity as a function of ller concentration and types, and these results are
shown in the following.
Figures 2 and 3 show the relationship between shear stress and shear rate at dierent ller
concentrations, which were measured with the cylindrical and vane-shaped rotors, respectively.
The slope of their relation at each point shows the viscosity of mastic for that shear rate. As can be
seen from the graphs, the viscosity of the mastics increases as a function of the ller percentage
which was expected. However, this increment is not always linear for all ller concentrations. A
clear eect of the ller on increasing the viscosity can be seen in the plot of relative viscosity
versus ller concentration (Figures 4 and 5). The relative viscosity is the viscosity at a particular
concentration divided with the viscosity of the neat bitumen. Due to nonlinearity of this rela-
tionship for mastics with higher ller concentrations, the mastic viscosity is dierent from one
shear rate to another one. So, to have a correct result the viscosity is calculated for specic shear
rates, even for lower ller concentration mastics, which do display linear Newtonian behaviour.
The results are shown in Figures 4 and 5 from which the relative viscosity of bituminous mastic
obtained from the cylindrical and vane-shaped rotors is shown, respectively.
From the measurement using both the vane-shaped and cylindrical rotor, the highest relative
viscosity for a certain ller concentration was seen with the M600 ller, which is the nest ller
428 E. Hesami et al.
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Figure 2. Viscosity result of mastics at 100 C with the cylindrical rotor, (a) y ash, (b) M10 and (c) M600.
Road Materials and Pavement Design 429
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Figure 3. Viscosity result of mastics at 100 C with the vane-shaped rotor, (a) y ash, (b) M10 and
(c) M600.

with a high surface area and angularity, followed by the mastics with M10 and y ash llers.
From the rst two mastics, it can be concluded that with the same mineralogy, but increasing
surface area, viscosity will increase. The comparison between the viscosity result of the mastics
containing M10 and y ash shows the eect of shape of the ller. The spherical particles of the
430 E. Hesami et al.
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Figure 4. Relative viscosity of mastics at 100 C and 1.5 1/s shear rate with a cylindrical rotor.

Figure 5. Relative viscosity of mastics at 100 C and 1.5 1/s shear rate with the vane-shaped rotor.
Road Materials and Pavement Design 431
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Figure 6. Relative viscosity of mastics at 100 C and 1.5 1/s shear rate with a combination of cylindrical
and vanned rotors.

y ash inside the bitumen under shear stress are rotating and rolling more easily, giving less
resistance to ow compare with the angular particle of M10.
As mentioned earlier, the test results showed that for all llers after a certain ller concentration
the relation between shear stress and shear rate is not linear any more. This concentration is a
boundary limit for using the cylindrical rotor as the mastic is not Newtonian anymore. Hence for
mastics with lower ller concentrations than this boundary concentration, the relative viscosity
results from the cylindrical rotor can be used and for higher ller concentrations the results from
the vane-shaped rotor are more accurate. According to this principle, the previously shown graphs
are modied and the results from the cylindrical and vane-shaped rotor are combined together
and new relative viscosity versus ller concentration is shown in Figure 6.

6. Recommendations
In this paper a new test protocol was discussed which is able to determine the viscosity of
bituminous mastics, as a function of ller concentrations. In the previous section, the results of
the tested mastics and their relationship to the llers were discussed. Having such a test protocol
432 E. Hesami et al.

available will open up the possibility to further investigate mastics for their fundamental properties
and will allow for the development of specic guidelines regarding the eect of particle shape,
particle type, temperature eects and additional modications. Considering the importance of
moving towards warm and cold mix technology, having appropriate test procedures to design
the mastics such that their compactability and workability are optimised can be of great value.
As a continuation of this research, the developed mastic viscosity test can be further utilised to
investigate various types of mastics and be linked to mixture level workability. This would enable
a better control on and prediction of workability and compactability of asphalt mixtures in the
eld.
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