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7/11/2017

Welding Video

Types of Joints
Welding Definition
Welding is a process by which two materials, usually
metals, are permanently joined together by
coalescence, which is induced by a combination of
temperature, pressure, and metallurgical conditions.
The particular combination of these variables can
range from high temperature with no pressure to high
pressure with no increase in temperature.
Kalpakjian

Welding (positive process)


Machining (negative process)
Forming, casting (zero process)

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IES - 2012 Weldability / Fabrication Processes


The advantage of the welding process is The weldability of a material will depend on the
(a) It relieves the joint from residual stresses specific welding or joining process being considered.
(b) It helps in checking of distortion of work piece For resistance welding of consistent quality, it is
(c) Large number of metals and alloys, both similar and/or usually necessary to remove the oxide immediately
dissimilar can be joined. before welding.
(d) Heat produced during the welding does not produce Fabrication weldability test is used to determine
metallurgical changes. mechanical properties required for satisfactory
performance of welded joint.
The correct sequence of the given materials in
ascending order of their weldability is
Aluminum < copper < cast iron < MS
Ans. (c)
Contd

Gas Flame Processes: Combustion of oxygen and acetylene (C2H2) in a


Welding, Cutting welding torch produces a temp. in a two stage reaction.
Oxy-fuel gas Welding (OFW): Heat source is the In the first stage
flame produced by the combustion of a fuel gas and C2 H 2 O2 2CO H 2 + Heat
oxygen. This reaction occurs near the tip of the torch.
In the second stage combustion of the CO and H2
OFW has largely been replaced by other processes but occurs just beyond the first combustion zone.
it is still popular because of its portability and the low 2CO + O2 2CO2 + Heat
capital investment. 1
H2 + 2 O2 H2O + Heat
Oxygen for secondary reactions is obtained from the
Acetylene is the principal fuel gas employed. atmosphere.

Three types of flames can be obtained by varying


the oxygen/acetylene (or oxygen/fuel gas) ratio.
If the ratio is about 1 : 1 to 1.15 : 1, all reactions are
carried to completion and a neutral flame is produced.
Most welding is done with a neutral flame. It is
chemically neutral and neither oxidizes or carburizes
the metal being welded.

Oxy-acetylene gas welding neutral flame

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A higher ratio, such as 1.5 : 1, produces an oxidizing Excess fuel, on the other hand, produces a carburizing
flame, hotter than the neutral flame (about 3300oC) flame. Carburizing flame can carburize metal also.
but similar in appearance. The excess fuel decomposes to carbon and hydrogen,
Used when welding some nonferrous alloys such as and the flame temperature is not as great (about
copper-base alloys and zinc base alloys but harmful 3000oC).
when welding steel because the excess oxygen reacts Flames of this type are used in welding Monel (a
with the carbon, decarburizing the region around nickel-copper alloy),
the weld. It is also used for high-carbon steels, and some alloy
steels, and for applying some types of hard-facing
material.

Oxy-acetylene gas welding Oxidising flame


Oxy-acetylene gas welding Carburizing flame

Oxy acetylene welding equipment


Oxygen is stored in a cylinder at a pressure ranging

Diagram
from 13.8 MPa to 18.2 MPa .
Due to high explosiveness of free acetylene it is stored
in a cylinder with 80-85% porous calcium silicate and
then filled with acetone which absorb upto 420 times
by its volume at a pressure 1.75 MPa .
At the time of acetylene release if acetone comes with
acetylene the flame would give a purple colour.
Another option is acetylene generator.

CaC2 2 H 2O C2 H 2 Ca (OH )2

IES 2010 GATE-1994


The ratio between Oxygen and Acetylene
gases for neutral flame in gas welding is The ratio of acetylene to oxygen is
(a) 2 : 1 (b) 1 : 2 approximately. for a neutral flames used in
gas welding.
(c) 1 : 1 (d) 4 : 1
(a) 1 : 1
(b) 1 : 2
(c) 1 : 3
(d) 1.5 : 1

Ans. (c)
Ans. (a)

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GATE-2003 GATE-2002
In Oxyacetylene gas welding, temperature at the The temperature of a carburising flame in gas
inner cone of the flame is around welding is that of a neutral or an oxidising flame.
(a) 3500C (a) Lower than
(b) 3200C (b) Higher than
(c) 2900C (c) Equal to
(d) 2550C (d) Unrelated to

Ans. (b) Ans. (a)

IAS-1995 IES - 2012


Statement (I): In gas welding the metal to be joined gets
Assertion (A): If neutral flame is used in oxy- oxidized or carburized
acetylene welding, both oxygen and acetylene
cylinders of same capacity will be emptied at the same Statement (II): The neutral flame affects no chemical
time. change on the molten metal.
Reason (R): Neutral flame uses equal amounts of (a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are
oxygen and acetylene.
individually true and Statement (II) is the correct
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of Statement (I)
explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are
correct explanation of A individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct
(c) A is true but R is false explanation of Statement (I)
(d) A is false but R is true (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
Ans. (a) (d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true
Ans. (d)

Case of Aluminium Case of Cast Iron


The oxide coating on aluminum alloys causes some Cast iron is more difficult to weld because of its high
difficulty in relation to its weldability. carbon content and brittleness (poor ductility)
It also has high thermal conductivity and a very short Massive carbon deposits have a tendency to form in
temperature range between liquidus and solidus and when the areas adjacent to the weld, and high-carbon
liquid its viscosity is very low. martensite tends to form in the heat-affected zones.
During fusion welding, the aluminum would oxidize so These microstructures are very brittle and may crack
readily that special fluxes or protective inert-gas spontaneously while welding is in progress or later
atmospheres must be employed. when load is applied to the workpiece.
Friction welding and TIG welding is good for aluminium.
Cast iron can be joined by the oxyacetylene brazing
For aluminium AC current puls high frequency is process and shielded metal-arc welding (stick) process.`
must.(removal of the surface oxide from the base metal is
obtained with typical polarity of AC CURRENT)

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800
Eutectoid temperature

723

Austenite
Pearlite
600

Some cases preheating(100-150) is required. + Fe3C

Help to control cooling rate, 500 Pearlite + Bainite

reduce this sufficiently to avoid martensite formation


400
Bainite

T
post heating at higher temperature to temper the
martensite (590-760) required
300
Ms

Poor fusion 200

Mf

100
Martensite

0.1 1 10 102 103 104 105

t (s)

When heat is applied (welding) the Carbon reacts with the Chromium to form

IES 2010
Chromium Carbide

Case of Stainless Steel


Assertion (A): It is generally difficult to weld
Stainless steel is a difficult metal to weld because it
contains both nickel and chromium. Aluminum parts by normal arc welding process.
The best method for welding stainless steel is TIG Reason (R): Hard and brittle Aluminum-oxide film
welding. is formed at the welded joints.
The electric arc is also preferred for welding stainless (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
steels. A heavily coated welding rod, which produce a correct explanation of A
shielded arc, is employed. (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the
You must do a better job of pre-cleaning. correct explanation of A
Using a low arc current setting with faster travel (c) A is true but R is false
speeds is important when welding stainless steel,
because some stainless steels are subject to carbide (d) A is false but R is true
precipitation. Ans. (a)
Contd..

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IES-2006 IES 2011


Consider the following statements.
Assertion (A): Aluminium has poor weldability.
Cast iron is difficult to weld, because of
Reason (R): Aluminium has high thermal
conductivity and high affinity to oxygen. 1. Low ductility
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
2. Poor fusion
correct explanation of A 3. Tendency to crack on cooling
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the Which of these statements are correct ?
correct explanation of A (a) 1, 2 and 3
(c) A is true but R is false (b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) A is false but R is true
(d) 1 and 3 only Ans. (a)
Ans. (a)

IES-2006 IES-1999
Fabrication weldability test is used to determine The correct sequence of the given materials in
(a) Mechanical properties required for satisfactory ascending order of their weldability is
performance of welded joint (a) MS, copper, cast iron, aluminium
(b) Susceptibility of welded joint for cracking (b) Cast iron, MS, aluminium copper
(c) Suitability for joint design (c) Copper, cast iron, MS, aluminium
(d) Appropriate machining process (d) Aluminium, copper, cast iron, MS

Ans. (a)
Ans. (d)

Pressure Gas Welding


Pressure gas welding (PGW) or Oxyacetylene
GATE PI-1993
Pressure Welding is a process used to make butt During gas welding of copper sheets a neutral flame
joints between the ends of objects such as pipe was used consuming 8ltrs of acetylene. But the weld
and-railroad rail. was found to be defective. So it was re-welded using an
The ends are heated with a gas flame to a oxidizing flame. The likely consumption of oxygen in
temperature below the melting point, and the soft litres will be
metal is then forced together under considerable a) 6
pressure.
b) 8
This process, therefore, is actually a 'form of
c) 10
solid-state welding.
d) 16

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IAS 1994 Oxygen Torch Cutting (Gas Cutting)


In gas welding of mild steel using an oxy- Iron and steel oxidize (burn) when heated to a
acetylene flame. the total amount of acetylene temperature between 8000C to 10000C.
consumed was 10 litre. The oxygen consumption High-pressure oxygen jet (300 KPa) is directed against
from the cylinder is a heated steel plate, the oxygen jet burns the metal and
(a) 5 litre blows it away causing the cut (kerf).
(b) 10 litre For cutting metallic plates shears are used. These are
(c) 15litre useful for straight-line cuts and also for cuts up to 40
mm thickness.
(d) 20 litre

Contd

For thicker plates with specified contour, shearing


cannot be used and oxy-fuel gas cutting (OFC) is
useful.
Gas-cutting is similar to gas welding except torch tip.

Fig- differences in torch tips for gas welding and gas cutting

Contd

Larger size orifice produces kerf width wider and larger


For complete oxidation 0.287 m3 oxygen/kg of iron is
oxygen consumed.
required
At kindling temperature (about 870oC), iron form iron
oxide. Due to unoxidized metal blown away the actual
requirement is much less.
Reaction:
3Fe + 2O2 Fe3O4 +6.67 MJ/kg of iron
Torch tip held vertically or slightly inclined in the
direction of travel.
Torch position is about 1.5 to 3 mm vertical from plate.

Contd Contd

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The drag lines shows the characteristics of the movement If torch moved too rapidly, the bottom does not get
of the oxygen stream. sufficient heat and produces large drag so very rough
and irregular-shaped-cut edges.
If torch moved slowly a large amount of slag is
generated and produces irregular cut.

Fig- positioning of cutting torch in oxy- fuel gas cutting


Drag is the amount by which the lower edge of the drag line
trails from the top edge.
Good cut means negligible drag.

Contd Contd

Gas cutting is more useful with thick plates. Application


Useful only for materials which readily get oxidized
For thin sheets (less than 3 mm thick) tip size should
be small. If small tips are not available then the tip is and the oxides have lower melting points than the
inclined at an angle of 15 to 20 degrees. metals.

Widely used for ferrous materials.

Cannot be used for aluminum, bronze, stainless steel


and like metals since they resist oxidation.

Fig. Recommended torch position for cutting thin steel

Difficulties Cutting CI is difficult, since its melting temp. is


lower than iron oxide.
Final microstructure depends on cooling rate.
If chromium and nickel etc are present in ferrous

Steels with less than 0.3 % carbon cause no alloys oxidation and cutting is difficult.
problem.

Contd

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IES-1992 IES-2005
The edge of a steel plate cut by oxygen cutting will Consider the following statements:
get hardened when the carbon content is 1. In gas welding, the torch should be held at an angle of
30 to 45 from the horizontal plane.
(a) Less than 0.1 percent
2. In gas welding, the Size of the torch depends upon the
(b) Less than 0.3 percent thickness of metal to be formed.
(c) More than 0.3 percent 3. Drag in gas cutting is the time difference between
(d) Anywhere between 0.1 to 1.0 percent heating of the plate and starting the oxygen gas for
cutting.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2
Ans. (c)
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 3

Powder Cutting
Difficult to cut metals by oxy-fuel cutting process are:-
Cast iron, stainless steel,
and others high alloy steels
so we can use powder cutting.
By injecting a finely divided 200-mesh iron powder into
the flame, a lower melting point eutectic oxide is formed
at the cutting interface, where and cutting proceeds in a
similar way of oxy-fuel cutting.

GATE-2009 (PI)
Which of the following powders should be fed for
effective oxy-fuel cutting of stainless steel?

(a) Steel

(b) Aluminum

(c) Copper

(d) Ceramic

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Plasma Cutting
Uses ionized gas jet (plasma) to cut materials resistant to
oxy-fuel cutting,
High velocity electrons generated by the arc impact gas
molecules, and ionize them.
The ionized gas is forced through nozzle (upto 500 m/s), and
the jet heats the metal, and blasts the molten metal away. Free electrons
and ions
More economical, more versatile and much faster (5 to 8
times) than oxyfuel cutting, produces narrow kerfs and
smooth surfaces.
HAZ is 1/3 to th than oxyfuel cutting.
Maximum plate thickness = 200 mm

Electric Arc Welding

Electric Arc Welding Principle of Arc


An arc is generated between cathode and anode when
they are touched to establish the flow of current and
then separated by a small distance.

65% to 75% heat is generated at the anode.

If DC is used and the work is positive (the anode of


Fig. Basic circuit for arc welding the circuit), the condition is known as straight
polarity (SPDC).
Contd

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Work is negative and electrode is positive is reverse


polarity (RPDC).

SPDC conditions are preferred.

RPDC arc-welding maintain a stable arc and preferred


for difficult tasks such as overhead welding.

For a stable arc, the gap should be maintained.

Contd

Three modes of metal transfer during arc welding


Manual arc welding is done with shielded (covered)
electrodes
Bare-metal wire used in automatic or semiautomatic
machines.
Non consumable electrodes (e.g tungsten) is not
consumed by the arc and a separate metal wire is used
as filler.
There are three modes of metal transfer (globular, spray
and short-circuit).

GATE-1993 Arc welding equipments


In d.c. welding, the straight polarity (electrode 1. Droopers: Constant current welding machines
negative) results in Good for manual welding Iarc=Itrnf
(a) Lower penetration 2. Constant voltage machines
(b) Lower deposition rate Good for automatic welding varc=vtrnf
(c) Less heating of work piece
(d) Smaller weld pool

(b) Due to lesser amount of heat at electrode side


lower deposition rate.
Contd

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Characteristic Of Power Source


Formula
Manual welding Machine welding
Drooping Cons. A Linear Cons. V
V V
V1
Vertical Curve
Horizontal
V2
Curve

V I
V1

1
V2

OCV SCC
A
A1 A2 A1 A2

Arc length should be equal to the diameter of the electrode size IES 2010
In arc welding, the arc length should be equal to
(a) 4.5 times the rod diameter
(b) 3 times the rod diameter
(c) 1.5 times the rod diameter
(d) Rod diameter

Bead width should be equal to three diameter of the electrode size

Ans. (d)

IES-2001 IES-2001
In manual arc welding, the equipment should In arc welding, d.c. reverse polarity is used to bear
greater advantage in
have drooping characteristics in order to maintain (a) Overhead welding
(a) Voltage constant when arc length changes (b) Flat welding of lap joints
(c) Edge welding
(b) Current constant when arc length changes
(d) Flat welding of butt joints
(c) Temperature in the are constant

(d) Weld pool red-hot

Ans. (b) Ans. (a)

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IES-1998 IAS-1998
The voltage-current characteristics of a dc Assuming a straight line V-I characteristics for a
generator for arc welding is a straight line dc welding generator, short circuit current as 400A
between an open-circuit voltage of 80 V and short- and open circuit voltage as 400 which one of the
circuit current of 300 A. The generator settings for following is the correct voltage and current setting
maximum arc power will be for maximum arc power?
(a) 0 V and 150 A (b) 40 V and 300 A (a) 400 A and 100 V (b) 200 A and 200 V
(c) 40 V and 150 A (d) 80 V and 300 A (c) 400 A and 50 V (d) 200 A and 50 V

Ans. (b)

Varc=20+5L
GATE -2012 Same Q in GATE -2012 (PI) L=5mm
In a DC arc welding operation, the voltage-arc Varc=20+5X5=45Volt
length characteristic was obtained as Varc = 20 + 5L L=7mm
where the arc length L was varied between 5 mm Varc=20+5X7=55Volt
and 7 mm. Here Varc denotes the arc voltage in Volts.
Y Y1 Y 2 Y1
The arc current was varied from 400 A to 500 A.
Assuming linear power source characteristic, the X X1 X 2 X1
open circuit voltage and the short circuit current for
Y 55 45 45
the welding operation are
(a) 45 V, 450 A (b) 75 V, 750 A X 400 500 400
X Y
(c) 95 V, 950 A (d) 150 V, 1500 A
1
Ans. (C) 950 95

GATE 2007 (PI)


GATE 2016-SET2 The DC power source for arc welding has the
The voltage-length characteristic of a direct current arc characteristic 3V + I = 240, where V = Voltage and
in an arc welding process is = 100 + 40 , where is I = Current in amp. For maximum arc power at
the length of the arc in mm and V is arc voltage in the electrode, voltage should be set at
volts. During a welding operation, the arc length varies
between 1 and 2 mm and the welding current is in the (a) 20 V (b) 40 V (c) 60 V (d) 80 V
range 200-250 A. Assuming a linear power source, the
short circuit current is_________ A.

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GATE 2015-SET1 GATE 2015-SET2


A DC welding power source has a linear voltage- During a TIG welding process, the are current and are
current (V-I) characteristic with open circuit voltage of voltage were 50 A and 60 V, respectively, when in the
80 V and a short circuit current of 300 A. For welding speed was 150 mm/mi. In another process, the
maximum arc power, the current (in Amperes) should TIG welding is carried out at a welding speed of 120
be set as _____. mm/min at the same arc voltage and heat input to the
material so that weld quality remains the same. The
welding current (in A) for this process is
(A) 40.00 (B) 44.72 (C) 55.90 (D) 62.25

GATE-1992
GATE 2015 (PI) A low carbon steel plate is to be welded by the manual
Two aluminum alloy plates each 10 mm thick and 1 m metal arc welding process using a linear V - I
long are welded without crowning by multi-pass characteristic DC Power source. The following data are
tungsten inert gas butt welding. The joint
available :
configuration is V-type with 60 angle and root gap is
maintained at 5 mm. If electrode of 5 mm diameter OCV of Power source = 62 V
with 500 mm length is used for welding, then the Short circuit current = 130 A
number of electrodes required is Arc length, L = 4 mm
(A) 7 (B) 9 (C) 11 (D) 13 Traverse speed of welding = 15 cm/s
Efficiency of heat input = 85%
Voltage is given as V = 20 + 1.5 L
Calculate the heat input into the workprice

Semi automatic welding Duty Cycle


V I
1 Duty cycle is a welding equipment specification which
OCV SCC defines the number of minutes, within a 10 minute
V I period, during which a given welder can safely produce
1
62 130 a particular welding current.
Varc 20 5 L 20 5(4) 26 Volt
For example, a 150 amp. welder with a 30% duty cycle

Varc Iarc must be "rested" for at least 7 minutes after 3 minutes


1 Iarc 75.4834 Amp
62 130 of continuous welding.
Theoretical heat input (P)=VI=26x75.4834=1962.58 watt For manual welding a 60% duty cycle is suggested and
for automatic welding 100% duty cycle.
Actual Heat = 0.85 X Theoretical heat
=0.85X1962,58=1668.19 Watt
Contd

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Example:
200 Ampere Power Source rated at 60% Duty Cycle
and operated at 250 Ampere (as far as permitted):
I
2

Required duty cycle, Ta T


I 200
2 2
Ia
Ta T 0.6 38%
Where ,T = rated duty cycle
Ia 250
I = rated current at the rated duty cycle
Ia = Maximum current at the rated duty cycle This means that the power source has to be operated
maximum 3.8 minutes with a current of 250 Ampere
(according to the 10 minute cycle).

Electrode
IFS-2011 1. Non-consumable Electrodes
What is the maximum output current that can be
2. Consumable Electrodes
drawn at 100% duty cycle from a welding power source
rated at 600A at 60% duty cycle.
[3-Marks] Non-consumable Electrodes
Made of carbon, Graphite or Tungsten.

60
1/ 2 Carbon and Graphite are used for D.C.

Ia 600 155 Amp


Electrode is not consumed, the arc length remains

100
constant, arc is stable and easy to maintain.

Contd

Consumable Electrodes Consumable electrodes are three kinds:


Provides filler materials. (a) Bare
same composition as the material to be welded. (b) Fluxed or lightly coated
This requires that the electrode be moved toward or (c) Coated or extruded / shielded
away from the work to maintain the arc and For automatic welding, bare electrode is in the form of
satisfactory welding conditions.
continuous wire (coil).

Contd

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Electrode coating characteristic GATE-1994


1. Provide a protective atmosphere. The electrodes used in arc welding are coated.
2. Stabilize the arc. This coating is not expected to
3. Provide a protective slag coating to accumulate (a) Provide protective atmosphere to weld
impurities, prevent oxidation, and slow the cooling of (b) Stabilize the are
the weld metal. (c) Add alloying elements
4. Reduce spatter. (d) Prevents electrode from contamination
5. Add alloying elements.
6. Affect arc penetration
7. Influence the shape of the weld bead.
8. Add additional filler metal. Ans. (d)

Electrode coatings 3. Deoxidizing Ingredients. Cellulose, Calcium


carbonate, dolo- mite, starch, dextrin, wood flour,
l. Slag Forming Ingredients. asbestos, mica, silica, graphite, aluminium, ferromanganese.
fluorspar, titanium dioxide, Iron oxide, magnesium Potassium has a lower ionization
carbonate, Calcium carbonate and aluminium oxide. potential as compared with sodium
4. Binding Materials Sodium silicate, potassium silicate,
asbestos. DC AC
2. Arc Stabilizing Ingredients. or ionizing agents:
potassium silicate, TiO2 + ZrO2 (Rutile), Mica, Calcium 5. Alloying Constituents to Improve Strength of Weld
oxide, sodium oxide, magnesium oxide, feldspar (KAI
Si3 O8) 6. TiO2 and potassium compounds increase the melting
rate of the base metal for better penetration.

7. Iron powder provides higher deposition rate.


Contd Contd

The slag is then easily chipped.

Coatings are designed to melt more slowly than the


filler wire.

Contd

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IES 2007 Welding Flux


The coating material of an arc welding electrode Available in three forms
contains which of the following? Granular
1. Deoxidising agent
Electrode wire coating
2. Arc stabilizing agent
Electrode core
3. Slag forming agent
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1 and 3 only

Ans. (a)

Arc Length
Low Hydrogen Electrode For good welds, a short arc length is necessary,
The basic coatings contain large amount of because:
calcium carbonate (limestone) and calcium
1. Heat is concentrated.
fluoride (fluorspar) and produce low hydrogen.
2. More stable
But it can absorb moisture therefore coated low
hydrogen electrodes are backed before use to a 3. More protective atmosphere.
temperature of 200oC to 3000C and stored in an
oven at 110oC to 150oC
Other types of electrode release large amount of
hydrogen, which can dissolve in the weld metal
and lead to embrittlement or cracking.
Contd

A long arc results in


Large heat loss into atmosphere.
Unstable arc.
Weld pool is not protected.
Weld has low strength, less ductility, poor fusion and
excessive spatter.

Fig. Arc Power Vs Arc Length

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GATE-2002, Conventional GATE-2010 (PI)


During a steady gas metal arc welding with direct
The arc length-voltage characteristic of a DC arc is given current electrode positive polarity, the welding current,
by the equation: V = 24 + 4L, where V is voltage in volts voltage and weld speed are 150 A, 30 V and 6 m/min,
respectively. A metallic wire electrode of diameter 1.2
and L is arc length in mm. The static volt-ampere mm is being fed at a constant rate of 12 m/min. The
density, specific heat and melting temperature of the
characteristic of the power source is approximated by a wire electrode are 7000 kg/m3, 500 J/kgoC and 1530oC,
straight line with a no load voltage of 80 V and a short respectively. Assume the ambient temperature to be 30oC
and neglect the latent heat of melting. Further, consider
circuit current of 600A. Determine the optimum arc that two-third of the total electrical power is available for
melting of the wire electrode. The melting efficiency (in
length for maximum power. percentage) of the wire electrode is
(a) 39.58 (b) 45.25 (c) 49.38 (d) 54.98

GATE-2008 GATE-2006
In arc welding of a butt joint, the welding speed is In an arc welding process, the voltage and current
to be selected such that highest cooling rate is are 25 V and 300 A respectively. The arc heat
achieved. Melting efficiency and heat transfer transfer efficiency is 0.85 and welding speed is 8
efficiency are 0.5 and 0.7, respectively. The area of mm/sec. The net heat input (in J/mm) is
the weld cross section is 5 mm2 and the unit (a) 64
energy required to melt the metal is 10 J/mm3. If (b) 797
the welding power is 2 kW, the welding speed in
mm/s is closest to (c) 1103
(a) 4 (b) 14 (c) 24 (d) 34 (d) 79700

GATE-PI-2014 GATE-2014-SET4
In an arc welding operation carried out with a power A butt weld joint is developed on steel plates having
source maintained at 40 volts and 400 amperes, the yield and ultimate tensile strength of 500 MPa and 700
consumable electrode melts and just fills the gap MPa, respectively. The thickness of the plates is 8 mm
between the metal plates to be butt-welded. The heat and width is 20 mm. Improper selection of welding
transfer efficiency for the process is 0.8, melting parameters caused an undercut of 3 mm depth along
efficiency is 0.3 and the heat required to melt the the weld. The maximum transverse tensile load (in
electrode is 20J/mm3 . If the travel speed of the kN) carrying capacity of the developed weld joint is__
electrode is 4mm/s, the cross-sectional area, in mm2,
of the weld joint is _______________

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Arc blow in DC arc welding


GATE-2009 (PI)
Autogenous gas tungsten arc welding of a steel
plate is carried out with welding current of 500 A,
voltage of 20 V, and weld speed of 20 mm/sec.
Consider the heat transfer efficiency from the arc
to the weld pool as 90%. The heat input per unit
length (in KJ/mm) is

(a) 0.25 (b) 0.35 (c) 0.45 (d) 0.55


Contd

Arc blow occurs during the welding of magnetic


materials with DC.
The effect of arc blow is maximum when welding
corners where magnetic field concentration is
maximum.
The effect is particularly noticeable when welding with
bare electrodes or when using currents below or above
Again the problem of arc blow gets magnified when
welding highly magnetic materials such as Ni
alloys, because of the strong magnetic fields set up by
these metals.
Cause: Unbalanced magnetic forces.
Contd

Effect of arc blow


Low heat penetration.
Excessive weld spatter.
Pinch effect in welding is the result of electromagnetic
forces

Contd

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The effects of arc blow can be minimized with D.C.


welding by
Shortening the arc.
Reduce current (F=charge *vel* Magntc fld)
Reducing weld speed.
Balance magnetic field by placing one ground lead at
each end of the work piece.
Wrapping the electrode cable a few turns around the
work piece.

IES-2001 IES-2001
Arc blow is more common in Pinch effect in welding is the result of
(a) A.C. welding (a) Expansion of gases in the arc
(b) D.C. welding with straight polarity (b) Electromagnetic forces
(c) D.C. welding with bare electrodes (c) Electric force
(d) A.C. welding with bare electrodes (d) Surface tension of the molten metal

Ans. (c)
Ans. (b)

Gas shields Helium, most expensive, has a better thermal

An inert gas is blown into the weld zone to drive away conductivity, is useful for thicker sheets, copper and

other atmospheric gases. aluminium welding, higher deposition rate.

Gases are argon, helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide The arc in carbon dioxide shielding gas is unstable,

and a mixture of the above gases. least expensive, deoxidizers needed.

Argon ionizes easily requiring smaller arc It is a heavy gas and therefore covers the weld zone

voltages. very well.

it is good for welding thin sheets.


Contd

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Tungsten Inert Gas welding (TIG) Very clean welds.

Arc is established between a non-consumable For welding all the materials


tungsten electrode and the workpiece.
Al,Mg Alloys
Tungsten is alloyed with thorium or zirconium for
better current-carrying and electron-emission DC current Straight polarity is generally used.
characteristics.
Shielded Gas: Argon
Arc length is constant, arc is stable and easy to
maintain. Torch is water or air cooled.
With or without filler.

Contd

GATE 2011
Which one among the following welding processes
used non consumable electrode?
(a) Gas metal arc welding
(b) Submerged arc welding
(c) Gas tungsten arc welding
(d) Flux coated arc welding

Ans. (c)
Fig. TIG

IES 2010
In an inert gas welding process, the commonly used ISRO-2009
gas is
Following gases are used in tungsten inert
(a) Hydrogen
gas welding
(b) Oxygen
(a) CO2 and H2
(c) Helium or Argon
(d) Krypton (b) Argon and neon
(c) Argon and helium
(d) Helium and neon

Ans. (c)
Ans. (c)

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GATE-2002 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) or MIG


Which of the following arc welding processes does A consumable electrode in a gas shield.
not use consumable electrodes? Arc is between workpiece and an automatically fed
(a) GMAW bare-wire electrode.
(b) GTAW Argon, helium, and mixtures of the two can be used.
(c) Submerged Arc Welding Any metal can be welded but are used primarily with
(d) None of these the non-ferrous metals.

Ans. (b)
Contd

Fast and economical.


A DCEP is generally used because
a) It increases the metal-deposition rate and
b) also provides for a stable arc and smooth electrode
metal transfer.
With DCEN:-
a) the arc becomes highly unstable and
b) also results in a large spatter
NOTE:-
But special electrodes having calcium and titanium
oxide mixture as coating are found to be good for
welding STEEL with DCEN

Fig. MIG

IES 2007 IES-1997


In MIG welding, the metal is transferred into the Consider the following statements:
form of which one of the following? MIG welding process uses
(a) A fine spray of metal 1. Consumable electrode 2. non-consumable electrode
(b) Molten drops 3. D.C. power supply 4. A.C. power supply
(c) Weld pool Of these statements
(d) Molecules (a) 2 and 4 are correct
(b) 2 and 3 are correct
(c) 1 and 4 are correct
(d) 1 and 3 are correct
Ans. (a) Ans. (d)

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Submerged Arc welding (SAW)


A thick layer of granular flux is deposited just ahead of Most suitable for flat butt or fillet welds in low

a bare wire consumable electrode, and an arc is carbon steel (< 0.3% carbon).

maintained beneath the blanket of flux with only a few


small flames being visible.

A portion of the flux melts. Molten flux and flux


provides thermal insulation, slows cooling rate and
produce soft, ductile welds.
Contd

Characteristic of submerged arc welding


High speeds,

High deposition rates,

Deep penetration,

High cleanliness (due to the flux action).

Advantages Limitations
Wire electrodes are inexpensive. Extensive flux handling,

No weld spatter. Contamination of the flux by moisture.

Nearly 100% deposition efficiency. Large-grain-size structures.

Lesser electrode consumption. Welding is restricted to the horizontal position.

Chemical control is important

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IES-2006 IES-2005
In which of the following welding processes, flux Which of the following are the major
is used in the form of granules? characteristics of submerged arc welding?
(a) AC arc welding 1. High welding speeds.
(b) Submerged arc welding 2. High deposition rates.
3. Low penetration.
(c) Argon arc welding
4. Low cleanliness.
(d) DC arc welding
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 2 and 3 (b) 1, 2 and 3
(c) 3 and 4 (d) 1 and 2

Ans. (b) Ans. (d)

Atomic Hydrogen welding (AHW)


Temperature of about 3700oC.
An a.c. arc is formed between two tungsten electrodes
along which streams of hydrogen are fed to the Hydrogen acts as shielding also.
welding zone. The molecules of hydrogen are
dissociated by the high heat of the arc in the gap Used for very thin sheets or small diameter wires.
between the electrodes. The formation of atomic
hydrogen proceeds with the absorption of heat: Lower thermal efficiency than Arc welding.
H2 = 2H - 421.2 k J / mol
Ceramics may be arc welded.
This atomic hydrogen recombines to form molecular
hydrogen outside the arc, particularly on the relatively AC used.
cold surface of the work being welded, releasing the
heat gained previously:
2H = H2 + 421.2 k J / mol.
Contd

IES-2005
In atomic hydrogen welding, hydrogen acts as
(a) A heating agent
(b) One of the gases to generate the flame
(c) An effective shielding gas protecting the weld
(d) A lubricant to increase the flow characteristics of
weld metal

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