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Edition- 2016

ISBN- 978-81-92717-364

Photo Typeset
Multi Graphics

Printed at
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Pr e f ac e

A book cannot have a foreword unless it has some words with its readers. This
book has a lot to share with the students of Technical Education who take examination
for Communicative English.

With the spread of literacy and education, Communicative English has got a
grip over the whole word. It plays a significant role today in all our activities. The
employers expect that the employee must understand, speak, read and write correct
English. However, India with a large population fails to serve the purpose. The simple
reason is that English, being a foreign language, is not comprehended by many. In
order to learn the skills about how to communicate in English the learner must
adhere to certain rules. First he must understand the language. Reading the passages
in English and answering the questions based on the given passage can increase
his knowledge. Secondly he must know the basic rules of grammar which would
help him write correct English. Next he should enhance his potentiality by writing
short paragraphs on various topics. Finally he should know the format of writing
applications, letters, reports, tender notices and advertisements. A diploma holder
in Technical Education must be well-versed in oral communication too. This would
make it easy for him to communicate with the staff or the seniors in the workplace.
He must know the basic rules of grammar. This would facilitate various assignments
like maintaining office records,writing official letters and technical reports or drawing
up tender notices.

Keeping an eye to all the issues discussed here this book offers a sound and
brief knowledge about the above-mentioned topics. It has been divided into two
sections. The first one deals with different subjects like Grammar, Composition and
Comprehension, while section II has the various Skills of Communication and Practice
papers with answers provided for the support of the students. The contents are
strictly according to the syllabus and the exercises have been furnished with solutions
for the convenience of the students.

This book also consists of the question bank in Hindi. The author is
Mr. B. Tiwary. He has done full justice to the subject and has helped the students to
minimise the problems they face while solving the questions in Hindi.

Kajri Guha
Sy l l ab us
Communication Skill-I
Theory No of Period in one session : Credit

Subject Code No. of Periods Per Week Full Marks : 100 2

01104 / 02204 L T P/S ESE : 50
02 0 0 TA : 10
CT : 20

Unit Topic Hrs/Week Marks

Unit -1 PART I: TEXT 10 24

l Vocabulary - Understanding meaning of new words from text

l Comprehension Responding to the questions from text
l Identifying parts of speech


l Verbs
l Tenses
Do as directed (active /passive, Direct/indirect, affirmative/negative/
assertive, questi on tag, remove too, use of arti cle, preposi tion,
conjunctions, interjections, punctuation)


l Definition Types of paragraphs

l How to write a paragraph


l Word formation
l Technical jargon
l Use of synonyms /antonyms/Homonyms/paronyms
l One word substitution
bd kbZ i zd j . k V/sl Ir kg
?ka va

[ ka
M-1 kCn&jpuk&mRifr ,oa fodkl 3 5

l O;qRifk ,oa u, kCnksa dk fuekZ.k] vusd kCnksa ds fy, ,d kCn] fonskh Hkk"kk ds kCnksa
dk fgUnh esa iz;ksx] nskt ,oa fonskt kCn] lekukFkZd kCn] foijhrkFkZd kCn] ;qXe kCn]
l okD; %& izdkj] :ikUrj.k] vkq) okD;ksa dks kq) djuk
l fgUnh esa iz;qDr fojke& fpg~u ,oa mudk iz;ksx

[ ka
M-2 O;kdj.k ds fu;eks a dk Kku ,oa mudk iz ;ks x 2 1

[ ka
M - 3 vuq PNs n ,oa x|ka k 2 5

1- vuqPNsn ys[ku
2- vifBr x|kak ,oa izukskj

[ ka
M - 4 vkS ipkfjd i= ys [ku 2 5

1- dk;kZy;h i=
2- izsl&lwpuk
3- izsl&foKfIr
4- izfrosnu
5- O;koLkkf;d i= ys[ku
6- ukSdjh ds fy, vkosnu&i=
7- ck;ksMkVk
[ ka
M - 5 f;kRed@O;kogkfjd 3 4
1- kCnksa dk lgh mPpkj.k
2- ekSf[kd laizs"k.k@oDrwrk kSyh dk fodkl
3- leqfpe kjhfjd Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx
4- laokn dkSky
l dk;Z Hkkj( (Assignments)
1- kCn ,oa mudk lkFkZd iz;ksx
2- dk;kZy;h kCn
3- okD;ksa dh vkqf);k
4- fojke fpg~uksa dk iz;ksx
5- laokn ys[ku & fLFkfr ds vuqlkj
6- vuqPNsn ys[ku
7- lekpkj i=] fjiksZV ys[ku
8- kCnkoyh
Communication Skill-II
Theory No of Period in one session : Credit

Subject Code No. of Periods Per Week Full Marks : 100 2

01201 / 02101 L T P/S ESE : 70
- - - TA : 10
02 - - CT : 20

Unit Topic Hrs/Week Marks


1.1 Definition, communication cycle/ process

1.2 The elements of communication : sender- message channel- Receiver
Feedback & Context.
1.3 Definition of communication process.
1.4 Stages in the process : defining the context, knowing the audience,
desi gni ng the message, encodi ng, sel ecti ng proper channel s,
transmitting, receiving, decoding and giving feedback.


Formal- Informal, Verbal- Nonverbal, Vertical- horizontal- diagonal


3.1 Definition of effective communication

3.2 Communication barriers & how to overcome them.
3.3 Developing effective messages: Thinking about purpose, knowing the
audi ence, structuri ng the message, sel ecti ng proper channel s,
minimizing barriers & facilitating feedback.


4.1 Non- verbal codes: A - K i nesecs, B- Proxemi cs, C Hapti cs,

D-Vocalics, E- Physical appearance. F Chronemics, G Artifacts
Aspects of body language Interpreting visuals & illustrating with
visuals like tables, charts & graphs.


5.1 Office Drafting: Circular, Notice and Memo.

5.2 Job Application with resume.
5.3 Business correspondence: Enquiry, Order letter, Complaint letter, and
Adjustment letter.
5.4 Report wri ting: A ccident report, f al l i n producti on, Progress /
5.5 Defining & describing objects & giving Instructions.

bd kbZ i zd j . k V/sl Ir kg
?ka va

[ ka
M-1 la iz s "k.k 2 5

1- Ifjp; ,oa izf;k

2- laizs"k.k ds rRo &izs"kd&lansk&pSuy&xzkgd QhMcSd ,oa lanHkZ
3- laizs"k.k izf;k dh ifjHkk"kk
4- laizs"k.k izf;k ds lksiku& lanHkZ Jksrk leqnk;] lnHkZ dk Lo:i] ek/;e dk p;u
5- izLrqfr esa n`;] pkVZ Vscqy vkfn dk iz;ksx

[ ka
M-2 la iz s "k.k ds iz dkj 2 5

1- vkSipkfjd] vukSipkfjd
2- Hkkf"kdk ,oa xSj Hkkf"kd

[ ka
M - 3 iz Hkkokkyh la iz s "k.k dh ifjHkk"kk iz dkj 2 5

1- ifjHkk"kk
2- laizs"k.k
3- izHkkokkyh& lansk dh rS;kjh ,oa Lo:i
4- QhMcSd

[ ka
M - 4 ekS f[kd la iz s "k.k ,oa kkjhfjd Hkk"kk iz dkj 2 5

1- rkSj rjhsds ,oa vk/kkjHkwr fk"Vkpkj

2- kkjhfjd Hkk"kk }kjk laizs"k.k
3- Ekq[kkfr }kjk laizs"k.k
4- Lkewfgd ifjppkZ] fookn] oDr`r kSyh dk fodkl
l dk;Z Hkkj( (Assignments)
1- laizs"k.k izf;k ls lacaf/kr Mk;xzke
2- laizs"k.k ds izdkj ,oa fLFkfr
3- fo"k; ds vuqlkj dgkuh ys[ku ,oa vUkqPNsn ys[ku
4- rduhdh ,oa oSKkfud kCnkoyh
5- cSad ls lacaf/kr kCnkoyh
6- O;kolkf;d i=
Communication Skill-I

Unit -1 PART I: TEXT 15-28

1.1 Vocabulary - Understanding meaning of new words from text

1.2 Comprehension Responding to the questions from text
1.3 Identifying parts of speech


2.1/2 Verbs & Tenses

Do as directed (active /passive, Direct/indirect, affirmative/negative/assertive,
question tag, remove too, use of article, preposition, conjunctions, interjections,


l Definition Types of paragraphs

l How to write a paragraph


l Word formation
l Technical jargon
l Use of synonyms /antonyms/Homonyms/paronyms
l One word substitution

[ kM
a -1 kCn&jpuk&mRifr ,oa fodkl 119-141

l O;qRifk ,oa u, kCnksa dk fuekZ.k] vusd kCnksa ds fy, ,d kCn] fonskh Hkk"kk ds kCnksa dk fgUnh esa iz;ksx]
nskt ,oa fonskt kCn] lekukFkZd kCn] foijhrkFkZd kCn] ;qXe kCn] la{ksi.k
l okD; %& izdkj] :ikUrj.k] vkq) okD;ksa dks kq) djuk
l fgUnh esa iz;qDr fojke& fpg~u ,oa mudk iz;ksx

[ kM
a -2 O;kdj.k ds fu;eks a dk Kku ,oa mudk iz ;ks x 141

[ ka
M - 3 vuq PNs n ,oa x|ka k 142-148

1- vuqPNsn ys[ku
2- vifBr x|kak ,oa izukskj

[ ka
M - 4 vkS ipkfjd i= ys [ku 148-151

1- dk;kZy;h i=
2- izsl&lwpuk
3- izsl&foKfIr
4- izfrosnu
5- O;koLkkf;d i= ys[ku
6- ukSdjh ds fy, vkosnu&i=
7- ck;ksMkVk
[ ka
M - 5 f;kRed@O;kogkfjd 152-154
1- kCnksa dk lgh mPpkj.k
2- ekSf[kd laizs"k.k@oDrwrk kSyh dk fodkl
3- leqfpe kjhfjd Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx
4- laokn dkSky
l dk;Z Hkkj( (Assignments)
1- kCn ,oa mudk lkFkZd iz;ksx
2- dk;kZy;h kCn
3- okD;ksa dh vkqf);k
4- fojke fpg~uksa dk iz;ksx
5- laokn ys[ku & fLFkfr ds vuqlkj
6- vuqPNsn ys[ku
7- lekpkj i=] fjiksZV ys[ku
8- kCnkoyh
foks k ikB~ ; lkexz h 155-180
Communication Skill-II



1.1 Definition, communication cycle/ process

1.2 The elements of communication : sender- message channel- Receiver Feedback
& Context.
1.3 Definition of communication process.
1.4 Stages in the process : defining the context, knowing the audience, designing
the message, encoding, selecting proper channels, transmitting, receiving, decoding
and giving feedback.


Formal- Informal, Verbal- Nonverbal, Vertical- horizontal- diagonal


3.1 Definition of effective communication

3.2 Communication barriers & how to overcome them.
3.3 Developing effective messages: Thinking about purpose, knowing the audience,
structuring the message, selecting proper channels, minimizing barriers & facilitating feedback.


4.1 Non- verbal codes: A- Kinesecs, B- Proxemics, C Haptics,

D-Vocalics, E- Physical appearance. F Chronemics, G Artifacts Aspects of body language
Interpreting visuals & illustrating with visuals like tables, charts & graphs.


5.1 Office Drafting: Circular, Notice and Memo.

5.2 Job Application with resume.
5.3 Business correspondence: Enquiry, Order letter, Complaint letter, and Adjustment letter.
5.4 Report writing: Accident report, fall in production, Progress / Investigative.
5.5 Defining & describing objects & giving Instructions.

[ kM
a -1 la iz s "k.k 241-243

1- Ikfjp; ,oa izf;k

2- laizs"k.k ds rRo &izs"kd&lansk&pSuy&xzkgd QhMcSd ,oa lanHkZ
3- laizs"k.k izf;k dh ifjHkk"kk
4- laizs"k.k izf;k ds lksiku& lanHkZ Jksrk leqnk;] lnHkZ dk Lo:i] ek/;e dk p;u
5- izLrqfr esa n`;] pkVZ Vscqy vkfn dk iz;ksx

[ kM
a -2 la iz s "k.k ds iz dkj 243

1- vkSipkfjd] vukSipkfjd
2- Hkkf"kdk ,oa xSj Hkkf"kd

[ ka
M - 3 iz Hkkokkyh la iz s "k.k dh ifjHkk"kk iz dkj 244-245

1- ifjHkk"kk
2- laizs"k.k
3- izHkkokkyh& lansk dh rS;kjh ,oa Lo:i
4- QhMcSd

[ ka
M - 4 ekS f[kd la iz s "k.k ,oa kkjhfjd Hkk"kk iz dkj 245-247

1- rkSj rjhsds ,oa vk/kkjHkwr fk"Vkpkj

2- kkjhfjd Hkk"kk }kjk laizs"k.k
3- Ekq[kkfr }kjk laizs"k.k
4- Lkewfgd ifjppkZ] fookn] oDr`r kSyh dk fodkl
l dk;Z Hkkj( (Assignments)
1- laizs"k.k izf;k ls lacaf/kr Mk;xzke
2- laizs"k.k ds izdkj ,oa fLFkfr
3- fo"k; ds vuqlkj dgkuh ys[ku ,oa vUkqPNsn ys[ku
4- rduhdh ,oa oSKkfud kCnkoyh
5- cSad ls lacaf/kr kCnkoyh
6- O;kolkf;d i=
foks k ikB~ ; lkexz h 248-263
Group-I (English) 13

t io n

d fg
[English an
14 Communication Skill-I
Group-I (English) 15



Part-I (Text)

1.1 VocabularyUnderstanding meaning of new words from text

What is Vocabulary?

According to Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English, Vocabulary means

"all the words that a person knows or uses." In addition to this, the words that are used by the
people while talking about a subject are called Vocabulary too. It also refers to the words in a
particular language.
Q.1 Fluids can be elastic or non-elastic, but all types of fluids have the inclination to adhere to
the sides of pipes. However, if the fluid adjacent to the side of the pipe is retarded, the fluid
joining it next in the moving column, will surely feel to a certain extent "the effects of the
contiguous retardation". This refers to one of the causes of friction. The other reason behind
it can develop from fluids that have propensity to form eddies in their passage through
tubes or other channels.
Find out the words from the passage that mean the same as:
(i) Disposition - inclination
(ii) Stick - adhere
(iii) Adjoining - adjacent
(iv) Delayed - retarded
(v) Juxtaposed - contiguous
Q.2 The steam engines are generally known as rotary engines. These types of engines are indebted
to the power exerted by the elastic force of steam or any other kind of fluid. This force can
16 Communication Skill-I

be carried from a central rotary axle in an improved mode of applying the power produced
by the improved engine or any other engines. It is also transported to the paddle-shaft of
steam boats and to the construction of the boilers by which such or other steam engines or
steam apparatus can be worked.
Find out the words from the passage that mean the same as:
(i) Thankful - indebted
(ii) Utilized - exerted
(iii) Revolving - rotary
(iv) Communicated - transported
(v) Appliance - apparatus
Q.3 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding is a process of welding. It is mostly used to weld thin sections of
stainless steel and non-ferrous metals such as magnesium, aluminum, and copper alloys.
The process offers the operator much control over the weld. The other processes like gas
metal arc welding and shielded metal arc welding do not provide stronger, higher quality
welds than GTAW. However, GTAW is comparatively very complex .It cannot be easily
mastered, and finally it is quite slower than most other welding techniques.
Find out the words from the passage that mean the same as:
(i) Not connected with iron - non-ferruous
(ii) A metal that is formed by mixing two types of metal together - alloy
(iii) Protected from danger - shielded
(iv) A joint made by welding - weld
(v) Complicated - complex
Q.4 Draftsman courses guide students to design and draw blueprints of buildings, machines
and products in different dimensions. They mostly use computer programs designed to
probe into the typical courses meant for this field. These courses include architectural,
mechanical, electrical or civil drafting. The prominent concepts that can be found in these
types of courses are drafting terminology, descriptive geometry, mechanical and technical
drafting, architectural drafting, how to go through blueprints and how to work with CAD
soft ware.
Find out the words from the passage that mean the same as:
(i) A photographic print of a plan for a building or a machine - blueprint
(ii) Angles - dimensions
(iii) Explore - probe into
(iv) Read - go through
(v) Detailed - descriptive
Group-I (English) 17

Q.5 The arrangement of magnets and coils converting electric energy to mechanical energy is
known as motor. It is actually a machine that begets motion or imparts motion. The ultrasonic
motors are the advance version of the motors. The first ultrasonic motor was invented
in1980.Though Electromagnetism is a major factor behind electric motor technology, they
have a few disadvantages. The ultrasonic motors are able to overcome those shortcomings.
Find out the words from the passage that mean the same as:
(i) Transform - convert
(ii) Produce - beget
(iii) Contribute - impart
(iv) Interpretation - version
(v) Drawbacks - shortcoming

1.2 ComprehensionResponding to the questions from text

Prescribed units from Communication in English for Technical Students (Orient Longman)
Comprehension means the understanding of an unseen passage deeply. The following tips
are there to help you out.
(1) Read the passage carefully.
(2) Find out the passage from where the questions have been asked.
(3) Write the answers in your own words.
(4) The answers must be grammatically correct.
(5) There should not be any spelling mistake.
(6) Your answers should be brief, clear and to the point.
(7) The title (if you are asked to provide it) should be catchy.


(i) Uses of Mango Wastes

1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Mango has been commercially cultivated in the Indo-Burma-Malayan region of Southeast
Asia for many years, although its cultivation has only spread to other parts of the world in
relatively recent times. Among the different species Mangifera indica is cultivated most
widely; its fruits are highly valued and play an important role in the diet of people living in
tropical areas. Other species occur semi-wild in many parts of the tropics, and grow well
wherever fairly humid conditions prevail, where temperatures do not fall too low, and
where there is a long dry season.
18 Communication Skill-I

(a) What do you mean by commercially cultivated?
(b) Name the place where mango has been cultivated for many years.
(c) Who consume Mangifera indica most?
(d) What are the conditions required for growing mango?
(a) Commercially cultivated means the fruits , vegetables or crops which are harvested
for buying and selling.
(b) Indo-Burma-Malayan region of Southeast Asia.
(c) Those who live in tropical places consume Mangifera indica most.
(d) The conditions required for growing mango are humidity, hot temperature and dry
2. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Mango seed can be broadly divided into two partsthe hard upper shell or endocarp and
the seed kernel. The endocarp contains some hemicelluloses which can be extracted with
hot water and alkali. Chemical analysis of these extracts reveals the presence of xylose as
the only sugar-containing component. This suggests that the endocarp may be used as a
raw material for the production of xylan, which in turn can be converted into xylitol, an
alternative sweetener which is 1.5 times sweeter than sucrose and particularly suitable for
diets of diabetic people.
(a) What is endocarp?
(b) How can hemicelluloses be obtained from endocarp?
(c) What is revealed by chemical analysis?
(d) How can we use endocarp as raw material?
(a) Endocarp is the hard upper shell of a mango seed.
(b) Hemicelluloses can be obtained from endocarp with the help of hot water and
(c) Chemical analysis reveals that these extracts possess xylose, the only sugar
containing element.
(d) We can use endocarp as raw material to produce xylan. Xylan can be changed into
xylitol which is sweeter than sucrose. It can be used in the diet for the diabetic
Group-I (English) 19

(ii) Making Money in India

3. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
In the earliest times there was a direct barter of goods and services between individuals.
Later, precious metalsgold and silver mainly became the medium of exchange. In
other words, the value of goods was expressed in terms of a certain weight of gold and
silver. Thus pieces of these metals were exchanged, instead of direct exchange of goods
.But there was no strict uniformity in shape, size or weight of these pieces of gold and
silver. It was therefore possible to cheat. And so coins were issued by a king or honest
trader, because they were of an assured quality and so were more reliable.
(a) What do you mean by barter of goods and services by individuals?
(b) What became the medium of exchange?
(c) How was the value of goods expressed later?
(d) Why were coins issued by a king?
(a) Barter of goods and services means exchanging goods and services between
individuals as per need and availability. In ancient time, if somebody had wheat
but needed rice, he exchanged it from the person who needed wheat but had rice.
(b) Mainly gold and silver became the medium of exchange.
(c) The value of goods was expressed with a piece of gold or silver which had a
particular weight.
(d) The piece of gold or silver might be less in weight for the goods purchased or the
services rendered. There was a chance of cheating. So the coins were issued by a
(iii) Radar : Its Operations and Benefits

4. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Radar ranges into space and detects objects in its path. A transmitter sends out signals by
way of a directional antenna in a straight line at about 300 million meters/second, and
when they strike an object in their path, they are reflected from this object. Part of the
reflected energy then returns to the revolving antenna from which the pulses originally
went out.
(a) What does the radar do?
(b) Why does the transmitter send out signals?
(c) How does a transmitter send out signals?
20 Communication Skill-I

(d) From where do the pulses go out?

(a) Radar roams into space and spots the objects in its way.
(b) The transmitter sends out signals to detect the objects in its path.
(c) A transmitter sends out signals with the help of a directional antenna. This continues
to rotate at one to thirty times a minute.
(d) The pulses go out from the revolving antenna.
5. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
In the system called Ground Control Approach (GCA), ground radar serves to control
planes during blind landings at airports. By this method, the pilot uses instruments on his
plane: he does not need to watch the runway. On the ground, two radar transmitters send
signals to the plane. One sends a signal in line with the centre of the runway; the other
sends a signal from the landing point, at an angle of approximately three degrees from the
ground. On the plane a receiver picks up the signal .The receiver is connected to an instrument
which indicates whether the plane is in line with the centre of the runway. It also indicates
whether the plane is on the correct slope.
(a) What is blind landing?
(b) How does the pilot manage to do this?
(c) What do the two radar transmitters do?
(d) What is the task of the instrument connected to the receiver?
(a) During blind landing the pilot does not have to keep a vigil on the runway. He can
depend on the instruments on his plane.
(b) The pilot manages to do this with the help of the GCA which includes the ground
(c) The two radar transmitters give directions to the plane by sending signals. One of
the transmitters sends signal with the centre of the runway and the other one sends
it from the landing point.
(d) The task of the instrument is to denote the exact condition of the plane whether it
is in line with the centre of the runway.
(iv) Technology for Mankind

6. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
When machines repeat their actions, day in and day out, they need a constant source of
power. Therefore a great deal of human invention in the last 300 years has been directed to
Group-I (English) 21

taming the power hidden in nature, and to channeling it into steady sources of energy that
can drive machines. Accordingly, inventions in the field of energyall the way from the
steam engine to the nuclear reactor have an important place in technological growth.
(a) Why do machines need a constant source of power?
(b) Why did the human beings try to control Nature?
(c) What is the consequence of channelizing it into steady sources of energy?
(d) What are the factors leading to technological growth?
(a) Machines work continuously. In order to boost up their energy machines need a
constant source of power.
(b) Nature has immense power. The human beings tried to control it to rule over Nature
and adapt to the existing surroundings for survival.
(c) Channelizing the steady sources of energy has paved the way to new inventions.
(d) New inventions are the factors leading to technological growth.

1.3 Identifying Parts of Speech

A sentence is made with Words. Words can be divided into various kinds or categories.
They are called Parts of Speech. It depends on their usage in a sentence. The following are the
eight Parts of Speech used in a Sentence.
1) Noun
2) Adjective
3) Pronoun
4) Verb
5) Adverb
6) Preposition
7) Conjunction
8) Interjection
1) Noun- It is the name of a person, place or a thing. However, the word thing refers to all
those that can be seen, heard, touched, or smelt along with those words that can be thought
of or felt and cannot be perceived by the senses.
For example the following sentences have different kinds of noun in them. The words
written in italics are called Noun.
a. Salman Khan is an actor.
b. Patna is situated on the bank of Ganges.
c. The rose looks beautiful.
22 Communication Skill-I

d. The sun gives heat.

e. His bravery won him honor.
f. Gold is very expensive.
g. The army marched towards the border.
There are five kinds of Noun:
i. Proper Noun
ii. Common Noun
iii. Collective Noun
iv. Abstract Noun
v. Material Noun
i. A Proper Noun refers to a particular person, a place or a thing. In the above-
written sentences, the words Salman Khan, Patna, Ganges, Rose and Sun are applied
for particular person, place and things. So they are called Proper Noun.
ii. A Common Noun refers to a class or kind. It is a name given in common to the
same category of people or things. In the sentence "Salman Khan is an actor."
"actor" is a common noun as it refers to a particular class of people.
iii. A Collective noun is the name of a collection of persons or things taken as a
whole. In the sentence "The army marched towards the border." army tells us about
a collection of soldiers.
iv. An Abstract noun relates to the name of a quality, action or state. However it is
kept aside from the thing it belongs to. The words "Bravery" and "Honor" in the
sentence "His bravery won him honor." are Abstract Nouns, showing action and
quality. If we say, "His childhood was spent in misery., the words childhood and
misery are abstract nouns denoting state.
v. Material Noun points at the names of the materials. In the sentence "Gold is very
expensive." The word "gold" is material noun. In the same way the things that can
be weighed or measured are known as material noun. Rice, wheat, sugar, milk,
wood, marble are included in the category of Material Noun.
2) An Adjective denotes a word that is an addition to the meaning of a noun. If we look at the
sentence "Karina Kapoor is a very glamorous actress." ,the word "glamorous" adds to the
meaning of the noun "actress".
Adjectives can be segregated into following classes:
(i) Adjectives of Quality refer to the qualities of a person or a thing.
e.g. He is an intelligent boy. The Adjective intelligent answers the question "Of
what kind of a boy he is?"
(ii) Adjectives of Quantity denote the quantity of a thing.
Group-I (English) 23

i. She had had enough exercise.
ii. John showed much patience.
iii. You must take great care of your health.
iv. The boy has little energy.
v. The old woman has lost all her wealth.
(iii) Adjectives of Number refer to the numbers. They answer the question: How
Many.There are other kinds of numeral adjectives too. They are:
a. Definite Numeral Adjectives- They tell us about exact number such as
One, Two, Three, First, Second, Third
b. Indefinite Numeral Adjectives- They do not mean anything exact. e.g.
all, many, no, few, several, any, certain ,some
c. Distributive Numeral Adjectives- They refer to each one of a number.
e.g. each, every, either, neither.
However, many a time, the same adjective can be classified as Adjectives of Number
and Adjectives of Quantity.
e.g. There are no books on the shelf. This is Adjective of Number.
e.g.-She has no sense.-this is Adjective of Quantity
(iv) Demonstrative Adjectives are those that focus on the particular person or thing
meant for.
e.g. this, these, that, those, such
e.g. This man has stolen my watch.
(v) Possessive Adjectives denote something related to personal.
e.g. my, his, her, their, your, our
(vi) Interrogative Adjectives used to ask question.
e.g. what, which, whose
(vii) Emphasizing Adjectives are used to emphasize the noun. e.g. very ,own
e.g. This is the very word that should be used here.
He has seen it with his own eyes.
(viii) Exclamatory Adjectives denote exclamation.
e.g. What an idea!
What a piece of work is man!
3) A Pronoun refers to a word that is used in lieu of Noun.
e.g. My friend is not well. He is suffering from fever. There are following types of Pronouns:
24 Communication Skill-I

(i) Personal Pronouns denote the three persons i.e. First person, Second person and
Third person
I, we, our, me, us refer to First person.
You, yours are assigned to Second person.
He, she, they, it, his, her, him, them
go with Third person.
(ii) Reflexive Pronouns are assigned to the subjects which reflect the action done by
the subjects.
e.g. He hurt himself.
She burnt herself.
(iii) Emphatic Pronouns are used to create emphasis.
e.g She herself met the stranger.
You can do it yourself.
(iv) Demonstrative Pronouns, Indefinite Pronouns and Distributive Pronouns are
just like the Adjectives.
For example: This pen is yours. This can be attributed as Demonstrative Pronoun.
(v) However, Indefinite Pronouns are used to refer to the persons or things in general.
e.g. All are safe.
Everybody condemned the matter.
Somebody has stolen my book.
Let each of them have one apple.
(vii) Distributive Pronouns are meant for the persons or things one at a time.
e.g. Each of the participants got a certificate.
Either of these roads lead to airport.
(viii) Relative Pronouns are used to combine the two simple sentences. Who, which,
that, whose, whom are the words used as Relative Pronouns.
e.g. The man who stole my book was arrested.
The pen which was gifted by my father was lost.
He that is down needs fear no fall.
The boy whose father is a doctor has left the school.
The girl whom I trusted had betrayed me.
4) Verb-A Verb shares information with us about a person, place or a thing. It denotes an
action too.
e.g. My father is an engineer.
Group-I (English) 25

My friend has learnt how to weld.

Aluminum and iron are used in factories.
A Verb can be Transitive and Intransitive.
A Transitive Verb transfers the action from the subject to the object.
e.g. He welded the broken pipe.
The verb "weld" denotes an action done by him that passes over to the pipe.
An Intransitive Verb does not transfer the action from the subject to the object.
e.g. He laughed loudly and went away.
The verbs "laughed and went" do not pass over the action to the object.
There are Finite and Non-finite verbs too.
When the verb is restricted by Person and Number, it is called Finite Verb. e.g. He designs
a draft for the bridge.
Here the verb "design"is added with "s" because the subject "He" is third person singular
When the verbs are not restricted by Person and Number, they are called Non-Finite Verbs.
e.g. His friends weld broken iron-rods.
Here the verb "weld" is without "s" as the subject is Third person plural number.
Finite Verbs change according to the number and person of the subject.
Non-Finite Verbs are used as Infinitive i.e. verb added with "to"(to+ verb) e.g. He wanted
to go.
Here, the verb "go" has been added with "to". It is Infinitive. And can be used as the
subject or the object of a sentence.
They are also used as Gerund and Participle.
The Infinitive and Gerund can be used as subjects and objects of a sentence, but Participle
is used as Adjective in a sentence.
e.g. Gerund- Welding is a skill. He knows welding.
Participle- He met the boy running on the road.
There are Auxiliaries also that are known as helping verbs as they change the mood, tense,
voice etc. of other verbs.
5) Adverb- adds more information to the meaning of a Verb or an Adjective.
e.g. He walks slowly.
My daughter is very active.
The child pronounced the word quite correctly.
There are many types of Adverbs. They are:
26 Communication Skill-I

Adverbs of Time-e.g. He came here before the sun set. He came late. I got the book from
him lately/ already. He came here a year ago. The train will come soon. He walks daily.
Formerly he was a teacher.
Adverbs of Place-e.g. She followed me everywhere. Come here. I looked up. He is out. Is
your mother within? Come in. The man went away. Walk backward.
Adverbs of Frequency- e.g. He has not met me once/ twice/ often /seldom/ frequently. He
has always done his best.
Adverbs of Manner-e.g. He could see it clearly. He fought bravely. He left the room
slowly/sadly. The poem is well written. I walked fast. Was it so?
Adverbs of Reason- She was ill. Therefore she could not join. She was hence unable to
enjoy the wedding.
Adverbs of Degree-e.g. He was too weak. He was fully prepared. He is almost ready to
face his father. He has done enough for his friend. The weather is very hot He worked hard.
He is rather busy. She was so happy.
Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation- e.g. surely she is wrong. He is certainly mistaken.
He does not know me.
Simple Adverbs - These are used as a complete sentence.
e.g.- Did you go there. Yes.
Have you completed your homework? No
Connecting Adverb- These are used to connect the sentences that come before.
e.g. She had failed in the First Semester. However, she worked hard and passed the next.
6) Preposition- This word throws light on the relationship of a noun or pronoun to something
e.g. I live in Patna. He was sitting under a tree. The boy is fond of cricket.
7) Conjunction- This is a word that is used to join two words and two sentences.
e.g. Riya and Shreya are cousins.
She ran fast, but missed the bus.
8) Interjection- This word expresses sudden feelings.
e.g. Hurrah! We have become the World Champion.
Alas! I lost my air ticket.
Group-I (English) 27


Identify the Parts of Speech in the following sentences:

I. We love our child, Riya.
(We-Pronoun, love-Verb, our-Personal Pronoun, child-Common Noun, Riya -Proper noun)
II. She draws well .(She-Pronoun, draws-Verb, well-Adverb)
III. We live in Patna.(We-Pronoun, live-Verb, in-Preposition, Patna-Proper Noun)
IV. Patna has many good schools.(Patna-Proper Noun has-Verb ,many-Adjective of Quantity,
good-Adjective of Quality, schools- Common noun)
V. Riya goes to one of them.(Riya-Proper Noun, goes-Verb , to-Preposition ,one-Adjective of
Quantity, of-Preposition, them-Personal Pronoun)
VI. She wants to be an architect.(She-Pronoun, wants-verb, to-Preposition, be -Verb, architect-
Common Noun)
VII. Drawing would help her in that.(Drawing-Gerund, would- Auxiliary Verb, help- Finite
Verb ,her-Personal Pronoun, in-Preposition, that-Demonstrative Adjective)
VIII. Riya and her, best friend Priya ,are very studious.(Riya,Priya-Proper Noun, and-Conjunction,
her-Personal Pronoun, best -Adjective of Quality, friend-Common Noun, studious-Adjective
of Quality)
IX. However,Riya can dance, but Priya cannot.(However- Connecting Adverb,Riya-Priya-
Proper Noun, can -Auxiliary Verb, dance-Finite Verb, not-Adverb of Negation)
X. Ah, but they still are good friends. (Ah-Interjection, but-conjunction, They-Pronoun, still-
Adverb of time, are- Auxiliary Verb, good- Adjective of Quality, friends-Common Noun)


Identify the part of speech of each italicized word in the following sentences and mention its
Sealed tenders are invited from renowned dealers for the supply of best quality tools, machines and
equipments. They must be submitted on the official form before November 2016.


I. Ruma still lives in Delhi.

II. Still waters run deep.
III. The after effects of the medicine caused trouble.
IV. She would visit Agra soon after her examination.
28 Communication Skill-I

V. He is on the jury.
VI. Please hurry up and move on.
VII. One of the wheels of his car has come off.
VIII. My friend was only a yard off me.
IX. The electric was off yesterday.
X. He was given electric shock.
Group-I (English) 29

Part-II (Application of Grammar)

2.1/2 Verbs and Tenses

What is Tense?

The term Tense has its origin in Latin. The Latin word Tempus means time. Thus Tense
refers to time. Look at the following sentences:
(i) She is in Delhi this time.
This sentence refers to the present time. The verb is in the sentence shows present
(ii) Last time she was in Kolkata.
This sentence tells us about past action. The verb was in the sentence refers to
past tense.
(iii) Next time she will be in Chennai.
This sentence gives us an idea about future time. The verb will be in the sentence
denotes future tense.
Thus there are three basic Tenses:
(a) Present Tense (b) Past Tense (c) Future Tense
The tense of verbs indicates the time of action. It gives us the knowledgewhen the action
materializes. All the three tenses have four subheads each:
30 Communication Skill-I

Writing about the Present

Simple Present /Present Indefinite

Subject + Verb1/Verb5 = V1 + s or es
The verb in this tense is used to show an action which takes place in the present time.
(A) Simple Present/The Present Indefinite tense is normally used to
(i) express universal truths
e.g. The earth moves round the sun. Man is mortal.
(ii) express habits
e.g. She goes to temple daily. He takes exercise every morning.
(iii) express what is actually happening at the present moment
e.g. Here comes the V.C./See, how sweetly Rima sings!
(iv) express definite actions
e.g. She teaches in a school. They live in Dubai.
(v) denote a subordinate clause added with if or when
e.g. When we reach there, we will call you.
If she works hard, she can pass.
(vi) denote a definite action in future
e.g. The classes start from the next month.
He leaves for Chennai tomorrow.
(vii) depict a past event vividly
e.g. The villain now comes out of his den and kills the heros father.
Finally Chota Bhim solves all the problems.
(viii) present dramatic narratives
e.g. When the curtain rises, the hero enters with his fathers body and
delivers a long speech.
(B) The Simple Present Tense is usually added with the following Adverbs and Adverb
Phrases: sometimes, often, always, frequently, generally, usually, normally, daily,
every day, every week, every month, every year, every now and then, once a week,
twice a week etc.
(C) The Simple Present Tense is required with following Static verbs: taste, seem,
contain, prefer, like, agree, smell, hear, want, desire, consider, notice, believe,
imagine, recognize, understand, remember, belong to, consist of etc.
Technical English mostly deals with the Simple Present Tense. For example, the sentence
Cereals contain carbohydrate. is in Simple Present Tense. In this tense the verb must agree with
the subject.
Group-I (English) 31

Subject Verb Agreement

When we write a sentence in Simple Present Tense, the verb has to agree with the subject
in Number and Person. This is called subject-verb agreement.
For example:
(i) He writes a letter.
(ii) She works hard.
(iii) Jerry plays basket-ball.
All these three sentences have the subject in third person singular number. Third person
singular number means he, she, John Jerry or any person other than I, you, they,
we or subjects in plural number. In the three sentences we have to add s or es with the
finite verb. The verbs added with es or sare called V4.
What is a finite verb?
A finite verb shows a particular tense, person and number. It changes according to the
subject, tense, person and number.
On the other hand the finite verb is not added with s, es or anything if the subject is
not singular but plural in number or it has first person and second person as subject. e.g. they,
boys, girls ,I, you. For example the following sentences have no s or es with their
(1) I love my parents.
(2) They like sweets.
(3) We pray for his recovery.
(4) You go to school every day.
(5) The boys play cricket daily.
(6) The girls sing a song.
(7) The quartz vibrates at a frequency of 32,768Hz.
(8) The parts of the mechanical watches wear out easily.
(9) Animals seldom live more than 100 years.
(10) A thermometer measures temperature in a human body.
(11) Stainless steel prevents corrosion.
(12) An increase in speed reduces fuel consumption.
(13) Triticale contains more protein than wheat.
(14) Recently India also produces vitamins and essential nutrients synthetically.
(15) Scientists invent new gadgets every year.
(16) A tiny battery supplies electrical impulses to a quartz resonator.
32 Communication Skill-I

(17) The father of these children works in Dubai.

(18) The quality of theses fruits is not good.
(19) The scholar and leader is dead.
(20) Bread with butter is a wholesome food.
(21) One of the students sings well.
(22) Every man, woman and child was awarded five thousand rupees.
(23) Many a man has failed to do his duty.
(24) Each of the girls was given a prize.
(25) Neither of these books is written by him.
(26) The principal, with all his staff, was arrested.
(27) Tea as well as coffee is exported from India.
(28) Good news is always welcome.
(29) The committee has elected its President.
(30) The boy and the girl are friends.
(31) Most of the students do not work hard.
(32) A large number of factory workers have failed to report.
(33) The lyricist and the director of that popular film are no more.
(34) Twenty thousand rupees is a large sum of money.
(35) Neither of the explanations is correct.
(36) Neither the boy nor his sister is to blame.
(37) The cost of all the metals has risen.
(38) Many an attempt has been made to step into Mars.
(39) All the teachers and students come to school punctually.
(40) He is one of the greatest teachers that have ever lived.


Fill in the blanks with is , are and other suitable forms of the verbs like temper, use,
track, ignite and reduce:
1. Your advice .......... always worth listening.
2. Either John or Mary .......... going to accompany me.
3. Physics .......... his favorite subject.
4. The news .......... so good that it cannot be true.
5. He and I .......... well.
Group-I (English) 33

6. Neither of the boys .......... in the school premises.

7. One of the girls .......... selected for singing.
8. Each of the factory workers .......... allowed to leave.
9. You and he .......... birds of the same feather.
10. A hundred dollars .......... not a lot of money.
11. The jury .......... divided in their opinions.
12. The leader and his followers .......... dead.
13. The long and short of the story .......... this.
14. Neither the student nor his friends .......... hurt.
15. Either Jerry or her friends .......... to blame.
16. We .......... reinforced concrete in multi-storey buildings.
17. People .......... steel to increase its hardness.
18. Radar .......... the movements of airplanes and ships.
19. Frequent lubrication .......... friction.
20. A spark .......... the fuel.


1. is 2. is 3. is 4. is 5. are 6. is 7. is 8. is
9. are 10. is 11. are 12. are 13. is 14. are 15. are 16. use
17. temper 18. tracks 19. reduces 20. ignites

Negative Statements

The negative sentences which are added with not in Simple Present Tense consist of
Subject + Auxiliary Verb1 (do/does) + not. The verbs like do are added with s or es with
third person singular number. e.g.
(i) He does not sing.
(ii) She does not cook.
(iii) John does not work hard.
(iv) They do not play cricket.
(v) I do not dance.
(vi) You do not like tea.
(vii) We do not walk at all.
(viii) They do not lift the box.
34 Communication Skill-I

(ix) You are not his brother.

(x) He is not my friend.
(xi) Water does not flow up-hill.
(xii) Wood does not burn when it is wet.
(xiii) Ferrous metals do not contain lead.
(xiv) Concentric circles do not share the same centre.
(xv) The quartz resonator does not resonate in accuracy.
(xvi) The mechanical watch sometimes does not vibrate at exactly the same frequency per
(xvii) In some cars, the mechanic does not change the oil every 15,000km.
(xviii) A thermometer does not measure changes in climate.
(xix) Investigations about the cause of the gas explosion do not lead to new information.
(xx) Small internal combustion engines do not need diesel oil.
Negative statements are actually a follow-up of the other four types of sentences:
I. Assertive: This makes a statement.
II. Interrogative: This asks questions.
III. Imperative: This expresses commands.
IV. Exclamatory: This expresses strong feelings.
I. Assertive sentences are of two types:
(i) Affirmative
(ii) Negative
Affirmative sentences can be changed into negative without changing their meanings. There
are some tricks about how to change assertive sentences into negative without changing their
meaning. Look at the following sentences.
1. I love my friend. Assertive
2. I am not without love for my friend. Negative
3. He is doubtful about his performance. Assertive
4. He is not sure about his performance. Negative
5. The transmitter sends out signals. Assertive
6. The transmitter does not fail to send out signals. Negative
7. The boiler engineer prevents the pressure to exceed danger level. Assertive
8. The boiler engineer does not allow the pressure to exceed the danger level.
Group-I (English) 35

9. Ignition of fuel produces heat energy. Assertive

10. Ignition of fuel does not consume heat energy. Negative
11. Most of the students misunderstand the results of the experiment. Assertive
12. Most of the students do not understand the results of the experiment. Negative
13. The two metals are like each other. Assertive
14. The two metals are not unlike each other. Negative
15. Iron is stronger than aluminum. Assertive
16. Aluminum is not so strong as iron. Negative
17. Steel is the best metal of all the metals. Assertive
18. No other metal is as good as steel. Negative
19. A busy life is always better than anything. Assertive
20. There is nothing better than a busy life. Negative
21. You will find the Taj Mahal fairer than all other buildings in the whole world.
22. Nowhere in the world will you find a fairer building than the Taj mahal.
23. I care very little what she says about me. Assertive
24. I do not care a bit what she says about me. Negative
25. My friend failed to notice me when she came in. Assertive
26. My friend did not notice me when she came in. Negative
27. As soon as a spark ignites the fuel, the engine starts. Assertive
28. No sooner does the spark ignite the fuel than the engine starts. Negative
29. Gold is supposed to be the softest metal in the world. Assertive
30. No other metal in the world is supposed to be as soft as gold. Negative


Change the following affirmative sentences into negative statements:

1. They are sometimes foolish.
2. The two brothers are like each other.
3. We found the road very bad.
4. Where there is smoke , there is fire.
5. We could have done everything with your help.
6. Everybody will admit that he did his best.
36 Communication Skill-I

7. I am very tired.
8. Small internal combustion engines use petrol.
9. The chairman accepted all our proposals.
10. She is as cool as a cucumber.


1. They are not always wise.

2. The two brothers are not unlike each other.
3. We did not find the road very good.
4. There is no smoke without fire.
5. We could not have done anything without your help.
6. Nobody will deny that he did his best.
7. I am not a bit tired.
8. Small internal combustion engines do not use diesel.
9. The chairman did not reject any of our proposals.
10. A cucumber is not cooler than her.

Is/Are Verb-ed (is needed, are powered etc.)

A transitive verb (a verb with an object in a sentence) has two voices:

1. Active and
2. Passive
A sentence in Active voice can be changed into Passive voice by taking the object in the
Active voice and using it as the subject in the Passive voice.
A. Passive Voice in Simple Present Tense:
When a sentence in active voice is changed into passive voice, the subject is followed by
an auxiliary verb and the finite verb is added with edi.e., V3 (past perfect tense ). If the subject is
singular the auxiliary verb is singular. If it is plural, the verb is also plural. However, in Simple
present tense we use the simple present tense of the auxiliary. e.g. is are
(i) They need the document for perusal. Active Voice
(ii) The document is needed for perusal. Passive Voice
(iii) They need the documents for perusal. Active Voice
(iv) The documents are required for perusal. Passive Voice
(v) Man controls machines. Active Voice
Group-I (English) 37

(vi) Machines are controlled by man. Passive Voice

(vii) Tempering increases the hardness of steel. Active Voice
(viii) Steel is tempered to increase its hardness. Passive Voice
(ix) A long screw driver breaks open the windows. Active Voice
(x) The windows are broken open by a long screw driver. Passive Voice
(xi) The manager writes letters. Active Voice
(xii) Letters are written by the manager. Passive Voice
(xiii) They send the application to G.M. Active Voice
(xiv) The application is sent to the G.M. Passive Voice
(xv) Many exploit Nature. Active Voice
(xvi) Nature is exploited by many. Passive Voice
(xvii) Drinking alcohol increases the risk of cardiac arrest. Active Voice
(xviii) The risk of cardiac arrest is increased by drinking alcohol. Passive Voice
(xix) Sedentary habits cause obesity. Active Voice
(xx) Obesity is caused by sedentary habits. Passive Voice


Change the following sentences from Active Voice to Passive Voice:

1. Radar tracks the movements of the airplanes and the ships.
2. Smoking increases the risk of lung cancer.
3. Painting the metals prevent corrosion.
4. They check the newly minted coins before sending them to banks.
5. The government prints paper money.
6. We normally power small vehicles with petrol.
7. To measure the changes in weather, you need a barometer.
8. We make many machines and their equipments from metals.
9. We call iron, steel and their different mixtures ferrous metals.
10. We use this group of metals quite often.


1. The movements of the airplanes and the ships are tracked by radar.
2. The risk of lung cancer is increased by smoking.
3. Corrosion is prevented by painting the metals.
38 Communication Skill-I

4. The newly minted coins are checked before sending them to banks.
5. Paper money is printed by government.
6. Small vehicles are normally powered with petrol.
7. A barometer is needed to measure the change in weather.
8. Many machines and their equipments are made from metals.
9. Iron, steel and their different mixtures are called ferrous metals.
10. This group of metals is used quite often.

Writing about the Past

Simple Past Tense/Past Indefinite (Verb-ed/Past Simple)

Subject + V2
The Simple Past indicates an action completed in the past. Look at the following sentences:
(a) The machine stopped working yesterday.
(b) The mechanic came late.
(c) The water boiled.
(d) The regulating valve controlled the flow.
(e) The new machines increased the productivity.
(f) The workers completed the test very soon.
(g) They restored power after an hour.
(h) The generator developed problems.
(i) The engineer detected the fault.
(j) The technicians repaired the leakage.
In order to change into negative statements use did not + V1.
Check the following sentences:
(a) The machine did not stop working yesterday.
(b) The mechanic did not come late.
(c) The water did not boil.
(d) The regulating valve did not control the flow.
(e) The new machines did not increase the productivity.
(f) The workers did not complete the test very soon.
(g) They did not restore the power after an hour.
(h) The generator did not develop problems.
Group-I (English) 39

(i) The engineer did not detect the fault.

(j) The technicians did not repair the leakage.
A few more points to be noted about using past tense:
(a) Mostly it is followed by adverbs or adverb phrases of past time .
e.g. (i) I left college last year.
(ii) She slept well yesterday.
(b) Sometimes it is used without an adverb of time.
e.g. (i) She learnt French in JNU, Delhi.
(ii) I did not write letters.
(c) It is also used with Adverbs of Frequency (never, usually, often, daily, generally
etc.) to denote past habits.
e.g. (i) John always carried a laptop.
(ii) We walked for two hours every day.
(iii) They often visited the tourist places.
(iv) You never invited me to your birthday party.
(d) The past tense of will= would is used to denote some habit.
e.g. (i) He would never come on time.
(ii) The boys would always obey their teachers.
(e) The Simple Past is used with expressions like It is time/It is high time/It is about
e.g. (i) It is high time that you learnt your lessons.
(ii) It is time that she attended her parents.
(f) It expresses an action which was held in past but at present is complete.
e.g. (i) I lived in Kolkata for two years.
(ii) They stayed in Delhi for one month.
(g) The verb were is used with first person to denote some unfulfilled desire.
e.g. (i) I wish I were with my friend at the time of his fathers demise.
(ii) I wish I were the Prime minister.
Was/Were VERB-ed (Past Simple Passive)

Subject + was/were + V3
When a sentence in active voice is changed into passive voice, the subject is followed by
an auxiliary verb and the finite verb is added with V3 (Past Perfect Tense). If the subject is singular
the auxiliary verb is singular. If it is plural, the verb is also plural. However, in Simple past tense we
use the simple past tense of the auxiliary. e.g. was, were.
40 Communication Skill-I

(i) They gave the boy the first prize for his best performance.
Active Voice in Simple Past
(ii) The boy was given the first prize for his best performance.
Passive Voice in Simple Past
(iii) All loved her for her polite behavior. Active Voice in Simple Past
(iv) She was loved by all for her polite behavior. Passive Voice in Simple Past
(v) They sent the criminals to jail. Active Voice in Simple Past
(vi) The criminals were sent to jail. Passive Voice in Simple Past
(vii) The seniors ragged the junior students. Active Voice in Simple Past
(viii) The junior students were ragged by the seniors. Passive Voice in Simple Past
(ix) The thieves unlocked the door. Active Voice in Simple Past
(x) The door was unlocked by the thieves. Passive Voice in Simple Past
(xi) We lost many precious lives. Active Voice in Simple Past
(xii) Many precious lives were lost. Passive Voice in Simple Past
(xiii) Flood rendered many people homeless. Active Voice in Simple Past
(xiv) Many people were rendered homeless by flood. Passive Voice in Simple Past
(xv) They rewarded the students for their hard work. Active Voice in Simple Past
(xvi) The students were rewarded for their hard work. Passive Voice in Simple Past
(xvii) They offered sweets to the children. Active Voice in Simple Past
(xviii) The children were offered sweets. Passive Voice in Simple Past
(xix) The misbehavior of the students annoyed the V.C. Active Voice in Simple Past
(xx) The V.C was annoyed by the misbehavior of the students.
Passive Voice in Simple Past
(xxi) We used DDT to clean the floor. Active voice in Simple Past
(xxii) DDT was used to clean the floor. Passive Voice in Simple Past
(xxiii) He changed the gear. Active Voice in Simple Past
(xxiv) The gear was changed by him. Passive voice in Simple Past
(xxv) They launched the rocket last year. Active Voice in Simple Past
(xxvi) The rocket was launched last year. Passive Voice in Simple Past
(xxvii) They repaired the machine. Active Voice in Simple Past
(xxviii) The machine was repaired. Passive Voice in Simple Past
(xxix) The flood trapped the villagers. Active Voice in Simple Past
(xxx) The villagers were trapped by the flood. Passive Voice in Simple Past
Group-I (English) 41

Has /Have VERB-ed (Present Perfect)

Subject + has/have + V3
The Present Perfect Tense describes a complete action. It refers to an action that is over at
the moment.
Has is used with third person singular subject and have is used with first person, second
person and third person plural subjects. Has and have are followed by V3.
Examples: (a) She has finished her homework.
(b) The boys have worked hard.
(c) I/We/You have watched the movie.
(1) This tense shows an action beginning in the past and continuing till the present
e.g. (a) He has worked in this bank for five years.
(b) I have lived in Varanasi for three years.
(2) This tense refers to an action based on conditions.
e.g. (a) She will join us after she has attended her classes.
(b) She cannot talk to her father until she has discussed the problem with her
(3) This tells us about recently completed actions.
e.g. (a) She has recently joined the school.
(b) He has just arrived at the station.
(4) This is used mostly in the news papers to acquaint you with some incident and is
followed by Simple Past Tense.
e.g. (a) Three killers have become a terror.
(b) They killed the old couple and looted the valuables.
(5) The adverbials like before, already, ever, never, yet , today, so far, this week, this
month, this year, can be used with Present Perfect Tense.
e.g. (a) He has already completed his task.
(b) I have been with him in Delhi this year.
(6) We should never use Present Perfect Tense with adverbs of past time.
e.g. We cannot write (a) She has gone to Delhi yesterday.
(b) He has filled the form yesterday.
42 Communication Skill-I


Fill in the suitable forms of Verb-ed (Simple Past) and Has/Have verb-ed (Present Perfect) in
the following letter:
Lifestyle (P) ltd.
63 Nehru Nagar

Ref. No. : G234 Date : 25 September 2013

The Personnel Manager

Debashree Furnishers (P) Ltd.
56, Louden street, Kolkata-700001

Dear Sir/Madam
Sub. : Delay in delivery of Goods

We (1) ............ (order) five hundred bales of cotton furnishing- material three months ago.
We regret to say that we (2) ........... (not receive) the material to date. Our business (3) ...........
(suffer) a great loss on account of this. It (4) ........... (bring) disgrace to our goodwill.
If you do not take any prompt action and do the needful,we (5) ........... (think) of cancelling
the order.
Yours faithfully
Rajeev Ahuja


(1) ordered (2) have not received (3) suffered

(4) has brought (5) have thought

Present Perfect Passive

Subject + has/have + been + VERB-ed

The Present Perfect Passive denotes an action which started at some time in the past and is
still continuing. Sometimes it is also used for an action already completed. In order to emphasize the
continuity of the action and make the effect still visible this tense is applied in Passive Voice. e.g.,
Group-I (English) 43

(1) This process of distillation has been recently analyzed.

(2) The lubricant has not been able to improve the performance of the machine.
(3) The flood victims have been eradicated.
(4) Many roads and buildings have been damaged.
(5) Emergency services have been started.
(6) Many orphans have been sent to orphanage.
(7) The temporary services have been withdrawn.
(8) The beautiful town has been heavily damaged.
(9) The production of this factory has been improved in spite of flood.
(10) The food supplies have been geared up.


The following news paper report ,when completed by you, will contain Five Present Perfect
Passives. Rewrite the report by supplying suitable verb forms given in the brackets.
Criminal Activities on Top in U.P.
Crime rate in U.P. has increased by leaps and bounds. Three persons of the same family (1)
............ (murder) and one six year old boy (2) ............ (beat) to death by the teacher of a reputed
school in Mirzapur. All the shops. (3) ............ (closed) in protest of the brutal activity. One of the
causes of the murder (4) ............ (suppose) to be family dispute. Police has started investigation but
the criminals are absconding. The father of the six year old has filed a case against the teacher .But
the mother (5) ............ (send) to hospital due to tremendous shock.


(1) have been murdered (2) has been beaten (3) have been closed
(4) has been supposed (5) has been sent

Had VERB-ed + VERB-ed

(Past Perfect + Past Simple)

In order to describe two short-lived events that took place in the past, the first event is
written in had VERB-ed (started), and the next is written in simple past i.e. VERB-ed.
e.g., (1) Cholera had already broken out before the doctors team arrived in the village.
(2) The residents had escaped to safety shortly before the gas cylinder exploded.
(3) Many people had died of T.B. before the scientists invented the medicine for it.
(4) The students had left before the fire broke out.
(5) The machine had stopped working before the mechanic arrived.
44 Communication Skill-I


Fill in the blanks with suitable verb forms:

1. The power ......... (go) out before ......... (reach) home.
2. The circuit ......... (break) before the fuse ......... (blow) out.
3. The liquid ......... (evaporate) before they ......... (boil) it.
4. They ......... (do) the experiment before they ......... (leave).
5. He ......... (talk) to the Manager before ......... (opt) for the job.


1. The power had gone out before he reached home.

2. The circuit had broken before the fuse blew out.
3. The liquid had evaporated before they boiled it.
4. They had done the experiment before they left.
5. He had talked to the Manager before he opted for the job.

Was/Were VERB-ing and VERB-ed

When a short-lived event interrupts a longer-lasting past event, the sentence pattern becomes
like thiswas/were VERB-ing and VERB-ed.
e.g., (1) The mechanic was repairing the washing machine when he got a phonecall.
(2) As the plumber was trying to find out the leakage, the joint cracked.
(3) Just as the boys were entering the college, the demonstration started.
(4) They were travelling to Kolkata when the accident occurred.
(5) When the pilot was landing, the airplane crashed.


Fill in the blanks with suitable forms of verbs in the bracket:

1. The boy .......... (do) an experiment when the bell .......... (ring).
2. The electrician .......... (repair) the cable when it .......... (start) raining.
3. The workers .......... (climb) the ladder when the fire-brigade ........ (arrive).
4. The chimney .......... (suffer) much wear and tear before it .......... (stop) working.
5. The car .......... (speed) up on the wet road when it .......... (skid).
6. The workers .......... (remove) the debris when the wall .......... (break) down.
Group-I (English) 45

7. The carpenter .......... (sharpen) the saw when I .......... (go) to his shop.
8. They .......... (divert) the traffic in the city, when the ralley .......... (start).
9. As the rolling mill .......... (reduce) the size of the steel bars, the workers .......... (carry)
them away.
10. The carpenter .......... (need) a pane of glass, when he .......... (repairing) the broken window.


1. was doing, rang 2. was repairing, started

3. were climbing, arrived 4. was suffering, stopped
5. was speeding, skidded 6. were removing, broke
7. was sharpening ,went 8. were diverting, started
9. reduced, were carrying 10. needed, was repairing

Writing about the Future

Shall/will VERB (Future)

Subject + shall + will + V1

We use Simple Future Tense to indicate an action that is going to take place in future.
e.g., (a) I/We + shall + V1
(b) He/She/They/The boys/The boy +will + V1
(i) I shall go to Delhi next month.
(ii) We shall play cricket tomorrow.
(iii) You will meet with your brother next year.
(iv) He will come to me on Saturday.
(v) They will see the doctor tomorrow.
(a) Shall is used with First person i.e. I/ we
(b) Will is used with Second and Third person i.e. you/ he/ they/
(c) Will is used with First person to denote certainty and firm determination.
e.g., I will go to Kolkata next month.
(d) Shall is used with Second/Third person to express threat and warning.
e.g., You shall not disclose the secret.
He shall pay the bill.
In Technical English, future events are normally written to denote future actions:
46 Communication Skill-I

(1) We hope that the production will increase next year.

(2) I assume that you will accept the post of junior engineer.
(3) Nuclear power will become an asset for the country.
(4) If the factory is not opened, the workers will experience a lot of problems.
(5) Factory inspectors will try to improve the working conditions.
(6) The roads with pot-holes will cause a lot of problems.
(7) Lightning will create havoc with the buildings.
(8) An office safe will keep the money and the documents safe.
(9) The mechanics will disassemble each fan.
(10) We will obtain power from nuclear sources.


Fill in the blanks with shall/will:

1. Despite the natural calamity the industry ......... survive.
2. The workers ......... call for a strike if they are not paid regularly.
3. The coal mines ......... explode due to increase in temperature.
4. Every polytechnic student ......... get scholarship from the State government.
5. We ......... dispatch the goods in a few days.
6. Metro rail ......... decrease the traffic-problems.
7. Industrialization ......... curb the problem of unemployment.
8. The factory owners ......... try to improve the conditions of the factories after the earthquake.
9. I ......... assign the duty to Store manager.
10. You ......... join by next month.


1. Will 2. Will 3. Will 4. Will

5. Shall 6. Will 7. Will 8. Will
9. Shall 10. Will

Shall/will be VERB-ed (Future Simple Passive)

When we use Passive Voice in Simple Future Tense, it is called Simple Future Passive. The
structure is as follows:
Object + shall/will +be + V3 + by + subject.
Group-I (English) 47

(i) I shall see her tomorrow. Active Voice in Simple future

(ii) She + will + be + seen + by + me tomorrow. Passive Voice in Simple future
(iii) He will meet me next month. Active Voice in Simple future
(iv) I + shall + be + met + by + him next month. Passive Voice in Simple future
(v) You will give me your book on Monday. Active Voice in Simple future
(vi) The book + will + be + given + to me + by you on Monday/I + shall + be + given
+ the book + by you on Monday. Passive Voice in Simple future
(vii) The workers will hold a meeting tomorrow. Active Voice in Simple future
(viii) A meeting + will + be + held + by + the workers tomorrow.
Passive Voice in Simple future
(ix) The factory will reopen by the end of next month. Active Voice in Simple future
(x) The factory + will + be + reopened + by the end of next month.
Passive Voice in Simple Future


Change the following sentences from Active Voice to passive Voice:

1. Painting the metals will prevent corrosion.
2. They will check the newly minted coins before sending them to banks.
3. The government will print paper money.
4. My friend will invite me to his place tomorrow.
5. The workers will hold a rally.
6. Increasing the length of the antenna will improve radio reception.
7. He will write a book on Metallurgy.
8. The factoryowners will pay heed to the demands of the workers.
9. The carpenter will cut the planks of wood with an electric saw.
10. They will follow the rules of the factory.


1. Corrosion will be prevented by painting the metals.

2. The newly minted coins will be checked before sending them to banks.
3. Paper money will be printed by government.
4. I will be invited to my friends place tomorrow.
5. A rally will be held by the workers.
48 Communication Skill-I

6. By increasing the length of antenna radio reception will be improved.

7. A book on Metallurgy will be written by him.
8. The demands of the workers will be paid heed by the factory owners.
9. The planks of wood will be cut with an electric saw by the carpenter.
10. The rules of the factory will be followed by them.

Use of can could, will would, shall, should, may, might etc.
I. Can is used :
(1) to express power or ability
(a) He can lift the box.
(b) Can you speak English? No, I cant.
(c) She can sing well.
(d) He can work this machine.
(2) to denote ability resulting into circumstances
(a) Can you go to Patna today?
(b) Can you give me your book now?
(3) To denote possibility
(a) The Times of India can be obtained everywhere in India now.
(4) to express your right
(a) You are a member of this committee.
You can ask as many questions as you like about the planning.
(5) to seek permission
(a) Can I watch TV now?
(b) Can I borrow your Mathematics book for a day or two?
(6) As a substitute for continuous tense and with verbs like see, hear, smell
(a) I can see him running on the street.
(b) He can hear her singing in the room.
(c) She can smell something burning in the kitchen.
II. Could is used :
(a) To denote past tense.
e.g. The box was so heavy that he could not lift it.
Group-I (English) 49

(b) To denote past tense in indirect speech.

e.g. He said that he could not meet her.
(c) To express possibility.
e.g. She could easily meet with an accident.
(d) To ask questions politely.
e.g. Could you lend me your pen, please?
(e) To express past time.
e.g. He did everything he could to help her.
III. May is used :
(a) To denote permission.
e.g. May I come in?
(b) To express possibility.
e.g. It may rain today.
(c) To denote uncertainty.
e.g. You may reach the station in time if you hurry.
(d) To express purpose.
e.g. She works hard so that she may pass the examination.
(e) To ask questions.
e.g. May I ask you to listen to me?
(f) To express wishes , hopes and fears.
e.g. May he live long!
May his soul rest in peace!
I hope you may win the contest.
(g) To denote concession.
e.g. Whatever may be the case, we are sure to win.
IV. Might is used :
(a) To denote past tense of may.
e.g. She told him that he might go home in the evening.
(b) To denote uncertainty.
e.g. It might be far from your house.
You should take the umbrella.
It might rain any time.
(c) To make requests.
50 Communication Skill-I

e.g. You might make a little noise.

(d) To express purpose.
e.g. He stepped aside so that she might board the train.
(e) Sometimes to express annoyance.
e.g. Well, Sam, you might have worked hard.
V. Must is used :
(a) To express strong moral obligation or compulsion.
e.g. You must not tell a lie.
He must keep his words.
(b) To express duty.
e.g. A citizen of a country must know his duties towards the nation.
(c) To express determination.
e.g. I must pass this examination this year.
(d) To denote an inevitable result.
e.g. Men are mortal. They must die one day.
(e) To express certainty.
e.g. He must have reached Mumbai by this time.
VI. Ought to is used :
(a) To express moral obligation.
e.g. He ought to look after his old parents.
(b) To denote duties.
e.g. We ought to help the poor.
(c) To express desirability.
e.g. She ought to get better compensation.
Ought to is added with have and Past Participle (V3)
To indicate a past obligation that was not carried out.
e.g. You ought to have gone there. (but you did not).
She ought to have met her husband. (but she did not).
Ought not to is added with have and a Past Participle (V3)
To indicate disapproval of something that was done in the past.
e.g. She ought not to have failed to bring the book.
He ought not to have kept the watch with him.
VII. Shall is used in assertive sentences with First Person
Group-I (English) 51

(a) To inform about future action.

e.g. I shall go there tomorrow.
We will meet him next month.
Shall is used in assertive sentences with Second person and Third person to denote
(a) A command.
e.g. You shall go home at once./She shall not meet you.
(b) A promise.
e.g. He shall get a reward if he stands first in the class.
John shall win this case.
(c) Determination.
e.g. He shall say Sorry for what he has done.
(d) Threat.
e.g. She shall regret this.
You shall be punished for this.
(e) Compulsion.
e.g. You shall pay a fine of Rs. 50.
Shall is used in Interrogative sentences to indicate
(a) Command to third person.
e.g. Shall she go?/Shall the courier wait?
(b) Simple future in the second person.
e.g. Shall you visit her in the hospital?
(c) Permission, simple future.
e.g. Shall we leave now?
Shall I open the door?
VIII. Will is used in assertive sentences in Simple Future with second and Third Person
(a) To denote simple future.
e.g. He will arrive at 6 in the evening.
You will call a cab at 7 in the morning.
Will is used with First person in the assertive sentences to denote
(a) Promise.
e.g. I will reconsider the matter and inform you.
I will watch the movie you told me to.
(b) Threat.
52 Communication Skill-I

e.g. I will punish you if you do not listen to me.

I will dismiss you from the service.
(c) Determination.
e.g. I will climb the stairs even if they are broken.
I will do or die.
(d) Wish.
e.g. I will visit you next Sunday.
Will is never used in the Interrogative Sentences with the First person.
It is used with Second Person to denote intention or the willingness of the person.
e.g. Will you meet me tomorrow?
Will you participate in the meeting tomorrow?
Will is used to denote the most popular form of request.
e.g. Will you close the door?
Will you have some more tea?
Will you be back by 8 p.m.?
IX. Should is the past tense of shall. It is mostly used in the indirect speech.
Direct He said, You shall meet me in the office tomorrow.
Indirect He said that you should meet him in the office next day.
Should is used
(a) To denote obligation or duty.
e.g. We should obey our elders.
He should keep his promise.
(b) Should have is used to denote Duty in the Past Tense.
e.g. He should have returned the umbrella long ago.
(c) To ask for advice.
e.g. Do you think he should go there?
(d) To give advice.
e.g. He should not make fun of others.
(e) To express possibility, doubts, condition.
e.g. If it rains, the shops should be closed.
e.g. Should natural calamities occur, we have to be prepared to meet them.
(f) To express purpose.
e.g. We bought thirty copies of the book so that every child should get one.
Group-I (English) 53

(g) After lest to express a negative purpose.

e.g. Take care of your health lest you should fall ill.
She ran fast lest she should miss the bus.
(h) In subordinate clauses to indicate determination, threats, promises or commands.
e.g. He promised his son that he should have a new dress.
The Principal has ordered that the sick child should be looked after well.
X. Would is the Past Tense of will and is used in Indirect Speech.
Direct He said, I will go to Delhi tomorrow.
Indirect He said that he would go to Delhi next day.
Would is used:
(a) To denote refusal.
e.g. The engine would not start.
The machine would fail to work.
(b) To express determination.
e.g. The manager would have his own way.
You would not disclose the secret.
(c) To express a wish.
e.g. Would you like to come to my place?
He would like to meet you.
(d) To denote past habit.
e.g. Every day he would walk in the morning.
They would sit together for hours in the evening.
(e) To express politely.
e.g. Would you please wait here until I come back?
Would you mind not talking in the class room please?
(f) To denote condition or uncertainty.
e.g. Had I met her, I would have narrated everything.
He would not leave the place unless you order him.
(g) To express willingness in the past.
e.g. I said that I would accompany her.
He said that he would help her child.
XI. Need is a verb which is used only in the interrogative and negative sentences. It
is not added with s with its subject in third person singular number. When an Infinitive is
taken as its object, it is not added with to.
54 Communication Skill-I

e.g. (a) She need not go to school today.

(b) He need not discuss all the points.
(c) She need not revise all the lessons.
(d) He need not attend the meeting.
(e) He need not apologize, need he?
(f) Need he lend his book to her?
XII. Used to expresses an action done repeatedly in past. It is not used in the present
tense. It also means accustomed to.
e.g. (a) We used to sit in the garden and enjoy tea with our friends.
(b) He used to play cricket before he joined the office.
(c) There used to be a bus at 7 p.m.
(d) My brother used to watch movies every Saturday.
(e) She used to swim every day.
(f) I am not used to hard manual labor.
(g) He is not used to this kind of behavior.
(h) They soon got used to living in India.
(i) She is not used to this kind of climate.
(j) We were not used to going to bed so early.
XIII. Dare is another verb which is mostly used in the negative and interrogative
forms. It does not take s when the subject is in third person singular number. Look at the
following examples to know more about it.
Present tense :
(i) How dare you contradict your boss?
(ii) How dare you talk to me like this?
(iii) I dare to declare that all your goods are stolen.
(iv) I am surprised that he dares to make fun of his teachers.
(v) He does not dare to refuse.
(vi) He dare not oppose her.
(vii) She dare not punish the child.
Past Tense :
(i) She dared not to do such things again.
(ii) They dared not to go out in such a windy night.
(iii) We dared not to miss the train.
Group-I (English) 55

(iv) He dared not to laugh at her.

(v) She dared not to displease her boss.
Be is used to indicate :
(a) Continuous tenses : He is reading. I am singing.
(b) Passive structure : The door was opened. The books were read.
It is followed by an Infinitive to indicate a plan or to denote a command.
(a) He is to meet me tomorrow.
(b) They are to be married next year.
(c) You are to visit the hospital every day.
(d) Father says you are to go to school every day.
XIV. Have is used to indicate perfect tense. It is used with the infinitive (to) to
denote compulsion.
(a) She has worked hard.
(b) He has read the story.
(c) They have called the doctor.
(d) He has to find a suitable match for his sister.
(e) They have to meet my husband.
XV. Do is used :
(a) To make the negative and interrogative of the Simple Present and Simple Past :
e.g. She does not sing./Does she sing?
You do not dance./Do you dance?
He did not go there./Did he go there?
(b) To avoid repetition.
e.g. Do you love her? Yes I do.
She dances well. Yes, she does.
He eats prawns and so do you. You got it, didnt you?
(c) To give emphasis
e.g. You do look sick.
He told her to wait, but she did leave.
(d) To make a request.
e.g. Do join me on my birthday.
56 Communication Skill-I


Fill in the blanks with can, could may, might, must or ought to as required:
1. Corrosion ......... be prevented by painting metals.
2. Iron ore ......... be reduced to pig iron by roasting.
3. Oxidation of the metal ......... be prevented by means of nickel.
4. The solution ......... be weakened by diluting it.
5. ......... God bless you all!
6. You ......... work hard to succeed.
7. She ......... take care of her ailing mother.
8. He ......... see a doctor to get rid of his ailments.
9. Who knows what ......... happen?
10. Steel ......... be hardened by mixing catalysts.
11. The circuit ......... be completed by battery.
12. A magnet ......... be made by electrifying iron.
13. The concrete ......... be further strengthened by mixing more cement.
14. The number of factory-accidents ......... be reduced by using precautionary measures.
15. ......... I open the door?
16. It ......... rain heavily.
17. She ......... speak Spanish when she was barely twelve years old.
18. ......... you please lend me your class notes for a day?
19. Members ......... not borrow from the library any more.
20. If I ask her again, she ......... refuse.
21. Till 2012, I ......... read without glasses.
22. An accident ......... easily happen.
23. He ......... have started for Delhi by this time.
24. She ......... be mad to do this.
25. She ......... not to have treated her child like that.


1. May 2. Can 3. Can 4. Can

5. May 6. Must 7. Ought to 8. Ought to
9. Might 10. Can 11. May/might 12. May
Group-I (English) 57

13. Can 14. Can 15. May/could 16. Might

17. Could 18. Could 19. Must 20. May
21. Could 22. Could 23. Could 24. Must
25. Ought


Fill in the blanks with shall, should, will, or would as required:

1. They ......... be happy to see you.
2. You ......... have a holiday tomorrow. (promise)
3. I ......... behave better next time. (promise)
4. She ......... expose him. (threat)
5. He ......... listen to me. (determination)
6. ......... you sing at the concert tomorrow?
7. He ......... control his temper.
8. You ......... not give the child a sharp thing to play with.
9. Take care lest you ......... fall.
10. Is your mother willing that you ......... go to USA?
11. The boy ......... not answer any question. (refusal)
12. ......... you mind waiting here till I return?
13. The child ......... have his own way . (determination)
14. She ......... like to see the Taj Mahal.
15. After lunch the child ......... usually have a short nap.


1. Will 2. Shall 3. Will 4. Shall

5. Shall 6. Would 7. Must 8. Should
9. Should 10. Should 11. Would 12. Would
13. Would 14. Would 15. Would


Fill in the blanks with need, used to or dare as required:

1. She ......... not copy the whole page.
2. Life is not so hard as it ......... be.
58 Communication Skill-I

3. He ......... not learn all the lessons.

4. She is not ......... a hot climate.
5. He ......... not take such a foolish step.
6. She ......... not go very fast.
7. He ......... go swimming every day.
8. How ......... you speak against your parents?
9. She ......... not punish the child.
10. ......... she apologize to me?


1. Need 2. Used to 3. Need 4. Used to

5. Need 6. Dare 7. Used to 8. Dare
9. Need 10. Dare


Fill in the blanks with the forms of be, have or do as required:

1. Jerry ......... singing a song.
2. John ......... to be there by evening.
3. She ......... not want to stay here.
4. You ......... to live in Patna for two years.
5. She ......... not written a letter for long.
6. ......... not make a noise.
7. You ......... been offered a job.
8. The door ......... closed.
9. I ......... to open the box.
10. They ......... married yesterday.


1. Is 2. Has 3. Does 4. Have

5. Has 6. Do 7. Have 8. Is
9. Have 10. Were
Group-I (English) 59

2.3 Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct Speech refers to the words delivered by the speaker actually whereas Indirect
Speech does not quote the exact words uttered by the speaker./
Direct- Rupa said, I am not well.
Indirect- Rupa said that she was not well.
The structure of the sentence in Indirect Speech is changed.
a. The conjunction that has been added before the Indirect speech.
b. The Pronoun I is changed to She
c. The Verb am is changed to was.
There are different rules for changing Direct speech into Indirect speech.

2.4 Assertive Sentence (Statement)

There are two parts in a sentence that is in Direct Speech. The first part is before the
inverted commas and the second part is within the inverted comma.
e.g. Ruma says/will say, I was unwell.
Ruma says/will say-the 1st part
I was unwell.-the 2nd part
If the first part of the Assertive sentence is in the Simple Present tense or in Simple Future
tense , but the second part of the sentence is in Simple Past,
a. the 1st part and the 2nd part should be joined with that in the Assertive Sentences.
b. the Pronoun I in the 2nd part has to be changed into she.
c. the Verb was will remain the same in the Indirect speech.
Indirect Speech-Ruma says /will say that she was unwell.
e.g. Ruma said , I am unwell.
If the first part of the Assertive sentence is in the simple past, but the second part of the
sentence is in Simple Present,
a. the 1st part and the 2nd part should be joined with that in the Assertive Sentences.
b. the Pronoun I in the 2nd part has to be changed into she.
c. The Verb am is changed into Simple Past was.
Indirect Speech-Ruma said that she was unwell.
e.g. Ruma said , I have been unwell.
If the first part of the Assertive sentence is in the Simple past, but the second part of the
sentence is in Present perfect,
a. the 1st part and the 2nd part should be joined with that in the Assertive Sentences.
60 Communication Skill-I

b. the Pronoun I in the 2nd part has to be changed into she.

c. The Verb has been will be changed into Past Perfect had been.
Indirect Speech-Ruma said that she had been unwell.
e.g. Ruma said, I had been unwell.
If the first part of the Assertive sentence is in the Simple past, but the second part of the
sentence is in Past Perfect,
a. the 1st part and the 2nd part should be joined with that in the Assertive Sentences.
b. the Pronoun I in the 2nd part has to be changed into she.
c. The Verb had been will remain the same.
Indirect Speech-Ruma said that she had been unwell.
e.g. Ruma said to me, I shall be absent tomorrow.
If the first part of the Assertive sentence is in the Simple past, but the second part of the
sentence is in Simple Future tense,
a. the 1st part and the 2nd part should be joined with that in the Assertive Sentences.
b. said to is changed into told
c. the Pronoun I in the 2nd part has to be changed into she.
d. The Verb shall be is changed into would be.
e. The word tomorrow is changed into next day.
Indirect Speech-Ruma told me that she would be absent next day.

2.5 Interrogative Sentence-Question-type sentences

There are two types of interrogative sentences
starting with interrogative words like what, when, who, where, which or how.e.g. When
are you coming?
Another type of interrogative sentences begin with do, did, has, have, had, is, are, was,
were, can, could, shall, will, would e.g.Did you go to school yesterday?
I. e.g- Ruma said to me, Where are you going?
Indirect Speech- Ruma asked me where I was going
When questions are reported
a. the first part of the sentence in Indirect Speech is added with asked instead of
said to.
b. That is not followed by the reporting verb.
c. You becomes I means the subject is changed.
Group-I (English) 61

d. the Verb-Are is changed into was and shifted after the subject I.
II. e.g. Ruma said to me, Did you watch the movie?
Indirect Speech- Ruma asked me if I had watched the movie.
When the question is not reported by interrogative word ,
a. the first part of the sentence in Indirect Speech is added with asked instead of
said to.
b. if or whether is followed by the reporting verb.
c. You becomes I means the subject is changed.
d. Did is changed into had that means past participle .
III. e.g. Ruma said to me, Do you know my father?
Indirect Speech- Ruma asked me if I knew her father.
When the question is not reported by interrogative word,
a. the first part of the sentence in Indirect Speech is added with asked instead of
said to.
b. if or whether is followed by the reporting verb.
c. You becomes I means the subject is changed.
d. Do is omitted and the simple past of the Finite verb Know is used.
e. the pronoun my is changed into her.

2.6 Imperative Sentences-(Order & Request)

Imperative sentences include Order-type sentences and Request type sentences.e.g
i. Direct Speech-Ruma said to Rupa, Leave me alone.
Indirect Speech-Ruma ordered Rupa to leave her alone.
ii. Direct Speech-Ruma said to her mother, Please leave me alone.
Indirect Speech-Ruma requested her mother to leave her alone.
i. When a command is placed in the first sentence,
a) the Verb said to in the first part of the sentence is changed into ordered
b) to is added in the middle before the verb in the second part.
c) This means it changes into Infinitive .
d) The pronoun me in the second part is changed into her.(Third person)
ii. When a request is placed in the second sentence,
e) the Verb said to in the first part of the sentence is changed into requested
f) to is added in the middle before the verb in the second part.
62 Communication Skill-I

g) This means it changes into Infinitive.

h) The pronoun me in the second part is changed into her. (Third person)

2.7 Wishes & Exclamatory Sentences

Exclamatory sentences express our feelings of joy and sorrow.
e.g. 1. Direct Speech-He said to me, How clever you are!
Indirect Speech-He exclaimed that I was very clever.
2. Direct Speech-Roma said , Alas! I am ruined.
Indirect Speech-Roma exclaimed sadly that she was ruined.
3. Direct Speech-Ruma said, Cheers! We have won the match.
Indirect Speech-Ruma exclaimed hilariously that they had won the match.
4. Direct Speech-Rumas mother said, May God bless you!
Indirect Speech-Rumas mother wished that God might bless her.
When we express exclamations or wishes,
a) the verbs in the first part of the sentence in the Indirect Speech change into verbs
of exclamation such as exclaimed.
b) If the message is sad, the word sadly should be added after exclaimed.
c) If the second part of the sentence starts with How or What in the Direct Speech,
they should be omitted in the Indirect speech.
d) The word that should be added to join the two parts of the sentence.
e) After that the subject should be written.
f) The tense of the verb also has to be changed.
g) The word very is also used in the second part of the sentence.
h) The verb in the first part of the sentence is mostly changed into exclaimed,
prayed, wished, cried etc.according to the mood of the sentence.
i) If the second part of the sentence starts with May, mostly the verb said should
be changed into wished.
j) The words (e.g. alas, hurrah, bravo, cheers) showing exclamation are omitted.


(Assertive sentences) Change the following into Indirect Speech:

a. Rohan says ,The machine does not work.
b. Rohan will say, The welding of the pipe was done.
c. Ruma said, My friend works very hard.
Group-I (English) 63

d. Peter said to his friend, Our Unit Test is going to be held next week.
e. Ruma said to her mother, Papa left early.
f. Ruma said to her friend, I can do this sum.
g. Peter said to the teacher, All the boys were making noise.
h. The teacher said to the boys, All of you will be punished.
i. The priest said Honesty is the best policy.
j. Ruma said , The earth moves round the sun.


a. Rohan says that the machie does not work.

b. Rohan will say that the welding of the pipe was done.
c. Ruma said that her friend worked very hard.
d. Peter told his friend that their Unit Test was going to be held next week
e. Ruma informed/told her mother that Papa had left early.
f. Ruma told her friend that she could do that sum.
g. Peter told/informed the teacher that all the boys had been making noise.
h. The teacher told the boys that all of them would be punished.
i. The priest said that honesty is the best policy.*
j. Ruma said that the earth moves round the sun.*
* The last two sentences denote Universal truth. So the tense of the Verbs in the second parts
of the sentences has not been changed.


(Interrogative Sentence) Change the following into Indirect Speech:

a. The teacher said to Ruma Where do you live?
b. Peter said to him, What do you want ?
c. Ruma said to her Mother, Why do you sulk?
d. Peter said to the teacher, How can I solve the problems?
e. The draftsman said to the architect, What can I do for you?
f. Ruma said to her brother, Have you done your homework?
g. Peter said to Ruma, Did you like the movie?
h. The landlord said to the tenant, Can you pay the electric bill?
i. The mechanic said to the lady, Will you give me the key of the car ?
j. The teacher said to the boy, Can you tell me the secret?
64 Communication Skill-I


a. The teacher asked Ruma where she lived.

b. Peter asked him what he wanted.
c. Ruma asked her mother why she sulked.
d. Peter asked the teacher how he could solve the problems
e. The draftsman asked the architect what he could do for him.
f. Ruma asked her brother if he had done his homework.
g. Peter asked Ruma if she had liked the movie.
h. The landlord asked the tenant if he could pay the electric bill.
i. The mechanic asked the lady if she would give him the key of the car.
j. The teacher asked the boy if he could tell him the secret.


(Imperative sentences) Change the following into Indirect Speech:

a. Sit down, children. said the magician.
b. The captain said to the soldiers, Go ahead.
c. Peter said to the boy Weld the pipe properly.
d. Ruma said to his brother, Please bring me a glass of water.
e. Remove the cap of the gas cylinder., said the chef.
f. Please boil the water at 100 degree centigrade. ,said the chemistry teacher to the boys.
g. Use bleaching powder to clean the area. said the man to the boys.
h. Peter said to his friend, Please hold the beaker straight.
i. Ruma said to the teacher, Please explain the chapter once more.
j. The teacher said to her, Now listen carefully.


a. The magician asked the children to sit down.

b. The captain ordered the soldiers to go ahead.
c. Peter ordered the boy to weld the pipe properly.
d. Ruma requested her brother to bring her a glass of water.
e. The chef ordered to remove the cap of the gas-cylinder.
f. The chemistry teacher requested the boys to boil the water at 100 degree centigrade.
Group-I (English) 65

g. The man advised the boys to use bleaching powder to clean the area .
h. Peter requested his friend to hold the beaker straight.
i. Ruma requested the teacher to explain the chapter once more.
j. The teacher ordered her to listen carefully then.


(Exclamatory Sentence) Change the following into Indirect Speech:

a. The teacher said What a nice design you have made!
b. Ruma said How sad it is!
c. What a lovely rose it is! the young girl said.
d. The boy said, What a beautiful kite it was!
e. The boys yelled, Hurrah! We have won the match.
f. The old woman said to the girl, May all your dreams come true!
g. The man said, Alas! I am undone.
h. Peter said, Oh! Thats a nuisance.
i. Ruma said, How mean of him!
j. She said, Wow! What a nice piece of necklace!


a. The teacher exclaimed that you had made a very nice design.
b. Ruma exclaimed that it was very sad.
c. The young girl exclaimed that it was a very beautiful rose.
d. The boy exclaimed that it had been a very beautiful kite.
e. The boys yelled with excitement that they had won the match.
f. The old woman blessed the girl and said that all her dreams might come true.
g. The man exclaimed sadly that he was undone.
h. Peter exclaimed angrily that it was a nuisance.
i. Ruma expressed her contempt and said that it was very mean of him.
j. She exclaimed that it was a very nice piece of necklace.
*Note- When changing a sentence from Direct to Indirect Speech, words that show closeness are
converted into words showing distance.

This becomes that. These becomes those.

Now becomes then. Ago becomes before.
66 Communication Skill-I

Here becomes there. Today becomes that day.

Yesterday becomes the day before. Tomorrow becomes the next day.
Last night becomes the night before.

2.8 Use of Articles

l Articles are the Demonstrative and Possessive Adjectives.
l A, An and The are basically called Articles or Determiners.
l Articles are used for general as well as Particular purposes.
l A or An is known as Indefinite Article. This does not refer to any particular thing
or person.
l The is called Definite Article. It points at some particular thing or person.
l An is used with words starting with vowels- a,e, i,o, u
e.g. An orange, an ass, an apple, an engine, an elephant, an umbrella
A is used with the words beginning with a consonant or vowels sounding like
A man, a woman, a machine, a horse,
A union, a useful book, a university, a unit ,a one eyed man, a one rupee note
l A Common Noun that is in Singular number is mostly used with an article before
e.g. There is an apple on the table.
l But when the Common noun in the singular number is used to denote the general
class of a thing or a person, no article is used before it.
e.g. Books are expensive now a days.
Some or Any is used as the plural of A or An.
e.g. They have bought some fruits from the market.
Is there any milk in the jug?
In these two sentences we are told about a limited account by using Some and
Usage of The-

a) The books that I bought were expensive.

Here the refers to those books that had been bought by me.
b) Ruma likes the sea ,but Peter likes the mountains.
Here the denotes sea and mountain in general.
Group-I (English) 67

The is used to denote the whole class by a Singular Noun-e.g. The cow is a domestic
Theis used before:
the names of- the rivers ,oceans, gulfs, seas, mountain ranges,groups of
islands.e.g.the Ganges, the Thames, the Persian Gulf,the Indian ocean,The
Himalayas, the Andamans, the Alps etc.
the names of newspaperse.g. The Times of India,The Hidu,The Tribuneetc.
the names of sacred books-the Ramayana, the Bible,the Quranetc.
the names of directionsthe east, the west, the south, the north etc.
the names of racesthe English, the French
the Adjectives in Superlative degreethe best ,the most, the worst,
the Adjective of quantitythe first, the second, the third
the Adjective denoting the class in general
The rich are privileged.(the rich men)
The poor are exploited.(the poor men)
There are a few common expressions .They are not added with any article.
e.g. a. She met me at college.
b. My father is in hospital.
c. I go to school everyday
Articles are generally not used in double expressions such as: day after day, arm in
arm, from top to bottom, with knife and fork, inch by inch, husband and wife etc.
They are hardly used with the following.
1. Abstract nouns-Honesty, health, wealth etc.
2. Material Noun-Gold, silver, cotton, wood etc.
3. Proper Nouns-Delhi, Madras, Kolkata, Patna,(names of the places)
(names of the persons) Ashoka, Obama, Narendra Modi,Churchill
(Names of mountains)-Mount Everest, Mount abu
(Names of the days or months) Sunday, Monday, January, February etc.


Fill in the blanks with suitable Articles:

a) mechanic in the shop welded pipe.
b) Yesterday I saw one-eyed man.
c) -apple day keeps doctor away.
68 Communication Skill-I

d) Iron is useful metal.

e) December is last month of year.
f) Himalayas lies in north.
g) Ruma found five rupee coin in the classroom and gave it to teacher.
h) Mahabharata is a sacred book of Hindus.
i) My friend is European, but his wife is Indian.
j) weighing machine is not working.


a) the, the b) a, c) an, a, the d) a

e) the, the f) the,the g) a, the h) the,the
i) a, an j) the


Omit articles wherever necessary

a. The wisdom is better than the richess.
b. The honesty of the boy is praiseworthy.
c. I learnt the French at a school.
d. The German is a difficult language.
e. He bought a welding machine.


a. the, the c. the, a, d. the

2.9 Preposition
A preposition is used to control a noun or pronoun. A noun or pronoun is followed by it. It
points out the relation of the noun or pronoun to the person or thing denoted in the sentence. It is
used before a noun or pronoun to show place, position, time or method.
A. The same preposition can be used for different purposes.
e.g. 1. He has been ill for a month.
Here the preposition-for denotes time.
2. The beggar asked for money.-Here the preposition-for refers to money.
B. If the object of the sentence is Relative Pronoun that, the preposition is used
at the end of the sentence.
Group-I (English) 69

e.g. Here is the pen that you had been looking for.
There are three types of Preposition:
1. Simple Preposition-e.g. At,by,for,from,in,of,off,on,out,till,to ,up,with,through etc.
2. Compound Preposition- e.g- About, above, across, along, among, around, before,
beyond, inside, outside, within, without etc.
3. Phrase Preposition-according to, along with, away from, by virtue of, in course
of, in accordance with, in spite of,with an eye to
There are many words that can be used as Adverb and Preposition.
Mostly Adverbs are not followed by nouns or pronouns.
e.g. Has your friend come in?
But, Prepositions are followed by the same.
e.g. Is Ruma in her room?
Words followed by the Preposition:
i. Ruma agrees with me on that topic.
ii. But Peter does not agree to my proposal.
iii. Ruma acted upon my suggestions.
iv. Peter is addicted to bad habits.
v. He was ashamed of what he had done.
vi. He is not afraid of death..
vii. He is very fond of drawing.
viii. Ruma had been very kind to her friends.
ix. She prefers reading to singing.
x. She must be careful about her health.
xi. She must take care of her mothers health too.
xii. The teacher was angry with Peter for his misconduct.
xiii. The old woman died of fever.
xiv. She was proud of her health.
xv. Peter begged for mercy from the teacher.
xvi. But the teacher was displeased with him.
xvii. Peter was born of rich parents.
xviii. He takes delight in welding broken pipes.
xix. My friend was busy with learning the techniques of welding.
xx. I was astonished at his keen interest.
xxi. I was wondered at his success.
70 Communication Skill-I

xxii. He invited me to dinner.

xxiii. He was satisfied with my statement.
xxiv. He was ignorant of facts.
xxv. I prevented Peter from quarrelling with his friends.
xxvi. His friends complained against him.
xxvii. They complained to the Principal.
xxviii. Peter was grieved to hear that.
xxix. He decided to wait for an hour to meet his friends.
xxx. It had been raining since morning, yet Peter stayed in the college.
*The words in italics are followed by the prepositions.


Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions:

i. Please keepmind the purpose writing memos.
ii. He was accused theft.
iii. He is not acquainted the facts.
iv. The boy is senior you.
v. He is good Maths.
vi. My pen is different that.
vii. Ruma is married my brother.
viii. She is pleased my performance.
ix. He should jot down the major points ink.
x. He deals machinery.
xi. The plane tookat 8Oclock in the morning.
xii. She has been standing the corridor morning.
xiii. The train is late an hour.
xiv. Technology is the sum totalall the different techniques.
xv. Man differs animals.
xvi. Radar tracks the movementairplanes and ships.
xvii. The movement will be tracked Radar.
xviii. What has made man dominant the earth?
xix. He moves things .
xx. Other animals must fit the environment that Nature provides them.
Group-I (English) 71


i. in, of, ii. of, iii. with, iv. to,

v. at, vi. from, vii. to, viii. with,
ix. in, x. in, xi. off, xii. in, since,
xiii. for, xiv. of, xv. from, xvi. of,
xvii. by, xviii. on, xix. about, xx. into

2.10 Conjunction
A Conjunction is used to join two sentences or two words. We must be careful to
distinguish a Conjunction from Preposition, Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverbs because
they also join the sentences.
Look at the following Conjunctions:
i. e.g.-Peter and Ruma are good friends.
ii. Peter is an architect, but Ruma is an electrical engineer.
iii. Peter is posted at Ranchi and Ruma is working at BSEB Patna.
iv. Peter must meet Ruma, or he will feel low.
Now study the following sentences with Conjunction, Preposition, Relative Adverb and
Relative Pronoun :
1. The mechanic has been trying to repair the washing machine since morning.
2. It has been ten years since I have met my friend.
3. She left India five years ago and I have not heard from her since.
4. She was the girl who helped me a lot.
1- Since in the first sentence is used as Preposition.
2- Since in the second sentence is used as Conjunction.
3- Since in the third sentence is used as Relative Adverb.
4-Who in the fourth sentence is used as Relative Pronoun .
There are basically three types of Conjunction:
1. Co-ordinating Conjunctions
2. Sub-ordinating Conjunctions
3. Correlative Conjunctions
1-Coordinating Conjunctions join the sentences of equal rank.
e.g. My friend repaired the machine and it started working.
72 Communication Skill-I

My friend repaired the machine, but it failed to work.

My friend repaired the machine, still it did not work.
The mostly used Co-ordiating conjunctions are: and,but,for,or,nor etc.
2.Subordinating Conjunctions join the sentences of unequal rank. Independently they do
not make any sense.
e.g.- My friend repaired the machine because it was not working.
My friend repaired the machine though he began late.
My friend did not know why the machine failed.
My friend repaired the machine that was bought recently.
The mostly used Subordinating Conjunctions are:
Because, after, though, although, if, whether, before, unless, as, when, where, while,
otherwise, else
Correlative Conjunctions are used in pairs: eitheror, neithernor, though
yet, not onlybut also, no soonerthan


Fill in the blanks with suitable Conjunctions else, and, or, not onlybut also, yet, no
soonerthan, since, unless, when, lest, else
i. did he reach the station the train started moving.
ii. my friend was not there, I spoke to his mother.
iii. He worked hard, was unable to secure good marks.
iv. I met him, he was suffering from fever.
v. I held his hand he should fall.
vi. you repair the machine, it will not work properly.
vii. The boy can read write well.
viii. Are you listening playing with the ball?
ix. Peter must work hardhe will fail.
x. He was charged of murder of kidnapping his friends son.


i. in, ii. of, iii. with, iv. to,

i. no sooner, than, ii. since, iii. yet, iv. when,
v. lest, vi. unless, vii. and, viii. or,
ix. else, x. not only, but also
Group-I (English) 73


Join the sentences by using suitable Conjunction:

i. My friend is rich. He is not happy.
ii. He was ill. He sat down.
iii. The sun set. The mechanic went home.
iv. He ran fast .He missed the bus.
v. The train was derailed. No casualties were reported.
vi. Many soldiers fought for their country. Many died for their country.
vii. The fire broke out. The apartment was evacuated.
viii. Peter wishes it. It shall be done.
ix. The woman fell down. She broke her leg.
x. We went early to the movie. We could not get the tickets.


i. My friend is rich ,yet he is not happy.

ii. As he was ill, he sat down.
iii. When the sun set, the mechanic went home.
iv. Though he ran fast, he missed the bus.
v. The train was derailed, but no casualties were reported.
vi. Not only many soldiers fought for their country, but they also died for their country.
vii. As soon as the fire broke out, the apartment was evacuated.
viii. Since Peter wishes it, it shall be done.
ix. No sooner did the woman fall down, than she broke her leg.
x. Though we went early to the movie, we could not get the tickets.
2.11 Interjection

The words that express the sudden feelings or emotions are called Interjection. They can
express joy, sorrow, surprise and approval.
Interjections include words like Bravo, Hurrah, Alas, Wow, Ah etc.
Look at the following expressions:
i. Bravo! You have won the match.
ii. Hurrah! We could achieve our goal.
iii. Ah! Have your friends gone?
74 Communication Skill-I

iv. Oh! I was so scared.

v. Hush! Keep quiet.
vi. Alas! He is no more.


Fill in the blanks with Interjections;

i. !What have you done?
ii. ! They have won the medal.
iii. ! I am so grieved to hear this.
iv. ! Dont be so noisy.
v. ! You have done well.


i. Oh, ii. Hurrah, iii. Ah, iv. Hush,

v. Bravo

2.12 Punctuation
What is Punctuation?
Punctuation refers to the right use of stops. The main stops include
(i) Comma : It is used to separate two or more parts of speech coming together and to
avoid the repetition of a verb.
e.g. Health, wealth and peace go together.
Sam got a watch; Jerry, a mobile.
(ii) Semi colon : It is used to separate the clauses.
e.g. As she loved me, I weep for her; as she was fortunate I rejoice at it.
(iii) Colon : It represents a longer pause than the semicolon.
e.g. The three places are : Patna, Kolkata and Chennai.
(iv) Full stop : It represents the longest pause and is also used with abbreviations.
e.g. She likes apples. M.A.
(v) Apostrophe : This is the mark () that shows that something belongs to somebody.
e.g. This is Sams book.
(vi) Inverted commas : These are used to denote the words of a speaker. e.g. He said,
I can give you my book.
Group-I (English) 75

(vii) Note of exclamation : It is used after Interjections, Exclamatory sentences and

phrases. e.g. Bravo! What a pleasant surprise!
(viii) Note of interrogation : It is used to show direct question.
e.g. Has he gone to Delhi?
(ix) Dash : It indicates the summary of what has gone before.
e.g. People were running, children were cryingit was chaos.
(x) Brackets : It is used to separate extra information from the rest of a sentence.
e.g. John (6 feet tall) is the tallest boy in the class.
(xi) Hyphen : It is used to form a compound from two or more other words.
e.g. soft-hearted, mother-in-law.
(xii) Capital letters : It is used to begin a sentence and with Proper Nouns.
e.g. I like singing. January, John, Mary.
(xiii) Italics :It is used to show emphasis.
e.g. You will love to do itI wont.


Punctuate the following:

Man has won his dominant position on this planet by his command of technology other
animals have to take nature as they find her they must fit into the environment that she provides as
best they can man alone changes the shape of his world doesnt he


Man has won his dominant position on this planet by his command of technology. Other
animals have to take Nature as they find her, they must fit into the environment that she provides as
best they can. Man alone changes the shape of his world. Doesnt he?
Transformation of Sentences: Remove too


Remove too from the following sentences:

i. The mechanic is too stupid to mend the pipe.
ii. The book is too difficult to be read.
iii. The woman speaks too fast to be understood.
iv. We were too late to watch the first scene of the movie.
v. The boy was too proud to beg.
76 Communication Skill-I

vi. The building was too high for the laborer to climb.
vii. These apples are too ripe to be eaten.
viii. The Principal is too clever not to see through his tricks.
ix. The news is too good to be true.
x. Rumas dress is too striking not to attract attention.


i. The mechanic is so stupid that he cannot mend the pipe.

ii. The book is so difficult that it cannot be read.
iii. The woman speaks so fast that she cannot be understood.
iv. We were so late that we could not watch the first scene of the movie.
v. The boy was so proud that he could not beg.
vi. The building was so high for the laborer that he could not climb.
vii. These apples are so ripe that they cannot be eaten.
viii. The Principal is so clever that he will see through his tricks.
ix. The news is so good that it cannot be true.
x. Rumas dress is so striking that it will always attract attention.

2.13 Do as directed
i. The mechanic welded the pipe.( Change into passive voice.)
ii. A letter to the Principal is written by the student.( Change into Active Voice)
iii. The draftsman is preparing a layout plan of the building.(Change into Passive Voice)
iv. He has repaired the machine.(Change into Passive Voice)
v. The machine was being repaired by the mechanic.(Change into Active voice)
vi. Someone has stolen my watch.(Change into Passive Voice)
vii. They will help him to recover.(Change into Passive Voice)
viii. He taught Ruma Spanish.(Change into Passive Voice)
ix. Who broke the wall?(Change into Passive Voice)
x. Do not insult your elders.(Change into Passive Voice)
xi. Grass grew over the field.(Change into Passive Voice)
xii. He says , Ruma hit me yesterday.(Change into Indirect Speech)
xiii. Peter said to me, I shall play the match.(Change into Indirect Speech)
xiv. Ruma said to Peter, When will you give me the notes ?(Change into Indirect Speech)
Group-I (English) 77

xv. Peter said to Ruma, Did you ask for it?(Change into Indirect Speech)
xvi. Ruma said to Peter, Please bring them on Friday.(Change into Indirect Speech)
xvii. Peter said to Ruma, Let me write in my notebook.(Change into Indirect Speech)
xviii. Ruma said, Goodbye Peter.(Change into Indirect Speech)
xix. Peter said , Oh,for a glass of cold water! (Change into Indirect Speech)
xx. Ruma said to Peter, May God bless you.(Change into Indirect Speech)
xxi. She is the richest woman in the city.(Change the Affirmative into Negative)
xxii. Have we been sent in this world only to make money?(Change the Interrogative into
xxiii. Peter went to college today.(Add question tag)
xxiv. He is too weak to stand.(Remove too)
xxv. There is table lamp in corner of room.(Insert A, An or the wherever
xxvi. My breakfast consists of egg, bread,butter and jam.(Insert A , An or The)
xxvii. India has been free 1947.(Insert Preposition)
xxviii. My friend has lived in Patna many years.(Insert Preposition)
xxix. The fresher was introducedhis Seniors. (Insert Preposition)
xxx. The Principal was not satisfied his conduct.(Insert Preposition)
xxxi. He is poorhe is happy. (Insert Conjunction)
xxxii. He was fined wasexpelled from the college.(Insert Conjunction)
xxxiii. He would have helped his friendhe had money.(Insert Conjunction)
xxxiv. ! You have won the gold medal.(Insert Interjection)
xxxv. sit down and dont make a noise said theteacher (Punctuate)


i. The pipe was welded by the mechanic.

ii. The student writes a letter to the Principal.
iii. A layout plan of the building is being prepared by the draftsman.
iv. The machine has been repaired by him.
v. The mechanic was repairing the machine.
vi. My watch has been stolen.
vii. He will be helped to recover.
viii. Ruma was taught Spanish by him.
ix. The wall was broken by whom?
78 Communication Skill-I

x. Your elders must not be insulted.

xi. The field was overgrown with grass.
xii. He says that Ruma hit him the day before.
xiii. Peter told me that he would play the match.
xiv. Ruma asked Peter when he would give her the notes.
xv. Peter asked Ruma if she had asked for it.
xvi. Ruma requested Peter to bring them on Friday.
xvii. Peter suggested he should write it in his notebook./Peter told Ruma to let him write in his
xviii. Ruma bade goodbye to Peter.
xix. Peter cried for a glass of cold water.
xx. Ruma wished that God might bless Peter.
xxi. No woman in the city is as rich as her .
xxii. We have not been sent to this world only to make money.
xxiii. Peter went to college today,did he?
xxiv. He is so weak that he cannot stand.
xxv. There is a table lamp in the corner of the room.
xxvi. My breakfast consists of an egg, bread, butter and jam.
xxvii. India has been free since 1947.
xxviii. My friend has lived in Patna for many years.
xxix. The fresher was introduced to his seniors.
xxx. The Principal was not satisfied with his conduct.
xxxi. He is poor, but he is happy.
xxxii. He was not only fined but was expelled from the college also.
xxxiii. He would have helped his friend if he had money.
xxxiv. Bravo!You have won the gold medal.
xxxv. Sit down and dont make a noise., said the teacher.
Group-I (English) 79

Part-III (Paragraph Writing)

3.1 Definition - Types of Paragraphs

A Paragraph is a group of sentences. It develops a single topic. It should have unity and
development of logical ideas without monotony .It should conclude with a final sentence. Look at
the following tips on how to write a paragraph:
(1) Jot down the points.
(2) Arrange them properly.
(3) Focus on only one topic.
(4) The first and the last sentences should be catchy.
(5) Use short sentences.

3.2 How to Write a Paragraph


A general-specific paragraph starts with a general statement and continues with the specific
information about the topic. It is factual and straightforward.
The Eco-friendly Handmade Paper

Despite the rapid progress in science and technology, the demand for handmade paper is
growing every day. It, being the best form of recycled paper, has an edge over others. It is eco
friendly and prevents every kind of pollution. Its smooth and exquisite surface fills your heart with
joy when you write on it. Artists adore it for its beautiful texture. They love to draw on it. Many
beautiful drawings can be preserved because of its strong and durable quality. This paper is prepared
with very little quantity of chemicals and is safe for the environment. Paper manufacturing is an
age-old industry that originated in China. Long ago Indians used cellulosic fibers to make paper.
Before this palm leaves were used to prepare paper in India. It was during the Mughal dynasty
when handmade paper industry flourished in India. The advent of industrialization and the
establishment of paper mills in 18th and 19th century, however, hampered its growth. This was
revived by Mahatma Gandhi during freedom movement. The recent global threat from pollution
can be overcome by this handmade paper. It is a sure-shot to get rid of the problems arising from
80 Communication Skill-I

CELLPHONE A Boon or a Bane

Call me a fool if you like but the cell phone has spoilt the charm of my life. Forgot its
amazing tricks? you may ask. Not at all. is my reply. I have often loved talking to my most
beloved ones with this small device. It has always stood by me when I wished to send SMS to my
dear child living far away. No doubt it has fared well at the time of my needs. But recently it has
totally ruined my peace. From morning to evening I have to entertain the callers who try to convince
me for investing my hard-earned money in various schemes. Then there are the ones who advocate
the buying and selling of the premier properties. The most provoking are the calls which wake me
up at night. I have to convince them that it is not the number they have dialed. Right?. The height of
the things is that it can be a total health hazard for many. Keeping it near your chest can cause
cardiac ailments and fixing your ear every time to the phone is nothing but inviting the gadget
called hearing aid to support you . Well, what do you think? Is it a boon or a bane?
Changing Trends

Man usually loves to imitate. He always tries to find out something new. Trends are the
gifts of the searches made by man. Trends change fast. It is often impossible to catch up with
trends. Cultural trends take some time to change. People adopt trends of different culture. However
it is not easy to get rid of the traditional customs and trends. Those who strongly believe in the old
trends try to resist the dictates implemented by the new. The same attitude is there in the trend of
jobs. Years ago there was not much choice about the jobs. People mostly followed the profession
their parents used to opt for. But the changing trends have paved the way for different professions.
The trend of fashion also changes. Fashion designers create new designs and set new styles. Women
spend a large amount of money to keep pace with the changing trends. Men also are not exception
to this.


Write a paragraph in not more than 150 words on

1. Power back-up
2. Recycling of solid waste
3. Sewerage Treatment Plant

A process-description gives step-by step guidance with a specified time, quantity, number
and other things required. It also focuses the dos and donts. Use Imperative sentences or
Simple present tense + Passive voice (e.g. Open the lid./The lid is opened.) when you are writing a
process description.
Group-I (English) 81

How to prepare pure distilled water

Here is a detailed method of preparing pure distilled water. Look at the diagram first:
Required Apparatus:
(i) Two jars
(ii) Lids to cover
(iii) Capillary tube
(iv) Glass tube with openings at both ends
(v) A Large utensil to hold ice and the second jar
(vi) Burner
What to do:
(i) Fill one of the jars with plain water./One of the jars is filled with plain water.
(ii) Cover it with a lid which has a hole to pass the glass tube./It is covered with a lid
which has a hole to pass the glass tube.
(iii) Place the second jar inside the utensil./The second jar is placed inside the utensil.
(iv) Cover it with the lid with two holes./It is covered with the lid with two holes.
(v) Next insert the glass tubes through the holes in the two lids. This would link them
with each other./Next the glass tube is inserted through the holes in the two lids.
(vi) Then insert a small capillary tube through the second hole in the lid of the second
jar. This would act as an exhaust for the steam./Then a small capillary tube is
inserted through the second hole in the lid of the second jar. This would act as an
exhaust for the steam.
(vii) Put a lot of ice inside the utensil to cover the second jar from outside. This would
act as condenser for the steam./A lot of ice is put inside the utensil to cover the
second jar from outside. This would act as condenser for the steam.
(viii) The tube that connects the two jars must go deep inside the second jar.
82 Communication Skill-I

(ix) Boil the water of the first jar./The water of the first jar is boiled.
(x) Steam will be formed. This would go into the second jar through the glass tube.
(xi) It will be condensed and turned into distilled water.
(xii) Much steam will also go out through the capillary tube. The process is very slow
and will take much time.
How to make a candle

Ingredients required:
(i) 500 gms wax
(ii) Stearine-2 tb spoon
(iii) A double boiler
(iv) A mould
(v) A wick
(vi) Dye
(vii) Scent
(viii) Mould release
What to do:
(i) The wax is heated in a double boiler.
(ii) 2 tablespoons of Stearine are added for 500 gms.
(iii) While the wax is heating, it is tilted to prevent formation of air bubbles.
(iv) The wick is put inside the mould.
(v) When wax reaches pouring temperature, dye and scent are mixed and stirred well.
(vi) Then it is poured into the mould slowly and smoothly.
(vii) If the mould is tall, the mould-release is applied to take out the candle smoothly.
(viii) The sides of the mould are gently tapped to allow the air bubbles to rise.
(ix) A water bath is prepared to cool the candle.
(x) The candle is allowed to set fully before it is removed from the mould.
(xi) If the candle does not easily slide out of the mould, it is placed in a refrigerator for
five to ten minutes.
(xii) Finally it is decorated with carved flowers and leaves.
How to install a ceiling fan without any fuss
Ceiling fans are very popular in summer and winter both. In summer, they lessen the pressure
on air conditioners by producing cool breeze. In winter, they make you warm and cozy by spreading
the heated air throughout the room. In order to install a ceiling fan a few things must be kept in
Group-I (English) 83

mind. First you should turn off the power connection to avoid electric shock. Then Use a ladder or
tall stool to get the access of the ceiling. The wires have to be connected and secured by nuts. Next
the rod and canopy are fixed on the fan. They have to be slid up to the mounting bracket. The lead
wires have to be cut. The blades should be fixed onto the blade brackets with the screws. Finally
the connection has to be turned on and you are ready to enjoy your ceiling fan.


Write a paragraph in not more than 150 words on :

1. How to pay by cheque,
2. How to install a refill in your ball-point pen
3. How to open an account in the bank
4. How to install a telephone

While writing a paragraph about a problem, give an introduction, discuss the problem, then
refer to the solutions.
When a fire breaks out
The fire which broke out in the nearby factory shows that no precautions against fire hazards
were taken in the factory. Many workers who were unable to come out of the factory choked to
death in the thick fumes caused by fire. In order to get rid of this kind of firetraps, the authorities
must provide fire extinguishers in abundance. The area must have profuse ventilation. The old
wooden beams must be replaced with iron ones. The old equipments which have a chance to leak
poisonous gases must be removed. The workers must be groomed about the safety norms. Two fire
brigades must be kept in disposal of the authorities. These can work at the hour of need.
The Unknown Clues to Fix up Your Fitness through Aerobics
A peaceful sleep following the days toiling brings in renewed vigor and determination
next morning. However, you never cease to enjoy the platter of most oily dishes and keep on
fretting about your over size shape and curves .Not only do you pamper yourself with the large
scoops of ice cream, but you also have to deal with the worst part of your life that has given rise to
various unseen problems. Your friends run faster than you, but you cannot. You try to do so but start
panting after covering only a short distance. You feel lazy and low .You are unable to cope up with
the trendy norms. Pedalling the bike or walking the treadmill in the gym does not click and you
curse yourself .In order to enjoy life as you wish and to prevent yourself from being a prey to
unhealthy ways you need to hit the clues cached here to fix up your fitness through Aerobics. Join
a club for Aerobics. Aerobics is the best therapy to reduce your weight. Aerobics opens the window
for more and more oxygen input in your body. When you are doing these exercises, you have to
move the muscles in your arms, hips or legs a number of times and the flow of blood increases and
your heart- beat is faster. The blood circulation improves and the smaller blood vessels widen and
84 Communication Skill-I

offer more oxygen to the muscles of your body. You are able to get rid of the carbon dioxide and
other wastes produced in your body. It also removes body-ache and you feel as cool as a cucumber.

We are living in the digital era .Computers play an important role in our lives. So is the data
which is given in a diagram, map , chart ,table or illustration and you are asked to interpret the
given data. You must take care of the following points to do so correctly.
(1) A heading
(2) Relevant points including comparison and contrasts
(3) Fluency
(4) Accuracy
(5) Expression
The following table shows the sales record of a music-shop:
Changing Trends of Music Lovers
Months Indian Classical music Indian Film Music Western music


January 20 /05 180/150 30/10
February 15/10 200/150 40/10
March 40/10 190/170 50/15

Q. Write a paragraph in not more than 100 words interpreting the above data:
Changing Trends of Music Lovers

The sales record of the music shop shows the popularity of Indian Film Music. Indian
Classical music is the least popular among the music lovers. More numbers of CDs of the Classical
Music and the Western Music have been sold than the DVDs. Western Music is comparatively
more liked by the people than the Classical Music. Its popularity is on an increase in the month of
March. Yet people have a great love for Indian Film Music. This is evident from the sale of CDs
and DVDs in the three months under review. During January and February the sale of the CDs and
DVDs of Film Music is increased by 13 times than that of Indian Classical Music .It is 7 times more
than that of Western music in the same period. However, March has seen a fall in the popularity
Group-I (English) 85


Given below is a table showing the production record of the colleges in the year 2013:

Colleges Graduates Undergraduates Postgraduates

Patna College 5000 7000 4000

A.N. College 8000 4000 3000
Gaya College 6000 5000 20000

Q. Write a paragraph in about 100 words interpreting the above data.

Types of Paragraphs:
There are many types of paragraphs:
I. Narrative paragraphs
II. Descriptive paragraphs
III. Expository paragraphs
IV. Persuasive paragraphs
V. Comparative paragraphs
I. Narrative paragraphs- These types of paragraphs depict a single incident or a
sequence of incidents. They should be started with a sentence related to the topic
.It holds the reader's attention. The description should be about an event, scene or
adventure. It should be in chronological order. It must be very interesting to attract
the reader. There are a few common transitional expressions like soon, then ,after,
before, while, finally, before, meanwhile, upon ,next ,now etc. For example --- the
description of a Felicitation ceremony or the Silver jubilee celebration of an Industry.
II. Descriptive paragraphs- These paragraphs are the detailed description of an object,
a pet, a toy ,a person, a place or a season. The author tries to transmit or communicate
his experiences to his reader. He describes what he has seen, heard, or felt. He tries
to visualize the subject. The paragraph should be started with the topic. All the
details should be there. For example--- a computer, a smart phone, a chocolate
factory, a metro, your best friend etc.
III. Expository paragraphs- These types of paragraphs are written to give information.
These paragraphs start with a topic sentence and are supported with words like
first, secondly, thirdly , finally etc. Then there is a conclusion that states the final
exposition. These paragraphs usually deal with process writing or giving
IV. Persuasive paragraphs- Persuasive paragraphs try to convince the reader. They
86 Communication Skill-I

give information about something. It can be a place or a person about whom the
writer tries to persuade the reader. It has a direct approach and helps the reader to
form his opinion.
V. Comparative paragraphs- Comparative paragraphs deal with comparisons. While
writing these types of paragraphs tables and charts are used. The terms like down
and across are used to focus the right comparison.
However, paragraphs can be analyzed in different ways. They have the following types
l General to Specific
l Process description
l Problem solution
l Data comment
Group-I (English) 87

Part-IV (Vocabulary Building)

4.1 Word Formation

Common Roots in Technical English

Noun endings :
l -tion indication, information, production, transportation, transition, transformation.
l -ment management, punishment, judgment, improvement.
l -ance performance, maintenance, assistance.
l -ity Malleability, proportionality, profitability, productivity, similarity, purity,
l -logy analogy, meteorology, phenology, physiology, methodology, penology,
l -meter barometer, thermometer, parameter.
l -metry geometry, trigonometry
l -or actor, director, projector, protector, moderator
l -er manager, programmer, treasurer, writer, lover,
Prefixes that mean NOT :
l -in- inadequate , informal, infinite, invisible, incomprehensible, inexperienced,
inexplicable, inexpressible, indefinable, indescribable, inhuman, inimitable,
innumerable, insoluble, insincere, inseparable, invalid, invariable ,invulnerable
l non- : non-essential, non-existent, non-flammable ,non-stop, non- sensical, non-
l il- illegal, illegible, illogical, illegitimate, illiberal
l im- immoral, immaterial, immature, immeasurable, immobilize, immoderate,
immodest, immortal, immovable, impartial, impassable, impenetrable,
imperceptible, imperishable, imperfection.
l de- deformity, degenerate, deform, degrade, dehydrate, decompose,
l dis- disagree, disconnect, disable, disadvantage, disappear, disapprove, discordant,
l mis- mismanage, misappropriate, misbehave, miscalculate, misconduct, mishappen,
mislead, misrepresent.
l mal- maladjustment, malformation, malfunction, malnutrition, malpractice,
88 Communication Skill-I

(Suffixes) Words that end with :

l -ize materialize, analyze, civilize, criticize, fossilize, privatize, theorize, deputize,
pasteurize, immunize, hospitalize, liquidize.
l -ate activate, hypernate, doctorate, electorate, passionate, Italianate, sulphate.
l -ify purify, solidify , glorify.
Adjectives that end with:
l -al magical, verbal, surgical, survival, sensational.
l -ic metallic, scenic, economic, Arabic, horrific, specific.
l -ical methodical, metallurgical, chemical, physical, biological, mathematical,
l -ar familiar, regular.
l -ary planetary, budgetary, missionary, customary, contrary, ordinary, necessary,
l -ory explanatory, mandatory.
l -ing rolling, dazzling , boiling, penetrating, drilling, driving.

4.2 Technical Jargon

Technical jargon is used within a specific area. It relates to the terms of art and industry
terms. It must be precise and efficiently communicated. These are used to help technical
communication. It is not easy to comprehend Technical jargons. These words are used by the
people who are in a particular job and know the particular subject well. For example if somebody
talks about Dynamic tessellation, it would be a problem for the common man to understand what
is being talked about. This word is replaced by 4K.4k denotes the four time resolution of HD at
3840x2160.In the same way 5k, 8k or 21:9 are all related to wide screen display of TV.
Change is the order of the day and Technology is not an exception to it. So technical
jargons are also changing every day. However, the following are some examples of Technical Jargons:
1. Accelerometer: It finds out the velocity and orientation of an object that is moving.
It determines a portrait or a view of landscape in a phone and counts the steps.
2. Android TV: An Android is powered to activate smart TV like the smart phone.
3. Bluetooth Low energy- It connects two devices with low power. It connects activity
band to your phone.
4. Codec: This word is used to encode and decode digital information. A right codec
is needed to go through a particular kind of file .It also helps to get a special type of
digital stream.
5. Bandwith- It shows the difference between two frequencies and the amount of
information flowing through a channel.
Group-I (English) 89

6. Radar screen: It tells us about the range of interests of the companies or the
individuals. e.g. Voice portals, now are on every bodys radar screen.
7. Phytoxicity: It refers to plant injury.
8. Solution: Solution refers to products that are produced by the companies.
9. HDR- High Dynamic Range enables a modern TV to brighten and darken selective
parts of the screen. It offers a dynamic presentation.
10. Putting the paper to bed- This means Preparing the newspaper to be printed.
While communicating with the laymen, Technical jargons must be avoided as they cannot
convey the exact approach to the object or process described.

4.3 Use of Synonyms/Antonyms/Harmonyms/Paronyms

4.3.1 Use of Synonyms

A synonym is a similar word. It denotes a word that has the same meaning as another. However,
it depends on the usage of each and every word where it should fit into. e.g. locate and look
He looked for the lady but could not locate her in the crowd.
Now look at the following words that have similar meanings:

Word Synonym

Abbreviate shorten, abridge, abstract

Apply assign, anoint, implement
Analyse dissect, dissolve, evaluate
Acid corrosive, caustic, incisive
Auxiliary subsidiary, accessory, supportive
Assembly construction, fabrication, manufacture
Assist help, aid, support
Abandon leave, forsake, desert
Adept expert, skilled, apt
Amaze astonish, surprise, astound
Beam gleam, glow, ray
Beacon beam, sign, flare
Bevel angle, diagonal, slant
Billow expand, swell, undulate
Bang crash, detonation, explosion
90 Communication Skill-I

Candid straightforward, frank, blunt

Compress condense, press, squeeze
Constant static, changeless, inert
Create invent, originate, cause
Commence start, begin, initiate
Distinguish separate, differentiate, discriminate
Diminish reduce, decrease, abate
Distil condense, evaporate, vaporize
Drill bore, penetrate, perforate
Duress force, pressure, restraint
Endorse approve, sustain, recommend
Eliminate annihilate, reject, remove
Electrify stimulate, invigorate, animate
Emancipate deliver, discharge, release
Expand amplify, broaden, develop
Explore analyse, examine , inspect
Exhaust drain, dry, finish
Exhale discharge, emit, eject
Engineer build, control, devise
Equilibrium balance, stability, steadiness
Fluid liquid, liquefied, melted
Force energy, power, dynamism
Flimsy ordinary, trivial, ethereal
Fluctuate change, oscillate, swing
Flame radiate, shine, blaze
Formula blueprint, code, form
Formulate create, define, devise
Foundation groundwork, base, basis
Fragment bit, chip, fraction
Galvanise electrify, stimulate, vitalize
Gadget gimmick, appliance, invention
Gravitate descend, incline, move
Gyrate rotate, revolve, spin
Group-I (English) 91

Greasy oily , smooth, waxy

Hardline definite, extreme, tough
Hazardous dangerous, difficult, risky
Hilt handle, handgrip, grip
Hitch attach, join, fasten
Identical duplicate, alike, same
Illusory apparent, deceitful, deceptive
Immobilise disable, fix, transfix
Immerse dip, plunge, sink
Impervious, closed, damp-proof, impenetrable
Incline lean, slant, slope
Incoherent jumbled, inarticulate, disconnected
Inconspicuous camouflaged, hidden, insignificant
Induction conclusion, inference, deduction
Inflammable burnable, combustible, flammable
Ignite burn, conflagrate , fire
Jargon nonsense, mumbo-jumbo, twaddle
Jerry-built defective, faulty, flimsy
Join attach, combine, connect
Junk clutter, debris , dregs
Juxtaposition closeness, contact, proximity
Kaleidoscopic changeable, fluctuating, manifold
Knack ability, capacity, dexterity
Kinky coiled, crimped, crumpled
Latch bar , bolt, lock
Lateral marginal, sideways, sideward
Latitude breadth, width, range
Light airy, buoyant, weightless
Limpid bright, clear , lucid
Lubricate grease, smear, wax
Luminous bright, glowing, vivid
Leaky perforated, porous, permeable
Lather bubbles, foam, froth
92 Communication Skill-I

Laconic short, succinct, terse

Melt dissolve, thaw, liquefy
Merge amalgamate, blend, mingle
Mechanism appliance, components, system
Minute microscopic, miniature, small
Momentum drive , energy, force
Motion flow, flux, movement
Mould frame, format, design
Murky dull dark, dim
Moulder crumble, decompose, , disintegrate
Multiple several, manifold, many
Mass bulk, bunch, extensity
Matter material, stuff, substance
Narrow close confined , cramped
Navigate direct, guide, drive
Non-flammable incombustible, fire-resistant, fire-proof
Notification advice, message, notice
Novice apprentice, learner, probationer
Obsolescent declining, fading, waning
Observation examination, experience, information
Opaque dim , dull, hazy
Operation action, motion, movement
Outflow discharge, drainage, ebb
Pan move, scan, sweep
Penetrate affect, bore, pierce
Permeable absorbent, penetrable
Precipitate accelerate, speed, trigger
Press exploration, investigation, enterprise
Propel move, drive, push
Quarantine detention, isolation, segregation
Quotation estimate, price, rate
Quay harbor, jetty, dock
Quake jolt, move , quail
Group-I (English) 93

Rotate revolve, pivot, swivel

Radiance brightness, gleaming, shine
Radiate diffuse, diverge, emit
Ranch estate, farm, plantation
Reason judgement, reasoning, intellect
Receiver handset, radio, wireless
Refresh repair, restore, revitalize
Robot automation, machine, zombie
Recycle reclaim, reuse, reprocess
Reduction compression, condensation, contraction
Sanction agreement, allowance, approval
Scan check, examine, investigate
Spark atom, flare, flash
Spin reel, revolve, turn
Stroke move, movement, sweep
Suction absorption, extraction, draining
Solid sturdy, hard, firm
Solidify clot, coagulate, set
Spindle axis, axle, pivot
Spike barb, nail, spire
Telescope contract, compress, condense
Texture character, composition, consistency
Thaw defreeze, defrost, dissolve
Thrive develop, grow, increase
Transmit broadcast, disseminate, relay
Transplant displace, relocate, remove
Transpose alter, change, exchange
Twirl coil, gyrate, turn
Twiddle twist, wheel, whirl
Temper allay, harden, toughen
Underground covered, experimental, buried
Underlying basic, elementary, essential
Untrained inexpert, inexperienced, unskilled
94 Communication Skill-I

Utilitarian functional, practical, pragmatic

Vacuum gap, emptiness, , void
Vacillate fluctuate, oscillate, shuffle
Vague obscure, indistinct, hazy
Vibrate resonate, reverberate, pulsate
Volume capacity, dimension, mass
Velocity impetus, speed, quickness
Wage compensation, wages, payment
Wallop thump, thrash, whack
Wane contract, decline, decrease
Waver fluctuate, reel, flicker
Wind bend, coil, curl
Workmanship execution, expertise, skill
Workman craftsman, artisan , employee
Wax dilate, enlarge, expand
Xerox photocopy
Yardstick measure, standard, criterion
Yield produce , provide, supply
Yarn fibre, thread
Zoom buzz, dash, dive
Zip energy, drive, vitality


1. Choose the correct alternative of the following.

I. The word condemn does not mean the same
1. Avoid 2. Worship
3. Hate 4. Underrate
Ans: 1. Avoid, 2. Worship, 3. Underrate
II. The word Exhaust does not mean the same
1. Enforce 2. Escalate
3. Influence 4. Wear out
Ans: 1. Enforce, 2. Influence, 3. Exert
Group-I (English) 95

III. The word compatible does not mean the same

1. clashing 2. broken
3. consistent 4. contradictory
Ans: 1. clashing, 2. broken, 4. contradictory
IV. The word proliferate does not mean the same
1. Decrease 2. Release
3. Push 4. Multiply
Ans: 1. Decrease, 2. Release, 3. Push
V. The word gyrate does not mean the same
1. Increase 2. Rotate
3. Pull 4. Reduce
Ans: 1. Increase, 3. Pull, 4. Reduce

2. Write out the meanings of the following words and make sentences:
Propulsion, dissolve, magnify, deplete, inject
Ans: Propulsion- force driving something forward-In small aircrafts gas turbine engines are
very useful for propulsion through the propeller.
Dissolve-disintegrate-The sugar was heated and it dissolved into the water.
Magnify-enlarge-The bacteria got magnified by hundred times.
Deplete-decrease- The supply of the drugs was depleted.
Inject-insert-The vegetables are injected with chemicals.
4.3.2 Antonyms

Antonyms are the opposite words. They are opposite in meaning.

Word Antonym Word Antonym
Abridge amplify Absent present
Assimilate dissipate Activate deactivate
Adjacent distant Alleviate aggravate
Ample meager Assemble disassemble
Attach detach Attract repel
Attraction repulsion Accept reject
Abundant inadequate Annihilate restore
Ability inability Balance imbalance
Blend separate Backward forward
96 Communication Skill-I

Word Antonym Word Antonym

Blunt sharp Bloated shriveled
Blurred clear Composite homogenous
Comprehensible incomprehensible Convex concave
Contraction expansion Construction destruction
Constructive destructive Constrict expand
Constriction expansion Continue discontinue
Continuous discontinuous/intermittent Directional non-directional
Damp dry Decode encode
Dearth abundance Derogatory favorable
Dissipate accumulate Establish demolish
Economy extravagance Effective ineffective
Efficiency inefficiency Emergence decline
Element whole Fact fiction
Feeble strong Flexible rigid
Form formless Forward backward
Fragment join Fragile durable
Frequency infrequency General particular
Generate prevent Growth decline
Gravity levity Gross net
Groove ridge High low
Heat (verb) cool Heat(noun) cold
Heavy light Height depth
Hollow solid Humid dry
Hybrid pure Hypothetical actual
Impede aid Impenetrable accessible
Immobilize mobilize Impair enhance
Ignite quench Induce deter
Increase decrease Jerry-built firm
Jeopardize safeguard Juxtaposition dissociation
Kaleidoscopic monochrome Knowledge ignorance
Latitude longitude Lop-sided balanced
Luminous opaque Mend break
Group-I (English) 97

Word Antonym Word Antonym

Mental physical Micro macro
Minimise maximize Melt freeze
Mix divide Monochrome kaleidoscopic
Mottled monochrome Multiply decrease
Narrow broad Nebulous clear
Novice professional Numerous scanty
Nullify validate Obtrusive unobtrusive
Oppose support Odd even
Offhand calculated Often seldom
Omit include Opacity transparency
Opaque transparent Orderly disorderly
Partial impartial Porous impermeable
Present absent Prevent allow
Prevalent rare Proceed retreat
Procrastinate advance Produce consume
Propel stop Propose oppose
Production consumption Prominent unimportant
Proportion disproportion Queer ordinary
Quaint modern Radical superficial
Rapid sluggish Ramshackle solid
Refreshing exhausting Relative absolute
Release check Resistant compliant
Rotary fixed Rudimentary advanced
Solid liquid Scanty profuse
Scrap restore Skilful inexpert
Similar dissimilar Sedentary active
Segment whole Stable unstable
Succinct lengthy Transmit receive
Transmission reception Toxic harmless
Tough brittle Thick thin
Thaw freeze Taut loose
Terminal initial Unalterable alterable
98 Communication Skill-I

Word Antonym Word Antonym

Unceasing spasmodic Uneven even
Uneconomic economic Unfit fit
Uniformity variation Unrefined refined
Utilitarian impractical Vague clear
Variance agreement Ventilate suppress
Vertical horizontal Viable impossible
Volatile constant Vivid vague
Vulnerable strong Wane increase
Waver determine Weight lightness
Widen narrow Woody open
Wooly distinct Worn out fresh
Yawning narrow Yoke(verb) unhitch
Zenith nadir


Choose the suitable Antonyms of the given words:

1. Hollow
a. Filled b. strong c. solid d. sunken
Ans. c. solid
2. Accept
a. sluggish b. reject c. broad d. reluctant
Ans. b. reject
3. Integral
a. essential b. entire c. additional d. necessary
Ans. c. additional
4. Adequate
a. inadequate b. sigular c. impure d. negative
Ans. a.inadequate
5. Radical
a. slow b. narrow c. superficial d. extreme
Ans. c. superficial
Group-I (English) 99

6. Fertile
a. real b. calm c. barren d. major
Ans. c.barren
7. Perpendicular
a. straight b. slant c. angle d. horizontal
Ans. d. horizontal
8. Prohibit
a. accept b. grant c. drink d. permit
Ans. d. permit
9. Internal
a. odd b. external c. obscure d. loss
Ans. b. external
10. Exclude
a. shortage b. difficult c. include d. surplus
Ans. c. include

4.3.3 Harmonyms

There are several words that are similar in sound. When they are pronounced, there is
hardly any difference in the sound. However, their meanings are always different. These words are
called Homonyms.
The following pairs of words sound same, but have different meanings:
Word Meaning Sentence
Access- to reach a place Peter gained access to the room through
the balcony.
Access- to open a computer file He could not access the file that got all
the information.
Act- a particular thing done It was an act of terrorism.
by somebody
Act- to perform a part in a play or film Did he ever act in a film?
Air gas He went into the garden and breathed the
fresh air.
Air TV program The program will be aired tomorrow in
the evening.
Admit confess He admitted his guilt.
100 Communication Skill-I

Admit get admission He was admitted to the nearby hospital.

Affect to change The flood affected the lives of the
Affect to pretend to be feeling or thinking The lady affected a calmness, but she
could break down any time.
Acrobatics difficult movements The acrobatics done by the boy on the
high wire was very much appreciated.
Acrobatics performing skillfully with She used her vocal acrobatics and
the voice when singing mesmerized the audience.
Angular thin and without much flesh My friend is a tall angular woman.
Angular having angles or sharp corners The large angular shapes looked beautiful.
Arch a curved structure The arch of the bridge collapsed.
Arch to move and form a curved shape The monkey arched its back and stared at
Automatic Having control that work She has a fully automatic washing
without anyones help machine.
Automatic a gun that can fire bullets The soldiers were armed with automatics
continuously as long as the and were able to win the battle.
trigger is pressed
Avionics the science of Electronics when He is very much interested in Avionics.
used in making and designing
Avionics the Electronic devices in The avionics used in this aircraft have
an aircraft or a spacecraft become outdated.
Balance an instrument for weighing The vendor weighed the vegetables on the
Balance the amount of money She has to check her bank balance.
Battery a device that is placed inside a car He had to replace the batteries
engine, clock, radio etc. producing in the torch.
electricity that makes it work
Battery a large number of things or The battery of soldiers marched on.
people of the same category
Beater a tool used for beating things. The egg beater I had bought was quite
Beater A person employed to drive birds The beater was called to drive out the
and animals out of bushes hyena that was lurking behind the bushes.
Group-I (English) 101

Beam a line of light Nowadays laser beams are used for

Beam to send radio or television signals Live pictures of the wedding of the
over long distances using Prince were beamed around the world.
electronic equipment
Bend to force something that was Put a mark on the pipe where you wish to
straight into an angle or a curve bend it.
Bend a curve or turn on the road While travelling towards the airport we
or river could find a sharp bend on the road.
Bicycle a road vehicle with two wheels My friend got on the bicycle and rode off.
Bicycle to go somewhere on a bicycle He bicycled towards the station.
Blend to mix two or more substances We have to blend the eggs, sugar and the
together flour to make a cake.
Blend a mixture of different types of She wished to have a blend of tea.
the same thing
Bridge a structure that is built over They crossed the bridge and could find
a road, railway the way to their friends house.
Bridge to build a bridge The bridge was built by the Romans.
Brief using few words They gave a brief description of the
Brief to give the main facts of a legal The lady briefed the lawyer about the
case to the lawyer case.
Burn to produce flames and heat The fire burnt all the huts.
Burn an injury caused by fire The worker got a burn while welding the
Cast shape metal The statue was cast in bronze.
Cast the people who act in a movie The whole cast of the movie performed
or play very well.
Contract an official written agreement The company signed a contract with the
Contract to become less or smaller Any metal will contract as it cools after
Container a box or bottle in which An airtight container keeps the foodstuff
something can be stored fresh.
Container large metal or wooden box in The container ship had left the harbor.
which goods are packed to be
transported in a ship train or truck
102 Communication Skill-I

Convert to change or make something They had converted oil to gas central
change from one form, purpose, a heating.
system etc. to another
Convert a person who has changed his A convert to Islam, he was not ready to
religion enter the temple.
Cool fairly cold A cool breeze soothed her ailing body.
Cool become colder The pressur e cooker was cooled
afterboiling the potatoes.
Cover protect The food was covered with foil.
Cover the thing that is used to protect We need a plastic water proof cover to
something protect the car from rain.
Crane A tall machine with a long arm The crane was used during the
used to lift heavy objects construction of the building.
Crane to lean over something in order The girl craned out of the window to see
to see something better them off.
Crack to break without breaking into The wall has cracked.
Crack a line on the surface of The cup got a crack on it.
something where it has broken but
not split
Cutter a tool for cutting He had a pair of wire cutters.
Cutter a small fast ship The cutter was used to transport the
passengers of the ship.
Decompress to have the air pressure in Under pressure gas gets decompressed.
something reduced to a level
Decompress (computing) to return files to When the zipped files are un zipped, they
their original size get decompressed.
Diffuse spread over a wide area Even the diffuse light can be used to
remove darkness.
Diffuse spread over If a liquid is diffused in a substance ,it
gradually mixes with the substance.
Diminish decrease The natural resources are diminishing day
by day.
Diminish belittle They diminished her contribution.
Divider a thing that divides something A room divider was used to separate the
kitchen and the living room.
Group-I (English) 103

Dividers a measuring instrument She needs a pair of dividers to mark the

measured length.
Drill a tool with a pointed end for The electric drill was used to make a hole
making holes in the door.
Drill to make a hole in something The carpenter drilled a hole in the door.
Electronic having microchips that control Today everybody is attracted to electronic
electric current instruments.
Electronic connected with electronic My son is an electronic engineer.
Element a simple chemical substance Silver, iron and copper are all elements.
Element the part of a piece of electrical The rice cooker needs a new element.
equipment that gives out heat
Engine locomotive The engine got derailed.
Engine the part of a vehicle that The engine of your car has to be changed.
produces power to make the
vehicle move
Engineer a person whose job is related to His brother is a civil engineer.
building or designing machines,
engines etc.
Engineer contrive He engineered a meeting with the director
of the company.
Equilibrium a state of balance between The freezing point refers to the point at
opposite forces which solid and liquid are in equilibrium.
Equilibrium A state of mental balance The boy lost his mother and has not
recovered his equilibrium till now.
Evaporate change into gas The earths moisture has evaporated by
the sunlight.
Evaporate disappear slowly His excitement over winning the gold
medal completely evaporated after his
fathers sudden demise.
Fabric material made by weaving wool, She is fond of cotton fabric.
Fabric the basic structure of a building The fabric of our house was built a year
Fatigue exhaustion She could not overcome the physical and
mental fatigue and fell ill.
104 Communication Skill-I

Fatigue weakness in metal or wood The metal fatigue could be seen on the
caused by repeated bending or wings of the plane.
Feature something important, typical What are the features of this car you felt
or interesting attracted to?
Feature to include a particular person or This model of the car features electronic
a thing as a special feature alarm and alloy wheel.
Fence boundary made of wood or wire The cow broke the fence and entered the
Fence to surround or divide the area His garden is fenced with a wire.
with a fence
Field an area of land The farmers were ploughing the field.
Field practical work He was deputed in a field research.
Figure numbers This year more than one thousand people
in this village have been employed by
the government. By 2020, this figure will
rise to more than fifty percent.
Figure to calculate My friend figured the amount for the trip.
File a metal tool for cutting and The carpenter used the file to smooth the
making the surface smooth surface of the door.
File to put a document into a All my important documents are kept in a
particular place file.
Filter a device that allows any liquid We need filter paper for the coffee
or gas to pass through in order machine.
to remove unwanted material
Filter to pass through a filter The water you drink must be filtered.
Fix attach The shelf was fixed to the wall.
Fix in a difficult situation He was in a fix to find his wife
Function a special activity or purpose of The function of the intestine is to help in
a thing or a person the digestive system.
Function to operate Despite regular servicing ,the washing
machine has failed to function properly.
Galvanize to make somebody take action His cheerful disposition galvanized them
by making them excited into action.
Group-I (English) 105

Galvanize to cover metal with zinc to protect The galvanized sheet was used to protect
it from rust the tool box from rusting.
Glaze a thin clear liquid used to make The cups shone after applying glaze on
objects shine them.
Glaze to fit sheets of glass into something The carpenter came and glazed the
Gloss a shine on a smooth surface The paper is available with gloss on one
Gloss to add a note or comment to He glossed the difficult words in his write-
a piece of writing to explain up.
a difficult word
Glue a sticky substance A tube of glue was bought to paste the
Glue to give all the attention She was glued to the TV all the afternoon.
to something
Gravity the force that attracts objects in Everybody knows about Newtons Law
space towards each other and of gravity.
that on the earth pulls them
towards the centre of the
planet and makes them fall to
the ground when they are dropped
Gravity seriousness You must realize the gravity of the matter.
Gun a weapon for firing bullets The terrorist pulled out his gun and aimed
at the passengers.
Gun to run very quickly He gunned his motorcycle.
Hammer tool He used a hammer to fix the nail into the
Hammer hit many times He was hammering the door.
Handle to deal a situation He handled the situation carefully.
Handle the part of a door, drawer etc. He tried to turn the handle of the door,
used to open it but it was locked.
Height measurement Your height must be mentioned in your
Height distance above ground The food packets were dropped from a
low height to the flood victims.
Hook a curved piece of metal He hung his coat on the hook.
106 Communication Skill-I

Hook to catch a fish with a hook He had managed to hook a large fish.
Ice- frozen water His childs body was as cold as ice.
Ice to cover a cake with icing She iced the cake very beautifully.
Illuminate to shine light on something The lights on the pavement illuminated
the whole street.
Illuminate clarify The text on the pillar illuminates the
Muslim dynasty.
Immerse to put something into a liquid The idol was immersed into the river.
Immerse to get one self involved My fr iend immersed herself in her
Impenetrable that cannot be passed through The forest is impenetrable.
Impenetrable impossible to understand Her murder was an impenetrable mystery.
Increase grow in size The population of India is increasing day
by day.
Increase growth The increase in crimes in our city has
made the life unsafe.
Industry the production of goods from The industries are flourishing in our
raw materials country
Industry the quality of working hard The manager got impr essed by his
Insulate to protect something with You must insulate your house to save
a material that prevents heat, energy.
sound electricity etc. from
passing through
Insulate shield He was insulated from the severe cold.
Iron metal The gates of the building are made from
iron ore.
Iron press the clothes He needs his dress to be ironed before he
Isolate to separate something or He felt isolated after he left his job.
somebody physically from other
Isolate to separate a single substance Scientists are still trying to isolate the gene
that causes cancer.
Jack a device for lifting heavy objects We needed a jack to change the tyre of
our car.
Group-I (English) 107

Jack to treat somebody differently He was being jacked around. So he left

without showing any interest the place.
Keyboard the set of keys for operating She opened her computer and started
a computer typing with the help of the keyboard.
Keyboard a musical instrument She started playing the beautiful melody
on the keyboard.
Keel the part of a ship The keel of the ship got damaged and the
ship started drowning.
Keel fall over sideways The ship keeled and was about to drown.
Labour work The company wanted to negotiate the
labor cost.
Labour work hard He labored all the day in the field and felt
very tired.
Latch a small metal bar that is used to I lifted the latch to open the door.
fasten the door
Latch to develop a strong interest The youngsters always latch on to the
latest craze.
Launch to start an activity The new model of Maruti cars will be
launched in the next month.
Launch to put a ship or boat into The ship was launched with a great fervor.
the water for the first time
Lift machine The lift in their apartment was out of order
and we had to use the stairs to reach the
4th floor.
Lift to raise The child lifted the lid of the box and was
scared to find a frog inside it.
Light weight The bag was very light and was easy to
Light color She loves to wear light colors.
Loop a curved piece of rope The lady made a loop in the string.
Loop to move in a way that makes The lake loops around the park.
the shape of a loop
Machine a piece of equipment The machine failed to work.
Machine to make a shape with a machine The material was machined easily.
Material fabric This material is good for your dress.
108 Communication Skill-I

Material a substance that things can be The building materials have been bought
made from as the project is going to start shortly.
Mend to repair something The socks have holes. They have to be
Mend improving after a difficult situation The economy of the country is on the
mend now.
Microwave oven that cooks with The chicken was prepared in the
electromagnetic waves microwave.
Microwave to cook in a microwave You have to microwave the contents of
the packet only for three minutes.
Mind brain The teacher trains the mind.
Mind to take care of The driver minds the train.
Monitor A screen that shows information The monitor of our PC is out of order.
from a computer
Monitor track His health- progress was monitored.
Motion the process of moving Do not put your hands inside the food
mixer when it is in motion.
Motion to make gestures He motioned to me for coming closer.
Nail a thin small pointed piece of metal He hammered the nail in the wall.
Nail to fasten something to something He nailed the photograph on the wall.
with a nail
Network a complicated systems of roads, The road network is very much disturbed
lines, tubes etc. due to flood.
Network a closely connected group The network of my friends was very busy.
of people
Number quantity A large number of people were rendered
homeless by the flood.
Number song She sang a beautiful number on his
Operation the process of making If we do regular servicing of our
something work machines, it ensures the smooth operation
of the machine.
Operation an act performed by a machine The whole operation was performed
within seconds.
Organic connected with the organs of She is suffering from an organic disease.
the body
Group-I (English) 109

Organic related to food, farming methods The food stuff is now produced by organic
Panel a rectangular piece of wood, glass The glass panel of the window has
or metal used for the door or window to be replaced.
Panel To cover a surface with flat strips The door was paneled in oak.
of wood, glass etc.
Paper for writing/wrapping Today recycled papers are used for
various purposes.
Paper to decorate the walls of a room The damp patches have been papered.
by covering them with wallpaper
Parallel very similar The roads and the river run parallel.
Parallel similar features The rise in crimes is paralleled by the rise
in unemployment.
Pilot a person who operates the controls The pilot was responsible for the recent
of an aircraft especially as a job aircrash.
Pilot to fly an aircraft The instructor piloted the plane.
Plant the large machinery The company will invest in new plants.
Plant The garden was planted with
beautiful flowers.
Project a planned piece of work to The building project is about to be
produce something completed.
Project to plan an activity The next edition of the History book will
be projected in 2017.
Process a series of things that are done It would not be an easy process to change
in order to achieve a goal the social backdrop.
Process to treat raw material to preserve it The readymade food we buy are mostly
processed with preservatives.
Question a sentence, phrase or a word that The question on quantum mechanics was
asks for information not easy.
Question to ask questions The thief was arrested and questioned by
the police.
Radical far reaching Our society needs radical changes.
Radical a group of atoms that behave as Free radicals in the body can cause cancer.
a single unit in a number of
110 Communication Skill-I

Resonance the quality of deep, clear and The woman's voice had a strange
continuing sound resonance.
Resonance the vibration produced in an object The resonance produced by the machine
by vibration of similar frequency caused a lot of disturbance.
from another object
Scale marks for measuring What was read on the scale?
Scale extent of something They invited people on a large scale.
Scan (of a light, Radar) to pass across Concealed video cameras are used for
an area scanning each and every part of the
Scan a medical test He has been advised to get his brain scan.
Screw a thin pointed piece of metal like The screw was loose and the photo frame
a nail with a raised spiral line was about to fall down from the wall.
Screw to cheat They screwed the foreigner.
Sound noise We could hear the sound of their footsteps.
Sound give impression Her voice sounded low on the phone.
Sophisticated clever or complicated in the way The young sters are very much aware of
that it works the highly sophisticated computer
Sophisticated able to understand difficult ideas The sophisticated audience appreciated
the flute- recital of Hariprasad Chowrasia.
Structure the way in which the parts of The structure of the building is not very
something are connected together strong.
Structure to organize into a pattern Their teacher has structured the lessons
very well.
Static acting as a weight but not The machine works under static pressure.
producing movement
Static not moving or changing The prices on the stock market have
become static.
Telephone a system for talking My telephone is out of order and I was
unable to talk to him.
Telephone to phone He telephoned me to know the venue.
Temperate having a mild temperature The climate of Bangalore is temperate.
Temperate behaving in a calm and The child was quite temperate on the first
controlled way day of his school.
Group-I (English) 111

Tender a formal offer to supply goods or Sealed tenders are invited for the supply
do work at a stated price of tools from authorized dealers.
Tender a small boat The passengers were carried in a tender
from the larger boat to reach the land.
Terminal The place where the journey by The Railway terminal in our city was
train, bus or boat begin or end inaugurated by the Railway minister one
month ago.
Terminal certain to get worse The factory that built PVC pipes is in
terminal decline.
Thermal connected with heat The thermal energy should be conserved.
Thermal Clothing He carried the thermal wear while visiting
the hill stations.
Transmit to send an electronic signal, radio The induction ceremony was transmitted
or television broadcast live by satellite all over the world.
Transmit transfer The disease was transmitted to her child
in the womb.
Transparent allowing one to see through The curtains were almost transparent.
Transparent easy to understand While writing a technical report jargons
should be avoided to make it more
Twist bend into shape The wire was twisted to form a triangle.
Twist unexpected change At the end of the movie there was a twist
in the story.
Unit small machine The central processing unit of our
computer is out of order.
Unit A fixed quantity that is used as A woman should drink less than fifteen
a standard measurement units of alcohol per week.
Value the amount represented by a If X has the value 43, what would be the
symbol or letter in Mathematics value of Y?
Value consider important She values my wor ds and acts
Vertical perpendicular The building was almost vertical.
Vertical having a structure in which there There was a vertical flow of
are top, middle and bottom levels communication in the meeting.
Visual connected with sight The painting had a tremendous visual
112 Communication Skill-I

Visual picture, map film, used to make Today, colorful visuals are used to attract
an article impressive the children.
Wave the form that some types of energy The ultrasonic waves were used for
such as heat sound or light etc. detecting ultrasonic flaws.
take as they move
Wave to moved She waved her hand and bade goodbye.
Weld to join pieces of metal together The broken axle of the car has to be
by heating their edges and welded.
pressing them together
Weld a joint made by welding The weld in the pipe has started corroding.
Wrench metal tool for holding anything The wrench was used to open the lock.
Wrench to pull or twist something The boy wrenched the puppy from his
suddenly sister.
Xerox a process for producing copies The Xerox machine was not functioning
of letters, documents etc. using properly, so the copies of the notes looked
a special machine. hazy.
Xerox to make a copy of the documents I got the documents xeroxed.
with the machine
X-ray a type of radiation the X-ray machine was used to take the
photograph of his chest.
X-rayed to photograph and examine bones His chest was x-rayed.
and organs inside the body
Yard a unit of measuring length 36 inches make a yard.
Yard an area outside a building The prison yard was infested with rats.
Zoom increase suddenly the prices of the cars have zoomed up
Zoom the sound of a vehicle moving The zoom of the car could be heard from
very fast the living room.

4.3.4 Paronyms

A paronym is a word that has been derived from the same root having a similar meaning.
e.g. wisdom is the root word and wise is the paronym.
A root shows the basic meaning of a word. Many words contain a root. For example in the
word Flammable the root flam means fire. Now the whole word means can be set on fire.
Group-I (English) 113


Complete the following table :

root general area of meaning examples (three for each root)
aer, air air aerial, an airplane, an aerosol
ag, act to do, drive, act a (chemical) agent
anna, enni annual,
aqua aqueous,
aud, audit to hear, listen, watch
aut, auto automatic
centi a centimetre,
cre, cresc, cret to grow, develop an increment,
cred to believe, trust
dic, dict to say, write to contradict,
duc, duct to lead, move a reduction
equ the equator
fac, fic, fact, fect to manufacture,
flect, flex to reflect
frang, fring, fract, frag to break fragile,
fus, fund, found to melt or pour a fuse,
grad, gress a step or stage an undergraduate,
grav heavy
her, hes adhesive
jac, ject to throw, be thrown down to reject,
junct, join, joint adjoining,
pel, pell, puls to drive, push
posit, pound, pose to put, place opposite,
quir, quisit, quest an enquiry,
114 Communication Skill-I

root general area of meaning examples (three for each root)

rupt to break, brust
scrib, scribe, script to scribble,
spec, spect, spic an inspector,
struct to build, assemble
tant, ting, tact to touch a tangent,
tract attractive,
vert, vers reversible,
vid, vis invisible,
volv, volut to roll, turn aroung


agent, agenda, agency, agar, actor, active, action

annual, annals, annalist
aqueous, aquatic, aquifer
audio, audiology, audiometric, auditor, audition, auditory, auditorium
autarchy, autism, automatic, autoclave, autocrat, autocracy
bio-data, biography, biology, biodegradable
center, centaur, centenary
centimeter, centipede, centigrade
creation, creator, increment, increase, crescendo, credible, credibility, credence
diction, dictionary, dictate, dictum, contradict
production, product, reduction, deduct, reduce , produce, deduce
equator, equation, equal
factor, faction, factional, terrific, fiction, fictitious, fictional, factual, factorize, factorial, manufacture,
defect, effect,
reflect, deflect, inflect, reflex, flexibility flexible
frangipani, franglais, infringe, fraction, fracture, fragile, fragility, fragment, fragmentary,
fragmentation, fragrance, fragrant
fuse, refuse, defuse, profuse, fusion, fusilier, fusillade, fusilli, refund, fundamental, fundamentalism,
fundamentally, funder, funding, profound, foundry, founder, foundation, foundling
geology, geography, geometry
grade, graduate, undergraduate, gradient, grading, gradiometer, graded, gradual, gradually, progress,
congress, progressive
gravity, gravitate, gravitation, gravitational
Group-I (English) 115

adhere, adherence, adherent, adhesion, adhesive, herbicide, herbal, herbalism, herbalist

hijack, hijacker, jack, jacket, jack-hammer, jack-knife, jack-plug, reject, deject, dejection
junction, juncture, joint, adjoining, adjoin, adjunct
microscope, microbiology, microorganism, microscopic, microsecond, microphone, microscopy
compel, propel, propeller, propellant, impulse, pulsar, pulsate, pulse
composite, opposite, deposit, compound, pounder, pounding, compose, oppose, repose
report, portable portal, portage
enquire, enquiry, quire, requisite, request,
disrupt, disruption, disruptive, corrupt, corruption, abrupt,
scribble, scribbler, scribe, script, scripted, scriptorium, scripture
spec, speccy, special, inspect, inspection, inspector, retrospect, spicy
instruct, instruction, instructive, construct, construction, constructive
tangent, tangible, tangle, tinge, tingle, tingly, computing, noting, drafting, intact, contact, tactice,
tactfully, tactful
attractive, attraction, attract, contract, contraction
convert, convertion, converter, convertible, reversible, reverse, reversible, reversion
vivid, avid, visible, visibility, invisible, invisibility, vision, visionary
involve, revolve, voltage, volt, revolt
Words that Begin with co-

Words beginning with co- carry the meaning of moving or working together. The most
common forms of this prefix are com- and con-.

Choose the right word from the following bos to fill the gaps in the sentence below :
compressed, concentric, complex, contact, concrete, components,
combination, compound, contract, compost
1. A machine consists of many different .......... put together.
2. The .......... NaCl has different chemical properties to Na and Cl alone.
3. A gas can be .......... into a msaller volume.
4. Farmers use fertilizer or .......... to increase their yield.
5. .......... circles share the same centre.
6. An electric .......... allows electricity to pass through two faces brought together.
7. .......... consists of sand, cement and stones mixed together.
8. is a .......... number.
9. A .......... of factors led to the accident.
10. As metals cool, they .......... .
116 Communication Skill-I


1. Components 2. Compound 3. Compressed

4. Compost 5. Concentric 6. Contact
7. Concrete 8. Complex 9. Combination
10. Contract

4.4 One Word Substitute

A single word or only one word can be used in place of several words or phrases. Look at
the following words:
Several words or phrases one word substitution
l A boat that dredges a river dredger
l That cannot be expressed in words inexpressible
l That cannot be avoided unavoidable
l That cannot be believed incredible
l That cannot be burnt incombustible
l That cannot be divided indivisible
l That cannot be changed irrevocable
l That cannot be seen invisible
l That cannot be read illegible
l That cannot be heard inaudible
l That cannot be penetrated impenetrable
l That cannot be seen through opaque
l That cannot be dispensed with indispensable
l That may be easily set on fire inflammable
l That cannot be perceived by sense imperceptible
l That cannot be reached inaccessible
l A person who leaves his own
country to settle in another country emigrant
l A person who comes as a settler into a foreign country immigrant
l A machine that produces electricity generator
l A substance that allows electricity or
heat to pass along it or through it conductor
l A small electronic device for calculating numbers calculator
l A person who operates the machine operator
Group-I (English) 117

l The person who keeps records to stock in a company stock conductor

l The person whose job is writing programs Programmer

Complete the following:
1. A boat that dredges a river is called a ......... .
2. Before the invention of jet engines, all airplanes had pr.........s.
3. A machine which produces electricity is called a g......... .
4. Electronic c.........s are now very cheap, and are extremely useful for carrying out
mathematical operations quickly.
5. A machine op......... has to be very careful that his hands or clothing do not get caught in the
6. Copper is a good con......... of electricity.
7. The person who keeps records to stock in a company is called the ......... con.........
8. A pro.........enables you to draw accurate angles in Technical Drawing.
9. In the next decade, there will be thousands of career openings for computer pro.........s.
10. One of the most difficult jobs in a company is that of factory man......... .


1. Dredger 2. Propeller 3. Generator

4. Calculators 5. Operator 6. Conductor
7. Stock conductor 8. Programmer 9. Programmer/professional
10. manager
Nouns that end -ity

Add -ity to the following adjectives, and change the spelling as necessary to make nouns.
Also, practise pronouncing these -ity nouns :

Complete the following definitions, using the appropriate word from the box :
society, the earth, the mind, bodies, animals, rocks, insects, speech sounds
1. geology = the study of ....................
2. entomology = the study of ....................
3. zoology = the study of ....................
4. psychology = the study of ....................
5. physiology = the study of ....................
118 Communication Skill-I

6. phonology = the study of ....................

7. petrology = the study of ....................
8. sociology = the study of ....................


1. the study of earth 2. the study of insects

3. the study of animals 4. the study of the mind
5. the study of bodies 6. the study of speech sounds
7. the study of rocks 8. the study of society
Nouns that end with -meter, -metry

A noun ending -meter (= an instrument which measures z), and -metry (= the science of
measuring z) are common in science and technology.

Answer the following :
1. What does an ammeter do?
2. What is geometry?
3. What is the function of a cars speedometer?
4. What is trigonometry?
5. What does a barometer measure?
6. Why does a pilot need an altimeter?


1. An ammeter measures the strength of an electric current.

2. Geometry is a branch of mathematics that deals with the measurements and relationship
of lines ,angles and solids.
3. The function of a cars speedometer is to measure the speed of the car.
4. Trignometry is the type of mathematics that deals with the relationship between the sides
and angles of triangles.
5. A barometer measures the temperature of weather or climate.
6. A pilot needs an altimeter to know the height above sea level.
Group-I (fgU
nh) 119



[ k. M&I
' kCn&j puk&mRifk , oafod kl
, d ; k v f/ d v {kjksadsl kFkZ d ; ksx dks' kCn dgrsgSAt S
a l sv k] jke] fdl h Hkk"kk esa' kCn gh l okfZ/ d
egoi w
. kZgksrsgS
A' kCn Hka
a Mkj dsv k/ kj i j ghHkk"kk dhl ef dki rk pyrk gS Adq N ' kCn v i uhHkk"kkdsgksrsgS ]
N ' kCn nw l jh Hkk"kkv ksadsgksrsgS
l k/ kj.kr%' kCn nksi zd kj dk gksl drk gS
Al kFkZ
d v kS
j fujFkZ
l kFkZ
d & os' kCn gS
] ft ul sfdl h fuf' pr v FkZdk cks/ gksAt S
l syksVk] i q
fuj FkZ
d & ft l ' kCn ( ofu) l sfdl h [ kkl v FkZdk cks/ u gkst S
l s&okuh] uhi k] bR;kfn
' kCn d k ego & Hkk"kk; h] vfHkO;fDr dk ew y v k/ kj ' kCn gksrsgSA' kCn ghckrphr ; k dF; esav kusokys
O;fDr; ksai zkf.k; ksa
] oLrq
v ksa
] xq
. kksa
] f; k; ksa
] Hkkoukv ksfopkjksav kfn dksi zd V djrsgS
' kCn Hka
Mkj & fdl h Hkk"kk esai z;ksx gksjgs; k gksl dusokysl Hkh ' kCnksadsl ew
g dksml Hkk"kk dk ' kCn HkM
dgrsgS A

v FkZd h nf"V l soxhZ


' kCnksadsv FkZl nk , d gh l eku ughajgrsgS

Abl dkj.k v FkZdsv k/ kj i j ' kCnksadspkj Hksn gS
a A
1- , d kFkhZ& , dkFkhZ' kCn os' kCn gSft udk , d ghv FkZgksrk gS
AO;fDrokpd l a
Kk ' kCn bl hJs.kh ds' kCn
gksrsgSAt S
a l s& xa xk] fga
nh] bZ' oj] l a
2- v usd kFkhZ& ' kCn os' kCn gS
aft l ds, d l sv f/ d v FkZgksrsgS
Aft l ds, d l sv f/ d v FkZgksrsgS
a At S
a l s&
cj & v kdk' k] oL=k
dy & v kxkeh] v xyk fnu] v rhr
dj & gkFk] VS
Dl ] gkFkh dk l w
: & f' k{kd] cM+
k] Hkkjh
120 Communication Skill-I

/ u & ckny] ?kVk] gFkkS

3- ; okph ; k l ekukFkhZ& ft u ' kCnksadk v FkZl eku gksrk gS
i ; kZ At S
l s&
jkr & fu' kk] jt uh] jkf=k
v fXu & v kx] i kod] v uy
v py & i oZ
r ] ' kS
y ] fxfj] ux
k & v ' o] g; ] ?kksVd
4- foy kse ' kCn ; k foi j hr kFkhZ& os' kCn ft l dk v FkZfdl h v U; ' kCn dsv FkZl sfoi jhr gksrk gS
At S
l s&
v kjEHk & v Ur
v U/dkj & i zd k' k
U;k; & v U;k;
[ k & nq
v i eku & l Eeku

mRifk d sv k/ kj i j ' kCn Hksn

mRifr dsv k/ kj i j ' kCn dseq

[ ; r%pkj Hksn gS
1- rRle & l a
Ldr dsosew
y ' kCn] t ksT; ksadsR;ksafgUnh esai z;q
Dr gksrsgS
arRle dgykrsgS
l s& v kgkj] mPpkj.k] i Q
y] i q
Lrd] bR;kfn
2- rn~
Hko & rRle dsfodr : i dksrn~
Hko dgrsgS
a& t S
l spkn] ngh] jkr] di w
j bR;kfn
3- ns'kt & v i usghns'k dhcksy &pky l sv k, ' kCn ns'kt dgykrsgS
At S
a l s& dVksjk] yksVk] l ekslk] pepeA
4- fons'kt & os' kCn t ksv a
xzst h] v jch] i Q kjl h] rq
d hZ
] iq
rZxkyh v kfn fons'kh Hkk"kkvksal sfgUnh esavk x, gS
tSl s& v a
xsth & ekLVj] Ldw y ] jsy ] LVs'ku] dksV] i hl ] fl usek] bR;kfn
xkyh & v kyw
] l kcq
u] v yekjh] rkS
fy; k] ckYVh] mnw
] uk' ki kfr
v jch & xjhc] i Q
dhj] v kS
j r] dl w
j ] bZ
ekunkj] v nkyr] b=k
s; & dw
i u] dkjrw
kjl h & pkdw
] [ kjhn] p' ek] : eky] t ehu] va
j ] t kuoj
d hZ & nkjksxk] csxe] rk' k] dkyhu
phuh & pk; ] yhph
: i ka
r j dsvk/ kj i j ' kCnksadsnksHksn gS
1- fod kj h & t ksfya x opu dkjd v kS j iq : "k dsv uq
l kj v i us: i cnyrsgS
A mUgsafodkjh dgrsgS
( d) l aKk ( [ k) l oZ
uke ( x) fo' ks"k.k ( ?k) f; k
Group-I (fgU
nh) 121

2- v fod kj h & t ks' kCn fya

x] opu i q
: "k v kS
j opu dsv uq
l kj : i ughacnyrsgS
A, sls' kCn gS
a A
( d) f; k fo' ks"k.k] ( [ k) l a
/ cks/d ( x) l eq
P; cks/d ( ?k) foLe; kfn cks/d

j puk d h nf"V l s' kCn d si zd kj

jpuk dsv k/ kj i j ' kCn rhu i zd kj dsgksrsgS

1- : <+& ft l ds[ k.Mdk dksbZv FkZu gksfdUrqfo' ks"k oLrqdsfy, i zfl gksx; sgkst S
l s& ?kksM+
k] i q
2- fxd & os' kCn gS
; kS ] t ksnw
a l js' kCnksads; ksx l scursgS
At S
a l s&
uhy$dey & uhydey
f$eku & cq
Unj$rk & l q
3- ; ksx: <+& os' kCn gS
] t ksv i us' kCnksadsl kekU; v FkZu nsd j , d fo' ks"k v FkZnsrsgS
a At S
a l s&
dt & ( i a
d $t ) & dhpM+l smRiUu & dey
cksnj & (ya
c$mnj) & ya
ck i sV okyk & x.ks'k
f=kus=k & ( f=k$us=k) & rhu v k[ kksaokyk & f' ko

Rifr , oau, ' kCnksad k fuekZ

1- mi l xZ, oai zR;; ksa}kjk u, ' kCnksadk fuekZ

. k fd; k t k l drk gS

mi l xksZd k fuekZ

v fr & v fr' k; ] v R;kpkj] v frfjDr

v f/ & v f/ dkj] v ; {k] v ; kns'k
v uq & v uq
xzg] v uq
' kkl u] v uq
mi & mi dkj] mi eku] v i gj.k
fuEufyf[ kr mi l xksZ
a}kjk u, ' kCnksadk fuek.Zk gksl drk gS
y $ v DdM+ Hkq
y DdM+
Le` $ v uh; Lej.kh;
ekuo $ rk ekuork
fuEufyf[ kr i zR;; ksa}kjk u, ' kCnksadk fuek.Zk fd; k t k l drk gS
v u] bZ
] mQ
] v kbZ
] Ro] rk] , jk] bu
Z] bd] yk] bR;kfn
122 Communication Skill-I

v usd ' kCnksad sfy , , d ' kCn

1- t ksbZ
' oj esafo' okl j[ krk gS & v kfLrdA
2- t ksbZ
' oj dksu ekurk gks & ukfLrdA
3- t ksO;kdj.k t kurk gks & oS
; kdj.kA
4- nw
j dh ckr l kspusokyk & nw
j n' khZ
5- l ksl cdksfi z; gks & l oZ
fi z;A
6- eks{k dh bPNk djusokyk & eq
{ kq
7- t ksi z'ka
l k ds; ksX; gks & i z'ka
l uh; A
8- t ksnsj rd jgs & fpjLFkk; hA
9- t ksns[kk u t k l ds & v n`' ; A
10- t ksi <+
k&fy[ kk u gks & v ui <+
] fuj{kjA
11- t ksdke dfBu gks & nq
12- t ksdke v kl ku gks & lq
d jA
13- fnu esagksusokyk & nS
14- l Irkg esagksusokyk & l kIrkfgdA
15- i {k esagksusokyk & i kf{kdA
16- ekl esagksusokyk & ekfl dA
17- o"kZesagksusokyk & okf"kZ
18- rhu eghuksaesagksusokyk & =kS
ekfl dA
19- N%ekg esagksusokyk & "k.ekfl dA
20- ukS
eghusesagksusokyk & uoekfl dA
21- t ksl c dN t kurk gks & l oZ
22- t ksFkksM+
k t kurk gks & v Yi KA
23- fd, mi dkj dksu ekuusokyk & dRuA
24- fd, mi dkj dksekuusokyk & drKA
25- t ks .k ns & mke.kZ
26- t ks .k ys & v / e.kZ
27- ft l dk vkdkj gks & l kdkjA
28- ft dl k v kdkj u gks & fujkdkjA
29- ft l dk : i v PNk gks & lq
: iA
Group-I (fgU
nh) 123

30- ft l dk : i v PNk u gks & dq

: iA
31- ft l dksHk; u gks & fuHkZ
32- ft l dksMj u gks & fuMjA
33- v PNk cksy usokyk & lq
k] okXehA
34- v PNk fy[ kusokyk & lq
y s[kdA
35- cq
j sekxZi j pyusokyk & dq
36- ft l dk v kpkj v PNk gks & l nkpkjhA
37- ft l dk v kpkj ( pky&pyu) cq
j k gks & nq
j kpkjhA
38- t ksv i uh gR;k djusokyk gks & v kRe?kkrhA
39- ft l esan; k gks & n; kyq
40- ft l esan; k u gks & funZ
41- ft l dk vUr u gks & v uUrA
42- ft l dsl eku nw
l jk u gks & v uU;A
43- ft l dk i kj u gks & v i kjA
44- ft l dh rq
y uk u gks & v rq
y uh; A
45- t ks' ka
l k ds; ksX; gks & ' ka
l uh; A
46- ft l dh pkj Hkq
t k, gksa & prq
47- ft l esadi V u gks & fu"di VA
48- t ksdHkh u ejrk gks & v ejA
49- t ksdHkh cw
k u gksrk gks & v t jA
50- ft l esafodkj u v krk gks & fufoZ
d kjA
51- l cdksl eku nf"V l sns[kusokyk & l en' khZ
52- ( fdl h , d) l eku l e; esagksusokyk & l el kef; d] l edkyhuA
53- dk; k dk & dkf; dA
54- okd~( ok.kh) dk & okfpdA
55- l rksxq
. k dk & l kfRodA
56- jt ksxq
. k dk & jkt fl dA
57- reksxq
. k dk & rkefl dA
58- uhfr dkst kuusokyk & uhfrKA
59- nw
/ i j jgusokyk & nq
X/ kgkjhA
124 Communication Skill-I

60- ft l dk o.kZ
u u gksl ds & v o.kZ
uh; A
61- t kst y esajgrk gks & t ypjA
62- t ksv kdk' k esa?kw
erk gks & uHkpj] [ kspjA
63- og i gkM ft l l sv kx fudyrh gks & Tokykeq
[ khA
64- t ksdq
N t kuusdh bPNk j[ krk gks & ft Kkl q
65- t kseksg u djrk gks & fueksZ
66- ft l sfdl h l syxko u gks & fuysZ
i ] v fyIr] fufyZ
67- t ksu"V gksusokyk gks & u' oj] uk' koku~
68- u"V u gksusokyk & v u' oj] ' kk' or~
69- ft l dk dksbZ' k=kqu gks & v t kr' k=kq
70- t ksysusdh pkg j[ krk gks & fyIl q
71- t ksl gu djrk gks & l fg".kq
72- t kscgq
r : i / kj.k djrk gks & cgq
: fi ; kA
73- ol q
nso dk i q
=k & okl q
74- ' kfDr dsv uq
l kj & ; Fkk'kfDrA
75- ft l dsi kp eq
g gksa & ia
pkuu ( ' ksj dsfy, : <+' kCn)
76- ft l i q
Lrd esav kB v ; k; gks & v "Vk; k; hA
77- ft l esal U
nsg u gks & fuLl UnsgA
78- ft l dh gt kj Hkq
t k, gks & l gl zckgq
79- ft l dh mQ
i j dh v ksj Hkq
t k gks & mQ
80- t ksfrfnu ugkrk gks & fuR;Luk; hA
81- t ks/ eZdsdke djsa & / ekZ

fons'kh Hkk"kk l sv k, ' kCnksad k fgUnh esa; ksXk

fons'kh Hkk"kk l sv k, ' kCn fons'kt dgykrsgSbu ' kCnksadk fgUnh esa; ksx fd; k t krk gS
At S
l s&
xzsth ' kCn & v kW
Dl ht u] v kW
i js'ku] ba
t hfu; j] dfe' uj] i kl Z

okD; ; ksx

v kW
Dl ht u & geyksx ges'kk v kW
Dl ht u xzg.k djrsgS
v kW
i js'ku & esjsfe=k dk v kW
i js'ku dq
N fnu i gysgq
v kA
Group-I (fgU
nh) 125

v jch ' kCn & v nkyr] bTt r] b=k] bekjr] xjhc

okD; ; ksx

bekjr & ; g bekjr v PNh gS

kjl h ' kCn & va
j ] v ukj] fgUnh
xkyh ' kCn & v ukukl ] v k; k
d hZ' kCn & mnw
] uk' ki krh] ckck

ns'kt , oafons'kt ' kCn

ns'kt & v i usgh ns'k dh cksy pky l sv k, ' kCn ns'kt dgykrk gS
ls & yksVk] l ekslk] jLl h] dVksjk
fons'kt & va
xzst h] vjch] i Q
kjl h] i q
xkyh] rq
d hZ' kCn t ksfgUnh esa; ksx fd, t krsgSfons'kt dgykrsgS
ls & Ldwy ] LVs'ku] bekjr] v a
j ] vukukl ] dq
y h] pkdw
] nkjksxk] choh] csxe] l kS
xkr] v yekjh] v pkj] est ]
ckYVh] pkch] cksry bR;kfnA

i ; kZ
; okph ; k l ekukFkhZ' kCn

v U/dkj & frfej] re] rfel z] v a

/ sjkA
v k[ k & ykspu] foykspu] p{kq
] v f{k] nx] us=k] u; uA
v kdk' k & uHk] xxu] O;kse] v Ecj] v Urfj{k] v Hkz] | kS
] fno] v U
kUr] ' kw
bUnz & lq
j s'k] e?kok] nsosUnz] l q
j i fr] i q
j Unj] okl o] nsjkt ] l q
j sUnz] ' k] ' kphi fr] i kdfji q
] i kd' kkl u]
ot zikf.kA
bPNk & v kdka
{ kk] mRd.Bk] bZ
gk] oka
Nk] fyIl k] v fHkyk"kk] dkeuk] okl uk] euksjFk] v Hkh"V] Li `gk] pkg]]
ykyl kA
' oj & i jekRek] Hkq
] Hkxoku] t xnh'k] i jes'oj] t xnk/ kj] l fPpnkuUnA
m| ku & mi ou] okfVdk] ckx] cxhpk] cfx; kA
di M+
k & oL=k] ol u] i V] phj] v EcjA
dey & t yt ] i a
d t ] v jfoUn] mRiy] ufyu] i n~ e] jkt ho] v Ecq
t ] v EHkst ] out ] l jkst ] okfjt ]
iq. Mjhd] i q
"dj] v EHkks: g] dq
oy; ] egksRiy] t yt kr] i kfjt kr] l jfl t ] da
t ] ' kri =k] i ; kst ]
rkejl ] dksd un] uhjt ] v EcqtA
dkenso & jfri fr] enu] dke] i q "i l k; d] dqlqe' kj] i a
pok.k] i q
"i / Uok] dcU/] dejot ] euksHko] eufl t ]
v ua
x] i ap' kj] eUeFk] eukst ] da ni Z
] ehudsru] vruq ] LejA
126 Communication Skill-I

fdj.k & ejhfp] dj] e; w

[ k] v a
' kq
] jf' eA
fdukjk & dw
y ] rV] dxkj] rhjA
dku & d.kZ
] Jo.k] Jq
fri q
V] JksrA
xg & Hkou] l nu] fudsru] v kxkj] v ; u] fuy; ] v ky; ] xsg] / ke] fudsrA
xk & HkkxhjFkh] eUnfduh] f=ki xFkk] t koh] l q
j l fj] nsoi xk] t q
] ru; k] fo".kq
i nh] / zq
ouUnk] nsounhA
x.ks'k & yEcksnj] fouk; d] , dnUr] x.ki fr] xt kuuA
pUnz & fu' kkdj] fgeka ' kq
] fo/ q
] dykfuf/ ] bUnq ]lq / kdj] exykaNu] l kse] ' kf' k] l q
/ ka
' kq
] e; a
d ] jt uhdj]
' k' kka
d ] jkdki fr] l kjax] f}t ] ' k' k/ kj] {ki kdj] mnf/ l q
r ] mM
i ] dykfuf/ k] f}t jkt A
ty & uhj] l fyy] rks;] okfj] v er] mnd] v Ecq
] i ; ] v ki ] t hou] i kuhA
t Ue & v kfoHkkZ
o] mn~
Hko] mn; ] mRifk] i S
nkb' kA
Mk & i rkdk] ot k] oS
t ; Urh] i Q
jgjk] dsruA
ryokj & v fl ] [ kM~
x] djoky] pUnzgkl ] di k.kA
rkykc & rky] l j] l jksoj] rM+
kx] t yk' k; A
fnu & fnol ] v gu] okl j] okjA
[k & dys'k] O;Fkk] d"V] osnukA
/ & {khj] i ; ] nq
X/ ] xksjl A
nsork & v t j] nso] l q
j ] focq
/ ] v ejA
/u & fok] nzO;] l Ei fk] jkf' k] v FkZ
/ uq
"k & dksn.M] pki ] ' kjkl u] dkeZ
unh & fu>Z
fj.kh] l fjrk] rfVuh] rja
fx.kh] L=kksrfLouh] l fjr~
] i zokfg.kh] fuEuxk] v i xkA
ueLdkj & .kke] cU
ns] ue%
] ueLrs] v fHkoknuA
y & ' kq
] l ki Q
] LoPN] i fo=kA
"i & lq
eu] dq
e] l w
u] i Q
y] i q
w gq
i oZ
r & i gkM+
] ' kS
y ] v py] fxfj] ux] Hkw
/ j] egh/ j] / jk/ j] / j.kh/ j] v fnz] es: ] Hkw
fe/ jA
fMr & lq
/ h] euh"kh] kK] cq
/ ] fo}ku] dksfon] fop{k.kA
i jkx & iq
"i &/ w
fy] l q
ejkt ] i q
"i jkt ] edja
i ou & i oeku] gok] uHkk.k] l ehj.k] ok; q
] l ehj] ek: r] i zHkja
t u] v fuy] i zd a
i u] t xRizk.kA
=k & csVk] l q
r ] uUnu] ru; ] v kRet ] t kr] ruq
=kh & nq
fgrk] l q
r k] ruq
t k] csVh] v kR
et k] ru; kA
rhd & fp] l a
d srA
Group-I (fgU
nh) 127

dk' k & T; ksfr] ped] Hkk] Nfo] | q

i koZ
rh & f' kok] f' kokuh] mek] Hkokuh] v fEcdk] v i .kkZ
] l oZ
xyk] fxfjt k] ' kS
yl q
r k] v u?kk] : nzk.khA
i Foh & Hkw
] Hkw
fe] v ofu] v pyk] / j.kh] {kks.kh] f{kfr] esfnuh] mohZ
] iq
fe] jRukoyh] / jk] / fj=kh] egh]
ol qerh] ol q
U/jk] ol q
/ k] / jrhA
i {kh & [ kx] [ kspj] f}t ] i ra
x] foga
xe] fogx] foga
x] ' kdq
u] uHkpj] e.My] i [ ks: A
czk.k & f}t ] Hkw
nso] Hkw
l j] foi zA
Hkzej & e/ q
i ] e/ q
d j] v fy] f}jsiQ
] pa
pjhd] "kV~
i n] Hka
x] fefyUnA
es?k & t y/ j] t yn] rks;n] i ; ks/j] uhjn] i ; ksn] ?ku] ckny] okfjnA
"; & euq
t ] ekuo] O;fkQ
] uj] t u] eR;Z
egknso & f' ko] ' ka
d j] Hkw r ukFk] dS
y k'kukFk] f=kykspu] f' krda
B] fi ukdh] gj] uhyda
B] fxfjt ki fr] egs'oj]
pUnz'ks[kj] Hkwr s'kA
eNyh & eRL; ] edj] >"k] t yt houA
fe=k & l [ kk] l gpj] l kFkh] l q
efnjk & lq
j k] gkyk] ok: .kh] e| A
[ kZ & v K] v cks/] t M+
] ew
& la
xzke] l ej] v kgo] j.k] foxzgA
jkt k & ui ] ui fr] Hkw
i fr] eghi ] i kfFkZ
o] ujukFk] ujs'k] uji fr] v ofui ] Hkw
i ] Hkw
i ky] ujsUnzA
jkf=k & ; kfefu] fu' kk] jt uh] ' koZ
j h] {ki k] rfel zk] foHkkojh] jkdk] jS
u] rel kA
y{eh & Jh] deyk] pa
pyk] jek] gfjfi z;k] bfUnjk] i n~
ek] l eq
nzt kA
ok.k & rhj] b"kq
] ' kjA
okuj & ' kk[ kkex] gfj] edZ
V] dh'k] dfi A
o"kkZ & esg] ckfj' k] i kol ] i zkoV] of"VA
fo".kq & nkeksnj] t uknZ
u] "khds"k] y{ehi fr] fo' o: i ] prq
t ] v P; q
Z r ] fo' oEHkj] x: M+
ot ] Jh/ jA
fo| q
r & pi yk] rfM+
r ] l kS
nkfeuh] pa
pyk] nkfeuh] {k.ki zHkk] / uoYyh] / unkeA
okRlY; & Lusg] i zseA
o`{ k & foVi ] nzq
e] r: ] egh: g] i ki n] : [ kA
' kjhj & va
x] dk; k] xkr] ruq
] nsg] cnu] dysoj] foxzgA
' k=kq & v fj] fji q
] foi {kh] v kjkfr] oS
j h] nq
' euA
L=kh & ukjh] efgyk] v a
xuk] v oyk] ; ksf"kr~
] dkUrk] dkfeuh] ofurk] yyuk] fr; k] nkjk] HkkfeuhA
LoxZ & ukd] l q
j yksd ] }q
y ksd ] f=kfno] v ejyksd ] nsoyksd A
128 Communication Skill-I

l eq
nz & l kxj] t yf/ ] mnf/ ] rks;fuf/ ] fl U/q
] jRukdj] i kjkokj] t y&fuf/ ] i ; ksf/ ] unh'k] v fC/ ] okjh'k]
v Ecqf/ ] v .kZ
;Z & HkkLdj] Hkkuq ] jfo] ekrZ. M] l fork] fnus'k] fnudj] v a
' kq
ekyh] xzgi fr] v kfnR;] fnokdj] fnuef.k]
l gl zka
' kq
] gfj] fe=k] i ra
x] v dZ ] ga
fl a
g & O;k/ z] ds'kh] gfj] exjkt ] exsUnz] dsljh] exi fr] ' kknZ
y ] dsgjh] exkf/ i ] xt kfjA
l iZ & O;ky] Hkq
tax] Hkq
xe] fo"k/ j] ukx] v fg] i =kx] mjxA
l ew
g & t RFkk] oU
n] fudj] x.k] jkf' k] l eq
nk; ] i q
t ] ;w
a Fk] ny] e.Myh] l ekgkj] l eq
Pp; ] p; A
l jLorh & fxjk] ok.kh] Hkkjrh] ' kkjnk] oh.kki kf.k] bM+
k] okxh'ojh] egk' osrkA
Unj & deuh; ] pk: ] euksgj] eukst ] dfyr] yyke] ea
y ] jE; ] je.kh; ] v fHkjkeA
l sod & nkl ] HkR;] v uq
pj] fda
d j] i fjpkjd] ukS
d j] pkdjA
l ksuk & t kr: i ] Lo.kZ
] dud] da
pu] l q
] gse] fgj.; ] dq
Unu] gkVd] dy/ kS
gkFkh & forq
M] ukx] f}i ] gLrh] xt ] era
a x] dfj] nUnh] x; Un] okj.k] f}jnA

foi j hr kFkZ
d ' kCn

v uq
y kse ' kCn foy kse ' kCn v uq
y kse ' kCn foy kse ' kCn
v Fk bfr v PNk cq
v FkZ v uFkZ v xz i ' pkr~
v i uk i jk; k v uq
xzg foxzg
v fHkK v ufHkK v U/dkj i zd k' k
v uq
dwy i zfrdw
y v Yi v f/ d
v uq
t v xzt v er fo"k
v uq
j kx fojkx v Ur v kfn
v okZ
phu i zkphu v kjksg v ojksg
v fuok; Z fuokZ
; ( , sfPNd) v frof"V v ukof"V
v fHkeku fujfHkeku lq
v ol j dq
v ol j
v kfn v Ur v k; kr fu; kZ
v kjEHk v ol ku v kfLrd ukfLrd
Li Q
w v kyL; v kyksd v U/dkj
v k' kk fujk' kk v knj fujknj
v kdk' k i krky v kpkj v ukpkj
Group-I (fgU
nh) 129

v knku i znku v k; O;;

v k; Z v uk; Z v knzZ ' kq
v kH; Urj ckg~
; b"V v fUk"V
bfPNr v fufPNr bPNk v fUkPNk
mfpr v uq
fpr mke v/ e
mi dkj v i dkj mi fLFkr v uq
i fLFkr
p uhp mkj nf{k.k
mn; v Lr mi fjfyf[ kr fuEufyf[ kr
mnkj di .k .kh v u.kh
mUufr v oufr mRd"kZ v i d"kZ
m".k v uq
".k] ' khr mi ; q
Dr v uq
mkh.kZ v uq
kh.kZ mrkj p<+
mi R;dk v f/ R;dk mke.kZ v / e.kZ
mnkj v uq
nkj mi ; q
Z v / ksf~
mi p; v i p; m| e v kyL;
mi dr v uq
i dr mRFkkUk i ru
mr v uq
r] uez bgykS
fdd i kjykS
,d v usd dksey dfBu] dBksj
, s'o; Z v uS
' o; Z
] nkfjnz~
; dVq e/ q
v kS
nk; Z v ukS
nk; Z
d ksp dq
nf"V lq
f; k i zfrf; k dq
fVy l jy
drK dru dM+
ok ehBk
d`' k LFkw
y q
' kkUr
nz egku~ di Vh fu"di V
j v w
j ] l jy ; fo;
xgjk fNyyk] mFkyk xkS
jo yk?ko
: y?kq df=ke v df=ke
Ir i zd V di .k v di .k] mnkj
xzk v xzk xq
.k nks"k
fpfUrr fuf' pUr xeu v kxeu
130 Communication Skill-I

py fu' py ?kj ckgj
pj v pj pi y v pi y
Nfy; k fu' Ny prq
j ew
t hou ej.k t; i jkt ;
ty Fky ta
xe LFkkoj
t Ue ej.k t kxj.k lq
t hou eR;q t kxzr lq
rh{.k dq
a rVLFk i {ki krh
t M+ psru rhoz eUFkj] eUn
n; kyq funZ
; nkrk v unkrk] l w
/ hj v / hj / uh fu/ Z
/ eZ v / eZ
] i ki uw
ru iq
j kru
uohu iq
j kru fUkUnuh; v fuU|
fuUnk Lrq
fr u; k iq
j kuk
uez v uez i zR;{k i jks{k] v i zR;{k
fudV nw
j iq
j Ldkj frjLdkj
i zlkn fo"kkn i zd "kZ v i d"kZ
i frozrk dq
y Vk i f.Mr ew
[ kZ
. kZ vi w
. kZ i {ki krh fu"i {k
i zlUu v i zlUu iw
oZ i f' pe
i fo=k v i fo=k i zd k' k v U/dkj
jk v/ w
jk i zofk fuofk
i z'u mkj i zkr% l k; e~
i zse }s"k cU/u eks{k
j kbZ HkykbZ Hkkjh gYdk
ckgj Hkhrj Hkko v Hkko
r Hkfo"; ekuo nkuo
eku v i eku ferO;; v i O;;
"; rk i ' kq
rk feF; k l R;
Group-I (fgU
nh) 131

f[ kd fyf[ kr efyu fueZ
fe=k ' k=kq e/ q
j dVq
;'k vi ; ' k ; ksX; v ; ksX;
; ksxh Hkksxh la
; ksx fo; ksx
jksxh fujksxh jkx fojkx
j{kd Hk{kd jkf=k fnol
jkt k ja
d ykHk gkfu
: X.k LoLFk : {k fLuX/
yksHk R;kx fo/ ok l / ok
foi q
y U;w
u fcuk l kFk
foi n~ la
i n~ oS
Hko nfjnzrk
fof/ fu"ks/ fo"k v er
fo' okl v fo' okl fojks/ l eFkZ
foykl ri L; k fo' kq
v fuok; Z oS
d fYi d Je foJke
' kw
j dk; j la
i fk foi fk
t; i jkt ; ' okl i z'okl
' k; u t kxj.k LFkw
y lw
y Hk nq
yZHk LoxZ ujd
l kdkj fujkdkj Lons'k fons'k
d eZ nq
] dq
d eZ LorU=k i jrU=k
Lok/ hu i jk/ hu l / ok fo/ ok
LFkkoj ta
xe lq
[k nq
t u] l Tt u nq
u l jy dq
l jl uhjl lq
=k dq
l R; v l R; lp >w
f/ foxzg l nxq
.k nq
Lefr foLefr lw
[ kk xhyk
132 Communication Skill-I

l ekukFkZ
d i zrhr gksusoky sfHkUukFkZ
( ' kCn; q
Xeksad sv FkZesav Urj )
yk &
v cy k&fucZ v cyk L=khek=k
v fHkeku&v ga
d kj & v fHkeku l Ppk xoZ Av ga d kj >w Bk ?ke.MA
v oLFkk&v k; q & v oLFkk o; ( mez)Av k; qt hou dh i w j h x.kukA
v ky kS
fd d & v ykS fdd v n~ Hkq
r mke xq . kokykA
v LokHkkfod & v LokHkkfod i zd fr &fo: A
bZ &} s"k &
"; kZ bZ"; kZ nw l jsdh mUufr l st yuA}s"k oS j HkkoA
m| ksx&mi k; & m| ksx m| e] i fjJeAmi k; l eL; k l q y >kusdk rjhdk ; k rjdhc
d i k&n; k & di k fdl h dh l gk; rkAn; k nhu&nq %[ kh i j fi ?kyukA
[ ksn&' kksd & [ ksn eu f[ kUu gksukA' kksd eR;qv kfn i j v i Q l ksl
[k &
d "V&nq
% d"V l k/ kj.k rdyhi Q Anq%[ k ru] eu ; k v kRek dk nq %
[ kh gksukA
fu. kZ
; &U;k; & fu.kZ ; i Q l ykAU;k; bUlki Q
i ki &v i j k/ & i ki / eZ &fo: dk; Z Av i jk/ dkuw u&fojks/h dk; Z
i zse&Lusg & i zse i fr&i Ruh ; k i zseh dk I; kjALusg okRlY; ( cPpksal s)A
u d j uk &
ns[kuk&n' kZ ns[kuk ( l k/ kj.k v FkZ ) An' kZu djuk ( l Eeku v FkZesa )A
J k&HkfDr & Jk ( egkRekv ksadsi zfr] v Fkok / eZesav kLFkk) A
HkfDr (bZ ' oj dh)
fHkUu&foi j hr & fHkUu v yxAfoi jhr mYVkA
Hkze&l Unsg & Hkze ( jLl h dksl ki l e>uk) ] / ks[kk gksukA
l Unsg ( l ki gS; k jLl h) ] ' kd gksukA
/ eZ
&er & / eZ l R; v kfn ekuork dsv kn' kZ Aer et gc A
ew &v ufHkK &
[ kZ ew [ kZ ew <+] cqfghuAv ufHkK ft l si rk u gksA
v Kkr &v i fj fpr & v Kkr ft l dk i rk u gksAv i fjfpr ukokfdi Q A
L=kh&i Ruh & L=kh ukjh ek=kAi Ruh fdl h dh fookfgrkA
y Tt k&Xy kfu & yTt k ' keZ AXykfu fdl h i ki ; k v i jk/ dk v i Q l ksl
' ka dk &
d k&v k' ka ' kadk ' kdAv k' ka d k [ krjkA
Hk; &=kkl & Hk; l k/ kkj.k MjA=kkl Hk; a d j Hk; A
Y; &v ew
Y; & cgq ewY; cgq r dherhAv ew Y; ft l dk dksbZew Y; u v kd k t k l dsA
; Ru&ps"Vk & ; Ru dksf' k' k ( effort) Aps"Vk & gjdr ( activity) A
Group-I (fgU
nh) 133

; Fkk & osnuk

osnuk&O ( ' kkjhfjd) AO;Fkk ( ekufl d) A
lS fy u & l S
d r &i q dr unh rV dh jsrhyh Hkw
feAi q
fyu unh rV dh Hkw
fe] fdukjkA
d &v i ; ' k & dya
dya d Hkkjh nks"k yxukAv i ; ' k v i dhfrZ
i zy ki &foy ki & i zy ki cduk] cdoknAfoyki fdl h dsejusi j jksukA
&l sok & i fjp; kZ
i fj p; kZ ( jksxh dh) Al sok ( fdl h dh Hkh) A
i zfr nku&v uq
nku & i zfrnku cnysesadq
N nsukAv uq
nku v kfFkZ
d l gk; rkA

{ ksi. k

{ ksi.k , d v R;ar mi ; ksxh dyk gS] ft l dsek; e l sfoLrr l sfoLrr v uq PNsnksaesaO;Dr fopkj v R;a r
f{kIr] l jy v kS j lqcks/ : i esai zd V fd, t k l drsgSA?kj O;Lrrkdsbl nkS
a j esal a
{ ksi.k dhv R;f/ d mi ; ksfxrk
Al a{ ksi.k dh i zfof/ esafdl h jpuk dk l kj xzg.k fd; k t k l drkgSv kS j o; Dr Hkh fd; k t k l drk gS Al a{ ksi.k
dsfy, dq N v ko' ; d ckrsa; ku esaj[ kus; ksX; gS a&
1- ew
y v orj.k dksv PNh rjg l sl e>uk v kS
j gn; a
xe djukA
2- ew
y v orj.k dsokD; ksadschp dsl a
/ ksadks; ku esaj[ kukAv orj.k dsfopkj i zokg dkscuk, j[ kus
dk i z;R
u djukA
3- v orj.k dsHkkoksav kSj fopkjksads v uq : i dF; dks ; ku esaj[ krs gq
, , d mi ; q
Dr l a
f{kIr ' kh"kZ
fu/ kZ
fjr djuk] ft l dsv a
r xZ
r la{ ksfi r v a
' k fy[ kk t k l dsA
4- la
{ ksi.k dsfy, ew
y v orj.k ds' kCnksadh x.kuk djusdsckn bl ds, d frgkbZ' kCnksaesal a
{ ksfi r : i
dksi zLrq
r djukA
5- la
{ ksfi r : i dsuhpsckbv ksj ey v orj.kdh' kCn l a
[ ; krFkkl a
{ ksfi r : i dh' kCn l a
[ ; kfufnZ
"V djukA
6- la{ ksfi r dsfy, v usd ' kCnksads, d ' kCn dhi fr i z;ksx esaykuhgksxh] l kj v FkZxzg.k djusdk dkS
' ky
fodfl r djuk gksxk] v kofk] f}: fDr] v fHkO;fDr dh t fVyrk] dfBu ' kCnksadsi z;ksx l scpuk rFkk
v i zpfyr ' kCnksal si jgst j[ kuk v kfn l ko/ kfu; k cjruh gksa
7- ' kCnksadh x.kuk djrsgq
, dkjd fpUgksadh Hkh x.kuk djuh gksxh] fda
r qf; k : i ksaesafl i Q
[ ; f; k
dh gh x.kuk djuh gksxh] l gk; d f; k dh ugha
8- ' kCn l a
[ ; k dsfu/ kZ
j .k esal [ r fu; e l sT; knk t : jh ; g gSfd eq
[ ; fpkj dh v uns[kh u gksA ' kCn
nks&pkj v f/ d v Fkok de Hkh gksl drsgS A
9- la{ ksi.k i zf; k esaew
y v orj.k dksi <+
d j i gys, d dPPk i zk: i cukuk gksxk] ml dsckn v a
fre l a
{ ksfi r
: i i zLrq r djuk gksxkA


eaf=k; ksa; kt ui zfrfuf/ ; ksadsosru ; kHkksc<+

kusdht c HkhppkZgksrhgSrksgj v ksj l sv kykspukdhckS
' kq
: gkst krh gS Abl dh ot g ; g ughagSfd gekjsns'k esabu yksxksadsosru v kS j Hkksacgq
r T; knk gSaAgdhdr ; g
134 Communication Skill-I

gSfd ft l ft Eesnkjh dk dke osdjrsgS ] ml dsv uq

a i kr esaoscgq r de i S l k i krsgS A v kykspuk dh eq
a [ ; ot g
; g v ke / kj.kk gSfd ea -kh v kS
j t ui zfrfuf/ v i uk dke Bhd l sughadjrsv kS j nw l jh ; g / kj.kk gSfd v kerkS j
i j jkt usrk Hkz"V gksrsgS
Abu nksuksa/ kj.kkvksaesadki Q
a h dqN rF; gS Aysfdu bl l eL; k dk gy D; k gS\ ; g l ki Q
gSfd ge l ka l nksadksbl fy, ughapq ursfd osl a l n esa; k rksv uq i fLFkr jgsa; k ' kksj epk, v kS
j t ui fzrfuf/ ea=kh
bl fy, ughacursfd fl i Q Zv i usdq ucsdk Hkyk djsa Abl dk v FkZ; g ughagSfd ea f=k; ksadsosru mudsekrgrksads
osru l sHkh de gksa At : jh ; g gSfd mudsosru rdZ la xr gksa
] ysfdu mudh t okcnsgh Hkh l q fuf' pr dh t k, A

i zk: i

f=k; ksa
&t ui zfrfuf/ ; ksadsosru&Hkksc<+
kusdhppkZdsl kFk ghv kykspuk, Hkht ksj i dM+usyxrhgS A
v kykspukdheq [ ; ot g osru&Hkkksadkcgq r T; knkgksuk ughagS
] cfYd ; g v ke / kj.kkgSfd ; sHkz"V v kjSdkepksj
gksrsgSAbl fy, l eL; k dsgy dsfy, budsosru dksrdZl a
a xr cuk; k t kuk pkfg, , oabudh l ekt , oajk"Vds
i zfr t okcnsgh l q fuf' pr dh t kuh pkfg, A
t ui zfrfuf/ ; ksadsosru&Hkks
f=k; ksa
&t ui zfrfuf/ ; ksadsosru&Hkksdsl oky i j ' kksj&' kjkckgksrkgS
Aot g osru&Hkkksadkv f/ d gksukugha
cfYd mudk Hkz"Vkpkj gS Abl fy, l eL; k dsgy dsfy, budsosru rdZ la
xr gksuspkfg, rFkk l ekt , oajk"Vds
i zfr budh t okcnsgh Hkh l q fuf' pr dh t kuh pkfg, A
y v orj.k & 128 ' kCn
{ ksfi r : i & 43 ' kCn

uk & 2

t hou rhu rjg dk gksrk gS Ai gyk i jksidkjh t hou] nw l jk l kekU; t hou v kS j rhl jk v i dkjh t houAbl s
mke] e; e v kS j v / e t hou Hkhdgkt kl drkgS Amke t hou mudkgksrkgSft Ugsanw l jksadkmi dkj djuses al q
dk, gl kl gksrkgS ] HkysghmUgsaml l sd"V ; kuq d l ku mBkuki M+ sAbl s; Kh; t hou Hkhdgkt krkgS A; ghnsoRoi w . kZ
t hou gS Abl t hou dkv k/ kj ; K gksrkgS A; K ' kkL=kdsv uq l kj og dk; ZgSft l l si zkf.kek=kdkfgr gksrkgS A; kuh
ft u dekZ sl sl ekt esal q
[ k] , s'o; Zv kS
j i zxfr esac<+ ksrjhgksrhgS Al kekU; t hou og gSt ksi ja i jkdseq r kfcd pyrk
gSA; kuhft l esav i uk v kS
j nw l jsdkLokFkZl / rkjgsAv i dkjh; kuhnw l jksadksi js'kku djusokyk] nq [ knsusokykt hou
ghjk{kl ht hou dgk t krk gS Abl / jrhdks; fn l el ; kv ksav kS j fgal k l seqDr djuk gSrksnsoRoi w . kZt hou dhrjQ
fo' o l ekt dkspyuk i M+ sxkAft ruk ge i zkf.kfgr dsfy, l a d fYi r gksaxs] mrukgekjk ckS fd , oav kfRed mRFkku
gksrk t k, xkAgekjsv a nj euq "; rk dsHkko yxkrkj c<+ r st k, xsA

i zk: i

t hou dsrhu i zd kjksaesai gykmke t hou i jksidkjh] e; e t hou l kekU ; v kS j v / e t hou v i dkjhgksrk
gSAnwl jksadsmi dkj esal q[ k i kusokyksadk t hou mke] i ja i jkuq
l kj pyusokyk LokFkZ
iw. kZt hou e; e rFkk nwl jksads
v i dkj esajr t hou v / e gksrkgS Amke t hou nsoR
oi w
. kZgksrkgS Al ekt dksl eL; kv ksa
] fgal kv kfn l seq
Dr djusokyk
t hou l ekt dsfy, fgrdj v kS j gekjsckSfd&v kfRed mRFkku esal gk; d gksrk gS A
Group-I (fgU
nh) 135

oi w
. kZt hou

t housdsrhu i zd kjksaesamke t hou i jksidkjh] e; e l kekU; , oav / e t hou v i dkjhgksrk gS

Ai jksidkj
esal q
[ k i kusokyksadk t hou mke] i ja i jkxr LokFkhZt hou e; e rFkk v i dkj esai zor t hou v / e gS
Amke t hou
nsoRoi w
. kZgksrk gS
Aog O;fDr , oal ekt dksfga l k v kfn l ekL; kv ksal seq
Dr dj gekjsckS fd&v kfRed mRFkku esa
l gk; d gksrk gS A
y v orj.k & 166 ' kCn
{ ksfi r : i & 57 ' kCn

uk & 3

v Hkhrd vi jk/ hft l pht l sl cl sT; knk?kcjkrsgS aog i q

fyl dhfgjkl r gS Aml dsckn v xj U;kf; d
fgjkl r esaHkst fn; k t k, rksml l smUgsaT; knki js'kkuhughagksrhA; g Mj Hkh[ kRe gksx; k rksv i jk/ khv i jk/ djsa
v kS
j ewN i j rko nsrs?kwesa
xsAyksx dkuw
u dk l Eeku djsa; g rksgksuk ghpkfg, ] ysfdu l ekt esadkuw u dkHk; gksuk
l cl sTk: jh gSA; g Hk; rksoS l sgh [ kRe gksrk t k jgk gS
Adkuw u rksM+
uk i zfr"Bk dk l oky cu x; k gS A

i zk: i

v kt v i jk/ hU;kf; d fgjkl r l sT; knki q

fyl fgjkl r l s?kcjkrsgS
a u dkMj [ kRe gkst k, rksv i jkkh
V~Vk ?kw
u dsl Eeku dsl kFk ml dk Hk; Hkh t : jh gS A; g Hk; [ kRe gksjgk gS
] dkuw
u rksM+
uki zfr"Bk cu
x; k gS

d kuw
u d k Hk;

v kt v i jk/ khU;kf; d fgjkl r l sT; knk i q

fyl fgjkl l s?kcjkrsgS
a u rksM+
uki zfr"Bk dk fo"k; gksx; k
Abl fy, dkuwu dsl Eeku dsl kFk ml dk Hk; Hkh t : jh gS A
y v orj.k & 80 ' kCn
{ ksfi r : i & 28 ' kCn

uk & 4

XykscyokfeZ x v kS
a j i ; kZ
oj.k dseq sgjsd dht q cku i j gS
Aml dk l cl sv f/ d i zHkko xjhc ns'kksai j i Mx+
a sk
ft udkcM+ kHkwHkkx l eq
nzdsrV i j gS Agekjkns'kcgq r fo' kky gSAml dkcM+ kfgLl kl eq nzdsrV i j gS AeacbZ
q ] psUubZ
dksy dkrk] fr: oua ri q
je t S
l segkuxj Hkhl eq nzdsfdukjsgS AokLro esaXykscy okfeZ
a x v kS
a j i znw
"k.kds[ krjksadkl keuk
l jdkj dksugha ] v ke ukxfjdksadksdjuk i M+ sxkAbl ns'k dh t urk / jrhdksol q / jk ds: i esa
a ] i gkM+
ds: i esav ksj ufn; ksadksnsfo; ksads: i esai w t rhgSAbl dk i fj.kke rks; g gksuk pkfg, fd bu i fo=k vkS j / kfeZd
dkZO; gksuk pkfg, Aysfdu oLrq fLFkfr bl dsdki Q h foi jhr gSA
136 Communication Skill-I

i zk: i

pfpZr XykscyokfeZ x v kS
a j i ; kZ
oj.ki znw
"k.kdki zHkko l eq
nzrVh; xjhc ns'kksai j T; knki M+
sxkAgekjsfo' kky ns'k
dsv usd egkuxj l eq nzrVh; gSAbu [ krjksadk l keuk l jdkj dscnyst urk dksghdjuk gS
a Ans'k dht urk / jrh]
i gkM+v kS
j ufn; ksadksv kLFkkdki zrhd ekurhgS Abl fy, l foi jhr i fjfLFkfr; ksadsckot w
a n ml sghbu [ krjksal sl psr
jguk gksxkA

i ; kZ
oj . k l a
j {k. k

x v kS
a j i ; kZ
oj.k&i znw
"k.k l sl eq
nzrVh; xjhc ns'k gh [ krjsesagS
A gekjsfo' kky ns'k dsvusd
uxj&egkuxj l a d V esagS
Al jdkj l sT; knk/ jrh] i gkM+ufn; ksadksv kLFkkdki zrhd ekuusokyht urkdksghfoi jhr
i fjfLFkr; ksadsckot w
n bu [ krjksal sfucVuk gS A
y v orj.k & 127 ' kCn
{ ksfi r : i & 44 ' kCn

{ ksi. k d sckj saesad q
N ckr sal a
{ ksi esa

la{ ksi.k xkxj esal kxj HkjusdhdykgS A; g foKku HkhgS ] D; ksa

fd ew y vuq PNsn dksfxudj ml dk l a { ksi.k
Bhd , d frgkbZesadjukgksrkgS A, d mi ; q Dr ' kh"kZ
d HkhnsukgksrkgS Aew y v uq PNsn dks; ku nsd j i f<+
; sv kSj eq [;
Hkkoksadkspqfu, A; g l kjka ' kv kS
j v k' k; t S
l kgksd j Hkh] mul sfHkUu gS
Al a{ ksi.kdsfy, ' kCn&l a[ ; kc<+ kuhgksxhAl a fk]
l ekl ] mi l xZ ] i zR;; t kuuk gksxk] rkfd rRdky u, ' kCn cuk l fd; sA' kCnksadst ksfHkUu&fHkUu i zd kj gksrsgS ] mudk
Kku jgukpkfg, A[ w c l ksp&l e{kdj dsoy eq [ ; Hkkoksadksghv i us' kCnksaesat gkrd gksl ds] fyf[ k, Al a
{ ksi.kl e;
dh t : jr gS ] bl sv o' ; l hf[ k, A
, d mnkgj.k& eq
>sog i q
Lrd i <+
y v PNh ughayxhA( dq
y ukS' kCn)
f{kIr : i & i q
Lrd uhjl yhA( rhu ' kCn)
dbZ' kCnksal s, d ' kCn cukusdsfu; e t kuusl s^uhjl * ' kCn cuk v kS
j la
{ ksi.k , dne ' kq
cu i k; kA

okD; i zd kj ] : i kUrj . k] v ' kq

okD; ksad ks' kq
d j uk

okD; Hkk"kk dh l kFkZ

d bdkbZgS
Al kFkZ
d ' kCnksadh l q
O;ofLFkr l a
j puk gh okD; jpuk gS

okD; d sHksn
v FkZd h nf"V l sokD; d sHksn
1- fof/ okpd & eS
at krk gw
2- fu"ks/ okpd & og ughat krk gS
3- i z'uokpd & D; k og t krk gS
Group-I (fgU
nh) 137

4- v kKkokpd & rq
e ?kj t kv ksA
5- la
nsgokpd & ' kk; n v kt o"kkZgksxhA
6- bPNkokpd & Hkxoku rq
Egsanh/ kZ
; qcuk, A
7- la
d srokpd & ; fn o"kkZgksxh rksi Q
l y v PNh gksxhA
8- foLe; okpd & okg! fdruk l q
nj okrkoj.k gS

f; k d h nf"V l sokD; Hksn

1- drZ
okP; & jke i Q
y [ kkrk gS
2- deZ
okP; & jke ds}kjk i Q
y [ kk; k t krk gS
3- HkkookP; & & jke ds}kjk gl k t krk gS

j puk d h nf"V l sokD; Hksn

1- l jyokD; & ft l esa, d dkkZv kS

j , d f; k gksAt S
l s& eksgu [ kkrk gS
2- feJokD; & ft l esa, d i z/ku l jy mi okD; v kS
j , d ; k v usd v kfJr miokD; gksA
l s& ; fn og v k x; k rkseS
apyk t kmQ
3- la
DrokD; & ft l okD; esa, d l sv f/ d i z/ku okD; rFkk , d ; k v usd mi okD; gksA
tSl s& ' kke gq
bZv kS
j v kdk'k esarkjsfVefVekusyxsA
okD; dk : i kUrj ( l jy] l a
Dr] feJ)
okD; &: i ka
r j ; k okD; &i fjorZ
u dk v FkZgS
] okD; ds: i dkscny nsukAysfdu , slsi fjorZ
u l sokD; ds
v FkZesai fjorZ
u ughav krk gS At Sls
( 1) l jyokD; l sfeJokD;
l jyokD; & oseq
>l sv kusdksdgrsgS
feJokD; & osgh eq
>l sdgrsgSfd v kv ksA
( 2) l jy okD; l sl a
Dr okD;
l jyokD; & og [ kkuk [ kkdj l ksx; kA
Dr okD; & ml us[ kkuk [ kk; k v kS
j l ksx; kA
( 3) feJokD; l sl jyokD;
feJokD; & t kseu yxkdj i <+
r k gSog l i Q
y gksrk gS
l jyokD; & eu yxkdj i <+
usokyk l i Q
y gksrk gS
138 Communication Skill-I

( 4) feJokD; l sl a
Dr okD;
feJokD; & ; | fi og / uh gS
] rFkkfi ?kea
Mh gS
Dr okD; & og / uh gS
] ysfdu ?kea
Mh gS
( 5) la
DrokD; l sl jy okD;
DrokD; & ' kke gq
bZv kS
j v kdk' k esarkjsfVefVekusyxsA
l jyokD; & ' kke gksrsgh v kdk' k esarkjsfVefVekusyxsA
( 6) la
DrokD; l sfeJokD;
DrokD; & eS
aLVs'ku i gq
pk v kS
j xkM+
h rq
r [ kq
y x; hA
feJokD; & T; ksagh eS
aLVs'ku i gq
pk R;ksa
gh xkM+
h [ kq
y x; khA
( 7) fof/ okpd l sfu"ks/okpd okD;
fof/ okpd & oseq
>l scM+
fu"ks/ okpd & eS
amul scMk ughagw
( 8) fu"ks/ okpd & v i uh vl i Q
yrk dksbZughapkgrkA
i z'uokpd & v i uh v l i Q
yrk dkS
u pkgrk gS
( 9) Lohdfr okD; okD; l si z'uokpd
Lohdfr okpd & i zR;sd t hou eR;ql sMjrk gS
i z'uokpd & dkS
u t ho eR;ql sughaMjrk gS
( 10) foLe; kfn cks/kd l sLohdfr okpd
foLe; kfncks/d & okg! fdruk egku jkt k FkkA
Lohdfr okpd & og cgq
r egku jkt k FkkA

mi okD;

ft u f; k; q
Dr i nksal sv ka
f' kd Hkko O;Dr gks] mUgsamiokD; ; kokD; [ ka
At S
a l s; fn og i <+
r k] ; n~
oschekj Fksrksv o' ; l i Qy gksrkA
mi okD; dsnksHksn gS
( 1) i z/kku mi okD;
( 2) v kfJr mi okD;
( 1) i z/ku mi okD; %
& okD; dk og fgLl k gSt ksLora
=k Hkhv FkZnsl drk gS; k t ksnw
l jsmi okD; i j
v kfJr ugha
( 2) t ksLora =ku rksfy[ kkt krkgSv kS j u v FkZnsl drkgS
& t ksmi okD; fd D; ksa
fd t ksfd] rkfd] T; ksa
] ; fn] ekuksbR;kfn ' kCnksal sv kfJr gksrk gS
Group-I (fgU
nh) 139

l s%
& v ki ughat kursfd og dS
l k yM+
d k gS
A& ( okD; )
( d) v ki ughat kurs & i z/kku mi okD;
( [ k) fd og dS
l k yM+
d k gS & v kfJr mi okD;
okD; d h v ' kq
f; k

( 1) d r kZv kS
j f; k & l a
/ h v ' kq
f; k

v ' kq
& v ki D; k [ kkrh gS
' kq
& v ki D; k [ kkrh gS
v ' kq
& jkt k&jkuh v k; hA
' kq
& jkt k & jkuh v k; sA

( 2) d eZv kS
j f; k & l a
/ h v ' kq
f; k

v ' kq
& esjk v kl wfxjkA
' kq
& esjsv kl wfxjsA
v ' kq
& v ki dk n' kZ
u gq
v kA
' kq
& v ki dsn' kZ
u gq

( 3) la
Kk v kS
j l oZ
uke & l a
/ h v ' kq
f; k

v ' kq
& esjk HkS
; k v PNk gSog v kt v kusokyk gS
' kq
& esjsHkS
; k v PNsgS
Aog v kt vusokysgS
a A
v ' kq
& esjsi kl pkj dyesagSog dherh gS
' kq
& esjsi kl pkj dyesagS
] osdherh gS

( 4) fo' ks"k. k v kS
j fo' ks"; & l a
/ h v ' kq
f; k

v ' kq
& dkyh t w
r sv kS
j Vksih ykv ks
' kq
& dkyst w
r sv kS
j Vksih ykv ks
v ' kq
& ogk uhyk i Q
y gS
w A
' kq
& ogk uhysi Q
y gS
w A

( 5) fy a
x] opu v kS
j d kj d & l a
/ h v ' kq
f; k

v ' kq
& v PNk cPpk jksrsugha
' kq
& v PNscPpsjksrsugha
140 Communication Skill-I

v ' kq
& ekrkt h useq
>l sdghA
' kq
& ekrkt h useq
>l sdgkA

okD; xr l kekU
; i z;ksx

( 1) v ' kq
& ml usv usd ksaxza
Fk fy[ ksa
' kq
& ml usv usd xza
Fk fy[ ksA
( 2) v ' kq
& esjh v k; qchl dh gS
' kq
& esjh vOkLFkk chl o"kZdh gS
( 3) v ' kq
& fo| kfFk;Zksadk ny v k jgsgS
' kq
& fo| kfFk;Zksadk ny v k jgk gS
( 4) v ' kq
& edku dsfxj t kusdk l a
nsg gS
' kq
& edku dsfxj t kusdh v k'ka
d k gS
( 5) v ' kq
& i kp fdyksxsgw
[ kjhnsA
' kq
& i ka
p fdyksxsgw
[ kjhnkA

foj ke fpg~

( 1) v Yi fojke ( ])
& ( 1) cksy ks] exj / hjsl sA
( 2) og v k; k] ysfdu pyk x; kA
( 2) v Z
fojke ( _)
& ( 1) v c D; k d: _ og : Bdj pyk x; k
( 2) unh dsfdukjsog Vgy jgk ea
n gok cg jgh Fkh_ ml h l e; , d
v kokt l q
( 3) iw
. kZ
fojke ( A)
& ( 1) og i <+jgk gS
( 2) ost k jgsgS
( 4) i z'ul w
pd fpUg ( \ )
& D; k v ki t k jgsgS
( 5) foLe; kfncks/d ; k v k' p; Z
pd ( !)
& ( 1) okg! v PNk fd; kA
Group-I (fgU
nh) 141

( 2) gsb'Zoj! ml dk dY; k.k djksA

( 3) rq
Egkjk dY; k.k gks!
( 6) dksy u (%
& Lka
Kk dsHksn gS
( 7) MS
'k ( &)
& ( 1) l a
Kk dsHksn gS
( 8) dksy u rFkk MS
( fooj.k fpg~
u) ( %
& ( 1) l a
Kk dsHksn gS
( 9) ; kst d fpg~
u ( &)
& ekrk&fi rk] cM+
( 10) mj.k fpg~
. k ( ^^ ] **)
& ml usdgk & ^^vkt jfookj gS
( 11) dks"Bd ( )
& ( 1) jke ( / hjsl s)

[ k. M&II

O;kd j . k d sfu; eksad k Kku , oai z;ksx

O;kdj.k ' kkL=kksadsv uq

l kj eq
[ k dgk x; k gS( eq
[ kaO;kdj.ke~Lere~
O;kdj.kdsfu; eksa}kjkge ' kq
&' kq
fy[ kukv kS j i <+
ukt kursgS
Av r%O
; kdj.kdsfu; eksadksge t kudj
i ;zksx djsa
AO;kdj.k dsv UrxZ r ge fUkEufyf[ kr fo"k; ksadkst kus
(i) o.kZ(ii) ofu; ksads Hksn (iii) O;a
t uksadk oxhZ
d j.k (iv) mPpkj.k LFkku (v) l fU/ (vi) l ekl
(vii) i zR;; (viii) ' kCnfopkj (ix) mi l xZ(x) fya x (xi) opu (xii) dkjd (xiii) l oZ uke (xiv) fo' ks"k.k
(xv) f; k
bl i zd kj bu fo"k; ksadk v H; kl v kS
j i z;ksx }kjk O;kdj.k dsfu; eksadk Kku i zkIr fd; k t k l drk gS
142 Communication Skill-I

[ k. M&III

v uq
PNsn y s[ku

, d fopkj fca nqft rusokD; ksaesafy[ kk t krk gS

] ml okD; l ew g dksv uq PNsn dgrsgS Afdl hjpuk esa, d
; k, d l svf/ kd v uq PNsn gksl drsgS AoS
a l sv uq
PNsn Lo; aHkh, d Lora =k, oai w. kZjpukgksl drhgS AdksbZHkhfo"k;
nsd j ml i j v uqPNsn fy[ kusdsfy, dgkt kl drkgS Afo"k; dki fjp; ] fo"k; dkl a f{kIr o.kZ
u v kS
j fu"d"kZ
&l Hkh
dq N , d gh v uq PNsn esal ekfgr gksrsgS AoS
a l srksv uq PNsn esaokD; ksadh l a
[ ; k dksfu/ kZfjr ughafd; k t k l drk]
fi Q
j Hkhml esal a
f{kIrrkdkxq . kv o' ; gksukpkfg, Av uq PNsn dsokD; ksaesaecrkv kS j lqla
crkgksukHkhv i sf{kr

1- i j h{kk esad nkpkj d snq

"i zHkko

f' k{kkdkmn~ ns'; euq"; dkseuq "; cukuk] ml esav kRefuHkZj rkdhHkkouk] pfj=k&fuekZ. kdjukrFkkeuq "; dks
eks{k dh i zkfIr djuk gSAv xj i jh{kk esadnkpkj }kjk dksbZHkhNk=k v a d ykrk gSrksf' k{kk dsokLrfod mn~ ns'; dh
iwfrZdnkfi ughagksl drhgS Adnkpkj }kjkl i Qy O;fDr dsoy mnji w frZdsfy, v uS frd dk; ksZ
aesal a
y Xu jgsxkml esa
v kReKku , oal ekt dY; k.k dk Hkko ughafodfl r gksxkAJk v kS j Hkkouk t S
l soLrqml dsfudV ughagksrh ml dh
nf"V esau v i usxq: t uksadk v knj gS
Av kSj u ekrk&fi rk dk l EekuAi zR;sd ns'k dsHkkohukxfjd fon~ ; kFkhgksrsgS
ns'kdhv k'kkns'kdsuo; q odksi j gksrhgS Auo; q
odksadht S l hf' k{kkO;oLFkkgksxhns'kdkHkfo"; HkhoS l kghgksxkA
, d fo}ku usdgk gSfd fdl hns'k dks; q xksadsfy, nkl cukuk gS] rksml ns'k dk l kfgR; vkS
j bfrgkl
u"V dj nhft , v kS
j ml dhf' k{kki z.kkyhesadnkpkj dksc<+koknhft , Av r%ekuo t hou esaf' k{kkdsegRo dksns[krs
, i jh{kk esadnkpkj dkst M+l sl ekIr fd; k t kuk pkfg, A
N fnu i gysafcgkj esadnkpkj dksv usd i jh{kkv ksaesans[kkx; kAt ksf' k{kkO;oLFkk dsfy, Bhd ughagS

2- d a
I; V

d sr fca nq%1- d a I; w
Vj D; k gS
\ 2- Hkkj r esad a I; w
Vj & bl d k l nq i ; ksx r Fkk bl l sy kHk 3- nS fud
t hou esad a I; w
daI; w
Vj v k/ q
fud fOkKku dh , d l cl scM+ h nsu gSAbl usekuo t kfr dh v k'kkv ksadksi a [ k yxk fn, gS A
da I; w
Vj usi w
j hnqfu; kesaft l rjg v i uhO;kfIr cukbZgS ] dguk gksxkfd v k/ q fud ; q x da I; w
Vj dk; q x gSAv kt gj
i <+k&fy[ kkv knehfcuk da I; w
Vj dsv i uhrjDdhi w j hughadj l drkAbl dhl gk; rkl sekuo v a r fj{k esa?kwe v k; k
gS] panzekdkeLrd pw eusesal i Qy gq
v kgS] i Fohdhi fjekdj i k; kgS Abrukghugha ] fofHkUu xzgksadht kudkjh
i yd >i drsgh i zkIr dj ysrkgS AokLro esa ] t hou dk dksbZ, slk {ks=k ugha ] t gk bl dk ego fn[ kkbZughansrk gS A
bl dsdkj.kl w pukds{ks=kesav n~ Hkq
r ka
fr v kxbZgS Abl dsdkj.knq fu; keq V~
Bhesafl eV xbZgS Al al kj dkoS ' ohdj.k
gksx; kgS Av kt ; g oS Kkfud ; a=ku jgdj ekuo efLr"d cu x; kgS Al qi j daI; w
Vj usrksx.kukds{ks=kesadYi ukrhr
l iQ yrk i kbZgS Ai jek.kqrduhdh l sHkh v f/ d l q i j da I; w
Vj dk ego gksx; k gS Al qi j da I; w
Vj ^i je&1000 , d
Group-I (fgU
nh) 143

l sd sa
M esa, d [ kjc x.kuk, dj l drkgS A; g ekS l e dk i w
eku yxkysrkgS Ai zkdfr d xS l rFkk [ kfut i nkFkksZ
HkaMkj dk i rk yxkusesa; g v uks[kk gS Anw j la osnh v kdyu djusesaHkh bl dk dksbZt ksM+ugha A; g l e; &l e; i j
xksfyd] l kefjd v kfn v usd {ks=kksadh l wpuk, gekjsrd i gq pkrk gSAda I; w
Vj dsfuekZ . k l sge t hou dsgj {ks=k
esadki Q hv kxsfudy x, gS Af' k{kkds{ks=k esada
a I; w
Vj v c v fuok; Z &l kgksx; kgSAbl usf' k{kkfFkZ; ka
sdksHkkjhcLrsl s
eqfDr fnykusesadki Q h enn dh gS Av kt f' k{kkFkhZv i uh i w
j h f' k{kk da
I; w
Vj dsek; e l sdj l drsgS A

3- c<+
r h egxkbZ

la d sr fcanq%1- egxkbZd hekj 2- fuj a r j c<+ r hegxkbZ3- l j d kj d snkos4- v ke y ksxksai j i zHkko

v kt egxkbZdh ppkZl oZ =k gksjgh gS AegxkbZusl cdk t huk nw Hkj dj fn; k gS Av kt egxkbZ^Mk; u* ds
: i esans[kh t k jgh gS Afi Nys, d o"kZesanS fud mi ; ksx dh oLrq v ksadsnkeksaesav Hkw ri w
oZof gq bZgSAegxkbZdh
nj 13 i zfr' kr dsv ka d M+ ksdksNwjghgS AegxkbZdhjrkj Fkeusdkuke ghughaysjghgS Al jdkj egxkbZdksjksd us
dsft rusankosdjrhgS ] egxkbZmruhghrst hl sv kS j v kxsc<+t krhgS AegxkbZfi Nysn' kd dsl oksZ Pp Lrj i j gS A
fokea =khdh?kks"kuk, fujFkZ d l kfcr gksjghgS A[ kk| rsy ] pkoy] xsgw
a ] nky] phuh] l Ct h] i Q y v kfn dsnke v kl eku
NwjgsgS a
AmQ i j l si sVksy ] Mht y] jl ksbZxS l v kfn dsnkeksaesav i zR ; kf' kr c<+ ksrjhusv ke yksxksadhdej rksM+ d j j[ k
nh gSAxjhc yksxksai j egxkbZdk v l j l cl sT; knk gS Amudsfy, , d&, d fnu dkVuk eq f' dy gksjgk gS Al jdkj
bl eq n~nsi j yxkrkj dq r dZdj jgh gS A, d rji Qxksnkeksaesav ukt l M+jgsgS av kS
j nw
l jh rji QyksxksavUu dsykys
i M+jgsgS a
AegxkbZdseq n~ns i j l jdkj ds<q y eq
y joS ; sl s{kq
C/ gksd j l q i zhe dksVZusdsa nzl jdkj dksi Q Vdkj yxkbZ
gSv kSj dgk gSfd xksnkeksaesai M+ sfo' kky v U u&HkaMkj l sv Uu fudkydj l jdkj xjhcksaesabl sckVsAysfdu l jdkj
; gk Hkh dq r dZdjrh ut j v k jgh gS AegxkbZft l : i esac<+jgh gS ] ; fn t Yn gh bl dk funku u <w <+
k x; krks
v ke yksxksai j bl dsnw j xkehi zHkko i M+xsAl a
sa Hko gS ] Hkkjr esaHkw[ k l sejusokyksadh, d ya chi QsgfjLr cu t k, v kSj
euq"; rk dksxgjk v k?kkr yxsA

4- i znw
"k. k %, d l eL; k

lad sr fca nq%1- i zl r kouk 2- i znw "k. k %, d Hk; kog l eL; k 3- i znw "k. k d sfofo/ k : i 4- i znw "k. k
d k d kj . k 5- i znw "k. k nw j d j usd smi k;
v kt i znw "k.kfo' oO;ki hl eL; kgS Ai znw"k.kdkv FkZgS &okrkoj.kesafdl hro dkv l a rqfyr k=kkesafo| eku
gksukAi zn"wk.k usi w j h i fjfLFkfrdh dksv l a rq
fyr dj fn; k gS Ai ; kZ
oj.k dk t ho&t xr l sxgjk ukrk gS Ai ; kZoj.k dks
LoPN cukusesai zd fr dkfo' ks"k ; ksxnku gS Ai zd fr dk l a rq
y u fcxM+ r sghi ; kZ
oj.k nw f"kr gkst krk gS Ai znw"k.k eq[ ; r%
nksi zd kj dsgksrsgS &l kekft d i znw
a "k.k v kS
j i zkdfr d i znw "k.kA/ kfeZd i znw"k.k v kS
j uS frd i znw "k.kl kekft d i znw "k.k ds
gh: i gS a
Ai zkdfr d i znw "k.k i zd fr dsfofHkUu ?kVdksaesal a rqy u fcxM+ usl sgksrk gS Ai w j h nq fu; k esav kS
j [ kkl dj Hkkjr
] i znw
"k.kdhl eL; kfodjky : i / kj.kdj pq d hgS A; gkrd fd ekuo l H; rkdsv a r dh?kks"k.kk, dht kusyxh
gSAXykscy okfeZ
a x l sv kt i w
a j hnq fu; ki zHkkfor gS Afge Xysf' k; j dsNht usl sl eq nzksadkt yLrj yxkrkj c<+ r kt kjgk
gSAl eq nzdsfdukjscl suxj v kS j ns'k feVusdh dxkj i j gS At ul a
a [ ; k of] uxjksai j c<+ r k t ul a
[ ; k dk Hkkj]
; krk; kr dsl k/ uksaesac<+ ksrjhv kS j muesai z;q Dr bZ / ku okrkoj.kdksnw
a f"kr dj jgsgS Av kS
a | ksfxd fpefu; ksadk/ q v kv kS
eyckgokvkS j i kuhdksyxkrkj nw f"kr dj jgsgS a
Av kS| ksfxd fpefu; ksadk/ q v kv kS j eyckgokv kS j i kuhdksyxkrkj
144 Communication Skill-I

nwf"kr dj jgsgS Av c l e; vk x; k gSfd i w

a j hfo' o&fcjknjhdkscS Bdj bl l eL; k dksfui VkukgksxkAO;fDr; ksads
fopkjksaesal q
/ kkj l sl kekft d i znw"k.k feVsxk v kS
j i ; kZ
oj.k l sl a
rqy u LFkkfi r dj i zkdfr d i znw
"k.kdksfeVk; k t k
l dsxkAou dVko dscnysou l a j {k.ki j cy nsukgksxkAt y i znw "k.kdksjksd usdsfy, dkj[ kkuksadknw f"kr t y ufn; ksa
esai zokfgr gksusl sjksd uk gksxkA; krk; kr dsl k/ uksaesamfpr ; a =k yxkdj ok; qv kSj ofu i znw "k.k l scpk t k l drk
gSAeuq "; us; g l eL; k i S nk dh gS ] v kS
j euq"; gh bl l eL; k dksl ekIr dj l drk gS A

5- Hkkj r h; , d r k

lad sr fcanq%1- Hkw fed k 2- ns'k d k HkkS xksfy d Lo: i 3- l a fo/ ku esafLFkfr 4- mi l a gkj
Hkkjr , d cgq y rkoknhl a Ldfr dhns'kgS A; gkfHkUu&fHkUu / eksZ
] t kfr; ksa
a ]la
i zn; ksa
] {ks=kksa
] Hkk"kkv ksav kS
j cksfy; ksa
dsyksx jgrsgS A; g ns'k , d egkl eq
a nzgSt gk ukuk i zd kj dh l aLdfr : i h ufn; k v kdj feyrh gS av kSj , dkdkj
gks t krhgS Abl ns'k esal e; &l e; i j v usd fons'kht kfr; k v krhxbZ
a av kSj Hkkjrh; l a Ldfr esav kdj feyrhpyh
xbZ Agekjkns'k HkkSxksfyd nf"V l s, d foLrr v kS j fo' kky ns'k gSA; gk fofHkUu / eksZ] t kfr; ksav kjSHkk"kkv ksadscksy us
okysyksx fuokl djrsgS a& dksbZfons'kh] t ksHkkjr l sfcydq y vi fjfpr gks] , d Nksj l snw l jsNksj rd l i Q j djs
rksml sbl ns'k esabruh fofHkUurk, ns[kusdksfeysa xh fd og l kspsxk ; g , d ns'k ugha ] cfYd dbZns'kksadk l ew g
gSAgekjhbu fofHkUurkv ksadh rg esa, d , slh l erk v kS j , drk i Qy h gq
S bZgSt ksv U; fofHkUrkv ksadks, d / kxsesa
fi jksysrhgSrFkk bu fofHkUurkv ksadksv kS j lq
nj v kS j egkj cuk nsrh gS Agekjsns'kdk l a fo/ ku Hkhbl rjg fufeZ r
gqv kgSft l esal c t kfr] / eZ
] {ks=k] l a
i znk; dsyksxksadhHkkoukvksadk; ku j[ kkx; kgS AmQ p&uhp]v Yi l a [ ; d&cgq la
[ ; d]
v ehj&xjhc] nfyr&fi NM+ k v kfn dkHksn gekjsl a fo/ ku esaudyh rjhdsl sugha ] cfYd t hoa r fopkj' khyrk dsry
i j feVk; k x; k gS
Al c c<+ s] l cdh v Uufr gks] fdl h dh fdl h l sVdjkgV u gks&, slh O;oLFkk dk uke gSgekjk
lafo/ kuAbl hfy, ] ^l kjst gk l sv PNk fgUnksLrk gekjkA*

2- v i fBr x| ka
' k&1

orZeku l ekt esauS frd ew Y; ksadk fo?kVu pgq v ksj fn[ kkbZnsjgk gSafoykl v kSj HkkSfrdrk dsen esaHkzka r
yksx csrgk' kk / uksikt Z
u dhv a / h nksM+esa' kkfey gksx, gS Av kt dk ekuo LokFkZ
a i jrk esabl rjg v kda B Mwc pq dk
gSfd ml smfpr&v uq fpr] uhfr&v uhfr dkHkku ughagksjgkgS AO;fDrfo' ks"kdhfut hLokFkZ iw frZl sl ekt dkfdruk
v fgr gksjgk gS ] bl dk ' kk; n fdl hdksv kHkkl ughagS Av kt dsv fHkHkkod Hkh/ uksikt Z u , oaHkkS frdrk dsl k/ u
tqVkusesabrusyhu gSfd mudsokRlY; dkL=kksr ghmudsykMyksadsfy, l w [ kx; kgSAmudhbl mnkl hurkusekl w e
fnyksadksxgjsrd phj fn; kgS Av kt dkckyd vi us, dkdhi u dhHkji kbZ; k rks?kj esanw j n' kZ
u dsfcy l si zlkfjr
v ' yhy i Q gM+dk; Z
w eksal sdjrk gSv Fkok dq la
xfr esai M+d j t hou dk uk' k djrk gS Al ekt dsbl l a ka
fr dky
esaNk=k fdu t hou&ew Y; ksadksl h[ k i k, xk] ; g dguk furka r dfBu gS A
t c&t c l ekt i FkHkz"V gqv k gS
] rc&rc ; q xl t Z
d dhHkw fedk dkfuokZg f' k{kdksausc[ kw
chfd; k gS Av kt
dhn' kkesaHkht hou&ew Y; ksadhj{kk dkxq : rj nkf; Ro f' k{kd i j ghv k t krkgS
AorZ eku fLFkfr esat hou&ewY; ksads
laLFkki u dk Hkkj f' k{kdksadsmQi j gS
] D; ksa
a fd v kt dk i fjokj ckyd dsfy, l nxq . kksadhi kB' kkykt S l hl a
LFkk ugha
jg x; k gS] t gk l sckyd , d l a rq
fyr O;fDro dksf' k{kk i k l dsAf' k{kd fo| ky; i fjl j esaNk=k dsfy, v kn' kZ
gksrk gSA
Group-I (fgU
nh) 145

mi ; q
Dr x| ka
Z ' k d ksi <+
d j l gh fod Yi d kspq
ud j fy f[ k, %

( d) orZ
eku l ekt esaD; k fn[ kkbZnsjgk gS
( i) uS
frd ew
Y; ( ii) ew
Y; ksadk fo?kVu
( iii) uS
frdrk ( iv) mi ; q
Dr l Hkh
( [ k) yksx fdl nkS
M+esa' kkfey gksx, gS
( i) / uksikt Z
u ( ii) foykfl rk
( iii) HkkS
frdrk ( iv) mi ; q
Dr dksbZugha
( x) LokFkZ
frZl sD; k gksjgk gS
( i) ew
Y; ksadk mRFkku ( ii) l ekt dk fgr
( iii) l ekt dk v fgr ( iv) uhfr&v uhfr
( ?k) la
fr dky D; k gksrk gS
( i) e; dky ( ii) la
e.k dky
( iii) i fjorZ
u dk nkS
j ( iv) dfBurk dk dky
( ) t hou&ew
Y; ksadh LFkki uk dkHkkj fdl i j v k x; k gS
( i) ge i j ( ii) l ekt i j
( iii) f' k{kdksai j ( iv) v fHkHkkodksai j

v i fBr x| ka
' k&2

Hkkjrh; n' kZ u fl [ kkrkgSfd t hou dk, d v k' k; gSv kS j , d y{; gS Aml v k' k; dh[ kkst gekjknkf; Ro
gSv kSj var esaml y{; dksi zkIr dj ysukgekjkfo' ks"kkf/ dkj gS Abl i zd kj n' kZu] t ksfd v k' k; dksmn~ ?kkfVr djus
dhdksf' k' kdjrk gSv ksj t gk rd ml sbl esal i Q yrk feyrhgS ] og bl y{; rd v xzlj gksusdhi zf; k gS Adq y
feykdj v kf[ kj ; g y{; D; k gS \ bl v FkZesa; FkkFkZdhi zkfIr og gS ] ft l esai k ysuk dsoy t kuuk ughagS ] cfYd
ml h dk v a ' k gkst kuk gS Abl mi yfC/ esack/ k D; k gS ] dbZck/ k, gS
] i j buesai zeq
a [ k gS^v Kku*Av f' kf{kr v kRek
ughagS A; gkrd fd ; FkkFkZl a l kj HkhughagS A; g n' kZ
u ghgSt ksml sf' kf{kr djrkgSv kS j v i uhf' k{kkl sml sv Kku
l seqfDr fnykrkgS ] t ks; FkkFkZ
&n' kZ
u ughagksusnsrkAbl i zd kj , d nk' kZ
fud gksukckS fd v uq xeu djukughagS ] cfYd
, d ' kfDri zn v uq ' kkl u i j pyukgS ] D; ksa
fd l R; dh[ kkst esayxsgq , l ghnk'kZ fud dksv i ust hou dksbl i zd kj
v kpfjr djuki M+ r kgSrkfd ml ; FkkFkZl s, dkdkj gkst k, ft l sog [ kkst jgkgS AokLro esa ] oght hou dk, dek=k
l ghekxZgSv kS j l Hkhnkf' kZ udksadksbl dki kyu djukgksrkgSv kS j nk' kZ
fud ghugha ] cfYd l Hkheuq "; ksadks] D; kfsad
l Hkh euq"; ksadsnkf; Ro v kS j fu; kZ
r , d gh gS A

mi ; q
Dr x| ka
Z ' k d ksi <+
d j l gh fod Yi d kspq
ud j fy f[ k, %

( d) Hkkjrh; n' kZ
u fdl y{; dh v ksj l a
d sr djrk gS
146 Communication Skill-I

( i) ; FkkFkZdh i zkfIr dh v ksj ( ii) t hou dk , d v k'k; v kS

j y{; gS
( iii) ; FkkFkZdsl kFk , dkdkj gkst kuk ( iv) f' kf{kr gkst kuk
( [ k) y{; i zkIr djusesai zeq
[ k ck/ k D; k gS
( i) v f' kf{kr gksuk ( ii) Kku dk v Hkko
( iii) ; FkkFkZ
&n' kZ
u ( iv) v uq
' kkl ughurk
( x) t hou dk , dek=k ms'; D; k gS
( i) , d ' kfDri zn v uq
' kkl u i j pyuk ( ii) ckS
fd v uq
xeu djuk
( iii) f' kf{kr gksuk ( iv) v Kku l seq
Dr gksuk
( ?k) ^v uq
' kkl u* ' kCn esami l xZdk l gh fodYi gS
( i) v u$' kkl u ( ii) v $uq
' kkl u
( iii) v uq
$' kkl u ( iv) v uq
' kkl $u
( ) bl x| ka
' k dk mfpr ' kh"kZ
d gS
( i) t hou n' kZ
u ( ii) nk' kZ
( iii) l R; dh [ kkst ( iv) Hkkjrh; n' kZ

v i fBr x| ka
' k&3

ok.khi zk.kh dhi gpku gS aft l i zd kj dkS

, v kSj dks;y dhi gpku mudhok.kh l sgkst krhgS ] ml hi zd kj
fdl hO;fDr dsv kpkj&O;ogkj rFkkLoHkko dhi j[ kml dhok.kh}kjkgkst krhgS AehBhok.khnw l jksadkso' kesadjus
dh v kS "kf/ gSAt c ge ok.kh dk Jo.k djrsgS ] rc gekjk fpr i zlUu gkst krk gS
a Al Tt u l oZ
nk e/ q j ok.khdk gh
i z;ksx djrsgS ] t cfd nq
a tZuksadhok.khdVqrFkkddZ ' kgksrhgSAehBhok.kh' k=kqdksfe=kcukl drhgS ] fujk' kO;fDr; ksa
esav k' kk&mRlkg dk l a pkj dj l drhgS AdVqok.khn; esa' kw y dhrjg pq hkrhgS
Abl l sv i usHkhi jk; sgkst krsgS A
brukghugha ] dVqok.khyM+ kbZ
] ; gkrd fd cM+ s; q
dkdkj.kHkhcu t krhgS AnzkS
i nhdsdVqopu egkHkkjr
dk dkj.k cus] , slk dgk t krk gS Aft l O;fDr usv i uh ok.kh dkso' k esadj fy; k v kS j
e/ q
j opuksadk i z;ksx l h[ k fy; k] ml usekuksl c i k fy; kAe/ q
j ok.kh v er dsl eku dke djrh gS

mi ; q
Dr x| ka
Z ' k d ksi <+
d j l gh fod Yi d kspq
ud j fy f[ k, %

( d) i zk.kh dh i gpku fdl l sgksrh gS

( i) di M+
ksal s ( ii) O;ogkj l s
( iii) ok.kh l s ( iv) pky l s
( [ k) nq
uksadh ok.kh gksrh gS
( i) ehBh ( ii) dVqo ddZ
( iii) ea
X/ djusokyh ( iv) dVq
Group-I (fgU
nh) 147

( x) , slk dgk t gkrk gSfd egkHkkjr dk dkj.k Fkk nzkS

i nh ds&
( i) e/ q
j opu ( ii) i zse
( iii) dVqopu ( iv) eerk
( ?k) gekjk fpk dS
l h ok.kh dsJo.k l si zll Uu gkst krk gS
( i) e/ q
j ok.kh ds ( ii) nq
uksadh ok.kh ds
( iii) t ks'khyh ok.kh ds ( iv) v ga
d kji w
. kZok.h ds
( ) bl x| ka
' k dk mfpr ' kh"kZ
d gS
( i) dVqok.kh ( ii) e/ q
j ok.kh
( iii) euq
"; ( iv) ok.kh

v i fBr x| ka
' k&4

euq "; dk t U e i kdj gkFk&i Sj rksfgykusgh gksa xsAgekjsi zkphu f"k; ksaus' krk; qgksusdh] fda r qdeZdjrs
gq, t husdhbpNk i zd V dhFkh bfrgkl l k{khgSfd fdrusghHkkjrh; ; q odksausdeZ ' kfDr dscy i j pa nzxq
Ir dh
Hkkfr ' kfDr' kkyh l kezkT; ksadh LFkki uk dhAv k/ q
fud ; q x esaHkkjr t S l sfo' kky t ura =k dh LFkki uk djus okysxk/ h]
usg: ] i Vys v kfn deZ i Fki j n`<+
r kdsghi zfr: i FksAnw l jhv ksj bfrgkl mu l ezkVksadksHkhjs[kka fdr djrkgSft udh
v deZ . ; rk dsdkj.k egku l kezkT; u"V gksx, Aosn] mi fu"kn~ ] dqj vku] ckbfcy v kfn l kjs/ eZ xza
Fk deZ B euhf"k; ksa
dh gh mi yfC/ ; k gS Av k/ q
a fud Kku&foKku dh xkS j o&xfjek mu oS Kkfudksadh nsu gSft Ugksa usl k/ uk dh cfy&osnh
i j v i uhgj l kl l efi Z r dj nhAfoKku deZdkl k{kkr i zrhd gS Al q[ k&l ef dsf' k[ kj i j v kl hu i zR;sd O;fDr
v Fkok t kfr deZ &' kfDr dk i fjp; nsrh gS Al kjh l f"V deZ j r gS
ANksVs&l s&NksVk i zk.kh Hkh deZdk ' kk' or l a ns'k ns
jgk gS A

mi ; q
Dr x| ka
Z ' k d sv k/ kj i j l gh fod Yi ksad kspq
ud j fy f[ k, %

( d) v k/ q
fud Kku&foKku dsfodkl esafdl dk ; ksxnku gS
( i) l k/ uksav kS
j ra
=k fo| k dk ( ii) oS
kkfudksadhi zfrHkk&cq
f dk
( iii) oS
Kkfudksadh deZ
&' kfDr dk ( iv) oS
KkfudksadhbPNk&' kfDr dk
( [ k) osn] mi fu"kn] dq
j v ku] ckbfcy vkfn xza
Fk fdl dh mi yfC/ ; k gS
( i) f"k; ksadh ( ii) egku fopkjdksadh
( iii) deZ
oku euhf"k; ksadh ( iv) i zfrHkk' kkyh jpukdkjksadh
( x) xk/ h] usg: ] i Vsy v kfn usrkv ksausdeZdjrsgq
, fdl dh LFkki uk dh\
( i) Hkkjr ns'k dh ( ii) Hkkjr l jdkj dh
( iii) Hkkjrh; x.kra
=k dh ( iv) Hkkjrh; yksd ra
=k dh
148 Communication Skill-I

( ?k) ^gkFk&i S
j fgykuk* dk vk' k; gS
( i) gks'ki w
d deZdjuk ( ii) O;k; ke djuk
( iii) dq
N djuk ( iv) xfr esacusjguk
( ) bl x| ka
' k dk mi ; q
Dr ' kh"kZ
d gS
( i) deZesafodkl ( ii) la
l kj , d deZ
{ ks=k
( iii) deZdh v ko' ; drk ( iv) v deZ
. ; rk , d i ki

mkj %

1- ( d) ew
Y; ka
sdk fo?kVu ( [ k) / uksikt Z
u ( x) l ekt dk v fgr ( ?k) l a
e.k dky ( ) f' k{kdksai j
2- ( d) ; FkkFkZdsl kFk , dkdkj gkst kuk ( [ k) Kku dk v Hkko ( x) v Kku l seq
Dr gksuk ( ?k) v uq
$' kkl u
( ) Hkkjrh; n' kZ
3- ( d) ok.kh l s( [ k) dVqo ddZ
' k ( x) dVqopu ( ?k) e/ q
j ok.kh ( ) ok.kh
4- ( d) oS
Kkfudksadh deZ &' kfDr dk ([ k) deZ
oku euhf"k; ksadh ( x) Hkkjrh; yksd ra
=k dh ( ?k)
dqN&u&dqN djuk ( ) l a
l kj , d deZ { ks=k

[ k. M&IV

v kS
i pkfj d i =k y s[ku

t ksi =k mu yksxksadksfy[ kst krsgS] ft l l sgekjk O

a ; fDrxr l a
/ ughagksrk gSrFkk O;ki kj v Fkok dk; kZ
dsdk; ksZ
al sfy[ ksx, i =k] l ai knd dsuke i =kv kfn v kSi pkfjd&i =kdgykrsgSAbl esaO;fDrx ckrksadk mYys[kugha
jgrk gS
] dsoy dk; Z &fo' ks"k l sl a
f/ r fooj.k jgrk gS A

1- d k; kZ
y ; i =k

i zR;sd l jdkjhv Fkok fut hl a LFkku dksv i uk nSfud dk; Zl q

pk: : i l spykusdsfy, fofHkUu&l a LFkkv ksa
l si =k&O;ogkj djuki M+ r kgSAdk; kZ y ; h&i =kdhys[ku ' kS y hdsfofHkUu : i gkrssgSft l esal si zeq
[ kdk; kZ
y ; v kns'k]
lwpuk] i zLrko fVIi .kh] Kki u] i fji =k] v ; kns'k v kfn gS
dk; kZ
y ; h i =k l a
; r] v kS
i pkfjd rFkk fu; ekuq dwy gksrsgS Abl esav uxZ
y i zy ki v Fkok fo"k; dsfoLrkj ds
fy, LFkku ughagksrk gS Abu i =kksaesal oZi zFki i =k dhl a
[ ; k v kSj frfFk nht krhgS
Ack; hav ksj i zs"kd dk uke v kS
j in
fi Q
j l sokesa
] i zsf"kr dk uke v kS
j i n fn; k t krk gS Av a
r esai zs"kd dsgLrk{kj gksrsgSAgLrk{kj dsuhPksi zs"kd dsi n
dk mYys[k fd; k t krk gS Ai =k dsuhpsck; hav ksj l a y Xu i zi=kksavkfn dk fooj.k fn; k t krk gS A
Group-I (fgU
nh) 149

2- i zsl &l w
p uk

i zsl&l w
puk l sD; k l e>rsgS
mkj& i zsl&l w
i szl l wpuk l jdkjh v kys[k dk , d egRoi w . kZi zd kj gSAt c l jdkj dsfdl h foHkkx ds}kjk vi usfu.kZ ;
dksfoLrkj l st urkdschp i zlkfjr djusdkfopkj v krkgS ] rksml dsfy, ft l v kys[kdksrS ; kj dj i =ki zd k' ku
laLFkku dsl a i knd dksi =k esai zd kf' kr djusdsfy, i zsf"kr dj fn; k t krk gS Ai zd k' ku l aLFkku ds}kjkbl l w puk ; k
foKfIr dki zd k' ku gw &c&gwfcukfdl hl a l ks/u dsi zd kf' kr fd; kt krkgS ] ml si zsl & l wpuk; ki zsl & foKfIr dgrs
Abl dkms'; ns'kokfl ; ksadksl jdkjhfu.k;Zksal sv oxr djkukgS
a abl dsi zkjEHkesai zd k' ku dkl e; v kS j rkjh[ kfn; k
gksrkgSAml fuf' pr rkjh[ kdsi gysbl dki zd k' ku oft Z r jgrkgS Ai zsl&foKfIr dsi zkja Hkesaml dk, d ' kh"kZ d fn; k
gksrk gS

3- i zsl &foKfIr

t c l jdkj ; k fdl hdEi uhl ew

g ; k fdl hl a
LFkk dksv i usfofue; ] l a
LFkkxr fuos'k] ui Q
k] uq
d l ku rFkk
uh fooknksadsckjsesat urk dksl w
fpr djuk gksrk gS
rc osl ekpkj i =kksaesai szl foKfi r ' kh"kZ
d dsuke l sl wpuk i zlkfjr djokrsgS
] t ksmUgsav kxsdkuw
uh : i
l sl gk; rk i znku djrh gSrFkk fuji s{k i z.kkyh dh O;oLFkk l w
fuf' pr djrh gS A

4- i zfr osnu

i zfrosnu&i zfrosnu l Ei Uu gq
, dk;
Ze dk , d i zk: i gksrk gSt ksdk; Z
e dksfo"k; ] LFkku] frfFk bR;kfn
dkfo' ys"k.k Li "V djrk gS Ai zfrosnu }kjkfo"k; &oLrqdksLi "V fd; kt krk gS
] fo"k; &oLrqdsl UnHkZv k, v frfFk; ksa
dsl a
okn , oafu"d"kZi j Hkhcy fn; k t krk gS Ai zfrosnu }kjk dk; Z
e ds: i js[k l sysd j dk; Z
e dsl ekfIr rd
dk l exzdk; Z' kkfey jgrk gS A

5- O;ol kf; d i =k y s[ku

i zkFkZ
uki =k] dk; kZ
y ; &l EcU/h i =k rFkk l ekpkji =k dsl Ei knd dsuke fy[ kst kusokysi =k] i q
Lrd fosrk
dsuke fy[ ksx, i =k gksrsgS A
mnkgj.k fn; k t k jgk gS
fud l ekpkj i =k dsl Ei knd dsi kl i =k
fud fgUnq
Lrkn] i Vuk
fo"k; & t y&fudkl h dh O;oLFkk dsl Eca
/ esa
ge v ki dsyksd fi z; nS
fud l ekpkj i =kdsek; e l si Vukdsft ykf/ dkjh, oauxj fuxe dk; ku i Vuk
dsukxfjdksadh l eL; kv ksadh vksj v kd`"V djuk pkgrsgS
Av ki dk v [ kckj t urk dh l eL; kv ksadksysd j v R;f/
150 Communication Skill-I

d l t x v kS j xaHkhj jgrkv k; k gS Av k' kkgS ] gekjhl eL; kv ksai j v ki v i usl ai kndh; esafopkj djrsgq , gekjsbl
i =k dksi kBdh; i =kksaesaLFkku nsd j i zd kf' kr djsa
xsA; g l oZfofnr gSfd uxj dsv usd {ks=kksaesa; kst uk dsv uq :i
fuokl , oaukyk] l M+ d ughacuusdsdkj.k cjl kr esaHk; a d j l eL; k mRiUu gkst krh gS Ai Vuk uxj dsi kVfyi q =kk
dkWy ksuhesat y&fudkl hdhO;oLFkku gksusdsdkj.kcjl kr dsl e; esaeq [ ; ekxZi j , oav U;ekxksZ
ai j t y&t eko
dh l eL; k mR i Uu gkst krh gS At y t eko dsdkj.k v ke ukxfjdksa, oafo| ky; dsNk=kksadksHk; a d j l eL; kv ksadks
l guk i Mr+kgS AekxZv o: gkst krsgS ] v usd yksx l a
ked chekfj; ksal sHkhxzfl r gkst krsgS Av r%t udY; k.k dh
Hkkouk dksns[krsgq , i z'kkl u dk dk; Zt y&t eko dh l eL; kv ksadksnw j djuk gS A
v k' kkgS] gekjhl eL; kv ksadsfofo/ i {kksai j fopkj djrsgq
, bl l Eca
/ esaBksl dkjokbZdht k, Abl dsfy,
ge Nk=kx.k] ukxfjdx.k ft ykf/ dkjh , oauxjfuxe dk fo' ks"k v kHkkj ekusa xsA
v ki dsfo' okl Hkkt u
1- v fuy dq ekj Bkdqj
2- ch frokjh
3- ea t ; fl a

6- ukS
d j h d sfy , v kosnu

d jh dsfy, i zkFkZ
uk&i =k fy[ krsl e; fuEufyf[ kr ckrksai j fo' ks"k ; ku nsuk pkfg, &
( 1) i =k dsv kjEHk esabl ckr dk i rk nsuk pkfg, fd D; k ys[kd fdl h foKki u dsmkj esai zkFkZ
uk&i =k ns
jgk gSv Fkok v i uh v ksj l sfy[ k jgk gS
( 2) v i uh v k; q
] f' k{kk rFkk v uq
Hko dk fooj.k nsa
( 3) i =k dh l ekfIr i j i zek.ki =kksa
] v i usdk; Z
' ky rFkk mRlq
d rk dk funsZ
' k djuk pkfg, Av Ur esa^v ki dk
di kfHkyk"kh* v kfn fy[ kdj v i ukuke fy[ kukpkfg, A' ks"kO;kogkfjd i =kksadsl eku ghgS Amnkgj.kds: i esans[ksa &
l sok esa
Jheku~i z/kukpk; Zegksn; ]
Mh , oh egkfo| ky; ]
2tq y kbZ2016 dsnSfud fgUnq Lrku VkbEl }kjk Kkr gqv k gSfd v ki dsegkfo| ky; esa, d i zf' kf{kr
xf.kr&v ; ki d dhv ko' ; drkgS
] t ks; ksX; rkesade l sde f}rh; Js.khesa, e, gksArnuq
l kj v i uhl sok, i zLrq
djrsgq, esjk fuosnu ; g gSfd&
a, d i Pphl o"kZdhv oLFkkdkl n`<+, oai fjJehuo; q
od gw
Afopkjksadhnf"V l soS
fnd/ ehZgw
] Hkkjrh;
Ldfr dk mi kl d gwA
usal u~2005 esai a t kc fo' ofo| ky; l seS fVd i jh{kk mkh.kZdh FkhA rn~uUrj eS usfnYyh esafgUnw
egkfo| ky; l se' k%ch- , - rFkk, e- , - d{kk, i zFke Js.khesamkh.kZdha
Axf.kr esjkl cl sfi z; fo"k; jgkgS
] ft l ds
Group-I (fgU
nh) 151

fy, eS usdkW
a y st dhv ksj l sLo.kZ
i nd i zkIr fd; kFkkAbl dsl kFkgheS
usi a
a t kc fo' ofo| ky; l sfga
nhi zHkkdj i jh{kk
Hkh i kl dh gS A
v uq
Hko dsfo"k; esaesjk fuosnu ; g gSfd l u~2014 esa, e- , - mkh.kZgksusdsmi jkUr Mh- , - oh- mPprj
ek; fed fo| ky; ] nf; kxa
t esaeS
usv ; ki u dk; Zv kjEHkdj fn; kFkkAbl dsckn l u~2015 esaeq
a >sfnYyhesaxouZ esa
Ldwy esaukdjh fey xbZ A
v kt dy eq >s: i ; s9300 dk xzsM rFkk l jdkj }kjk Lohdr HkksfeyrsgS AeS
a apkgrk gw fd eq>sdkW y st es a
v ; ki u dk vol j feysrkseS amPpre d{kkv ksadsNk=kksaesaxf.kr dsl kFk&l kFk v i uh l a Ldfr dk Hkh dq N i zpkj
dj l dw Abl hnf"V l seS av ki dsdkW
y st esav kusdksbPNq
d gw AeS
aft u v f/ dkfj; ksadsv / hu dk; Zdjrkgw ] mu l Hkh
dsl kFk esjsLusgi w . kZl EcU/ jgsgS A l Hkh esjsmTToy Hkfo"; dh dkeuk djrsgS
a A i zek.ki =kksadh i zfrfyfi ; k bl
i zkFkZ
uk&i =k dsl kFk Hkst h t k jgh gS
al e>rkgw fd ; fn eq
>sl sok djusdk v ol j i znku fd; k x; k rkseS
avi usdk; Z}kjk v f/ dkjh&oxZdks
; Fkkl EHko l Urq
"V djusdk ; Ru d: xkA
/ U;okn l fgrA
nf; kxa
t v ki dk di kfHkyk"kh]
12 t q
y kbZ
] 2016 , l - ds- JhokLro

7- ck; ksMkVk

ck; ksMkVkO; fDr dki w

. kZbfrgkl , oaorZ
eku rFkkHkfo"; dkfefJr v a
' kgksrkgS
Abl esafuEufyf[ kr fca
v ksa
dk LFkku fn; k t krk gS
1- uke
2- fi rk dkuke
3- t Ue frfFk
4- orZ eku i rk , oaeksckbZ
y u
5- LFkkbZ i rk
6- ' kS
{ kf.kd i zek.k
7- v uq Hko
8- : fp
9- gLrk{kj
10- frfFk
152 Communication Skill-I

[ k. M&V
f; kRed @
O;kogkfj d

1- ' kCnksad k l gh mPpkj . k

1- d.B~
; ( xysl s) & v ] v k] doxZ
2- rkyO; ( rkyql s) & b] bZ
] ; ] ' k] poxZ
3- ew
U; ( rkyqdsew
/ kZ
Hkkx l s) & ] j] "k] VoxZ
4- nUR; ( nkr ksl s) & roxZ
5- v ks"B; ( nksuksagksBksal s) & m] mQ
] i oxZ
6- , ] , s& da
7- v ks] v kS& da
B&v ks"B
8- o & na
r &v ks"B
9- ] k] .k] u] e & ukfl dk
Li ' kZ & ( d & e) ( 25)
v UrLFk & ; ] o] j] y ( 4)
m"e & ' k] "k] l ] g ( 4)
i z'u & , ] v ks] e] g dk mPpkj.k LFkku crk,
mkj & , da
v ksda
B&v ks"B
e & v ks"B@
ukfl dk
g da

2- ekS
f[ kd l a
i zs"k. k@
oDr r k ' kS
y h d k fod kl

gekjst hou esal Ei w

. kZO;fDrRo dsfodkl dsfy, ekS f[ kd l a
i zs"k.kdhv ko' ; drkgksrhgS AekSf[ kd l a
i zs"k.k
dsfcuk ge v i usfopkjksav kS j Kku dk v knku&i znku ughadj l drsgS AekS f[ kd l k/ uksadk v i uk ego gSD; kfsad
' kCnksadsi zrhdksa}kjk gh, d O;fDr nw l jsO;fDr dsefLr"d esarnuq dwy fcEcksadk fuekZ . k dj fo"k; &oLrqdkscks/
xE; cuk l drk gS A
j &rjhdsHkh l h[ kuk pkfg, AokRkkZ
y ki e; e v kokt esagksuk pkfg, Ackr djusdsl e; ' kjhj dks
fgykuk ughapkfg, i qu%ge oDrk Hkh cu l drsgS A
i z'u&ekS
f[ kd l a
i zs".k D; ksav ko' ; d gS
Group-I (fgU
nh) 153

3- l eq
fpr ' kkj hfj d Hkk"kk d k i z;ksx

' kkjhfjd Hkko Hka fxek }kjk l Ei zs"k.k] v frfofgr] l a d sr eq

[ kkdfr }kjk l Eizs"k.k i ks'kkd rFkk i zlk/ u }kjk
i zHkkodkjhl Ei zs"kd] v frfofgr] l a
d sr eq[ kkdfr }kjkl Ei zs"k.k, d l H; euq "; ds' kkjhfjd Hkk"kk] ' kkjhfjd Hkko Hkfaxek
}kjk i gpku fd; k t k l drk gS Age t c fdl h l sokrkZ y ki djrsgSrks' kkjhfjd HkkoHka fxek }kjk gekjsO;fDrRo dk
i gpku gksrk gS AokrkZy ki esagekjsv kRecy dk i rk pyrk gAgekjsi ks'kkd Hkh i fjfLFkfr] okrkoj.k , oa'kkjhfjd
cukoV dsv uq dw y gksuk pkfg, Av xj ge i zHkkodkjh , oamfpr i ks'kkd dks/ kj.k fd, gq , gSrksgekjk l Ei zs"k.k
i zHkkodkjh gksrk gS Age l a okn }kjk v i us' kkjhfjd HkkoHka fxek }kjk yksxksadsO;fDrRo i j v feV Nki NkM s+ r sgS

4- l a
okn d kS
' ky

gekjsO;fDRo dsl okZ xh.k fodkl dsfy, gesal a

a okn dq ' ky gksuk v ko' ; d gSAdq ' ky l a
okn dsv Hkko esa
ge t hou esav usd i fjfLFkfr; ksaesai hNsgksrst krsgS
Agekjkl a
a okn e; e v kokt esagksukpkfg, Av xj nw l jsl sl o
HkhdjrsgSrksHkhyksxksadksv i usdk; Zesack/ kughagksAVsy hi Q ksu i j ksf/ r gksd j ckr ughadjsckrksadksl wursgq ,
mfpr , oai fjfLFkfr dsv uq dwy ' kCnksadk i z;ksx djsa] v uko' ; d okrkZ y ki l scpsA

Assignment d k; Z
Hkkj @
i z'u

1- ' kCn , oamud k l kFkZ

d i z;ksx d j sa

mPpkj.k] i q
Lrd] jkr] l ekslk] Ldw
y ] jsy ] LVs'ku] v kyekjh] p' ek] pk; bR;kfn dk i z;ksx djuk

2- d k; kZ
y ; h ' kCnksad k i z;ksx d j sa

i zs"kd] ekad] l ay Xu] l a[ ; k] i fji =k] v uq

Lekjd] fVIi .kh] v f/ l w
puk] i zLrko l w
puk] dk; kZ
y ; v kns'k]
i `"Bkad u] Kki u] =kq
fV&l w
/ kj] v nkyrh l w puk] fufonk l w
puk] i zfrosnu bR;kfn

3- okD; ksad h v ' kq

f; ksad ks' kq
d j sa

( i) ml usv usd ksaxza

Fk fy[ ksA
( ii) esjh v k; qchl dh gS
( iii) esjsfi rk l Tt u i q
: "k gS
( iv) di ; k rhu fnu dk v odk' k nsusdh di k djsa
( v) rq
B ckr dghA

4- foj ke fpg~
uksad k i z;ksx d j sa

( i) og l ksx; k
( ii) rq
e dc v k; s
154 Communication Skill-I

( iii) ' kkck' k bl h rjg v {kj cukdj fy[ kks

( iv) jke ugha' ; ke v k; k gS
( v) ekrk fi rk t k jgsgS

5- la
okn y s[ku & fLFkfr d sv uq
l kj

Hkk"kk l jy] okD; NksVsHkk"kk esai zokge; rk] eq

gkojksdk v f/ d i z;ksx ugha
] i zpfyr , oal gt ' kCnksadk
i z;ksx gksuk pkfg, A

6- v uq
PNsn fy s[ku & fy [ ksa

( i) foKku ojnku vFkok v fHk' kki

( ii) bUVjusV
( iii) v ksy a
fi d & 2016
( iv) t h , l Vh ( oLrq, oal sok dj)
( v) v kra
d okn

7- l ekpkj i =k] fj i ksZ

Vy s[ku

v [ kckjksaesav f/ drj l c l segoi w

. kZrF; v kS
j t kudkfj; kl cl si gysi S
j kxzki Qesafy[ kht krhgS
Abl ds
ckn de egoi w . kZckrsard rd nh t krh gSt crd l ekpkj [ kRe ughagkst kr gS A
fji ksZ
V xgjhNkuchu] fo' ys"k.kv kS
j O;k[ ; k dki fj.kke gksrhgSAbUgsfdl hfo' ks"k l eL; k eq
ns; k ?kVuk
dh Nkuchu dsckn fy[ kk t krk gS AHkk"kk l jy] l gt v kS j v ke cksy pky gksrh gS

8- ' kCnkoy h

v kbZ
l h Vh] Vksiksy kW
t h] l a
i zs"k.k] n`' ; l a
d sr] Jo; l a
d sr] nS
fgd Hkk"kk] l rr i zf; k] mRd`"V]
v kH; a
r j] v Yi K] v okZ phu] ' kq "d] uhjl ] od] foLej.k] fujkfe"k] LFkyw] ol u] uhj] fud`"V bR;kfnA
Group-I (fgU
nh) 155

Sem-I (Group-I)
fo' ks"k i kB~
; l kexzh(A)

v uq
PNsn y s[ku

v uq
PNsn ys[ku l sv fHkk; fdl h fo"k; l sl a
fdl h fo"k; l sl a
/ vi usfopkjksadksdV djuk gS
bl esadq
' kyrk kIr djusdsfy, v H; kl dh v ko' ; drk gS AfuEufyf[ kr ckrksai j ; ku nsuk pkfg, A
( 1) l cl si gysfo"k; dksHkyh&Hkka
fr l e> ysukpkfg, AdHkh&dHkhfdl hl w fDr] yksd ksfDr] v Fkokdgkor i j
Hkh fy[ kusdsfy, dgk t krk gS Av r%' kh"kd
Z esafufgr Hkkoksa, oafopkjksadksl e>usdh ps"Vk djuh pkfg, A
( 2) v uq
PNsn dh Hkk"kk ' kq
rFkk mi ; q
Dr ' kCnksal s; q
Dr gksA
( 3) bl dh ' kS
y h bruk l kjxfeZ
r gksfd de&l s&de ' kCnksaesav fkd&l s&v fkd Hkko rFkk fopkj fufgr gksA
( 4) v uq
PNsn dk R;sd okD; nw
l jsokD; l smfpr : i esal a
k gksA
( 5) Hkko v kS
j Hkk"kk dh v fHkO;fDr esaLi "Vrk] ekS
fydrk l jyrk gksuh pkfg, A

1- nS
o nS
o v ky l h i q
d kj k

d sr fca
& Hkw
fedk] v kyl hO
; fDr] HkkX; dkego] fuDEeki u] cgkusckt h] l i Q
yrkghi fjJe dhdq
t h]
mi l a
bl mfDr dkv FkZgSfd v kyl hO;fDr ghHkkX; dhnq gkbZnsrk gSAog HkkX; dsHkjkslsght hou fcrk nsuk
pkgrk gS Al q[ k kIr gksusi j og HkkX; dh i z'ka l k djrk gS Av kS j nq
%[ k v kusi j og HkkX; dksdkslrk gS A; g Bhd gS
fd HkkX; dkHkh gekjst hou esaego gS ] ysfdu v kyl hcu dj cS Bsjguk rFkk v l i Q yrk kIr gksusi j HkkX; dks
nks"k nsuk fdl h dkj Hkh mfpr ugha A; kl v kS j i fjJe l i Q yrk dh dq t h gS
a Adgk Hkh gS & ; fn i q
: "kkFkZesjsnk,
gkFk esagSrksfot ; ck, gkFk esa A i fjJe l sfeV~ Vh Hkh l ksuk mxyrh gS Av kyl h , oadkepksj O;fDr ghHkkX; ds
ys[k i <+ r sgS
Aogh T; ksfrf"k; ksadk njokt +
a k [ kV[ kVkrsgS AdeZ
a B O;fDr rksckgq cy i j Hkjkslk djrsgSAi fjJeh O;fDr
Lokoya ch] bZ
ekunkj] l R;koknh, oapfj=koku~gksrkgS Aog dHkhHkhi jkkhurkdsca / u l seqDr ughagksl drkAog HkkX;
dsHkjkslsjg dj t hou Hkj nq %[ k Hkksxrk jgrk gS A

2- v ko' ; d r k v kfO
k"d kj d h t uuh gS

d sr fca
& Hkw
fedk] ekuo t hou v kS
j fHkUu dkj dh v ko' ; drk, ] u, &u, v kfo"dkj] l q
[ k&l q
fokk, ]
ekuoh cq
f dk deky] mi l agkjA
v ko' ; drk vusd v kfo"dkjksadkst Ue nsrhgS A' kkjhfjd rFkk ckS fd nksuksadkj dscy dk mi; ksx djds
euq"; usvi usfy, v usd l q fokk, at q
AbUghav kfo"dkjksadscy i j euq
a "; v kt l q[ k&l q
fokk ds>w y sesa>w
jgk gSAt c ml usv uq Hko fd; k fd cS y xkM+
h dh ; k=kk u l qfokkt ud gSv kSj u gh bl l sl e; dh cpr gksrh gS A
rksml usrst +xfr l spyusokysokguksadkv kfo"dkj fd; kAjsy ] dkj rFkkok; q ; ku v kfn ml dhv ko' ; drkdhi w frZ
djusokysl kku gS Abu v kfo"dkjksadksdksbZl hek ugha
a At S l s&t S
l sekuo&t kfr dh v ko' ; drk c<+ r h gSoSl su; s
156 Communication Skill-I

v kfo"dkj gekjsl keusv krsgS

a "; dhcq f dsfodkl dsl kFk ghv kfo"dkjksadhHkhl a
[ ; kc<+
r ht krhgS
Av r%
; g Bhd gh dgk gSfd v ko' ; drk v kfo"dkj dh t uuh gS

3- v kRe&fuHkZ

d sr fca
& Hkw
fedk v Fkok Lokya
cu dk v FkZgS
& v i uk l gkjk v ki cuukA
fcuk fdl hdh l kg; rk fy, v i uk dk; Zfl dj ysuk v kRe&fuHkZ j rk dgykrk gS Av kRe&fuHkZ
j rk dk ; g
v FkZdnkfi ughafd euq "; gj dke esaeuet + hZdjsA vko' ; drkuq l kj ml s nw
l jksal si jke' kZHkh ysuk pkfg, A
v kREk&fuHkZ
j rkdkxq . kl k/ u , oai fjJe l sv krkgS Av kR efo' okl v kRe&fuHkZj rkdkew y v kkkj gSAv kRefo' okl ds
v Hkko esav kRe&fuHkZj rk dk xq. k ughav krkAv kRe&fuHkZ j rk dk xq. k euq"; dk , dek=k l Ppk fe=k gS Av U; fe=k gS A
v U; fe=krksfoi fkesal kFkNksM+l drsgS ] i j bl fe=kdscy i j euq
a "; pkgsrksfo' o&fot ; dkl i ukl kdkj dj
l drk gS Av kRefuHkZ
j O;fDr LokfHkekuh, oaLora =krk&f; gksrk gSAog v i usmkj dsl kFk&l kFk ns'k v kS j t kfr dk
mkj djusesaHkh l eFkZgksrk gS Aft l ns'k dsR;sd ukxfjd esav kR e&fuHkZ
j rk dk xq . k gksrk gS
] og R;sd {ks=k esa
Hkji w
j mUufr dj l drk gS A

4- d j r &d j r v H; kl d st M+
er gksr l q
t ku

d sr fcanq
& Hkw
fedk] v H; kl dh egkk] xq
. kksadk fodkl ] cq
f dk c<+
uk] i fji Dork] l k/ u gh l i Q
dk ew
y ] mi l a
r j v H; kl l seq
[ kZeuq
"; Hkh eskkoh cu l drk gS Aft l dkj jLl h l sfuja r j v kust kusl sf' kyk i j
fu' kku i M+t krsgSAml hdkj v H; kl l seuq
a "; t M+efr l sl q t ku gkst krkgS A; g Bhd gSfd xksdksi hV&i hV dj
k rksughacuk; k t k l drk] fda r qfuja
r j v H; kl vkS j ; Ru l sv usd kusd xq . kksdk fodkl fd; k t k l drk gS A
mnkgj.kkFkZdfo; ksaesadfork djusdh' kfDr bZ ' oj&i znk gksrhgS] i ja
r qfuja
r j v H; kl l sHkh dfork l iakfnr dht k
l drh gS Al p rks; g gSfd v H; kl v i sf{kr gS A

5- v kt y xxj h Nyd r t k;

d sr fca
& Hkw
fedk] v kw
j k Kku&O;FkZ
] Mha
x gka
d uk] >w
Bk n' kZ
u v kS
j vi w
. kZ
r k] ghurk dh xza
fFk] >w
Bk xkS
v kS
j fn[ kkosdh Hkkouk] mi l a
t y l sv keq [ k Hkjh xxjh pq i pki fcuk mNyspyrh gS Av k/ h Hkjh gq
bZt y dh eVdh mNy&mNy dj
pyrhgS ABhd ; ghLoHkko ekuo eu dkHkhgS AokLrfod fo}ku fouezgkst krsgS Auezrkghmudhf' k{kkdkzrhd
gksrk gS Anwl jh v ksj t ksyksx v Z &f' kf{kr gksrsgS
av Fkok v Z&l e` gksrsgS] osv i usKku v Fkok / u dhMha
a x cgqr
gkd rsgS a
Av Z &f' kf{kr O;fDr dkMha x gkad ukcgq r dqN euksoS
Kkfud HkhgS Aosyksx v i usKku dkn' kZu djdsv i uh
vi w. kZ
r k dks<duk pkgrsgS Amudseu esav i usv / w
a j siu dsfr , d dkj dhghurk dk euksHkko gksrkgSft l sos
n' kZu dsek; e l s>w Bki zHkko mRiUu djdsl ekIr djukpkgrsgS a
A; ghdkj.kgSfd e; eoxhZ ; O;fDr; ksadst hou
ft rusv kMa cji w
. kZ
] i zia
pi w
. kZ, oaypj gksrsgS amrusfuEu ; kmPp oxZdsugha AmPp oxZesaf' k{kkku v ksS
j l ef dks]
Group-I (fgU
nh) 157

v i usxq
. k dks] v i usego dksgfFk; kj cukdj pykrk gS Ai zk; %; g O
; ogkj ns[kusesavkrk gSfd v a
xzst +
hdh f' k{kk
l sv Yi i fjfpr yksx v a xzst h cksy usrFkk v a
xzsth esafuea
=k.k&i =k Ni okusesav f/ d xkS
j o v uq
Hko djrsgS Av r& ; g
l R; gSfd v i w . kZl ef i zn' kZ
u dkst Ue nsrh gSv FkkZ r ~v / t y xxjh Nydr t k; A

6- fut Hkk"kk mUufr v gS

] l c mUufr d ksew

lad sr fca
nq& Hkwfedk] fut Hkk"kk dk ego] Hkk"kk dh v ko' ; drk] l kekft d t hou esaHkk"kk] fut Hkk"kk l s
ekufl d Hkw
[ k dh ' kka
fr] mi l a
v i uh Hkk"kk dsmRFkku dsfcuk O;fDr mUufr gh ughadj l drkAHkk"kk v fHkO;fDr dk eq [ k ek; e gSA
Hkk"kk l kekft d t hou dk v i fj gk; Zv a x gSAbl dsfcuk l ekt dh dYi uk Hkh ughadh t k l drhAv i uh Hkk"kk
esav i useu dsfopkjksadksdV djusesal q fo/ k jgrh gS Afons'kh Hkk"kk dHkh Hkh gekjsHkkoksadksmruh xgjh
v fHkO;fDr ughansl dr h ft ruh gekjh ekr Hkk"kkAegkRek xk/ ht husHkh bl h ckr dks; ku esaj[ kdj ekr `&Hkk"kk
dksf' k{kkdkek; e cukusi j cy fn; kFkkAgekjsns'kesav a xzst hdsi z;ksx i j br ukv f/ d cy fn, t kusdsmi jka r
Hkh v i sf{kr l i Qyrk bl hdkj. k ughafey i k j gh gSD; ksa
fd bl ds}kjk ge v i usfopkjksadksi w . kZv fHkO;fDr ugha
nsl dr sAge ghur k dh Hkkouk dk f' kdkj gksjgsgS Av a
a xzst h&i j Lr ksa}kjk fn; k t kusokyk ; g r dZHkzfer dj j gk
gSfd] v a xzst h Kku dk gksuk v ko' ; d gSA

7- d k o"kkZt c d f"k l q
[ kkus

d sr fcU
& Hkw
fedk] l k/ u v kS
j l e; esarkjrE; rk] mfpr v ol j] vuq
dwy l e; dh i j[ k] mi l a
bl l w
fDr dk v FkZgS At c [ ksrh gh l w
[ k xbZ] rc i kuh dscjl usdk D; k ykHk gS \ t c Bhd v ol j i j
okafNr oLrqmi yC/ u gq bZrksckn esaml oLrqdkfeyuk csd kj ghgS Al k/ ku dhmi ; ksfxrk rHkhl kFkZ
a d gksl drh
gS] t c osl e; i j mi yCk gkst k, aAv ol j chrusi j l c l k/ u O;FkZjgrsgS Ava
a xzst hesa, d dgkor gS & ykgssi j
rHkh pksV djkst c fd og xeZgksv FkkZ r ] t c yksgk eq M+
usv kSj <yusdksrS ; kj gks] rHkh mfpr pksV djuhpkfg, A
ml v ol j dks[ kksnsusi j dsoy yksgsdhVu&Vu dhvkokt +dsv frfjDr dq N ykHk ughafey l drkAv r%euq ";
dkspkfg, fd og mfpr l e; dhi zrh{kkesagkFk&i j&gkFk/ j dj u cS Bkjgs] v fi rql e; dhv ko' ; drkdksi gys
l s; ku djdsml dsfy, mfpr rS ; kjhdjsAgekjs' kkL=kksaesaHkhdgkx; kgSfd l e; , d , slhL=khgSt ksv i usya cs
cky eq g dsv kxsi Qy k, gq
S , fuja
r j nkS
r h pyh t k jgh gS Aft l sHkh l e; : i h ml L=khdkso' k esadjuk gks] ml s
pkfg, fd og l e; dsv kxs&v kxsdj ml h L-h dsckyksal sml si dM+ sAml dsi hNs&i hNsnkS M+
usl seuq"; ml sugha
i dM+i krkAv k' k; ; g gSfd mfpr l e; i j mfpr l k/ uksadk gksuk t + : jh gS At ksyksx v kx yxusi j dq v k [ kksnrs
gS] osv kx esav o' ; >q
a y l t krsgSAmudk dq
a N Hkh ' ks"k ughacprkA

8- i fj J e l i Q
yr k d h d q
t h gS

d sr fca
& Hkw
fedk] i fjJe dk ego] l e; kuq
l kj cq
f dk l nq
i ; ksx] i fjJe v kS
j cq
f dk rkyesy ]
vi l a
158 Communication Skill-I

laLdr dhi zfl l w fDr gS & ^mn~ ; esu fl ; fUr dk; kZ

f.ku euksjFkS %* v FkkZ
r i fj Je l sghdk; Zfl gksrh
gS] ek=k bPNk djusl sugha Al i Q yrk i zkIr djusdsfy, i fjJe gh , dek=k ea =k gSA^Jeso Tk; r s* dk l w =k bl h
Hkko dh v ksj l a
d sr dj rk gS Ai fj Je dsfcuk gj h&Hkjh [ ksrh l w [ k dj >kM+cu t kr h gSt cfd i fj Je l sca tj
fe dksHkh ' kL; &' ; keyk cuk; k t k l dr k gS Av l k; dk; ZHkh i fj Je dscy i j l a i Uu fd, t k l dr sgS A
cqfeku O;fDr fdrusghi zfr Hkk' kkyhgks] fda r qmUgsay{; esal i Q yrkr HkhfeyrhgSt c osv i uhcq f v kS j i zfr Kk
dksi fjJe dhKku i j r st +dj rsgS Au t kusfdruhl a
a Hkkoukv ksadscht i kuh] feV~ Vh] fl apkbZv kSj tq r kbZdsv Hkko
esafeV~Vh cu t krsgS ] t cfd Bhd l a
a i ks"k.k i zkIr djdsdbZcht l ksuk Hkh cu t kr sgS AdbZckj i zfr Hkk dsv Hkko
esai fjJe gh v i ukj ax fn[ kykr k gS Ai zfl mfDr gSfd fuj a r j f?kl ko l si RFkj i j Hkhfpg~ u i M+t krsgS a
At Me +fr
O;fDr i fjJe }kjk Kku mi t C/ dj ysrk gS At gk i fj Je r Fkk i zfrHkk nksuk , d=k gkst kr sgS aogk fdl h v n~ Hkq
dfr dk l t u gksrk gS A' ksDl i h; j usegkurk dksnksJsf. k; ksaesafoHkDr fd; k gS & t Uet kr egkur k rFkk v ft Z r
egkurkA; g v ft Z r egkurk i fj Je dscy i j gh v ft Z r dh t krh gS Av r%ft UgsbZ ' oj dk v k' khokZ n i zkIr ugha
gS] mUgsav i usJe&cy dk Hkjksl k j[ kdj deZesat q Vuk pkfg, Al i Q yrk v o' ; gh mudh psjh cu dj mi fLFkr

9- i ' kqu cksy usl sv kS

j euq
"; cksy usl sd "V mBkr k gS

d sr fca
& Hkw
fedk] ok.kh dh ' kfDr] nks"ki w
. kZokpkyrk O;FkZcksy usdk nq
"i fj.kke] mi l a
euq "; dksbZ ' oj dh v ksj l sv usd i zd kj dh ' kfDr; kai zkIr gq bZgS Abuesaok.kh v Fkok okd~' kfDr dk xq
a .k
l cl segoi w . kZgS
AO;fDr ok.khdkl nq i ; ksx djrkgS ] ml dsfy, rks; g ojnku gSv kS j ft l dht hHkdrjuhdsl eku
fujar j pyrhjgrhgS ] ml dsfy, ok.khgS ] ml dsfy, ok.khdkxq . kv fHk' kki Hkhcu t krkgS AHkko ; g gSfd okpyrk
nks"k gSi ' kqdsi kl ok.kh dh ' kfDr ugha ] bl h dkj.k t hou Hkj ml snw l jksadsv / hu jg dj d"V mBkuk i M+ r k gS A
og l q [ k nq%[ k dk v uq Hko rksdjrk gSi j ml sO;Dr ughadj l drkAml dsi kl ok.kh dk xq . k gksrk rksml dhn' kk
dHkh n; uh; u curhAdHkh&dHkh i ' kqdk l nO;ogkj Hkh euq "; dksHkzka fr esaMky nsrk gS Av usd dgkfu; ka, slh gS a
ft udsv ; u l si rk pyrk gSfd i ' kq v ksauseuq"; &t kfr dsfy, v usd j ckj v i uscfynku v kS j R;kx dk i fjp;
fn; kgSi j okd~' kfDr dsv Hkko dsdkj.kml seuq "; ds}kjkfueZ e eR;qdkHkhl keukdjuki M+ kgSAbl dsfoi fjr
euq "; v i uhok.kh dsnq : i ; ksx dsdkj.k v usd ckj d"V mBkrk gS Ajghe usv i usnksgsesaO;Dr fd; k gSfd t he
rksv i uh eupkgh ckr dg dj eq g esafNi t krh gSi j t w
a fr; kadk l keuk djuk i M+ r k gScspkjsfl j dksAv fHki zk;
; g gSfd euq "; dksv i uhok.kh i j l a ; e j[ kuk pkfg, Abl l a l kj esacgq r &l s>xM+ksadk dkj.k ok.khdk nq : i ; ksx
gSA, d usrkdseq [ k l sfudyhgq bZckr l kjsns'k dks; q dhTokyk esa>ksa d l drhgS Av r%; g Bhd ghdgk x; k
gSfd i ' kqu cksy usl sd"V mBkrkgSv kS j euq "; cksy usl sAdksbZHkhckr dgusl si gysml dsi fj.kke i j fopkj dj
ysuk pkfg, A

10- d kj t / hj sgksr gS
] d kgsgksr v / hj

d sr fca
& Hkw
fedk] / S
; Zv kS
j bPNk] ' kka
r eu dh mi; ksfxrk] i zrh{kk v kS
j mfpr i Q
y dh i zkfIr] mi l g
ft l dsi kl / S
; ZgS
] og t ksbPNk djrk gS] i zkIr dj ysrk gS
Ai zd fr gesa/ hjt / kj.k djusdhl h[ k nsrh
A/ S
; Zt hou dhy{; i zkfIr dk}kj [ kksy rkgS
At ksyksx t Ynhdjks] t Ynhdjksa * dhjV yxkrsgS ] osokLro esa^v /
Group-I (fgU
nh) 159

hj eu] xfr de* yksd ksfDr dkspfjrkFkZdjrsgS Al i Q

a yrk v kS
j l Eeku mUghadksi zkIr gksrk gS
] t ks/ S
; iZw
d dke esa
yxsjgrsgS A' kka
a r eu l sfdl hdk; Zdksdjusesafuf' pr : i l sde l e; yxrkgS Acpi u dsckn t okuhkhjs&khjs
v krhgS Al a
l kj dsl Hkhdk; Z/ hjs&/ hjsv i usl e; i j ghgksrsgS
Av r%gesv / hj gksusdhct k; / S
a ;Z
iwoZ d v i usdk; Z
esal a
y Xu gksuk pkfg, A

11- nw
j d s<ksy l q

d sr fca
& Hkw
fedk] nw
j dsfj' rs&ukrs] nw
j l si zkdfr d l q
njrk] fudV l sfj' rksadh dVq
a r k] mi l a
bl mfDr dk v FkZgSfd nw j dsfj' rs&ukrscM+ sv PNsyxrsgS At ksl a
a ca
/ h, oafe=kx.k ge l snwj jgrsgS]
osi =kksads}kjkgekjsi zfr fdrukv xk/ Lusg i zd V djrsgS Amudsi =kksal si rkpyrkgSfd osgekjsi gq
a pusi j gekjk
v R;f/ d Lokxr djsa xsAgekjh ns[kHkky rFkk gekjsv knj&l Rdkj esadq N dl j u mBk l dsaxsAysfdu t c mudsi kl
i gqprsgS
a arksmudknwl jkgh: i l keusv kusyxrkgS AmudsO;ogkj esa; g pfjrkFkZgkst krkgSfd nw j ds<+ksy l q
a j ct usokys<+ ksy dh v kokt Hkh rksdkuksadkse/ q j yxrh gS Ai j fudV i gqprsghml dh ofu dkuksadks
dVqyxusyxrh gS Anwj l s>kM+&>a[ kkM+Hkhl q
nj n`' ; i zLrq
a r djrkgSi j fudV t kusi j i kaoksdsNyuh gkst kusdk
Mj mRiUu gkst krk gS ABhd gh dgk gS & nw
j ds<+ ksy l q

12- y ksHk i ki d k ew
y gS

d sr fca
& Hkw
fedk] yksHk] dkj.k] v i jk/ ksadkt Uenkrk] v uS
frdrkdkdkj.k] bPNkv ksai j fu; a
=k.ku gksuk]
mi l a
laLdr dsfdl h uhfrdkj dk dFku gSfd yksHk i ki dk ew y gSAeu dk yksHk gheuq "; dkspksjhdsfy,
i zsfjr djrk gS AyksHk v usd v i jk/ ksadkst Ue nsrk gS AyksHk v R;kpkj] v ukpkj v kS j v uSfrdrk dk dkj.k curk gS A
egew n xt +
uoht S l s' kkl dksads/ u dsyksHk esavkdj euekusv R;kpkj fd; sAv kS ja
xt s+c usv i usrhuksaHkkb; ksadk o/
dj fn; k v kS j fi rk dksca nhcukfy; kAt + j ] t ks: rFkkt +
ehu ds>xM+ sHkhi zk; %YkksHk dsdkj.k gksrsgSAyksHkhO;fDr
dk n; l c i zd kj dhcq j kb; ksadk v M~Mk gksrk gSAegkRek cq usdgk gSfd bPNkv ksadk yksHk ghfpa r kvksadk ew y
dkj.k gS Aykyph O;fDr cgq r dq N v i usi kl j[ k dj Hkh dHkh l a rq
"V ughagksrkAml dh n' kk rksml ew [ kZykyph
dsl eku gkst krhgSt kseq xhZdki sV i Q kM+dj l kjsv a Msfudky ysukpkgrkgS AyksHkhO;fDr v a r esai NrkrkgS AyksHkh
fdl h i j midkj ughadj l drkAog rksl c dk v i dkj gh djrk gS Abl fy, vxj dksbZi ki l scpuk pkgrk gS
rksog yksHk l scpsA

13- i j k/ hu l i usgq
al q
[ k ukfga

d sr fca
& Hkw
fedk] i jk/ hurk dk nq
[ k v kS
j v fHk'kki ] i hM+
k v kS
j dq
Bk] mi l a
a gkjA
^i jk/ hu l i usgq
al q
[ kukfga* mfDr dkv FkZgSfd i jk/ hu O;fDr l i usesaHkhl q [ kdkv uq
Hko ughadj l drkA
i jk/ hu v kS
j i jkoyachdsfy, l q [ kcuk ghugha Ai jk/ hurk , d i zd kj dk v fHk' kki gS
Aeuq"; rksD; k i ' kq
&i {khrd
i jk/ hurk dh v OkLFkk esaNVi VkusyxrsgS Ai jk/ hurk O
a ; fDr v Fkok t kfr v i usv kRe&l Eeku dksl q j f{kr ughaj[ k
l drsAfdl hHkhO;fDr] t kfr v Fkokns'kdhi jk/ hurkdhdgkuhnq % [ k, oai hM+
kdhdgkuhgS ALora=kO;fDr nfjnzrk
160 Communication Skill-I

, oav Hkko esaHkh ft l l q[ k dkv uq Hkodj l drk gS ] i jk/ hu O;fDr ml l q

[ kdhdYi uk Hkh ughadj l drkAv r%
Bhd gh dgk x; k gS & ^i jk/ hu l i usa
gql q
[ k ukfga

14- i j mi ns'k d q
' ky cgr sjs

lad sr fca
& Hkq
fedk] i j mi ns'kdk i zHkko Hkz"Vkpkj v kS
j csbZ
eku yksxksadhdjuh&dFkuhesav a
r j] v uq
' kkl u
dh v ko' ; drk] mi l a
l jksadksmi ns'k nsuk v FkkZ r ~l c i zd kj l sv kn' kksZ
adk i kyu djusdhi zsj.kk nsuk l jy gS At S l sdgukl jy
rFkkdjuk dfBu gS ] ml hi zd kj Lo; av PNsi Fk i j pyusdhv i s{kk nw l jksadksvPNsdke djusdksl a ns'k ns
ukl jy
at ksO;fDr nw l jksadksmins'k nsrk gS ] og Lo; aHkh mu mi ns'kksadk i kyu dj jgk gS ] ;g t +
: jh ugha Agj O;ki kjh]
v f/ dkjhrFkk usrk v i usukS d jksa
] deZ pkfj; ksarFkk t urk dksbZ ekunkjh] l PpkbZrFkk deZ Brk dk mi ns'k nsrk gSt cfd
og Lo; aHkz"Vkpkj dsi Fk i j c<+ r k jgrk gS Ausrk eap i j v kdj fdruhl kxjfHkZ r ckrsadgrsgS ] i j mudkv kpj.k
ges'kkmudhckrksadsfoi jhr gksrkgS Aekr&fi rkrFkkxq : t u cPpksadksfu; a =k.kesajgusdkmi ns'kns r sgSa
& i j os; g
y t krsgSafd mudk v i uk t hou v uq ' kkl uc , oafu; a f=kr gh ugha A

15- t S
l k d j ksxsoS
l k Hkj ksxs

d sr fca
mi jksDr mfDr dkv FkZgSfd euq "; v i ust hou esat S l kdeZdjrkgS ] ml hdsv uq: i ghml si Q y feyrk
gSAeuq"; t Sl kcksrkgS ] oS
l kghdkVrk gS Al q
d eksZ
adki Q y v PNkrFkkdq d eksZdki Q y cq
j k gksrkgSAnw l jksadksi hfM+
djusokyk O ; fDr , d fnu Lo; ai hM+ k dsl kxj esaMw Ck t krk gSAnw l jksadksi hfM+r djusokyk O;fDr , d fnu Lo; a
i hM+
k dsl kxj esaMw c t krk gSAt ksnw
l jksadk Hkyk djrk gS ] bZ
' oj ml dk Hkyk djrk gS Adgk Hkh gS ] ^dj Hkyk gks
Hkyk*Ai q
. ; l si fji w
. kZdeZdHkhO;FkZughat krsAt ksnw l jksadk' kks"k.kdjrkgS ] og dHkhl q [ kdhuha n ughal ksl drkA
^t S
l hdjuhoS l hHkjuh* okyhckr i zfl gS Aeuq "; dksges'kkv PNsdeksZesa: fp ysuhpkfg, Anw l jksadkfgr djuk
rFkk mUgsal a
d V l seq Dr djusdk i z;kl ekuork dh i gpku gS Aekuork dsi Fk i j c<+ usokykAO;fDReku o rFkk
nkuork dsi Fk i j c<+ usokyk O;fDRk ekuo rFkk nkuork dsi Fk i j c<_usokyk O;fDr nkuo dgykrk gS Aekuork
dh i gpku euq "; ds' kqHk deZgSA

16- l e; d k ego v Fkok l e; l cl scM+

k / u gS

lad sr fca
& Hkw
fedk] t hou dh{kf.kdrk] l e; dkego] euksja
t u v kS
j l e; dkew
Y; ] i fjJe ghi zxfr
dh jkg] mi l a
nkf' kZ
fudksaust hou dks{k.kHka
j dgk gS
y uk i zHkkr dsrkjsv kS
j i kuhdscqy cq
y sl sdhxbA Zv r%
; g i z'u mBkuk LoHkkfod gSfd ge v i ust hou dksl i Qy cuk, a Abl dk , dek=k mi k; l e; dk l nqi ; ksx gS
l e; , d v ew
Y; oLrqgS
Abl sdkVusdhofk t hou dksdkV nsrhgS
A[ kks;kl e; i q
fu; k
Group-I (fgU
nh) 161

esadksbZHkh ' kfDr ughat kschrsgq

, l e; dksoki l yk; sAgekjst hou dksl i Q yrk&v l i Qyrk dsl nq
i ; ksx rFkk
: i ; ksx i j fuHkZ
j djrh gS
Adgk Hkh gS
& {k.k dks{kq
nzu l e>ksHkkbZ
] ; g t x dk fuekZ
r k gS
gekjsns'kesav f/ dka
' kyksx l e; dkewY; ughal e>rsAnsj l smBuk] O;FkZdhckrphr djuk] [ ksy ] ' krja
v kfn esa: fp dk gsuk v kfn ds}kjk l e; dk u"V djukA; fn ge pkgrsgS arksi gysv i uk dke i w
j k djsa
Acgqr &l s
yksx l e; dksu"V djusesav kua n dk v uqHko djrsga
S t u dsuke i j l e; u"V djuk cgq r cM+ h Hkw
y gS A
l e; dk l nqi ; ksx djusdsfy, v ko' ; d gSfd ge v i usnS fud dk; Zdksdjusdk l e; fuf' pr dj
Afi Qj ml dk; Zdksml h dke esadjusdksi z;Ru djsa Abl rjg dk v H; kl gksusl sl e; dk ew Y; l e> t k, a
v kS
j ns[ksa
xsfd gekjk t hou fuja r j i zxfr dh vksj c<+
r k t k jgk gS
Al e; dsl nq
i ; ksx l sgh t hou dk i Fkl jy gks
t krk gSA
egku O;fDr; ksadsegku cuusdk jgL; l e; dk l nq i ; ksx gh gS
Al e; dsl nq i ; ksx ds}kjk euq
"; v ej
dhfrZdki k=kcu l drkgS Al e; dkl nqi ; ksx ght hou dkl nqi ; ksx gS
Abl hesat hou dhl kFkZ d rkgS
& dy djS
l ksv kt dj v kt djSl ksv c] i y esai jySgks;xh] cgqfj djkS

17- L=kh f' k{kk d k ego

lad sr fca
& Hkw
fedk] f' k{kk dksego ukjh dk ?kj v kS
j l ekt esaLFkku] l kekft d dkZ
O;] xg&foKku dh
f' k{kk] mi l a
v kt f' k{kk ekuo&t hou dk , d v a x cu xbZgS Af' k{kk dsfcuk euq"; Kku&i a xqdgykrk gS Ai q
: "k ds
l kFk&l kFk ukjh dksHkh f' k{kk dh v ko' ; drk gSAukjh f' kf{kr gksd j gh cPpksadksf' k{kk i znku dj l drhgSAcPpksa
ij iq : "k dh v i s{kk ukjh dsO ; fDro dk i zHkko vf/ d i M+ r k gSAv r%ml dk f' kf{kr gksuk t +: jh gS
^L=khdk: i D; kgks& ; g i z'u mBukLokHkkfod gS Ai q
: "kdksv i ukv f/ dka ' kt hou ckgj ds{ks=kesafcrkuk
i M+r k gSt cfd ukjh dks?kj v kS j ckgj esal eUo; LFkkfi r djusdh v ko' ; drk gksrh gS A l kekft d dkZ
O; ds
l kFk&l kFkml s?kj dsi zfr Hkhv i uhHkw fedkdkfuokZ g djuki M+ r kgS
Av r%ukjhdksxg foKku dhf' k{kkesal a i Uu
gksuk pkfg, Av ; u ds{ks=kesaHkhog l i Q y Hkwfedk dk fuokZg dj l drhgS Af' k{kk dsl kFk&l kFkfpfdRlk ds{ks=k
esaHkh ml s; ksxnku nsuk pkfg, Al qf' kf{kr ekrk, agh ns'k dksv f/ d ; ksX; ] LoLFk v kS j v kn' kZukxfjd nsl drh gS A
Li "V gkst krk gSfd L=kh f' k{kk dk i zpkj , oai zlkj gksuk pkfg, Aukjh dksi Q
' ku l snw
S j jg dj l knxh ds
t hou dk l eFkZ
u djuk pkfg, Aml dh f' k{kk l ekt ksi; ksxh gksA

mRifk d sv k/ kj i j ' kCn

ns'kt ' kCn

v kS
pd] ?ksa
?kk] pha
Vh] fxjfxV] v ks>y] pq
ujh] Nykx] cdj&cdj] gDdk&cDdk bR;kfn
162 Communication Skill-I

fons'kt ' kCn

( i) v j ch ' kCn

buke fdrkc v kS
jr eq
fdrkc bTt r dher fyi Q
ki Q
+ k
fdLer mez ekS
le fgjkl r
t ukc eq
Yd v kneh fe' kky
nok gokykr dt Z [ kr
vk v ehj dl jr [ kcj
dhj xjhc bZ
eke enn
' kjkc rek' kk vt c bLrhi Q

( ii) iQ
kj l h ' kCn

vi Q
l ksl chekj bZ
ekunkj fd' kfe' k
fxjrkj v ukj xq
y kc dcw
v kfr' kckt h l jdkj l jnkj va
b=k t ks'k v kbZ
uk p' ek
eykbZ pkykd ' kknh

( iii) rq
d hZ' kCn

a cq
y cq
y dq
yh pkdw
chch mnw
Z yi Q
a pepk
csxe dkcw eq
xy cgknq

( iv) va
xzst h ' kCn

y dkW
ih dkj tt
ekLVj iq
fyl LVs'ku fMxzh
i zsl fji ksZ
V ba
t hfu; j Ldw
fcy fl xjsV Dykl v i hy
Group-I (fgU
nh) 163

DVj cl i sVksy i su
dh l kba
l lS
y jh Mk; jh

( v) iq
xky h ' kCn

v ukukl v pkj v kyekjh deht

dkt w xeyk pkch rEckdw
i kojksVh fi LrkS
y l Urjk est
i i hrk

egoi w
. kZr Rl e&r n~
Hko ' kCn

r Rl e & Rkn~
Hko r Rl e & r n~
v dk; Z & v dkt v f{k & v k[ k
v Jq & v kl w v fXu & v kx
v| & v kt v kyL; & v kyl
v kez & v ke b{kq & bZ
fydk & ma
xyh mTt oy & mt yk
mi ; Z
q & mi jksDr myw
d & mYyw
m"V & mZ
V v ks"B & v ksB
dPNi & dNq
vk dkZ
O; & djrc
di w
Z & di w
j dksfV & djksM+
di ksr & dcw
rj deZ & dku
dnyh & dsy k d`"kd & fdl ku
d.kZ & dku dw
i & dq
v k
di ; k & dI; k dksfdy & dks;y
[ kt w
Z & [ kt w
j {ks=k & [ ksr
r Rl e & Rkn~Hko r Rl e & r n~Hko
xks & xk; "k<~ & Ng
rnk & rc rkez & rkck
rhFkZ & rhjFk rSy & rsy
nf/ & ngh /S;Z & / hjt
164 Communication Skill-I

oLr q
fu"B l kekU
; fgUnh ( fgUnh l kexzh)

( fo' ks"k i kB~

; l kexzh)

foi j hr kFkZ
d ' kCn

' k & fuEuka

funsZ fdr i z'uksadsv UrxZ
r ] R;sd i z'u esa, d ' kCn ' kq
rFkk ml dspkj l a
Hkkfor foi jhrkFkZ
' kCn fn; sx; sgS] ft uesal s, d ' kq
a gSA' kq
' kCn dkspq fu, v kS
j ml i j fpg~ u yxkb, %&
Kkr O; & ft l ' kCn l sfdl h nw l jsfof' k"V ' kCn dk myVk v FkZfudys] ml s^foi jhrkFkZ d ' kCn* dgrsgS _
tSl s^v Fk* ' kCn dk foi jhrkFkZ
d ' kCn gS^bfr*A; ku nsusdhckr ; g gSfd mi l xZds; ksx l scuk ' kCn fHkUu gksrk
gSAog foi jhrkFkZ d gksl drkgSfdUrqmi ; q Dr ugha _t Sl s& YkkHkv FkZ
r ~ykHkdkfoi jhr v ykHkA; g l ghrksgS ] fdUrq
mi ; q
Drre~ugha Abl l sHkk"kk dk l kS
Un; ZNqi t krk gSv r%ykHk dk mi ; q Drre~foi jhr ' kCn gksxk& gkfuAbl h i zd kj
^t hr* dkfoi jhr ^i jkt ; * Hkhl ghgS ] fdUrqmi ; qDrre~gksxk& ^gkj*Av r%, slsi z;ksxksal sl ko/ ku jgukpkfg, AbUgha
l ko/ kfu; ksadsl kFk ; gk geusdfri ; mnkgj.k i zLrq r fd; sgS Abuesal sv f/ drj i z'u i zk; %l eLr i zfr; ksfxrkRed
i jh{kkv ksadsl kekU; fgUnh dsi z'ui =k esai w Nsx; sgS A
1- v ofu& ( d) jl kry ( [ k) Hkw
pky ( x) i krky ( ?k) v Ecj
2- v Fk& ( d) rr~ ( [ k) bfr ( x) l | % ( ?k) v Ur
3- ew
d& ( d) ew
[ kZ ( [ k) v ew
d ( x) okpky ( ?k) cf/ j
4- g"kZ
& ( d) l UrIr ( [ k) fo"kkn ( x) nq
[k ( ?k) fujk' kk
5- psru& ( d) v psru ( [ k) v py ( x) l psru ( ?k) t M+
6- d i . k& ( d) v i O;; h ( [ k) mnkj ( x) nkrk ( ?k) egkRek
7- l eFkZ
u& ( d) fo}s"k ( [ k) frjLdkj ( x) vLohdkj ( ?k) fojks/
8- mRFkku& ( d) mRd"kZ ( [ k) v i d"kZ ( x) i ru ( ?k) v/ ksxfr
9- v kxkeh& ( d) i zxkeh ( [ k) Hkfo"; ( x) foxr ( ?k) nw
j xkeh
10- mi d kj & ( d) i zxkeh ( [ k) frjLdkj ( x) v i dkj ( ?k) oa
11- uohu& ( d) vokZ
phu ( [ k) i zkphu ( x) e; dkyhu ( ?k) fpjdkyhu
12- y ?kq
& ( d) nh?kZ ( [ k) cM+
k ( x) xq
: ( ?k) cgr~
13- ea
xy & ( d) v ea
xy ( [ k) v ' kq
Hk ( x) v ' kksHkuh; ( ?k) ' kq
14- l a
Dr & ( d) eq
Dr ( [ k) fo; q
Dr ( x) fu: Dr ( ?k) v eq
15- l kfe"k& ( d) v kfe"k ( [ k) ukfe"k ( x) vukfe"k ( ?k) fujkfe"k
Group-I (fgU
nh) 165

16- v kfLr d & ( d) LokfLrd ( [ k) vk; fRed ( x) ukfLrd ( ?k) i jkfLrd

17- fot srk& ( d) i jkft rk ( [ k) foft r ( x) v i d"kZ ( ?k) v/ ksxfr
18- l q
y Hk& ( d) l gt ( [ k) i zkIr ( x) nq
yZHk ( ?k) v l q
y Hk
19- mRd "kZ
& ( d) mRFkku ( [ k) i ru ( x) v i d"kZ ( ?k) v/ ksxfr
20- v fLr Ro& ( d) fouk' k ( [ k) vLFkkbZ ( x) vufLrRo ( ?k) u' oj
21- v L=khd j . k& ( d) ' kL=khdj.k ( [ k) fujL=khdj.k ( x) v L=kghurk ( ?k) v L=kfoghuhdj.k
22- fuR;& ( d) ' kk' or ( [ k) {kf.kd ( x) u' oj ( ?k) v fuR;
23- fuUnk& ( d) Lrq
fr ( [ k) l jkguk ( x) i z'ka
lk ( ?k) vkykspuk
24- [ k. Mu& ( d) l a
Dr ( [ k) i w
j .k ( x) e.Mu ( ?k) l Ei w
j .k
25- uw
r u& ( d) i zkphu ( [ k) vokZ
phu ( x) i q
j kuk ( ?k) i q
j kru
26- v k' kk& ( d) fo' okl ( [ k) i zrhfr ( x) fujk' kk ( ?k) vkdka
{ kk
27- v er & ( d) xjy ( [ k) fo"k ( x) i h; w
"k ( ?k) l q
28- v uq
j kx& ( d) jkx ( [ k) i jkx ( x) foeksg ( ?k) fojkx
29- v kfn& ( d) v ukfn ( [ k) v Ur ( x) v Fk ( ?k) bfr
30- v oj & ( d) dfu"B ( [ k) ofj"B ( x) i zoj ( ?k) T; s"B
31- v kxeu& ( d) i z;k.k ( [ k) xeu ( x) i zLFkku ( ?k) cfgxZ
. k& ( d) v i d"kZ
32- v kd "kZ .k ( [ k) fod"kZ
.k ( x) i zo"kZ
.k ( ?k) fodf"V
33- v knj & ( d) frjLdkj ( [ k) fujknj ( x) fojknj ( ?k) Jk
34- i znkr k& ( d) fo/ krk ( [ k) v knkrk ( x) nkrk ( ?k) v nkrk
35- d hfkZ
& ( d) fodfr ( [ k) l q
d fr ( x) v i ; ' k ( ?k) vi dhfkZ
36- xzke& ( d) ft yk ( [ k) ns'k ( x) uxj ( ?k) ' kgj
37- mi eku& ( d) v i eku ( [ k) eku ( x) O
; frjsd ( ?k) v frjsd
38- v k' kh"k& ( d) v kfe"k ( [ k) fujkfe"k ( x) ojnku ( ?k) vfHk' kki
39- mUu; u& ( d) u; u ( [ k) mi u; u ( x) i yk; u ( ?k) v fru; u
40- O
; fDr & ( d) jk"V ( [ k) ns'k ( x) dky ( ?k) l ekt
41- l gkuq fr & ( d) v kykspuk
Hkw ( [ k) fuUnk ( x) ?k. kk ( ?k) i zse
42- l fU/ & ( d) l ekt ( [ k) v l fU/ ( x) foxzg ( ?k) fufonk
43- l t u
Z& ( d) i Fkd~ ( [ k) uk' k ( x) oa
l ( ?k) l oZ
uk' k
44- l kgl h& ( d) fodkl ( [ k) dk; jrk ( x) Hk; ( ?k) Hkh:
45- fod kl & ( d) fouk' k ( [ k) i ru ( x) kl ( ?k) fudkl
166 Communication Skill-I

1& ( ?k) 2& ( [ k) 3& ( x) 4& ( [ k) 5& ( ?k) 6& ( [ k)
7& ( ?k) 8& ( x) 9& ( x) 10& ( x) 11& ( [ k) 12& ( x)
13&(d) 14& ( [ k) 15& ( ?k) 16& ( x) 17& ( d) 18& ( x)
19&(x) 20& ( x) 21& ( [ k) 22& ( ?k) 23& ( x) 24& ( x)
25&( ?k) 26& ( x) 27& ( [ k) 28& ( ?k) 29& ( [ k) 30& ( x)
31&(x) 32& ( [ k) 33& ( [ k) 34& ( [ k) 35& ( ?k) 36& ( x)
37&(x) 38& ( ?k) 39& ( [ k) 40& ( ?k) 41& ( x) 42& ( x)
43&(x) 44& ( ?k) 45& ( x)

i ; kZ
; okph ' kCn

v FkZ & ft u ' kCnksadsv FkZl keku gksa

] mUgsa^i ; kZ
; okph ' kCn dgrsgS AbUgsai zfr' kCn v Fkok l ekukFkZ
a d ' kCn
HkhdgrsgS afdUrqLej.kesaj[ kusdhckr ; g gSfd bu i z'uksaesav FkZdhl ekurkgksrsgq , Hkhbudsi z;ksx , dl eku
ughagksrsA; s' kCn v i usesabrusi w. kZgS
afd , d gh' kCn dki z;ksx] l HkhfLFkfr; ksav kS
j l HkhLFkkuksai j mfpr ughagksrk_
dghadksbZ' kCn mfpr gksrk gS ] rksdghadksbZv FkkZ
r ~i zR;sd ' kCn dhegkk fo"k; v kS j LFkku dsv uq l kj gksrhgS
A; gk
i ; kZ
; okph ' kCnksadh l eqfpr t kudkjh dsfy, dfri ; mnkgj.k i zLrq r fd; sx; sgSA
funsZ' k& uhpsfn; sx; si z'uksadsv U
r ] i zR;sd i z'u esa, d ' kCn fn; k x; k gSrFkk ml dsdq
N i ; kZ
; okph
' kCn fn; sx; sgS ] ft uesal sdksbZ, d xyr gS
a _ v ki ml xyr xCn dk p; u dhft , v kS j ml dsfy, mkj&i .khZi j
fu/ kZ
fjr l a[ ; k i j fpg~u yxkb, % &
1- v er & ( d) l kse ( [ k) l q
/k ( x) i h; w
"k ( ?k) l q
2- us=k& ( d) v k[ k ( [ k) nx ( x) p{kq ( ?k) eks{k
3- fut ho
Z& ( d) l rn ( [ k) t hoghu ( x) i zk.kghu ( ?k) fu"i zk.k
4- kl & ( d) i ru ( [ k) of ( x) v oufr ( ?k) v i d"kZ
5- d ey & ( d) i a
dt ( [ k) uhjt ( x) l jkst ( ?k) eukst
6- v fXu& ( d) i zLrj ( [ k) i kod ( x) v kx ( ?k) v uy
7- mRl o& ( d) i oZ ( [ k) l ekjksg ( x) t ' u ( ?k) ekre
8- v fr fFk& ( d) v f/ xr ( [ k) v H; kxr ( x) vkxUrq
d ( ?k) esgeku
9- v l q
j& ( d) jk{kl ( [ k) nS
R; ( x) i h; q
"k ( ?k) nkuo
10- v kUkUn& ( d) eksn ( [ k) i zeksn ( x) v keksn ( ?k) ekuUn
11- v kd k' k& ( d) uHk ( [ k) O;kse ( x) v uUr ( ?k) v ofu
12- bUnz& ( d) v ejdsUnz ( [ k) i q
j Unj ( x) l q
j s'k ( ?k) l q
j i fr
Group-I (fgU
nh) 167

13- bZ
' oj & ( d) bZ
'k ( [ k) egs'k ( x) i jes'oj ( ?k) i jekRek
14- bfU; & ( d) xks ( [ k) "khd ( x) jFk ( ?k) t u
15- , d kUr& ( d) v uUr ( [ k) fut Z
ukx ( x) ' kw
U; ( ?k) , dkdh
16- d Yi o`{ k& ( d) nsonk: ( [ k) dYi r: ( x) dYi q
i ( ?k) dYi Hkw
17- d kenso& ( d) enu ( [ k) eUeFk ( x) eufl t ( ?k) eu; t
18- ks/ & ( d) ks/ ( [ k) jks"k ( x) dks"k ( ?k) v e"kZ
19- d sy k& ( d) dnyh ( [ k) ekspk ( x) jEHkk ( ?k) v EHkk
20- xa
xk& ( d) l q
j l fj ( [ k) HkkfxjFkh ( x) t koh ( ?k) ekoh
21- xk; & ( d) xks ( [ k) xmQ ( x) jFk ( ?k) / suq
22- pUek& ( d) l kse ( [ k) ' kf' k ( x) fo/ q ( ?k) e/ q
23- t y & ( d) uhj ( [ k) mnd ( x) v Ecq ( ?k) jkS
24- nkr & ( d) mM~
xu ( [ k) jn ( x) nUr ( ?k) n' ku
25- fnu& ( d) i znhi ( [ k) okl j ( x) fnol ( ?k) v gu
26- nhi d & ( d) nh; k ( [ k) fHkzik ( x) nhi ( ?k) fn; jk
27- nq
[ k& ( d) d"V ( [ k) eks{k ( x) Dys'k ( ?k) i hM+
28- unh& ( d) l fjrk ( [ k) l fj ( x) rja
fx.kh ( ?k) f{ki zk
29- i oZ
r& ( d) ' kS
y ( [ k) fxfj ( x) ux ( ?k) eghHkw
30- fi r k& ( d) t ud ( [ k) rkr ( x) t uf; rk ( ?k) l a
j {kd
31- i Ruh& ( d) Hkk; kZ ( [ k) nkjk ( x) efgyk ( ?k) okek
32- i koZ
r h& ( d) mek ( [ k) f' kok ( x) xkS
jh ( ?k) v t Uek
33- ckny & ( d) es?k ( [ k) v kHkz ( x) okfjn ( ?k) v Ecq
34- fct y h& ( d) pi yk ( [ k) ' kEi k ( x) ; kfeuh ( ?k) fo| q
35- ok; q
& ( d) i ou ( [ k) v uy ( x) l ehj ( ?k) v fuy
36- j kt k& ( d) ui ( [ k) Hkw
i fr ( x) Hkw
i ( ?k) i kjk' k;
37- l eq
& ( d) okxh'k ( [ k) v fC/ ( x) unh'k ( ?k) v .kZ
38- l w
& ( d) jfo ( [ k) v kfnR; ( x) ekkZ
.M ( ?k) v dZ
39- l a
l kj & ( d) Hkw ( [ k) Hko ( x) yksd ( ?k) fo' o
40- ' kj hj & ( d) ol q ( [ k) oi q ( x) xkr ( ?k) dk; k
1& ( ?k) 2& ( ?k) 3& ( x) 4& ( [ k) 5& ( ?k) 6& ( d)
168 Communication Skill-I

7& ( ?k) 8& ( d) 9& ( x) 10& ( ?k) 11& ( ?k) 12& ( d)

13& ( [ k) 14& ( / ) 15& ( d) 16& ( ?k) 17& ( ?k) 18& ( d)
19& ( ?k) 20& ( ?k) 21& ( x) 22& ( ?k) 23& ( ?k) 24& ( d)
25& ( d) 26& ( [ k) 27& ( [ k) 28& ( ?k) 29& ( ?k) 30& ( ?k)
31& ( x) 32& ( ?k) 33& ( ?k) 34& ( x) 35& ( [ k) 36& ( ?k)
37& ( d) 38& ( ?k) 39& ( d) 40& ( d)

r Rl e&' kCn ( ' kq

' kCn)

' k& fuEuka
fdr pkj fodYi ksaesal sorZ
uh dhnf"V l s' kq
( RkRle) ' kCn pq
fu, v kS
j ml smkj&i .khZi j
fpfr dhft , %&
1& ( d) fl a
xkj ( [ k) Ja
xkj ( x) Jha
xkj ( ?k) Ja
2& ( d) do; =kh ( [ k) dof; =kh ( x) dfof; =kh ( ?k) dfo; =kh
3& ( d) l a
U;kl h ( [ k) l a
; kl h ( x) l a
fu; kl h ( ?k) l U;kl h
4& ( d) v kS
| ksfxd ( [ k) v ks|ksfxd ( x) m| ksfxd ( ?k) m| kS
5& ( d) jl k; fud ( [ k) j' kk; fud ( x) jkl k; fud ( ?k) jk'kk; fud
6& ( d) O;ogkfjd ( [ k) O;kS
gkfjd ( x) O;kogkfjd ( ?k) O
; kogfjd
7& ( d) O;ol kf; d ( [ k) O;kS
l kf; d ( x) O;kol kf; d ( ?k) O
; ol kbd
8& ( d) mRd"kZ ( [ k) mr"kZ ( x) mRd' kZ ( ?k) mrd"kZ
9& ( d) v urjxr ( [ k) v UrxZ
r ( x) vUrZ
xr~ ( ?k) va
10& ( d) my?ka
u ( [ k) mYy?ka
u ( x) mYya
?ku ( ?k) ma
11& ( d) v gykn ( [ k) v kgykn ( x) v kkn ( ?k) v kkn
12& ( d) mifj; q
Dr ( [ k) mi; q
Z ( x) mQ
i jksDr ( ?k) mijksDr
13& ( d) mR
N`[ ky ( [ k) mPN`[ ky ( x) ma
PN`[ ky ( ?k) mPN[ k~
14& ( d) i zfrn~
} Unh ( [ k) i zfr}a
nh ( x) i zfr}U}h ( ?k) i zfr}Uh
15& ( d) v a
r jkjk"Vh; ( [ k) v UrjkZ
"Vh; ( x) v UrZ
j k"Vh; ( ?k) v a
r jkZ
16& ( d) ' kq
"kk ( [ k) l q
ok ( x) l q
"kk ( ?k) ' kq
17& ( d) nq
' pfj=k ( [ k) nq
Lpfj=k ( x) nq
"pfj=kj ( ?k) ' kq
1& ( [ k) Ja
xkj 2& ( [ k) dfof; =kh 3& ( d) l a U;kl h 4& ( d) v kS
| ksfxd 5& ( x) jkl k; fud 6& ( x)
O;kogkfjd 7& ( x) O;kol kf; d 8& ( x) mRd"kZ9& ( [ k) v UrxZ
r 10& ( x) mYya ?ku 11& ( ?k) v kkn 12& ( [ k)
Group-I (fgU
nh) 169

mi ; q
Dr 13& ( ?k) mPN[ k~
Z y 14& ( x) i zfr}U}h 15& ([ k) v UrjkZ
"Vh; 16& ( d) ' kq
"kk 17& ( d) nq
' pfj=k

gkoj sv kS
j d gkor sa

uhpsfn; smkjksaesal sl okZ

f/ d mi ; q
Dr mkj i j fp yxkb, %
1& v U/ sd sgkFk cVsj y xuk
( d) v i zR;kf' kr ykHk gksuk ( [ k) , dk, d ykHk gkst kuk
( x) Hkfo"; dh ckr dkst ku ysuk ( ?k) v U/sdksl ksuk fey t kuk
2& [ kksnk i gkM+fud y h pq
fg; k
( d) dBksj i fjJe dk v PNk ykHk
( [ k) dBksj i fjJe dsmi jkUr v R
; Yi mi yfC/
( x) nw
l jksadkscsodw
( ?k) dBksj i fjJe l sdq
N Hkh ykHk u i zkIr gksuk
3& v i uk mYy wl h/ k d j uk
( d) v i uk LokFkZl k/ uk ( [ k) mi uk dke pykuk
( x) nw
l jksadkscsodw
+cukuk ( ?k) v i usl kFk nw
l jksadk midkj djuk
4& v i usi S
j i j dq
h ekj uk
( d) v i uk i S
j dkVuk ( [ k) v i uk v fgr Lo; adjuk
( x) v i usgkFk l so`{ k dkVuk ( ?k) v i usl kFk nw
l jksadk midkj djuk
5& xM+
nsZm[ kkM+
( d) i q
j kuh oLrqdks[ kksn Mkyuk ( [ k) xM+
h pht +dksgok esamNkyuk
( x) v rhr dksmn~
?kkfVr djuk ( ?k) v rhr dsl keusl cdksykuk
6& v k[ kspq
j kuk
( d) v k[ k ekjuk ( [ k) nksuksav k[ k dk v U
/ k gksuk
( x) , d v k[ k dk v U/k gksuk ( ?k) cPkusdh dksf' k' k djuk
7& mYkVh xa
xk cgkuk
( d) t y dh / kjk dsfoi jhr t kuk ( [ k) xa
xk dh / kjk dkseksM+nsuk
( x) xa
xk dh / kjk dsl kFk&l kFk pyuk ( ?k) fu; e&fo: dk; Zdjuk
8& ukS
&nksX; kj g gksuk
( d) Hkkx t kuk ( [ k) t ksM+djuk
170 Communication Skill-I

( x) ykS
V v kuk ( ?k) fxurh fxuuk
9& i hB fn[ kkuk
( d) gkj ekuuk ( [ k) t hr t kuk
( x) i ' pkkki djuk ( ?k) v i uh osnuk O;Dr djuk
10& i kuh&i kuh gksuk
( d) yfTt r gksuk ( [ k) i kuh l sHkhx t kuk
( x) v fr i zlUu gksuk ( ?k) O;fFkr gkst kuk
11& ?kksM+
scsp d j l ksuk
( d) [ kq
' kh esal ksuk ( [ k) xgjh uha
n esal ksuk
( x) csfi Q
l ksuk
+ ( ?k) ?kksM+
k fdl h dksl kS
i dj l ksuk
12& pksy h&nkeu d k l kFk
( d) xgjh nksLrh ( [ k) dVq' k=kq
( x) nksLrh fuHkkuk ( ?k) nksLrh pykuk
13& gkS
l y k i Lr gksuk
( d) fo"k i h ysuk ( [ k) [ krjk mBkuk
( x) t ksf[ ke esaMky nsuk ( ?k) v i eku dkspq
i pki l gu dj ysuk
14& t+
gj d k ?kw
V i huk
( d) fo"k i h ysuk ( [ k) [ krjk mBkuk
( x) t ksf[ ke esaMky nsuk ( ?k) v i eku dkspq
i pki l gu dj ysuk
15& fr y d k r kM+cukuk
( d) NksVh ckr dkscgq
r c<+
kdj dguk ( [ k) NksVh ckr dksNksVk djdsdguk
( Xk) NksVh ckr dksfdl h l su dguk ( ?k) fry dksrkM+dsi kl j[ k nsuk
16& t hr h eD[ kh fuxy uk
( d) t kudkjh esadHkh xyrh u djuk ( [ k) t ku&cw
>dj v U;k; l guk
( x) t hrh eD[ kh fudky i Q
d uk ( ?k) t hrh eD[ kh [ kk Mkyuk
17& nky u xy uk
( d) nky dk dPph jg t kuk ( [ k) nky dk FkksM+
k Hkh u i duk
( x) o' k esau gksuk ( ?k) i jo' k dnkfi u djuk
18& v i uh d j uh i kj mr j uh
Group-I (fgU
nh) 171

( d) t S
l k djksxs] oS
l k i kv ksxs ( [ k) rS
j dj gh i kj gksi kv ksxs
( x) v i usdkZ
O; i j gh Hkjkslk djuk ( ?k) deZdk Hkh i Q
y dHkh&dHkh ughafeyrk
19& FkksFkk puk ckt s?kuk
( d) [ kkyh puk v f/ d v kokt +djrk gS
( [ k) FkksFkk puk dHkh ughact rk
( x) v ksNk v kneh v i usego dk v f/ d c[ kku djrk gS
( ?k) puk HkkM+esav kokt +djrk gS
20& mQ
/ kSd k u y suk] u ek/ ksd k nsuk
( d) l c >esy ksal sv yx jguk ( [ k) >esy ksaesai M+
d j vkuUn ysuk
( x) >esy ksadschp yksxksadksyk [ kM+
k djuk ( ?k) mQ
/ kSl sysd j Hkh ek/ kSdksu nsuk
21& r hu y ksd r seFkq
j k U;kj h
( d) l cl sfujkyk ( [ k) cgq
r lq
Unj eFkq
j k dk gksuk
( x) rhuksayksd esaeFkq
j k u gksuk ( ?k) eFkq
j k dh c[ kku rhuksayksd ksaesagS
22& l ej Fk d ksughanks"k xksl kbZ
( d) l eFkZesagh l kjsnks"k gksrsgS
a ( [ k) l cy dk dksbZnks"k ughafn[ krk
( x) l cy nks"kh gksd j Hkh nks"k dksNq
i k ysrk gS ( ?k) l eFkZl nk nks"kh gksrsgS
23& v d y cM+
h ; k HkS
( d) ' kkjhfjd cy l scq
f Js"B gksrh gS ( [ k) ' kkjhfjd cy gh Js"B cy gksrk gS
( x) v Dy vkS
j HkS
l nksuksacM+
a sgS
a ( ?k) v Dy l sHkS
l cM+
a h gS
24& v Vd k cfu; k nsbZm/ kj
( d) cfu; k i js'kkuh esaHkh m/ kj ughansrk ( [ k) v i uh xjt i j ncuk i M+
r k gS
( x) cfu; k v i ujh xjt i j gh l q
urk gS ( ?k) cfu; k m/ kj dHkh&dHkh gh nsrk gS
25& v k cS
y ] eq
> sekj
( d) cS
y dkscq
y kdj ekjuk ( [ k) t ku&cw
>dj foi fk eksy ysuk
( x) cS
y dkst +
cjnLrh i hVuk ( ?k) foi fk dkscq
y kdj Hkkx [ kM+
k gksuk
26& v k/ k r hr j ] v k/ k cVsj
( d) v k/ h&v k/ h pht +
ksadksl kFk j[ kuk ( [ k) csesy pht +
ksadk l fEeJ.k
( x) Hkysdksl c HkysyxrsgS
a ( ?k) v k/ h&v k/ h pht +
ksadksfeykdj , d djuk
27& v ki Hky k r kst x Hky k
( d) Hkyh pht +l nS
o v PNh yxrh gS ( [ k) Hkyh pht +l nS
o nw
l jsi l U
n djrsgS
172 Communication Skill-I

( x) Hkysdksl c HkysyxrsgS
a ( ?k) Hkyk t ks<w
u eS
apyk eq
>l k Hkyk u dks;
28& v k[ k d k v U/ k xkB d k i w
( d) og O;fDr] t ksew
[ kZi jU
rq/ uh gks
( [ k) og O;fDr] t ks/ uh gksv kS
j ew
[ kZu gks
( x) v k[ k dk v U/k O;fDr dHkh xkB dk i w
j k ughagksl drk
( ?k) v k[ k dsv U/sdksu; ul q
[ k dgk
29& v k[ k d k v U/ k] uke u; ul q
( d) xq
. k dsfo: uke dk j[ kuk ( [ k) v U/k dguk v U/sdks' kksHkk nsrk gS
( x) v k[ k dk v U/k dHkh l q
[ kh ughajgrk ( ?k) v k[ k dsv U/sdksu; ul q
[ k dgk
30& , d gh y d M+
h l sl cksgkd uk
( d) l cdsl kFk , d&t S
l k O;ogkj djuk ( [ k) l e mi dkjh
( x) fdl h dkscjkcj u ekuuk ( ?k) cgq
r ksaesa, d dksvf/ d ekuuk
1& ( d) 2& ( [ k) 3& ( d) 4& ( [ k) 5& ( x) 6& ( ?k)
7& ( ?k) 8& ( d) 9& ( d) 10& ( d) 11& ( x) 12& ( d)
13& ( [ k) 14& ( ?k) 15& ( d) 16& ( [ k) 17& ( x) 18& ( d)
19& ( x) 20& ( d) 21& ( d) 22& ( [ k) 23& ( d) 24& ( [ k)
25& ( [ k) 26& ( [ k) 27& ( x) 28& ( d) 29& ( d) 30& ( d)

v usd ' kCnksad sfy , , d ' kCn

fuEufyf[ kr ' kCnksadspkj&pkj mkj fn, x; sgS

] ft uesal s, d ghmkj ' kq
a gS
Av ki muesal sl ghmkj dh
i gpku dhft , %
1& ft l d h mi ek u gks
( d) miekjfgr ( [ k) vuq
i es;
( x) v uq
ie ( ?k) mi es;
2& ft l d sv kj &i kj u ns[kk t k l d sA
( d) v i kjn' khZ ( [ k) fdj.k i zfrjks/h
( x) v i kjn' kZ
d ( ?k) i kjn' kZ
d &jfgr
3& bZ
' oj esafo' okl d j usoky kA
Group-I (fgU
nh) 173

( d) bZ
' oji zseh ( [ k) v kjk/ d
( x) v ukfLrd u gksuk ( ?k) v kfLrd
4& ft l d k ' k=kqmR
i Uu u gq
v k gksA
( d) ' k=kqt UegUrk ( [ k) ' k=kq
j fgr
( x) v t kr' k=kq ( ?k) ut kr' k=kq
5& i gy smRiUu gksusoky A
( d) i w
t ;k ( [ k) v xzt
( x) v uq
t Js"B ( ?k) i w
6& cgq
r d e cksy usoky kA
( d) fujkHkk"kh ( [ k) vHkk"kh
( x) v Yi Hkk"kh ( ?k) v okpky
7& ft l d k v uq
Hko fd ; k x; k gksA
( d) vuq
Hkoh ( [ k) v uq
( x) v uq
Hkfork ( ?k) vuq
8& ft l d h v k' kk u d h x; h gksA
( d) fujk' kk ( [ k) v k'kkjfgr
( x) v uk' k ( ?k) v i zR;kf' kr
9& t ksHkfo"; d h ckr l ksp r k gksA
( d) Hkfo"; fpUrd ( [ k) fpUrkdq
( x) v xzlksph ( ?k) Hkkoh fpUrd
10& ft l d ksd ksbZi j kft r u d j l d sA
( d) vi jkft r ( [ k) vi jkt s;
( x) vi fjt s; ( ?k) ' k=kq
11& i hNs&i hNspy usoky k
( d) vuq
xkeh ( [ k) v uq
( x) vuq
orhZ ( ?k) vuq
12& cgq
r cksy usoky k
( d) cgq
Hkk"kh ( [ k) cgq
( x) v frHkk"kh ( ?k) vfrokpd
13& v kd k' k d ksNw
usoky k
174 Communication Skill-I

( d) xxu Li ' khZ

; ( [ k) v kdk'k v a
( x) v kdk' kpq
Ech ( ?k) xxuLi ' khZ
14& xq
: d sl ehi j gusoky k f' k";
( d) v kJeokl h ( [ k) vUrsokl h
( x) fudVLFk ( ?k) xq
: pj.kuq
j kxh
15& y d hj d k i Q
d hj
( d) v uq
xeu dkkZ ( [ k) xrkuq
( x) vfuf' pr ( ?k) vukxfrd
16& ft l d sv kusd h fr fFk Kku u gksA
( d) v Kkr frfFk ( [ k) v frfFk
( x) vfuf' pr ( ?k) vfrFks;
17& l cl sv kxsj gusoky k
( d) vxzorhq ( [ k) vxzxkeh
( x) v xzlj ( ?k) ' kh?kz; ep
18& t y v kS
j Fky esafopj . k d j usoky k
( d) t y vkS
j Fky esafopj.kdkkZ ( [ k) mHk; pj
( x) v uq
Hk; pj ( ?k) Hk; jfgr v pj pj
19& l U; k v kS
j j kr d schp d k l e;
( d) v i jk ( [ k) xks/w
( x) v uq
Hk; pj ( ?k) i w
20& t kscgq
r l e; r d Bgj sA
( d) fpjLFkk; h ( [ k) LFkk; h fuokl h
( x) v fpjLFkk; h ( ?k) v fpj v LFkk; h
21& t kst Ue l sv U/ k gksA
( d) us=k&mUehyu ( [ k) t UekU/
( x) i zkU/ ( ?k) us=kjfgr
22& t kuusd h bPNk j [ kusoky k
( d) frrh"kkZ ( [ k) ft Kkl q
( x) t kul q ( ?k) ' kCnkUos"kh
23& fnu esapy usoky k
Group-I (fgU
nh) 175

( d) fnuxkeh ( [ k) okl jxkeh

( x) fnupj ( ?k) fnuorhZ
24& i l husl smRiUu t ho
( d) oLi q
t kek ( [ k) Losnt ~
( x) m".kt k; k ( ?k) fnuorhZ
25& fL=k; ksa
&t S
l k LoHkkooky k
( d) jkxh&v uq
j kxh ( [ k) L=kh&v uq
( x) L=hLoHkkoh ( ?k) L=kS
26& l c dq
N t kuusoky k
( d) l oZ
Kkuh ( [ k) l oZ
( x) l oZ
"Vk ( ?k) l oZ
n' khZ
27& ' k=kqd ksekj usoky k
( d) ' k=kq
nksgh ( [ k) ' k=kq
( x) ' k=kq
u ( ?k) ' k=kq
j fgr
28& mi d kj d scny smi d kj
( d) nksmi dkj ( [ k) vukS
i dkj
( x) pj.kker ( ?k) i zR;q
i dkj
29& v er d sl eku opu
( d) v er opu ( [ k) opuker
( x) vuki dky ( ?k) v erHkk"kh
1& ( [ k) 2& ( x) 3& ( ?k) 4& ( x) 5& ( [ k) 6& ( x)
7& ( ?k) 8& ( ?k) 9& ( x) 10& ( [ k) 11& ( d) 12& ( d)
13& ( x) 14& ( [ k) 15& ( [ k) 16& ( [ k) 17& ( x) 18& ( [ k)
19& ( [ k) 20& ( d) 21& ( [ k) 22& ( [ k) 23& ( x) 24& ( [ k)
25& ( ?k) 26& ( [ k) 27& ( [ k) 28& ( ?k) 29& ( [ k)

l ekukFkZ
d ' kCn v kS
j mud sHksn

i zFke ' kCn dkv FkZLi "V djrsgq

, f}rh; l ekukFkhZ' kCn dkv k' k; pkj fodYi ksaesal sfdl hmkj dsv a
r xZ
fn; k x; k gS Abuesal sl gh mkj dh i gpku dhft , %&
176 Communication Skill-I

1& v uq
i e&v f} r h;
v uq
i e dk v k' k; ft l dh mi ek fdl h v U; l su dh t k l ds] oghav f}rh; dk v k' k; \
( d) ft l dsl eku nw
l jk u gksA ( [ k) nw
l jsdsl keusi gyk
( x) i gysdsl eku nw
l jk u gksA ( ?k) i gyk v kS
j nw
l jk , d l n`' k
2& v uq
fr &v uq
v uq
fr ; kuhft l dkKku gesabfUnz;ksa}kjki zkIr gksl dsA; g Kku {kf.kd gksrkgSfdUrqv uq
Hko dkv k' k; \
( d) ft l dk Kku gesav kRek }kjk i zkIr gks
( [ k) ft l dk Kku gesal osZ
{ k.k] l k{kkRdkj v Fkok i z;ksx&}kjk Lo; ai zkIr gks_ ; g LFkk; h gksrkA
( x) ft l dh v kRek Kku l si zd kf' kr gks
( ?k) ft l dk Kku Lor%
&l i Q
r ZgksA
3& v uq
eksnu&Lohd fr
v uq eksnu dkv FkZfdl hv kys[k] fVIi uhdk; Z
okghv FkokdFki i j l fgefr i zd V djukfdurqLohdfr dk
v k' k; &
( d) fdl h dk i zLrko v uq
eksu djuk ( [ k) fdl h i zLrko dksLohdkj djuk
( x) fdl h ckr dksv kRel kr~djuk ( ?k) fdl h ckr dk n; a
xe djuk
4& v uq
j ks/ &v kxzg
v uq
j ks/&fou; i w
d ; kpuk rksv kxzg dk v k' k; \
( d) v f/ dkj&Hkkouk l smn~
r ; kpuk ( [ k) v f/ dkj&Hkkouk dh l n; ; kpuk djuk
( x) v f/ dkj&Hkkouk dksLohdkj djuk ( ?k) bl dk dnkfi mi s{kk u djuk
5& v Uos"k. k&v kfo"d kj
v Uos"k.k dk v FkZfdl h oLrqvFkok ns'k dh [ kkst] t ksi gysl sgh fo| eku gksAv kfo"dkj dk v k' k; \
( d) dksbZoLrqt ksi w
oZfo| eku FkhA
( [ k) fdl h O
kLrqdk l t Z
u] t ksi gysfo| eku FkhA
( x) og OkLrq
] ft l dksmn~
Hkkfl r dj nsuk
( ?k) Kku dh i jkdka
"Bki j i gq
p t kuk
6& v i j k/ &i ki
v i jk/ dk vFkZdkuw
u dh fuxkg esanq
"dfr fdUrqi ki dk v k' k; \
( d) v fu"V dk; Zdjuk
( [ k) / kfeZ
d bZ
' ojh; fu; eksadh nf"V esadh x; h nq
( x) , d i zd kj dk v i jk/ ] ft l dh mi s{kk l oZ
=k gksA
Group-I (fgU
nh) 177

( ?k) , d t ?kU; v i jk/

7& v fHkeku&xoZ
v fHkeku dk v k' k; ?ke.M gksrk gSv FkkZ
r ~v i usdksokLrfodrk l sv f/ d l e>uk oghaxoZdk v FkZ
( d) v fHkeku djuk
( [ k) : i ] oS
Hko] Kkukfn l smRiUu Js"Brk dk Hkko
( x) v fHkeku v kS
j bZ
"; kZdjuk
( ?k) bZ
"; kZdh pje i jkdk"Bk dksi zkIr gksuk
8& v L=k&' kL=k
v L=k dk v FkZi Q
d dj ' k=kqi j pyk; k t kusokyk gfFk; kj fdUrq' kL=k\
( d) og gfFk; kj] t ksdki Q
h nw
+ j l sgh i Q
d dj pyk; k t krk gksA
( [ k) gkFk l sysd j ekjusdk gfFk; kj
( x) gkFk esaysd j [ knsM+dj ekjuk
( ?k) ' kL=k v L=k dh v i s{kk v PNk gksrk gS
9& v kxkeh&Hkkoh
v kxkeh dk v FkZgS
] v kxsv kusokykA; g ' kCndky&cks/d gSfdUrqHkkoh dk v k' k; \
( d) Hkfo"; Hkkoh ( [ k) HkfOk"; esagksusokyk
( x) Hkfo"; dsl kFk t q
k gq
vk ( ?k) Hkfo"; l snw
j ugha
10& v knj . kh; &i w
v knj.kh; ; kuh v i usl scM+
ksadsi zfr l Eeku oghai w
T; dk v FkZ
( d) ekrk] fi rk] v xzt rFkk xq
: t kuksadsi zfr l Eekul w
( [ k) fi rk dh v kKk ekuuk
( x) fdl h dh voekuuk u djuk
( ?k) l cdk l Eeku djuk
11& v kf/ &O
; kf/
( d) ' kkjhfjd&ekufl d l s ( [ k) ekufl d O;Fkk
( x) ' kkjhfjd O;Fkk ( ?k) , d v l guh; O;Fkk
12& v ky ksp uk&l eh{kk
v kykspuk dsv UrxZ
r xq
. k&nks"k dk foospu gksrk gSt cfd l eh{kk dsv UrxZ
r gksrk gS
( d) Hkyh&Hkkfr foospu
178 Communication Skill-I

( [ k) fdl h ckr dh l eh{kk djuk

( x) fdl h v a
' k dksysd j my{k t kuk
13& ' ka
d k&Hk;
' ka
d k@
v fu"Vk dh l EHkkouk l seu esal a
' k; dh i zkfIr fdUrqHk; dk v k' k; \
( d) v fu"V dh mi fLFkfr ; k l EHkkouk l seu l smRiUu O;kdq
y rk dk Hkko
( [ k) osnuk dsl kFk Hk;
( x) osnuk dsl kFk v k' ka
( ?k) fdl h ds}kjk Hk; [ kk t kuk
14& bZ
"; kZ
&} s"k
"; kZdk vFkZnw
l jsdsmRd"kZdksu ns[k l dusv Fkok l q
uusdh of fdUrq}s"k dk v k' k; \
( d) ?k. kk djuk
( [ k) ?k. kk v Fkok ' k=kq
r ko' k fdl h dk fojks/ djusdk LFkk; h Hkko
( x) ?k. kk }s"k dsl kFk djuk
( ?k) ?k. kk LkeHkko esadjuk
15& f"k&eq
=kksadk i zd k' k djusokyk eq
fu dk v FkZ
( d) l R;kfn dk i w
. kZfopkj djusokys/ eZv kS
j rRo dk fo' ys"kd
( [ k) l k/ uk djuk
( x) v kjk/ uk djuk
( ?k) bZ
' oj dksekY; ki Z
. k djusokyk
16& t kp &i j h{k. k
( d) l R; dksmn~
?kkfVr djuk ( [ k) l R; dh i gpku djuk
( x) l R;kl R;] ; ksX; rkfn dk fu.k;Z ( ?k) v l R; dksl R; l srksy uk
17& =kq
l gh fLFkfr l snq
j ko =kq
fV gksrk gSfdUrqi jh{k.k dk\
( d) fdl h oLrqdksv ; kFkkFkZ: i esal e> t kuk ( [ k) l p dksns[kdj Hkzfrr gkst kuk
( x) fnXHkze gksuk ( ?k) fn' kkv ksadksHkw
y t kuk
18& fuUk&r Uk
l ksusdh fLFkfr esagksuk fuUk dk i fjpk; d gSt cfd rUk\
Group-I (fgU
nh) 179

( d) v i uh psruk dsi jsgksuk

( [ k) FkksM+
h csgks'kh gksuk] ew
] v Z
fuUk esagksuk
19& zy ki &foy ki
i zy ki dk v k' k; O;FkZdh cdokl v Fkok cM+
cM+djuk fdUrqfoyki dk v k' k; \
( d) t ksj&t ksj l sjksuk ( [ k) jksusdh v kokt +l q
uk; h nsuk
( x) jks&jksdj nq
[ k i zd V djusdh f; k ( ?k) v kl q
v ksal sl cdks/ ksMkyuk
20& kphu&i q
j kuk
i zkphu dk v k' k; i q
j kusl e; l sgksrk gS
] t ks' kCn dky v kS
j ;q
x dksl a
d sr djrk gS
] fdU
rqi q
j kuk\
( d) i zkphurk dk | ksrd gS
A ( [ k) u; k] rkt +
k rFkk ; q
oki u dk fojks/h
( x) t ks[ kq
nkbZesai zkIr gS
A ( ?k) dq
N gh i q
j kuk
1& ( d) 2& ( [ k) 3& ( [ k) 4& ( d) 5& ( [ k) 6& ( [ k)
7& ( [ k) 8& ( [ k) 9& ( [ k) 10& ( d) 11& ( [ k) 12& ( d)
13& ( d) 14& ( [ k) 15& ( d) 16& ( x) 17& ( d) 18& ( [ k)
19& ( x) 20& ( [ k)
180 Communication Skill-I

Sem-I (Group-I)
Model Paper-A

[ k. M&I [1 x 5= 5]

1. (i) fd, gq , mi dkj dksekuusokyk &

( d) drK ( [ k) dru ( x) l oZK ( ?k) v Yi K
(ii) ^fgUnh* ' kCn gS
( d) rq d hZ ( [ k) vaxszt h ( x) i Q
kjl h ( ?k) i w
(iii) ^dey* i ; kZ ; gS
( d) okfndk ( [ k) i a
dt ( x) bUnq ( ?k) u; u
(iv) og [ kkuk [ kkdj l ksx; kAbl okD; dksl a ;q
Dr okD; esacnyksA
(v) l gh fojke fpg~ u yxkv ksA

[ k. M&II

2. o`{ k l si ksfxjrsgS
Abl esadkS
u dkjd gS
A [1 x 1= 1]
[ k. M&III

3. nw
"k.k , d l eL; k bl fo"k; i j v uq
PNsn fy[ ksA [5]

[ k. M&IV [2 x 2=

4. (i) i zsl l w
puk l sD; k l e>rsgS
(ii) nSfud fgU nq
Lrku dkst y fudkl h dsl EcUk esai =k fy[ kksA
[ k. M&V

5. (i) mPpkj.k LFkku crk, a
A [ x 2= 1]
( d) , ( [ k) j
(ii) ekS
f[ kd l a
s"k.k dh v ko' ; drk D; ksagksrh gS \ [1]
(iii) O;fDrRo dsfy, l a okn dkS ' ky D; ksav ko' ; d gS
\ [1]
Note: l Hkh mkj i kB~
; iq
Lrd esagS A
Group-II (English) 181

t io n

d fg
[English an
182 Communication Skill-II
Group-II (English) 183



Introduction to Communication

1.1 Definition, Communication Cycle / Process

What is Communication?

Communication refers to the cycle or process of sharing information. It is one of the most
important requirements of interaction.
As we know, we all are unable to survive without interaction. Society compels us to
interact with each other. We hold meetings, seminars and press conferences. We do teleconferencing
and videoconferencing.Net surfing chatting and gossiping are also not exceptions. All these involve
Communication which is mutual response between individuals.
The word communication has been derived from the Latin word communicare .The literal
meaning of this word is giving or sharing information. It can be formal or informal, but sharing
the ideas or knowledge with others is known as Communication. It is never passive.
We actively participate in Communication.
Communication Cycle

Sender words, gesture, symbols receiver

l It comprises of a sender and a receiver.

l It includes words, gestures and symbols.
l It involves meaning and understanding by both- the receiver and the sender of
the message.
l It indicates Inter -stimulation and response that are very essential for
184 Communication Skill-II

l It makes the experiences of the sender and the receiver common.

l It is dynamic and interactive.

1.2 The elements of communication

There are following elements of Communication that are very essential. They play an
important role to achieve the goal that reflects common understanding.
l Sender l Message
l Channel l Receiver
l Feedback l Context

l Sender-The Communication begins with the Sender who forms the idea of the
message. He selects the message that has to be communicated. It depends on the
knowledge, experiences and abilities of the sender to select the message.
l Message-Messages vary .They include two types of content:
a) Logical Logical messages deal with factual information.
b) Emotional Emotional messages denote feelings and emotions.
There are formal messages too. They include a general topic. The ideas are searched
and the scope, type and sources of information are decided.
l Channel-Any organization needs interaction between the authority and the workers.
This interaction occurs through different channels. The channels can be informal
and formal.
Informal channels are called grapevine. They impart official news through informal
or unofficial communicative interactions like teatime gatherings and lunchtime
meetings. These channels are not very positive for the unclear organizations. There
is a communication gap between the management and the workers and the workers
wish to know about the inns and outs of the organization through unofficial
information. However, for those organizations that are transparent, the grapevine
builds organizational solidarity and peaceful co-existence of the management and
the workers.
Formal Channels opt for formal methods of communication followed in the
organization. They can be:

a) Downward communication
b) Upward communication
c) Horizontal communication
d) Diagonal communication
Group-II (English) 185

a) Downward communication-It denotes communication from the higher authority

to the lower level. It refers to the hierarchy from General Manager of a company to
Branch manager. This type of communication provides direction and control. This
type of communication includes annual confidential report, project feedback,
performance appraisal, official instructions and many others. This type of
communication can be carried on through notes, memos, notices, circulars, emails,
voice mails or face to face conversation. Despite the increase in staff-awareness,
decisions, guidelines, implementation of new policies and appraisal of the
performance of the workers too much downward communication can be hazardous
for the healthy relationship between the workers and the management.
b) Upward Communication-When the superiors are provided with information by
the subordinates, it is called upward communication. Business reports from the
Branch manager to General Manager of a company or suggestion box, grievance
committees, and business proposals are parts of upward communication. This type
of communication improves the relationship between the management and the
subordinate staff .It helps in decision making process. However, there must be a
balance between downward and upward communication channels.
c) Horizontal Communication- Horizontal communication develops teamwork. It
promotes group coordination and occurs between the same level of seniors and the
same level of subordinates .It is more informal than downward and upward
communication. It can be carried out in the form of telephone calls,
videoconferencing, teleconferencing, management gossip, memos etc.
d) Diagonal Communication: Diagonal Communication flows in each and every
direction. Keeping in mind the changes in management and information technology
this type of communication helps grow equality and fraternity in the corporate
sectors. It takes place among people who are not bound to follow rigid rules of
l Receiver- Communication involves interaction. There are two communication
agents sender and receiver. Receiver is one of the agents. The sender sends the
message and the receiver receives the message. He decodes the message and then
sends back his opinion as feedback. He interprets and analyses the message. He
can do it in writing and orally too. For written communication, understanding and
reading is essential while oral communication needs listening and understanding.
l Feedback- Feedback refers to the reaction of the receiver. It can be verbal or non-
verbal. The sender becomes sure that the message has been received and understood.
The feedback refers to the reaction of the receiver. If he accepts the information,
he stores it in his memory. If he rejects it, he can demand for more information or
explanation from the sender. Feedback is very essential for the sender. The sender
can analyze the action of the information on the mind of the receiver whether he
has successfully enabled to detect the meaning of the message.
186 Communication Skill-II

l Context- Context denotes the rules, culture of the place, physical surrounding and
communicative background of the interaction. It involves culture that depicts the
lifestyle, behavior, knowledge and the values that are shared during the interaction.

1.3 Definition of Communication Process

Communication process is compulsory. It is carried on from the sender to the receiver and
vice-versa. It is unalterable and multidimensional. It is called compulsory because the initiation
and interpretation of the messages between the sender and the receiver definitely continues during
the process. This process occurs simultaneously between the sender and the receiver. It is unalterable
as it never looks back and carries the information between the two-sender and the receiver. Its
multidimensional approach can be assessed through its content and its association with all the

1.4 Stages in the Process

Defining the context:

The context must be defined to explain the objective of the interaction. For example a
professional message calls for a professional environment. This type of message will surely lack
the casual tone that you have while talking to your friend. The surrounding also counts a lot. If you
do not have a soothing surrounding while delivering the message, you can fail to express what you
actually wish to. The receiver will also be unable to decipher the exact meaning.
Knowing the audience:

Keeping in mind the audience, the message must be delivered according to them. It can be
a casual conversation or it can be an interview for a job. Whether it is a face to face interaction or
a student to student negotiation, the communication depends on knowing the audience. The sender
prepares the message and sends it to the receiver.The receiver is the target audience. So knowing
the audience is very important.
Designing the message:

The communication starts with the formation of a message. The idea has to be formed and
then the message should be selected. It depends on the senders potentiality, knowledge, experience
and objective. While designing a message all these factors must be kept in mind.
There are two types of messagesLogical and Emotional.
Factual information is known as logical and messages dealing with feelings are called
emotional. This process includes the selection of a subject, topic, scope, type and source of
Group-II (English) 187


Encoding is the form of a message. It transforms the information into a logical and coded
message. It depends on the objective of the communication. It also involves the relationship between
the sender and the receiver. Encoding consists of three things:
a) Selection of a language
b) Choosing the medium of communication
c) Preferring a suitable form of communication
The selection of an exact language is the most important part of communication. Verbal
messages should be shared in a common language .It can be easier for the receiver to decode the
message. If the receiver is unable to understand the language, the process of communication will be
hampered. For example a person not knowing the Spanish language will not be able to decode a
message written in Spanish. Generally the first language is used in informal communication whereas
the official language is used in formal, business, academic and professional communications.
Choosing the medium of communication is another essential step for encoding. It increases
the effectiveness of encoding. There are three forms that can be obtained for the process of encoding.
l Speaking
l Writing
l Body languages
Speaking involves the message used while talking to the receiver. It is called verbal message.
The sender sends his message verbally. For example, the Branch manager of a company gives
instructions to his subordinate over phone. This can be called a verbal message.
Writing includes notices, circulars, memos, business letters, tenders, reports, proposals
etc. The sender sends the messages to the receiver in writing .The forms can vary according to the
Body languages denote signs, symbols and other facial expressions that can be visual and
auditory, both. These can be very much effective in face to face interaction, interviews, and
Selecting Proper Channels

Next the message is transmitted through a selected channel. This channel should be free
from any disturbance created by the channel meant for the receiver. There can be downward
channel that involves communication from the authority to workers or from the seniors to
subordinates. The upward channel deals with the communication from employees to management
or from the subordinates to seniors. The Horizontal channel denotes the communication among
workers at the same level. This means the communication between seniors to seniors or the employees
to employees. Diagonal communication refers to the process that flows to different directions
without any protocol.
188 Communication Skill-II


Transmitting a message is done through channels like upward downward, horizontal or

diagonal. It ensures that the medium that is selected while encoding carries the message to the
receiver without any disturbance. It also denotes opting for an exact time, a right place and a proper
way of communicating. For example if the worker wants to get leave next week, he must decide
beforehand. He should think where to give the application, when to meet the official and how to
explain his condition.

Receiving is the process when the message is received by the receiver. It refers to the
action or reaction of the receiver. The sender gets confirmed that the message is received and
understood by the receiver. The receiver understands the message and sends back his reaction
verbally or non-verbally.

Decoding transforms a message into a concept. It translates the received message and
explains the meaning. The message is transferred to the sender with an interpretation after it is
understood by the receiver .When a written message is decoded, it is analyzed and explained by the
receiver. Oral communication, however, involves listening and understanding. Decoding plays a
significant role in the process of communication. If the message is misunderstood or misinterpreted,
it can create a chaos in the whole communication process.
Giving feedback:

Giving feedback is the last and final touch offered to the process of communication. It
ensures that the receiver has received the message. After receiving, he has interpreted it in the same
sense as the sender has meant it to be. The receiver can ask for more information from the sender if
the meaning is not clear to him. The effectiveness of the communication is dependent on the
appropriate meaning of the message sent by the receiver .The interpretation of the message from
the sender must match with that of the receiver.
Group-II (English) 189

Types of Communication

Definition, Communication Cycle / Process

There are two types of Communication:
1. Formal Communication
2. Informal Communication

2.1 Formal Communication

Formal communication channels in a company facilitate effective communication between
workers and the management. Formal communication includes Vertical, Horizontal and Diagonal
The gathered information in the form of message from the subordinates to the seniors of a
company goes upward to the management in the form of Vertical communication. It involves
decision making or reviews. When the management gives orders to the subordinates, it flows
downward. It is also called Vertical as it moves downward from the seniors to subordinates. For
example the workers can be advised to implement new techniques and ideas to improve the
production. Communication among employees at the same level is known as Horizontal
communication. It develops teamwork and coordination among the members of the group. Diagonal
communication falls in line with communication flowing in all directions. There is no protocol to
guide them. They are free to know the needs of the market and respond accordingly.

2.2 Informal communication

Informal communication denotes the official information transferred through unofficial
sources. This has another name, i.e.grapevine.This informal communication refers to gossips, rumors
or discussions during tea time or lunchtime. This type of channel can be unreliable as they involve
gossip or rumors. For example when the manager of a company is suspended or dismissed, the
authority is not going to inform the subordinates. It can be a gossip or rumor too. The employees
collect the information from some other source and draw a conclusion. However, this type of
communication is not always detrimental for the company .It can help the organization to build a
positive relationship between the workers and the management and can create a balanced and
harmonious environment.

2.3 Verbal Communication

Verbal communication deals with spoken interaction. It refers to the word of mouth. It
190 Communication Skill-II

needs a common language that is understood by the sender and the receiver. The sender must send the
message in a language known to the receiver. If he does not do so, the message will not be interpreted
correctly. Our first language should be used in informal situations, but official language is preferred
in business, academic and professional situations. However, verbal communication can be effective
through harnessing the skill of speaking. Clarity of voice, confidence and clarity of concept are the
three essential points to be noted regarding Verbal communication. It is also related to non verbal
communication and listening skills. The speaker can communicate the message effectively to the
receiver by following certain rules like being polite, listening to the queries from the audience attentively
and answering them with confidence. His body language and facial expressions also count a lot.
Casual conversation, formal interactions or job interviews are the examples of Verbal communication
.This includes face to face communication. Meetings, conferences, group discussions and panel
discussions play an important role in verbal group communication. In the same way speeches, debates,
workshops, seminars or oral presentations involve speaker-listener communication, but personal
interactions, business deals and telephone interviews through telephone do not need body languages
despite falling in the group of verbal communication.

2.4 Non-verbal Communication:

Non- verbal Communication refers to signs, symbols, the tone and the pitch of the voice,
body language, physical distance and facial expressions. It throws light on the relationship between
the sender and the receiver. However it has not a fixed meaning. A gesture by hand or a facial
expression varies from person to person and from one context to another situation. It involves the
people who are sharing, the place where it is shared and the culture to which they belong to. For
example a nod by the official of the company in a meeting with the director can mean something
different compared to the nod in a crowd of workers or an interaction between two individuals.
Non -verbal communication that involves so many expressions cannot be dealt with separately. It
involves the entire package of expressions along with speech.
Written communication (notices, memo, circulars etc.) and visual aids (maps charts
etc.) cannot be classified as verbal or non-verbal communication. They have their own identity.

2.5 Vertical Communication

Vertical communication refers to communication between management and workers. It
takes place between the higher levels of the authority and the workers or employees. It can be
divided into two types:
i) Downward communication
ii) Upward communication
i) Downward communication-It denotes communication from the higher authority to
the lower level. It refers to the hierarchy from General Manager of a company to
Branch manager. This type of communication provides direction and control. This
Group-II (English) 191

type of communication includes annual confidential report, project feedback,

performance appraisal, official instructions and many others. This type of
communication can be carried on through notes, memos, notices, circulars, emails,
voice mails or face to face conversation. Despite the increase in staff-awareness,
decisions, guidelines, implementation of new policies and appraisal of the performance
of the workers too much downward communication can be hazardous for the healthy
relationship between the workers and the management. The feedback system must
be strong and efficient. It helps the message from getting distorted and lost. It can
also cause delay in the process. Sometimes some important information is not sent
and workers get frustrated. It is also called Downstream communication.
ii) Upward Communication-When the superiors are provided with information by the
subordinates, it is called upward communication. Business reports from the Branch
manager to General Manager of a company or suggestion box, grievance committees,
and business proposals are parts of upward communication. This type of communication
improves the relationship between the management and the subordinate staff .It helps
in decision making process. However, there must be a balance between downward and
upward communication channels. There can be psychological problems in this type of
communication. The seniors may feel infra dig if they are advised by the juniors. There
can be a middleman, the Ombudsperson who can listen to the grievances from the
workers and the management and can settle the matter.

2.6 Horizontal Communication

Horizontal communication develops teamwork. It promotes group coordination and occurs
between the same level of seniors and the same level of subordinates .It is more informal than
downward and upward communication. It can be carried out in the form of telephone calls,
videoconferencing, teleconferencing, management gossip, memos etc. This is also called Lateral
communication that mostly refers to an interaction between the production and the marketing

2.7 Diagonal Communication

Diagonal Communication flows in each and every direction. Keeping in mind the changes
in management and information technology this type of communication helps grow equality and
fraternity in the corporate sectors. It takes place among people who are not bound to follow rigid
rules of communication. It takes place freely between the senior level and junior level without any
hindrance. This type of communication is also known as Crosswise communication. This generates
coordination. The lower level feels free to interact with the higher level of official without any
binding and it boosts up the spirit. Today this type of communication is highly advocated. However,
the senior may feel ignored and can avoid implementing the suggestion given by the workers. It can
create chaos as it lacks protocol.
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Principles of effective communication

3.1 Definition of Effective Communication

An Effective communication is a deal between the receiver and the goal. The both have to
be explained clearly against the context of communication. There are different types of audience
and different kinds of approaches for communication. The desired objective can be gained only by
knowing the audience and the goal. The objectives can be to persuade, to explain, to inform or to
take action. The communication can be effective by making the audience or receiver understand
the message or the goal without any effort. For example, one of the environmentalists is
communicating his project reports to two different receivers. One of them is his fellow scientists
and the other is the administrators. The report can be easily understood by the peer group whereas
the administrators would like to know more about the implication of the project. The method of
communication totally differs from one to another and it is very important to know the audiences
before you start communicating.
The communication can be effective by following certain principles. These principles include
subject competence, linguistic competence and organizational competence that involves
speaking, listening, asking and answering questions, expressing views and discussing too. It also
refers to the emotions and the context of the sender and the receiver both. The sender must have the
proper knowledge of the concept or the subject he is going to communicate. He must have the
experience and the ability to transfer them .The language used by the sender while speaking or
writing must be clear enough to make the receiver understand it. The receiver also must know the
language by which the message is delivered to him. The organizational competence denotes the
process of logical and thematic approach.
Effective communication is the tool to improve group work, solving problems and making
decisions. It helps to communicate negative messages without creating any fuss. Spontaneous
outpourings are more effective than a speech made up of fixed pattern or ideas. However, it takes
time to develop this skill and be a good communicator.

3.2 Communication Barriers and how to overcome them

Communication barriers can occur due to following reasons:
l Improper usage of language l Misunderstanding
l Distractions l Emotional taboos
l Prejudice or negativity l Physical disabilities
l Cultural differences l Difference in opinion
l Lack of staying focused
Group-II (English) 193

l Improper usage of language- If the sender is unable to focus what he wants to

say, the receiver is totally in a fix. He cannot understand the message at all. Use of
jargons in the message can create such conditions. The sender must be aware of
the knowledge of the receiver and send the message. The inappropriate medium
and linguistic form can cause disasters. To overcome this the sender must know
his audience.
l Misunderstanding- You can have different types of audience. The words convey
varied meanings to different people. The senders language is influenced by age,
education and cultural context. The receiver may be unable to know the meaning
of the language or words used in the message. In order to avoid this type of
misunderstanding, very ordinary words with concrete meaning should be used during
communication so that it can be effective.
l Distractions- Distractions are always harmful for communication. The surrounding
where the sender is communicating may not be suitable .It can cause a lot of problem
for the speaker to hold his audience. Physical discomforts can divert the attention
of the sender and the receiver both.
l Emotional taboos-If the sender is emotionally disturbed, the communication
would never be effective. Emotionally stressed people are hardly able to
communicate the message they wish to communicate. Fear, anxiety, sadness or
excitement all create problems for the sender to express logically. Communication
is always based on reasoning and the sender must not be emotionally charged. It
can be bad for the sender and the receiver both if they are emotionally charged.
Prejudice and negativity-The sender or the receiver should be unbiased. He must
not analyze the message from his own point of view. If he interprets the message
from his own angle, his prejudices and ideas would start interfering .He must be
totally indifferent to his own negativity.
l Physical disabilities- If the sender or the receiver is physically handicapped, the
communication will not be effective. The sender or the receiver with speech
difficulty or hearing problem can never communicate successfully.
l Cultural differences- Cultural difference occurs due to difference in values. Values
influence our behavior, thought and many others. The sender or the receiver must
share the same values to understand each other. Their communication can be
hampered if they are not able to understand each other. They must appreciate each
others culture and values for effective communication.
l Difference in opinion Difference in opinion will always remain a barrier to
effective communication. If the receiver does not agree to the viewpoint of the
message sent by the sender, the communication can break down. So the sender and
the receiver must agree to the content of the message to make it effective.
l Lack of staying focused- The sender must not think anything else other than what
194 Communication Skill-II

he has to communicate. He must concentrate on the content of the message he is

going to send. He cannot think of his daily schedules or other courses of action.
How to overcome the barriers:

l An attentive listener- Effective communication can occur if the receiver listens to

the message attentively. An engaged listener would listen to the feelings of the
sender too. He will be totally engrossed in the topic. He should never divert the
speaker by interrupting him. Favoring the right ear can help him know the nuances
of emotions working behind the message. He must not judge the speaker at that
time. He must give feedback to the speaker.
l Attending non-verbal signals-Non- verbal communication refers to facial
expressions, gestures, postures, body movement, the tonal quality, breathing and
muscle tension. The receiver must pay heed to the body language and non-verbal
expressions. If the sender is able to express through body language and the receiver
also understands his expressions, there will be no barrier to effective communication.
Positive attitude can refrain from losing confidence. Positive body language like
eye contact, smiling and shaking hands can remove the barrier to effective
l Staying stress-free-The sender must be calm and quiet before delivering his
message. He should collect his ideas, provide examples, deliver his words clearly,
ask questions and wind up with a summary. He must accept criticism and should
compromise. He must opt for wit and humor to lighten the environment. He should
use anecdotes to create sensation and make the topic interesting. This would help
the receiver feel interested.
l Asserting oneself- To overcome the barriers to effective communication the sender
must assert himself .Neither he should be aggressive nor should he enforce his
views on others. He should value himself and his own opinions and should respect
others too. The feedback should be expressed in a positive way.

3.3 Developing effective messages

Messages should be clear and concise. They must tally with the receivers interest and
values. They must include what the sender wants to say, verbally or non-verbally. The following
are the few steps to develop effective messages:
l Thinking about purpose- First of all the sender should know the objective for
which the message is being created. The sender has to be concerned about the
specific message to be conveyed to the audience. It should include the senders
knowledge, abilities, experiences, and the overall objectives of speaking or sending
messages. The speaker or the sender of the message thinks why he is speaking or
writing the message.
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It expresses the speakers or the writers ideas. The purpose of the message is to
inform the receiver. It also tries to convince the receiver about the senders ideas.
l Knowing the audience- The most important thing for a speaker or the sender of
the message is knowing the audience. Conferences, seminars, workshops,
meetings or interviews all denote professional situations. These situations demand
a particular type of audience. They should be related to the professional background.
So if the message is delivered in a meeting of officials that consists of the hierarchy,
it must be oriented like that only. The speaker should know why the audience is
going to listen to him or to read his message .He should know about their level of
knowledge about the topic. Their personal and professional requirement must be
known to him. Above all the speaker or the sender must be aware of their expectation
from him. To get acquainted with them he can interview a small group from the
audience. Questions can be prepared to collect data from the audience. It would be
easier for you to know about their mindset through this. Analyzing the audience
before the speaker or the sender delivers the message can help him create the
message interesting for them.
l Structuring the message: The correct Structure of the message has a strong impact
on the receiver. While structuring the message first the speaker or the writer has to
select a language. This language should be common for the sender and the receiver
so that the message can be interpreted by the receiver. For example if the sender or
speaker is an Italian and the receiver is a German, the communication can fail as
the German may not know Italian language. The audience cannot be the same as
every individual is different from each other. For that the message must be framed
according to the interests and choice of the audience. It can be a formal
communication or an informal communication. The message has to be structured
keeping in mind the perspective of the sender. The message must focus the topic
the sender is trying to convey. If the speaker is going to address the audience in a
meeting, conference, seminar or workshop, he can use both verbal and non-verbal
messages. The speaker can take help of audio visual aids for effective
communication. Non- verbal messages include facial expressions and body
l Selecting proper channels: After the message is formed a suitable channel should
be chosen to send the message .The flow of information or the message can
move downward, upward, sideways or in all directions. The sender has to
select the channel that suits the context and the objective of his message. For
example a Manager in a company is like a captain in a ship. He has to motivate,
guide and organize his employees in an effective way. For this he can speak in the
meetings or use notices or circulars in written form. He can select any of the
following channels:
196 Communication Skill-II

Channels of Communication

Formal Informal Unofficial

Formal CommunicationA formal communication channel deals with policies, protocol

and goals of a company. This process of communication is a series of commands from higher level
of management to the lower level of workers and from the lower level of subordinates to the higher
level of authorities. For example, the companys newsletter gives the idea of the companys objective
and vision to the clients and the employees. It also transmits information through memos, reports,
scheduled meetings and directions in the series of commands. The formal communication channel
also focuses the plans of the business, employers manual, annual report, customer satisfaction
survey reports and review meetings. Verbal-non-verbal and written messages in the form of memos,
notices, circulars etc. are included in this type of communication channel. In other words this can
be known as downward and upward channel of effective communication.
Informal Communication Informal communication is outside the web of hierarchical
communication. It is also called Horizontal communication. It includes professional peer groups
and the people working in the same rank. It includes informal discussions and a hand to hand
approach to the seniors and the subordinates as well. It can be carried out through videoconferencing,
teleconferencing, routine meetings and many other things.
Unofficial Communication: It is named grapevine and encourages rumors. It is a care
-free surrounding where lunchtime gossips about the management takes place. Even the minutes of
a meeting, TV serials, Politics, Sports and any other kind of discussion can occur among the workers.
However, it can build harmonious environment in the company between the seniors and the
subordinates if it is handled carefully.
l Minimizing barriers- Minimizing barriers of communication can make it more
and more effective. To minimize the barriers the sender of the message has to do a
bit of homework before delivering his message. He must have the clarity of concept
that he is going to communicate. He should not judge the receiver according to
his own levels of understanding and surrounding. He should assess the same of
the receiver and then communicate his message. He should seek advice from others
while planning the message. He should take care of the content, language and
the tone of the message. The message should be precise and technical jargons
should be avoided. The interest and the need of the audience must be kept in
mind to get a better result from the communication. The message should be
consistent and in accordance with the policies, goals, programs and the methods
Group-II (English) 197

of the company. Both the sender and the receiver have to listen to each other.
Good listening can always sort out the barriers of effective communication. Proper
feedback is also very important to remove the barriers of effective communication.
Without a proper feedback that can be oral or in written format, the sender is
unable to minimize the barriers. Finally a follow-up process of communication
should be adopted by the sender to know the strength and weaknesses of the message.
l Facilitating feedback: Facilitating feedback includes many people. It makes the
process easy. The sender plans an event to know that the objectives of the group
have been met with clarity of concept and good participation. For this the sender
has to be unbiased and must not impress upon the receiver. He must not be engaged
with his own personal views and should observe the approach and concern of all
the members. The sender has to create a healthy environment to motivate and
should maintain balance between the management and the workers for facilitating
feedback. The sender should design and plan the process of the team and should
also select the tools to help the team get the best result. He should guide and
control the process and respect the ideas of the people who participate. He can
take help of the suggestions to facilitating feedback, hence team members who
participated can have shared responsibility for the result.
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Non verbal- graphic Communication

4.1 Non -Verbal Codes


Kinesecs refers to body movements. It can be facial expression. It can be gestures or

movement of any part of the body. It also denotes behavior. The word Kinesics was first used by the
anthropologist Ray Birdwhistell. He thought that all the movements of the body have a language
and the nonverbal behavior has a grammar that is equivalent to the spoken language.
Kinesics represents the way a person moves the parts of his body to signify a message. The
body language can send different kinds of messages. It varies according to the culture. An open
body denotes domination and comfort, but a closed body signifies inferiority complex. Imitating
other person's body tells us about trust, agreement and liking.
Gestures: A person can communicate through the movements of the body and the arms.
There are five types of gestures:
Emblem- Words can replace emblems directly. For example-the OK symbol created with
the help of the thumb and the forefinger signifies that it is good. This type of gesture can be translated
into words without any delay, but it can vary in its meaning in some other country. This gesture can
symbolize zero as well.
Illustrators- Illustrators support what is said. They emphasize the meaning of the gesture.
They are often used to describe the size of an object or to focus a key word in what is being
delivered. Pounding the table or pointing at any object nearby may help showing interest, effort
and eagerness to make the communication effective. However, it depends on the cultural context
how frequently it is used.
Affect Displays- Affect displays show emotion and feelings. The grin on our face represents
happiness whereas the frowning expression on our face depicts anger. These expressions are
spontaneous and cannot be bound by culture or place.
Regulators- Regulators are used for monitoring the flow of emotion on the part of the
sender. The receiver may nod and encourage the speaker to carry on his message. On the other hand
the receiver may show his apathy by moving out of the place where the message is being delivered
or by raising his finger to ask a question.
Adaptors- Adaptors release tension. These are behavioral expressions used for showing
irritation or anxiety by swinging one's legs or tapping one's pen. The expressions expose how the
receiver is feeling.
Group-II (English) 199

Before delivering a message, the sender must practice those skills that are effective to
express his ideas in a better way.


Proxemics denotes the space at the time of communication. The sender or the receiver can
stand very close and feel uncomfortable. The space where they are communicating can be distractive.
Proxemics is the study of space and how it can be used. There are four types of space distance:
l Personal distance
l Intimate distance
l Public distance
l Social distance
l Personal distance- This type of distance can be eighteen inches to four feet. The
sender and the receiver stand quite close but maintain a distance that is very
comfortable. This type of communication can occur between friends or family
l Intimate distance- This kind of distance covers up to eighteen inches only. It
refers to the relationships that are quite familiar and close. The sender and the
receiver both can interact within a close distance. It is trustworthy too. They can
even touch each other. This happens mostly with romantic partners. However ,it
varies from one place to other due to cultural difference.
l Public distance- More than twelve feet distance should be maintained when the
public is addressed. The speaker stands at a distance of not less than twelve feet.
.He addresses the audience in a meeting, a conference or a workshop. The distance
should be more than personal or intimate distance as very close interaction is not
possible in such situations. For example when a lecture is delivered in a classroom
with sixty students, this type of communication distance is maintained.
l Social distance- This kind of distance is from four feet to twelve feet. Social
distance is used during the communication between customers or colleagues.
l Physical space- It refers to the walls of the room. The color of the walls of the
room where the message is delivered can distract the speaker or sender of the
message. Poxemics also involves this.
l Geographic space- This refers to our action at the particular space. It depends on
the place where the sender and the receiver of the message are communicating.


Haptics denotes "touch". It has originated from Greek language that means "I touch." This
relates to the communication through touch. Touch is a very essential things for communication.
200 Communication Skill-II

Proxemics and Haptics share space and territory. Haptics involves emotional type of communication.
A pat on the back or a hug encourages the speaker to send the message effectively. It can be used to
train the communicators eye-hand coordination. It plays a significant role in games where the two
players can feel and see the interactions with each other.
However, it differs according to place, culture and gender. Different cultures have social
taboos about touch.


Vocalics denotes the way of expression through our voice. It refers to the tone, pitch,
volume, speed, rate, modulation, inflection, pausing and silence. It also focuses the speaker's
pronunciation and articulation. How clearly the speaker utters the words and what is the type of his
vocal quality can be known through Vocalics .The quality of the voice differs from person to person.
It can be hoarse or rough. The pitch of the voice can change during communication. The speaker
should be able to modify his voice or breath with tongue, teeth, lips and the other organs of mouth
to produce correct speech and sounds. It would facilitate the communication of the message. The
pace of speaking can be comfortable or the other way round. The accent of the speaker's
communication can reveal his native place.It can provoke faulty speech patterns. The pauses can be
heard or can be silent too.

E-Physical Appearance

Physical appearance counts much while speaking in, interviews, public or social gatherings.
It denotes a visual impression .The receiver of the message gets highly impressed by the physical
appearance of the speaker in Non-verbal communication. The speaker may not be very beautiful or
handsome, but the smart look and the outfit cam matter a lot for the receiver. The outward appearance
needs polish and a clean look. The hairstyle, dress, clean nails and shiny shoes add to the speaker's
personality. If the speaker looks smart , the receiver automatically adds positive qualities to him or
her. The color of the attire should match with the occasion. There are many types of physical
appearance: Endomorphs with a rounded body and a slow, emotional and forgiving nature,
Ectomorphs with a thin , bony and tall and an awkward, polite and detached type of nature and
Mesmorphs with a triangular shape of the body and a dominant ,confident ,assertive, optimistic,
energetic and competitive nature. It depends a lot on the physical attributes of a speaker for effective


Chronemics refers to the role of time in communication. The sender needs a particular
time schedule for delivering his or her message. It can be formal, informal or written, but it requires
a certain period of time while communicating a message .However, it varies according to the cultural
context and lifestyle. It denotes the time management during the communication. The exact definition
Group-II (English) 201

of Chronemics can be "the interrelated observations and theories of man's use of time". Time
management includes interactions, punctuality and patience to wait.There are many types of
Monochronic Time: This type of time system includes the attitude of not wasting time
and giving more and more importance to the value of time .The sender following this type of time
schedule thinks that the task should be completed within the given time slot .It does not involve
many tasks and focuses only on the single task delivered to the sender of the message. The sender
following monochromic time considers deadline seriously. He is committed to the job and its final
result. He builds temporary relationship with the receiver.
Polychronic time: This refers to multitasking. The person does a handful of jobs at one go
.He can sit in the meeting and take down notes as well as listening to the speaker. He can answer the
phone calls while typing. The sender or the receiver of the message does not follow the time-bound
concept and communicates easily. He considers the results seriously and is highly informed about
the message. However he can change the plans easily but maintains the relationship with the receiver
of the message. The sender who follows this type of time schedule can build lifetime relationship
with the receiver.
Chronemics also helps in regulating interaction. The participants can talk one by one .If
the speaker wants a response, he can give time for the receiver to respond .Otherwise he can keep
on talking continuously without any pause. Expressions of intimacy and powerful emotions can
lengthen the time slot used for communication.
G-Artifacts - Artifacts refer to the senders clothing, appearance, habits and beliefs. The
dress, the use of jewellery ,the color selection-all convey a particular message to the receiver. They
are very effective in communication. This type of communication relates to materialism.it increases
interpersonal communication among friends and colleagues. It also encourages aesthetics and
physical attractiveness of the sender of the message. The selection of colors and other accessories
also add in the effective communication. The black clothing denotes sadness whereas white refers
to cheerful disposition.
Aspects of body language- Aspects of body language deal with various types of physical
expressions. There are several aspects of body language like eye contact or oculesics, facial
expression, gestures and postures.
Eye contact- While delivering the message the sender looks at the audience. The audience
too observes the speaker with his or her eyes. The eyes can reflect what is going on in a person's
mind. The eye contact is very important for all. The speaker must contact the receiver with his or
her eyes positively. Thus he or she can know if the audience is paying heed to the message. Eye
contact also refers to confidence. However the speaker should learn the various cultural eye contacts
to understand the expressions of the receiver or to communicate the audience belonging to different
culture. Sustained eye contact denotes praise, trust and confidence, but brief eye contact tells us
about nervous state of mind. Avoiding eye contact refers to shyness, fear and mark of respect in
some cultures.
202 Communication Skill-II

Facial expression- The facial expression involves contact through eyes, eyebrows, forehead
and mouth for expression. For effective communication facial expression should be spontaneous
and natural. The speaker should always smile to create a positive environment. The smile, however,
should be related to the context. He should not smile every time, but should maintain a carefree
environment. The speaker should not hide his or her emotions. There are several types of facial
expressions denoting various feelings. Raising eyebrows refers to question and surprise. Wide
open eyes also disclose the same. Lowering eyebrows relate acceptance. Frowning refers to anger
whereas open mouth denotes shock. Swallowing reveals diffidence and nervousness.
Gestures - Gestures are bodily expressions implying different meanings. Fingers , arms
and hands are used to denote certain kinds of expressions. The attitude of the sender of the message
can be known by the gestures and the movements of the parts of the body. The speaker or the
receiver may be nervous and upset and his fingers may tremble. This is a negative signal. However,
positive and proper gestures should be used by the sender of the message to deliver his or her
message effectively. The receiver should also avoid gestures like using his or her fingers to say
something negative. Too much use of fingers, arms and hands can spoil the positive effect of the
message. The gestures should be appropriate to match with the verbal message. The cultural patterns
of gestures should be practiced by the sender and receiver of the message to avoid misunderstanding.
Postures- Postures unravel the personality of the speaker or the receiver of the message.
Alertness, confidence, maturity, energy and fitness of the sender or the receiver of the message can
be judged by suitable postures. Leaning towards the speaker or the receiver displays interest whereas
leaning back reveals disgust, fear or distrust. The cultural patterns of postures should be known and
practiced before delivering the message. Standing, sitting or bowing without any artificial effort
must be practiced for effective communication.
Interpreting Visuals and Illustrating with Visuals like tables, charts and graphs- A
Visual can be interpreted through different aids like tables, charts and graphs. Interpreting Visuals
depends on the person how he is able to interpret a visual. It also needs analysis of the meaning or
meanings of the image. The image can be interpreted by personal angle. It can also be analyzed by
its original or artificial nature. A computer can be used to crop the image and it will lose its original
touch. While interpreting Visuals the interpreter should use his brain and reasoning to analyze the
visual image according to the situation. The Visuals like tables, charts and graphs are used for
effective communication, but the receiver and the sender both must know to interpret the visuals.
Tables use columns and rows to organize symbols, data and words. They can be used in the
minimum space for a lot of information. For this the table rows and columns should be arranged in
logical order. The order of the rows and columns should be organized according to the importance
of the data. The data entries must be simplified to make them understood by the sender and the
receiver. The data that is important should be focused and the row or column has to be included to
summarize the information. Tables are easy to interpret .They are good for better understanding of
the information conveyed and to compare facts. However they can be visual distractions if they are
not written in a proper way.
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Charts- Charts were mostly drawn by hands , but today computer has made it easier to
create beautiful charts. They should be prepared with maximum data and should be easily understood.
Rows and columns should be labeled very accurately .This would not mislead the reader. The data
should be arranged in a logical order. An appropriate scale should be used from the nominal scale,
ordinal scale and the numerical scale. Changing the scale in mid-axis can confuse the readers.
Graphs- When we try to visualize different qualities at the same place, we use graphs.
Graphs give us a picture of the relationship among various qualities. Graphs are of different types
- scatter plots, bar graph, line graph, and pie graphs. Graphs offer a visual statistics of the data in a
pleasant way. They are very effective way of communication compared to telling them verbally in
a particular order. However, they can be totally ineffective if used in a small place.
204 Communication Skill-II

Formal Written Skills

5.1. Office drafting- Circular, Notice and Memo

Circular- A circular is a letter carrying information for a large group of people. It can be
distributed among the residents of an apartment or the staff of a company. It depicts some rules and
regulations that are being implemented in the company or somewhere else. It is done by circulating
to the particular group of people who are notified about a few things in the company. This group of
people can be the employees, customers, business partners, shareholders or suppliers of a company.
A business circular may deal with the change of business premises, reduction in sales prices, a new
product being launched, a senior employee appointed or the expansion of business announced.
Most of the business circulars require a heading, salutation, date, address and the message in
a precise way. It can also be an advertisement for a product that can hold attention, interest,
desire and action. They can be distributed through newspapers to consumers. It can be written in
different ways .It may be in the form of a letter or in some other way.
The following are the samples of Circulars:
Q.1.-Write a Circular for the employees of a business concern. This is to make them
aware of the planning to increase the sales of the company.

To: All employees

From: Rohit Sharma
Date: September2,2016.

Our company has been successful to become a part of the Electronics World Pvt.
Ltd. U.S.A last year. We must get a feedback from our customers to set our next
goals in future. I feel free to share with you my plans about the increase in the sales
of the products in our company.
I hope all of you know about the efforts taken to improve the quality of our products
throughout the country. The company has invested a heavy capital to improve the
conditions. However, productivity can increase not only with the better equipments
but also with the interest and effort taken by the employees to use them in an
innovative way by using the resources.
It is known to all that Rapid Sales has improved the sales of our product by 20
percent, but that is not very satisfactory for the company that was running at a loss
Group-II (English) 205

two years ago. So I feel the sales should be increased by 30 percent in the year to
I feel you all can share the excitement I have to carry out the plan. I hope you will
actively engage yourselves to make it a success.

Q.2- Write a circular to Mr.R.Sharma, Manager Sales, Royal Electronics ,Chandni

Chowk ,Patna .Inform him about the change of your business premises .

Orkut Electronics
22,Rajendra nagar
Mr. R.Sharma
Manager Sales
Chandni Chowk
October 4, 2016

Dear Sir
We would like to inform you about the change of our business premises from 22,
Rajendra Nagar to 27, Ashok Rajpath. We required a larger space as the orders
from our customers were increasing day by day.
You had been our valued business partner for last five years. Please send your
communications to our new address from October 15 2016.
We hope that the new place would be favorable for our further business deals.
Yours faithfully
Rajendra Goel

Q-3 Write a circular for the residents of Alaknanda Apartment ,Gandhi maidan, Patna
informing them about the transfer of Security guards for safety reasons.

August 25,2016 Circular

Alaknanda Apartment
Gandhi Maidan
In order to improve the quality of safety and security of our campus it has been
206 Communication Skill-II

decided to change the Security guards quarterly.

The agencies have been advised to submit the tenders in the office of Alaknanda
Housing Society by September 10,2016.
A general body meeting will be held on September 15,2016 in the Community hall
of Alaknanda Apartment at 5 p.m..
All the members are requested to be present for the same.
Anil Singh
Alaknanda Housing Society


A notice is brief information given in writing. It is mostly formal in style. It carries

information that can be circulated among a large number of people.
A notice has different objectives. It can be used for announcing celebrations, events or
giving important information to the target audience. It can be an invitation to the members of an
organization to attend a meeting or a business meeting. For the business meeting it should have
an agenda. A notice can be written for the lost objects, missing persons or animals too.
Notices are usually pinned up or pasted on the notice-board. They can also be written in the
register and get circulated by peons in an office. The following points should be noted while writing
a notice:
l The name of the organization has to be written on the top.
l The word Notice has to be mentioned after that.
l The heading should be precise.
l Time, date and venue are to be informed.
l The notice should be written keeping in mind the target audience.
l The signature and the designation of the person issuing notice should be included
after the content.
l Formal or informal language can be used.
l Other details can also be included.
l A notice should be unconditional.
l An agenda should be there for business meetings.
Samples of Notice writing:

Q.1- You are Suman , the Secretary of the Environment club of your school. Write a
notice to inform the students of class VI about tree plantation in their school, DPS Patna on
Group-II (English) 207

5 September at 11 a.m. The Environment minister will be the Chief Guest. Each student
should bring one sapling and must attend the Plantation drive.

Delhi Public School

September 2 2016
Tree- Plantation Drive
The Tree Plantation Drive is going to be organized by the Environment Club of
our school on September 5 at 11a.m.All the students of class VI are requested to
participate. Each student must bring one sapling and should plant it in the school
premises. The Environment Minister Mr. Vijay Kumar will be The Chief Guest.

Q-2 You are Rajeev Roy, the Personnel Manager of Plaza Electronics pvt.ltd. Write a
notice to inform all the staff about the Annual meeting to be held in the auditorium on
September 25,2016.

Plaza Electronics Pvt.Ltd

Nageshwar Colony
2 September, 2016 Notice
Annual Meeting
All the staff members of the company are hereby informed that the Annual meeting
will be held on September 25,2016 in the auditorium of the company office. The
Agenda will be as follows:
1. Reading of the Annual Report
2. Product Survey
3. Consumer forum
All the staff members are requested to attend the meeting.
Rajeev Roy
(Personnel Manager)
208 Communication Skill-II

Memo: There are two types of communication:

(i) External Communication and (ii) Internal Communication
Memo falls in line with Internal Communication. The full form of Memo is Memorandum.
This refers to a note to assist the memory.A Memo is used to inform the changes in the organization.
It seeks suggestions. It calls explanation. It asks to submit reports. It can also describe problems
and explain policies. It can provide directions and give feedbacks. It can request for information.
The following points are considered for a memo be:
l It should clear and precise.
l References should be specific.
l Simple words should be used.
l Short sentences are preferred.
l Essential pieces of information should be included.
l It should ensure unity.
l It should have an informal tone.
l It should have a heading.
l It should contain date, to, from and subject.
l The body of a memo should have the message.
l Closing has to be courteous.
l Optional elements can include lists, graphs, diagrams, photographs, tables and other
sources of data.
A memo can be organized in two ways: (i) Direct and (ii) Indirect
In a direct memo the sender states the most important points in the very beginning and then
moves to other details. But in an indirect memo the sender asks for the evidence and then arrives at
a conclusion. The sender must think about his target audience and then write the memo. He must
focus on the goal of writing the memo. Appropriate words, short sentences, appropriate linking
devices, simplicity, clarity and good communication are the essence of a good memo.
Sample of Memos:

Q.1-You are Sanjay Sharma, The Manager (Sales). Write a memo to Roshni Singh,
Asstt. Manager (Sales) informing her about the Training courses in Sales and marketing to
be held from 10 October 2016to 12 October 2016.

Royal Electronics Pvt.Ltd.

East Boring Road
Patna-xxxxxx ph.xxxx-xxxxxx
www.royal electron.com
Group-II (English) 209

Date: September2, 2016

To: Roshni Singh
From: Sanjay Sharma, Manager (Sales)
Subject: Special Training Courses in Sales and Marketing
I would like to inform you that Crown Corporate Training Pvt.Ltd., Mumbai has
proposed to conduct special training courses for our field staff involved in selling
our electronic products. For this I would request you to select the appropriate course
for our sales trainees.
Please find enclosed the following information to enable you to select the right
course for them:
1. List of the courses
2. Duration of each course
3. Structure and content of each course
I look forward to meeting you at the earliest for discussing this matter. We have to
take a decision for the same within a fortnight.
Sanjay Sharma

Q-2- You are Rohit Verma, Director (Sales ) of Synergy Consultancy Services Pvt.Ltd.
Write a memo to inform all the employees about the introduction of a new housing plan.

Synergy Consultancy Services Pvt. Ltd.

West Boring Canal Road,
Date: September 2,2016
To: All Employees
From: Rohit Verma
Director (Sales)
Subject: New Housing Plan
1. The company is introducing a new Housing plan .The name of this plan is SCS
Housing Plan. You will receive brochures of 500 sq.ft. flats in Kankarbagh.
Those who are interested can get loans from the company .A booklet with the
terms and conditions for the same will be distributed by October 15, 2016.
2. The main features of the SCS Housing Plan include:
l A very special price of Rs 2000 per square feet of the plinth area
l An offer valid for the staff only till November
210 Communication Skill-II

l An offer for the employees drawing gross salary less than 20000
per month.
l Loan facility available at subsidized rate of 4% per annum.
l EMI to be paid at the interval of three months.
l EMI to be started only after the possession of the flats.
l Down payment at the discount of 2% of cost price.
3. SCS Housing Plan can change the lifestyle of our employees.
We encourage all our employees to book their dream homes.

Rohit Verma

1. The opening paragraph states the main point.
2. The body clearly sates the main point.
3. Closing

5.2. Job Application with Resume

A Job- application is written in a very precise and formal way. This application is a
forwarding letter and a Resume is enclosed with it. The application highlights the persons profile.
It also reveals the place from where the person has known about the job. It is written to attract
attention, build interest, show the candidates potential and motivate action. It has three parts-
Opening, Body and Closing. There are two types of Applications: (i) Solicited (ii) Unsolicited
The Solicited Applications mention the source of information. It refers to the notice,
advertisement or the company circular for the vacancy .It should match the credentials of the
requirements of the employer. It should use references to strengthen the candidates background.
The employers prefer known people to strangers. So reference is needed.
Unsolicited Applications: This type of application is written when the job is not advertised
.In order to create interest the opening line of the application should start with a question highlighting
the strength of the applicant. For example ,
Are you looking for a dynamic, well-experienced mechanical engineer who has
sufficient experience in thermal plants?
The difference between solicited and unsolicited applications for job is the opening sentences
only. The bodies of both the letters inform the employer about the applicants qualification and
The application should highlight the applicants understanding of the Employers business
.It can use surprising statement in the very beginning to arouse interest in the employers mind.
Group-II (English) 211

After the opening of the letter the letters body should depict achievements of the applicant,
focus the strengths and describe the potentials he or she has.
Finally the closing should once more show the candidates interest in the company for
which he or she has applied. It should express the desire to go for an interview and meet the
employer. The contact numbers, e-mail ID, date and time should be mentioned .The Resume must
be referred for the employers kind consideration.
The job application creates the first impression of the applicant on the employers mind
.So it must be written confidently and efficiently.
A Resume is enclosed to focus the qualifications of the person who is applying. It presents
the individuals background. It reflects the individuals education, skills, abilities, experience,
professional training, achievements and references. The resume is forwarded to prospective
employers. The resume should have a professional look. The main sections of the resume should
be striking and the individual factors of education or experience should be separate and distinct
from each other. The Resume should be factual complete and objective. Specific details should
be mentioned and appropriate writing style should be used. However , styles can differ .A resume
contains heading, position sought, career objective ,education ,work experience, achievements,
skills, activities, interests and references. Resume can be of three types:
1. Chronological
2. Functional
3. Combination
1. Chronological-This type of Resume highlights education and experience. It reflects
the education or past employment record in reverse chronological order. It starts
with the recent educational qualification and work experience and goes backwards
in time. The following question is enclosed with a Chronological Resume.
Q. You are Rohan Sharma/Rohini Singh. Draft an application for the post of Assistant
Executive Engineer (Mechanical) which was advertised in Hindusthan Times on
10 September 2016.

#123 Aradhana Aptt.

Ranchi (Jharkhand)
12 September 2016
Steel Authority of India Ltd.
Dear Sir /Madam
Sub: Application for the post of Assistant Executive Engineer (Mechanical)
212 Communication Skill-II

I would like to introduce myself as a prospective candidate for the post of Assistant
Executive Engineer (Mechanical) advertised in Hindusthan Times on 10 September
I am at present working with H.E.C Ranchi. I have been Assistant Engineer
(Mechanical) for the last five years. I have earned valuable experience in mechanical
and electrical projects. Furthermore, I have had the opportunity to handle
international clients as well. With my treasured ten-year experience, strong techno
commercial insight and effective communication skills I have been able to prove
myself as a successful junior engineer.
If you allow me to avail the opportunity, I can serve your organization in my best
capacity. I can be available for an interview at any time.
Please find enclosed my resume for your kind perusal.
Yours faithfully
Rohan Sharma

Chronological Resume
Rohan Sharma
#123 Aradhana Aptt. Hinoo, Ranchi
Position sought- Assistant Executive Engineer (Mechanical)
Objective- To contribute to the growth of a leading Project by working in a
challenging way and utilizing my exposure as a Assistant Engineer in
Mechanical wing of large scale heavy engineering projects.
Experience - Assistant Engineer, HEC Ranchi January 2011 to present
l Complete mechanical projects within or ahead of the schedule
through strict planning, monitoring and control while maintaining
the best mechanical standard.
l Supervise auxiliary facilities like welding, piping and other utilities.
l Maintain customer relations through effective presentation of
technical expertise
Project Supervisor, Royal Electronics Pvt.Ltd. Bhupal December2005 to
December 2010
l Assist in the project management of several works being executed
in the site
l Coordinate with Head Office, sites ,various departments and sub
Group-II (English) 213

l Maintain close relation with clients

Education B.Tech BIT Meshra,Ranchi University 2004
Special skills Proficient in MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, Excel, and Word 98 and
Good problem solving skill
Excellent communication and interpersonal skills
Competent in speaking Japanese
Activities Member, Institution of Engineers, Ranchi
Secretary, Metallurgical Society, Ranchi
Member, National Cadet Corps, 2007-2009
Interests Tennis, Cricket, Movies, Music
2. Functional Functional Resumes focus on accomplishments and skills. This type
of resume emphasizes on the examples of experiences highlighting skills. The
following is an example of Functional Resume.
Rohan Sharma
#123 Aradhana Aptt. Hinoo, Ranchi
Position sought- Assistant Engineer (Mechanical)
Objective- To contribute to the growth of a leading Project by working in a
challenging way and utilizing my exposure as a junior engineer in
Mechanical wing of large scale heavy engineering projects.
Project management-
l Assisted in the project management of various mechanical works
being executed at the site at Rashmi Projects and Marketing Ltd.
l Completed Mechanical projects within or ahead of the schedule at
HEC Ranchi.
l Maintained strict planning, monitoring and control while
continuing the best construction standard
l Supervised auxiliary facilities like welding, piping and other
Co-ordination and Customer Relations-
l Coordinated with Head office, sites, several departments and sub-
l Maintained close relation with customers through effective
presentation of technical expertise.
214 Communication Skill-II

l Maintained affinity with clients.

Special Skills-
l Proficient in MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, Excel, and Word 98
and 2000
l Good problem solving skill
l Excellent communication and interpersonal skills
l Competent in speaking Japanese
Education- B.Tech BIT Meshra,Ranchi University 2010
Record- 2011/present Assistant Engineer HEC Ranchi
2005/2010- Project Supervisor(Mechanical) Royal Electonics Pvt.Ltd.
Activities- Member- Institute of Engineers,Ranchi
Member National Cadet Corps-2007-2009
Secretary, Metallurgical Society , Ranchi
Interests- Tennis, Cricket, Movies, Music

3. Combination Resume- This type of Resume is the combination of Chronological

and Functional Resume. It concentrates on the skills ,but has a detailed reference
to the education and work experience of the candidate.
Rohan Sharma
#123 Aradhana Aptt. Hinoo, Ranchi
l Conversant with wiring and welding
l Have a lot of exposure to project management techniques
l Efficient in managing construction activities of large scale heavy
Engineering projects
l Proficient in MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, Excel and Word 98
and 2000
l Good problem solving skill
l Excellent communication and interpersonal skills
l Competent in speaking Japanese
Experience: Assistant Engineer, HEC Ranchi January 2011 to present
l Complete mechanical projects within or ahead of the schedule
Group-II (English) 215

through strict planning, monitoring and control while maintaining

the best mechanical standard.
l Supervise auxiliary facilities like welding, piping and other utilities.
l Maintain customer relations through effective presentation of
technical expertise
Project Supervisor, Royal Electronics Pvt.Ltd. Bhupal December2005 to
December 2010
l Assist in the project management of several works being executed
in the site
l Coordinate with Head Office, sites ,various departments and sub
l Maintain close relation with clients
Education B.Tech BIT Meshra,Ranchi University
Activities Member ,Institution of Engineers, Ranchi
Secretary, Metallurgical Society , Ranchi
Member, National Cadet Corps,2007-2009
Interests Tennis, Cricket, Movies, Music

5.3 Business Letters

A business letter is formal in its style. It is a written message with a target audience for a
specific need. It incudes Enquiry, Order letter, Complaint letter and Adjustment letter. In order to
follow a systematic writing plan, the business letter can be divided into ten parts. They are:
i. Senders Address with email and phone number
ii. Date
iii. Reference (optional)
iv. Receivers address
v. Subject
vi. Salutation
vii. Body
viii. Closing with compliments
ix. Signature
x. Enclosure (optional)
216 Communication Skill-II

Business letters have different formats, but block format is very popular .This style includes
all the parts of the letter, but they always start from left. The left side margin is followed for
beginning any paragraph. However, the paragraphs are not indented.

Senders Address
Inside Address
Complementary Close

Business letters regarding enquiries/proposals for purchase/service

A Business letter is written to a firm or company.
1. It has a formal salutation and closing.
2. It gives relevant details.
3. It makes a request for appropriate action.
4. It has polite language and a pleasant tone.
5. It is brief and straightforward.
6. It has reference numbers, order number, cheque /demand draft number, and file
Letters of Enquiry:

Q. You are Rohit Singh ,#204, Alaknanda Aptt. Boring Road ,Patna. Write a letter to
the Sales Executive, Lifestyle Electronics, Hazratganj, Lucknow enquiring about the details
of laptops they supply.

#204, Alaknanda Apt.

Boring Road
10 September 2016
Group-II (English) 217

Sales Executive
Lifestyle Electronics
Dear Sir/Madam
Sub: Enquiry about lap-tops
I would be pleased to receive details of laptops which you supply, together with prices.
I need the latest model with CD Player and other facilities of a renowned brand.
I look forward to hearing from you at the earliest.
Yours faithfully
Rohit Singh

Q.2 You are Rajan Malhotra, Manager (Sales) ,ABC Trading Corporation, Boring
Road, Patna. Your company wants to buy eighty Printers for their corporate office. Write a
letter of Enquiry to Life Computers Gurgaon, Delhi.

ABC Corporation
Boring Road
September 10,2016
Mr.Sanjay Srivastav
Sales Manager,
Life Computers,
Dear Mr.Srivastav,
Please refer to your advertisement in the September 7 issue of Hindusthan about
the HP2300C Printer.
Our company needs eighty Printers for our Corporate office and would like to buy
them as soon as possible. We would be glad to get more information about the
product and a quotation from you .
218 Communication Skill-II

In order to add to our knowledge we require the following information:

l Product specification and special features of HP 2300C Printer
l An estimate price for the cost of eighty units
l Details of discount for bulk purchase
l Terms and conditions
l Delivery date.
We look forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely
Rajan Malhotra

Placing orders:

Q.1. You are Rajnath, Office Manager, Polytechnic College, Rajeev Nagar,Patna. The
Principal of your college has asked you to place an order for two Xylo cars. Place the order
with Alankar Automobiles, Boring Road, Patna.
Polytechnic college
Rajeev Nagar, Patna
Ph. No.xxxx-2343657/24356578
12 September 2016
The Area Manager
Alankar Automobiles
Boring Road

Dear sir/Madam
Sub: Order for two Xylo cars
We would like to place an order for two Xylo cars for our college. We wish that the cars
should be delivered to us at your showroom in Allahabad.
The cars are urgently required. Please send them by the end of this month.
Please ensure the discount you offer on complete payment.
We hope to hear from you soon.
Yours sincerely
Group-II (English) 219

(Office Manager)
Q 2. You are Rajan Malhotra, Manager (Sales) , M/S Lifestyle Electronics, Ashok
Rajpath Patna-xxxxxx .Your company wants to buy five Printers and six scanners for their
corporate office. Write an Order letter to Life Computers Gurgaon,Delhi.
M/S Lifestyle Electronic
Ashok Rajpath
Prem Arora
Manager Sales
Life Computers
Dear Mr.Arora
Sub: Order for Printers and Scanners
Please send the following items on the business terms agreed upon:
Catalogue no Item description Quantity
234 Acer S6789 Printer 05
456 HPScan T7685 06
The items ordered should be fully insured. The insurance charges can be included in the
We would like to get the items by 10 October, 2016.
As desired ,we would make the payment by NEFT/RTGS.
Yours Sincerely
Rajan Malhotra
Manager Sales
Proposals for Purchase/Service:

Q. You are the Sales Manager of M/S lifestyle Electronics, Ashok rajpath,Patna. Write
a letter to the Manager, Royal Electronics(Wholesale Dealer)147 Cantt. Road, New Delhi,
giving a proposal of getting sole distribution rights for washing machines and refrigerators
in your locality.
220 Communication Skill-II

Sales Manager
M/S Lifestyle Electronics
Ashok Rajpath
23 September 2016
M/S Royal Electronics(Wholesale Dealer)
147 Cantt. Road
New Delhi

Dear Sir/Madam
Sub: Proposal for sole distribution rights
We have recently extended our refrigerator and washing machine department. We would
like to add new ranges to our present stocks. We are particularly interested in LG and Whirlpool
models. We would be pleased to receive your trade catalogues and terms of sale and payment.
At present your products are not yet offered by any other dealer in our city. As we have
decided to introduce them, we would like to request sole distribution rights in this area.
I hope to hear from you soon.
Yours faithfully
Ravish Malhotra
(Sales Executive)

Complaint Letter: The opening of a Complaint letter presents a problem statement. The
body of the letter supports the complaint with data. Closing denotes an expression of goodwill.
Q.1. You are Akash Verma the Sales Manager of M/S Lifestyle Electronics, Ashok
rajpath, Patna. Your company sent an order for ten pieces of Printers Of Acer 3508C model,
but you received only eight Printers. Write a letter to the Manager, Royal Electronics
(Wholesale Dealer)147 Cantt. Road, New Delhi making a complaint .Ask him to send the
remaining two.

M/S lifestyle Electronics,

Ashok rajpath, Patna.
22 September,2016
Group-II (English) 221

Royal Electronics
147,cantt. Road
New delhi
Dear Sir
Subject: Non delivery of two Printers
We had ordered you to supply ten pieces of Printers of Acer 3508 C model vide purchase
order no.xxxxxx dtd 10 September 2016.The order has been supplied to us on 20 September 2016.
However , only eight pieces of the above- mentioned Printer have been delivered to us..
For this our company is suffering from heavy loss.
We hope you will kindly look into the matter and send the remaining two printers as soon
as possible.

We look forward to hearing from you at the earliest.

Yours sincerely
Akash Verma
(manager Sales)
Q.2 You are Sumit Sinha, B45-Paraslok, Saharsa. You have purchased a washing
machine from M/S Lifestyle,32 Boring Road, Patna. After using it for a few days the machine
has started malfunctioning. Write a letter of complaint to the dealer about the same and
request him to replace it.
B-45 Paras lok
23 September 2016
Rajan Singh
M/S Lifestyle,
32 Boring Road,
Dear Sir
Sub: Complaint regarding malfunctioning of the washing machine
I am one of your valued customers.I purchased a Whirlpool automatic washing machine
model no. 2345C from your shop on 15 September 2016 against one year warranty. However, the
product has failed to satisfy me. It is creating a number of problems.
l It does not rinse properly.
222 Communication Skill-II

l The spin stops working after a few seconds.

l The water is not drained.
l The switchboard fails to display the correct timing.
I request you to send your mechanic for repairing the machine if possible, or replace the
machine against its said warranty.
Yours sincerely
Sumit Sinha
Adjustment letter
Adjustment letters are the reply to the complaints letters. It is written in a polite way. It
starts with acknowledgement or apology for the problem .It explains the situation and promises
positive action. The closing denotes a statement of goodwill.
Q.1. You are Ranjan Singh, Manager Royal Electronics(Wholesale Dealer)147 Cantt.
Road, New Delhi. Write an Adjustment letter for the complaint of not sending the exact
number of Acer Printers 3508Cmodel to the Manager Sales, M/S Lifestyle Electronics, Ashok
Rajpath, Patna.
Royal Electronics
(Wholesale Dealer)
147 Cantt. Road,
New Delhi

24 September,2016

Manager Sales
M/S Lifestyle Electronics
Ashok Rajpath
Dear Sir
Sub: Adjustment letter for non-delivery of the two Printers
Thank you for your letter dated 22September, 2016 informing us about the delivery of
eight Acer Printers model no. 3508C instead of ten as desired by you.
We are sorry for the inconvenience caused to you. However while packing the Printers for
delivery; it was found that two of them were damaged. So we decided to replace them with better
ones later within a week.
The order for the remaining two Acer Printers model no.3508C has been dispatched .It
would reach you within a week.
Group-II (English) 223

Thank you once more for your cooperation.

Yours sincerely
Ranajan Singh
(Manager Sales)
Q.2. You are Rajan singh Manager Sales , M/S Lifestyle,32 Boring Road, Patna. Write
an adjustment letter to Sumit Sinha B-45 Paras Lok Saharsa against his complaint about the
washing machine he purchased from your shop.
M/S Lifestyle,
32 Boring Road,
24 September 2016
Sumit Sinha
B-45 Paras lok
Dear Sir
Sub: Adjustment letter for the complaint against Whirlpool washing machine
Thank you for your letter dated 23 September 2016 regarding the malfunctioning of the
Whirlpool automatic washing machine model no. 2345 C that you bought from our shop on 15
September 2016.
We are sorry for the inconvenience caused to you. However, the product might have got
damaged during transfer. We are sending our mechanic within a week for the repair.
If the machine fails to work properly even after the repair, we are sure to replace it with a
new one.
Thank you for your cooperation.
Yours sincerely
Rajan Singh

5.4 Report Writing

What is a Report?

A report is a factual description of an event which has already happened. It is a brief

review of the situation with relevant points and information. It is the analysis of a condition, situation
or an issue for an effective solution. The reports are very important .They offer information about
224 Communication Skill-II

an incident , a project or a professional and the business decisions and research conclusions are
taken on the basis of the reports only. It includes following points:
1. It is carefully prepared with every detail.
2. It is impartial.
3. It is a written communication.
4. It serves some specific purpose.
5. It is factual with correct figures and data.
6. The language is simple and clear.
7. It is mostly written in third person .
8. It avoids direct speech.
Types of Report: Reports can be formal ,informal, analytical, routine, oral, special or
informational. An informational report gives only the information about facts and problems, but
an analytical report describes a problem ,an incident or a condition with data and analysis. Routine
reports are prepared for a time schedule, like periodically, monthly quarterly etc. and can vary
about its content. It can be analytical or informational both. But a special report gives special
information about specific circumstances. Oral reports are informal. However, they give quick
feedback and fast action. For example the report of an accident can be oral.Written reports are
traditional .They have a permanent value of their own .e.g. project report, research report etc.
Formal reports include thorough investigation and elaborate description. They have a fixed format,
nature, scope and length. They can be informational, analytical, routine or special. The examples
for these types of reports are annual reports of a company or organization, technical reports, project
reports etc. The non- formal reports involve a specific account of a business or professional activity.
They are short and are used to be written for routine affairs.
In a nutshell the following are different kinds of Reports that fall in the category of above
mentioned types of reports.
1. Newspaper Report
2. Business Report
3. Technical Report
4. Personal and Impersonal Reports
5. Routine Repots
6. Formal and Informal Reports
7. Special Reports
8. The Analytical Reports
9. Informational Reports
10. Progress Reports
11. Annual Reports
12. Survey Reports
Group-II (English) 225

Utility of Reports
Reports are written for making decisions.
1. They tell us about the activities related to business.
2. They help managing all departments. The reports submitted by different departments
give the right information.
3. They solve complicated cases.
4. They provide a correct analysis of a situation.
5. They present correct findings.
6. They control successful implementation of business policies and plans.
Accident report: An accident report can be formal or non-formal in style. It can be oral
too. However , this type of report can be found in the newspapers.
They provide details of the accident, analyze the cause behind the accident and focus
on the factual data. They recommend safety instructions too. The following is an example of an
Accident report:
ABC Transportation Safety Board, Patna
Accident Report of Hazardous Material
Accident No.: EHG-08-VC-002
Transportation Mode: Highway-
Location: Patna by-pass
Date: July 1, 2016
Time: 2:00 a.m.
Carrier: Indane Gas Company
Shipper: Indane LPG
Vehicles: 2010 HMT tractor; Tata Truck 608
Fatalities: 1
Injuries: None
Property Damage: About Rs/- 50,000
Materials Involved: Gas, a flammable liquid
Type of Accident: Vehicle collision and fire
226 Communication Skill-II

The Accident
On July 1, 2016, about 2:00 a.m., a 2010 HMT tractor pulling a semitrailer , overloaded
with bricks was traveling towards east on Patna by-pass, when it was struck by Tata 608 Truck
traveling westbound . The truck driver failed to obey a stop sign equipped with flashing red lights
and collided with the tractor. The rear part of the truck was ruptured and about 13 liters of gas were
released as the tractor became wedged beneath the truck and was dragged about 500 feet. A post
crash fire consumed the tractor, killing the driver; the trailer also was damaged.
The Fire Brigade arrived within 30 minutes and extinguished the fire. Property damage
was about Rs/-50,000.
At the time of the accident, it was dark, and the temperature was about 48 degree centigrade.
There were light winds and clear skies. Rain had been observed in the hour before the collision;
however, it was not a factor in the accident.
Events Preceding the Accident
About 1 a.m. on the day of the accident the Tata truck was loaded with 250 gas cylinders .
The driver delivered 100 cylinders of the gas about 1:00 a.m. and
was en route to deliver the remaining 150 gas cylinders when the collision occurred. During
the same work shift (which began about 12:00 p.m. on June 30), the driver had delivered three
other similar loads of fuel.
Hazardous Materials Information
The Transportation Department ,Govt. of Bihar classifies LPG as a highly inflammable
Information about the truck
The truck with its model no. was 608.It was owned by Patna Transport Agency. It was
manufactured by Telco Jamshedpur, Bihar. The rear part of the truck was under fire.
Post accident examination about the tractor
The tractor has been destroyed by the impact of fire. Postaccident examination revealed
that the most severe fire damage was concentrated toward the rear of the tractor. With the exception
of some foam from the passenger seat behind the driver, all of the combustibles in the front seat
area were consumed. Large portions of foam from the driver seat and the adjacent passenger seat
remained. Heavy char was present on all of the remaining combustible materials.
The driver of the tractor was killed. The postmortem report indicated that the cause of
death was smoke and soot inhalation and severe thermal burns. The medical examination did not
reveal any evidence of blunt trauma or fractures.
In its report on the By-Pass accident the Transportation Department of Govt. of Bihar has
expressed concern over the potential loss of life and possible injuries related to transporting
flammable liquids in cylinders in trucks. It has decided to create awareness programs to enhance
public safety.
Group-II (English) 227

Q- Write an Accident report on the death of a Worker in a Factory due to break down
of the machine.
Accident No.-ABC0987
Location- Kankarbagh Pipeline factory
Date-August 12,2016
Job- Welder
Department- Pipe construction
Environmental condition-
A team of six workers were welding the pipes. Mr. Ratan had been one of them .Mr. Suman
Sharma was the supervisor.
Sequence of Events-All of a sudden a spark went inside his eyes. He was not wearing the
mask.The oil on the floor caused fire and it caught Ratans clothing too..Sonu, Monu, Naveen and,
Kanhaiya tried to extinguish it but it spread very rapidly due to kerosene oil spread on the floor.
Injury- Ratans hand and the left part of the body were burnt.
Events immediately followed- The workers tried to extinguish the fire by putting a blanket
over the body of Ratan. Mr. Suman Sharma, the supervisor, called the ambulance. The fire brigade
was called and in between a large amount of sand was poured into the area. Ratan was sent to the
nearby hospital.
Primary cause The spark from the welding caused fire.
Secondary cause- Ratan was wearing a synthetic t- shirt instead of the uniform and was
not wearing the shield.
Other contributing factors- The kerosene oil was spread on the floor.
l Employee training workshops should be organized frequently.
l Strict actions should be taken to maintain discipline about uniforms.
l Shields must be provided to the workers.
l Meetings should be conducted to maintain the safety of the workers.
Report on fall in production
Fall in Production can be known through the following diagram:
Operation Excellence

Supply Chain agility

228 Communication Skill-II

Supply chain risk

Causes of Fall in production
Fall in production of any Consumer goods is caused due to quality assurance. It is a top
priority for manufacturers. It causes a lot of risk as Manufacturers put less control over the
manufacturing defects and prefer to spread their business more and more.
Poor distribution planning and mismatched data can hardly maintain the supply chain.
This hampers the production as the consumers are not provided with fairly priced goods and are
unable to buy them.
Supply risk can also cause fall in production. Recently an ipads production got hampered
due to its late supply of display channel .This would lead to fall in production.
Competition in the market can cause Fall in production. There are several brands of any
consumer item in the market. This can cause a fall in production.
Recommendations to Improve
Quality consciousness can improve the fall in production. If the manufacturers put more
effort to improve the quality of the goods, the fall in production can be controlled.
Supply agility can overcome the fall in production.
Innovative features can control the fall in production as the goods with new characteristics
and features can compete better in the market.
Investigative reports
Investigative reports are written based on any investigation. While writing this type of
report the writer has to be very much cautious about anything that can hold him or her responsible
for legal action. Investigation is based on some accusation for which legal action can be taken. The
following points should be kept in mind while writing an Investigative report.
Sticking to facts: The report must stick to facts so that none can challenge the writer.
Lesser information can be given rather than writing false statements.
Avoiding personal comments: The writer should never give his personal comments. He
or she may hate the person ,but it should never be mentioned in his report. For example: the statements
like I hate him must not be written.
Keeping the language simple: The language of the report should be verysimple. The
reader can understand it in a better way. Complex expressions and tough words can confuse the
Vague words to be avoided: Vague words like some time or a large number should be
Headlines have to be checked
Recommendations should be given
Group-II (English) 229

Sample of Investigative report

Patna: 12 September:
Introduction:The recent strike in the Patliputra Industries is a matter of concern
for the Indutrialists. A team of five workers that included Ravi, Naveen, Sanjay
,Raja and Raju had a link with black marketers .They supplied LPG gas cylinders
to Rohtas Agency and used to earn in thousands. They have been caught red-handed
and are suspended. This resulted in the strike of workers that has greatly affected
the consumers and the owners as well.
Description:Each cylinder contains 10 liters of liquid gas and the consumers are
expected to be supplied with the same amount. The workers collaborated and took
out two liters of LPG from each cylinder and filled the empty cylinders to sell
them to Rohtas Agency. Every day they used to sell fifty cylinders to Rohtas Agency.
Each cylinder cost five hundred rupees. The five workers earned 25000 everyday
and earned five thousand each.
Analysis:It was on the eve of 10 September 2016 Naveen was caught red handed
by Mr. Sanjay,the Supervisor who handed him over to the Manager Sales ,Mr.
Rajan singh. This incident led to a strike by other workers who raised slogan against
the Supervisor.
l A strict step should be taken against the workers to control the theft of
l Meetings should be held with the other workers to know their demands .
l Workshops should be held to make them aware of the value system.
Progress Reports

Progress reports inspire the employees to stay co ordinated. It ensures the progress
of the objectives of the company and the individuals goal as well. They encourage
the workers and increase the productivity. They also maintain transparency.
Managers get concrete information about the employees contribution and inspire
each other by exchanging information and new ideas.
The three PPPs- Progress, Plan and Problems, these three PPPs should be dealt
with in a progress report. Progress refers to the employees achievements, complete
items and closed tasks. This column tells us about the amount of work done by the
employee. Plan denotes long term goals and objectives. These goals and objectives
lead to progress. However, plans can be changed according to suitability. Problems
are the final ones to deal with. They list the challenges and the drawbacks. The
mistakes should not be corrected lastly. They should be corrected from the beginning
throughout the project.
230 Communication Skill-II

While writing a Progress Report , the writer should stay connected with the team.
Reports should be precise and focused. They should reveal the goal and the objective
of the company. The writer should avoid technical jargons. The reports should be
in conversational tone. There should be keywords to relate to the project. The
problems should be focused separately. There should be unity in writing.
Example of Progress Report

TO: Rohit SharmaPatnaUniversity, Department of Computer Sciences
FROM: Ashok Singh
SUBJECT: Progress on Strategy Debugging Report
DATE: September 3, 2016
This memo depicts the progress I have made to date on my independent-study
project of writing a report on debugging in Scheme. In this memo, I review the
nature of the project and describe work I have completed, work I am currently
involved in, and work I plan to complete by the end of the project. As I explained
in my memo of December 14, this project will result in a technical report whose
purpose is to provide readers with practical information on developing and
debugging programs in Strategy, supplementary to the material in your textbook,
An Introduction to Strategy and its Implementation.
Project Description
The report is aimed at students in computer science (undergraduate and graduate)
who have previous programming experience, but are new to Strategy. The
information in this report is required to make the readers who have developed
programs using compilers for other languages aware of the approaches available
with an interactive interpreter and debugger.
Project Scope
In my earlier memo, I proposed to cover the following high-level topics:
l Loading the debugging module into the interpreter
l Establishing break levels
l Applying back trace
l Managing dependencies
l Saving and loading a customized heap image of the Strategy system
l Debugging local definitions
l Debugging native code procedure-calls
l Debugging when using functional programming style
l Program design/implementation strategies
Group-II (English) 231

l Using stubbed procedures

l Differences between R Strategy and other Strategy systems
In my current outline, these are divided into three major parts, with an addendum
for topic 12. The three parts are: (a) basic debugging procedurestopics 1-3, (b)
advanced debugging procedurestopics 4-8, and (c) general program development
strategiestopics 8-11.
Work Completed
I have completed first drafts of the sections in part A on loading the debugging
module, break levels, and apply-back trace. I intend to make note of additional
material for these sections while working on the later sections, if further background
information is needed.
Present Work
I am currently working on the sections in part B. Since these sections are highly
interrelated, I am working on them roughly in parallel. I am also currently
researching information on other Strategy systems for section 12; I have located
information on Chaplin and Dr Robin. I expect the current work to be completed
by the end of this week, September 9th.
Future Work
Next, I will draft the sections in part C and the addendum on other Strategy systems.
Finally, I will fully revise the entire draft, integrating further material where
deficiencies have become evident during work on other sections. The final report
will be ready for your review on December 10th.
Thus far, the project is proceeding well. I have not run into any major problems,
nor do I anticipate any in the remaining work.

5.5 Defining and describing Objects

An object can be defined by its meaning. It can be described by its attributes. A car can be
described by its four wheels and a body with seats and a steering wheel. However, they can be of
different shapes colors and models. To differentiate one car from another different attributes should
be used .So attribute learning is very essential. This type of writing is directional. It moves from
one point to the other in a fixed direction. While describing an object, following points should be
kept in mind:
l Factual accuracy
l Creative style
l Interesting approach
l Innovative approach
232 Communication Skill-II

l Detailed description
l Power of observation
l Unity
l Developing the ideas logically
The description of an object demands a single idea that controls the total piece of writing.
By providing enough details the write-up should be built on the basic information provided by the
object. An object can be described by its Name, Shape, Ccolor, Design, make, model, Year of
manufacture ,Purpose, Use, Operational details, Functions, Importance, Price, Availability, Material,
Use and Summing up.
Microwave Ovens
Microwave ovens are rectangular boxes with doors and glass windows. The panel next to
the door has the controls to set cooking time. It also adjusts the heat level. Inside the oven there is
a metal chamber with a glass turntable. When the oven is switched on, it starts rotating. The metal
chamber of the oven has mesh-covered walls with holes. This allows air to enter and exit.
A microwave oven heats food with the help of electromagnetic energy. Microwaves are
absorbed by water, fats and sugar .These waves are directly converted into heat. These microwaves
are not very effective on plastics or ceramics. Microwaves cannot adjust with metals as they reflect
microwaves and do not work well.
Microwave ovens cook food in a very short time. The vegetables do not lose their fresh
look even after being cooked. They also retain most of the vitamins and minerals. Finally the
microwaves do not heat anything else other than food .They penetrate any amount of food and
transmit heat through radiation.
Giving Instructions

Giving Instructions seems to be easy, but practically it requires clear concept. Messages
are mixed, they can be hypothetical and can convey something else too. So it is better to give clear-
cut instructions to be understood by all. When the directions are given over email or written
instructions, it is better to use clear and defined directions. However ,imperative sentences that
include order and request type of sentences should be used while giving instructions. In addition
following points should be noted while giving instructions:
1. Judge your audience before you give instructions. You should not assume that the
reader knows what you mean. It can be a technical jargon or any person of a specific
department. So before delivering instructions the audience or the receiver has to
be judged. Accordingly the instructions have to be given.
2. Be specific while giving instructions. Imperative sentences like Send the 35 no
Project file to Mr. Sinha. should be used.
Group-II (English) 233

3. Give deadlines or a fixed time for the order to be carried on. Instead of writing
soon or quickly give the date and the time.
4. Equip them with examples so that they can do the job following the example in
case of ignorance.
5. Set options or alternatives to make the job done.
6. If alternatives cannot be obtained, setting boundaries is very important .If the usual
supplier is unable to provide the material; you can order a new supplier. The
instruction can be like this: Visit the new supplier and order 150 units.
7. Seek clarification from the people whom you are giving instruction.
8. Use command type of sentences or request .For example Send the Highway Project
Fileor Please deliver the message to the manager.
9. Passive voice can also be used.e.g. The message should be delivered to the
Instructions for making candles:
1. 400 grams wax is put in the melting- pot.
2. It is heated in double boiler with 2tablespoons of stearine.
3. The mould release is applied.
4. The mould is wicked.
5. The water bath is prepared.
6. The dye is added and the mixture is stirred.
7. Wax is poured into the mould.
8. The mould is placed in the water-bath.
9. The candle is cured fully before removing it from the mould.
10. It can be refrigerated if needed.

Example of a Memo with instructions:

To : All residents
From : Ashok Singh, Secretary, Alaknanda Housing Society
Date: 5 September2016
Subject: Fire Procedure
According to the new regulations all the apartments in this area have been ordered to do the
following in case of a fire. The following points should be noted for the same:
l Call 101.
l State the name of the building: Alaknanda Apartment
234 Communication Skill-II

l Exit the building using the nearest exit.

l Use the staircase instead of lift.
Please contact me if you have any queries. My mobile no. is xxxxxxxxxx.

Technical Reports
These types of reports are for technical and scientific purposes. They contain technical
terms and technical language. It should have the following:
1. Abstract
2. List of Figures and Tables
3. List of symbols
4. Acknowledgement
5. Introduction
6. Experimental details
7. Results and discussions
8. Conclusion and Recommendations
9. References
l Abstract is the summary of the report.
l Introduction gives you the idea of the report.
l List of tables refers to the use of figures and tables in the report.
l Acknowledgements denote the names of the people who have helped you
to write the report.
l Experimental details tell you about the experiment.
l Results and discussions refer to the result of the experiment.
l Conclusions and Recommendations contain the aims of the project as stated
in the introduction.
l References include citations and a list of references.

Sample Report
The Effects of Increased CO2 on Atmosphere
Industrialization has caused a lot of increase in Carbon Dioxide in global atmosphere. The
concentration of CO2 has resulted into greenhouse effect. This has increased the temperature of the
atmosphere. This has affected agriculture and the climates. The other effects are melting of the
polar ice caps and rising of the sea level.
Group-II (English) 235

In order to curb the problems caused by greenhouse effect, development of other energy
resources, use of fossil fuel and large scale reforestation are needed.
Carbon Dioxide is a by- product of all living things. It is usually thought to be harmless. It
is present in the atmosphere in a very small amount. However, united with water vapor it has
caused greenhouse effect. This is very dangerous for agriculture, climate and sources of energy.
This report aims at examining the changes caused by the increase in CO2 and their
implications on the society. It would also discuss the sources and reservoirs of CO2, the mechanisms
of greenhouse effect and some possible methods to curb the problems.
Experimental Details:
Natural Weather Patterns: The change of climate is a natural phenomenon. The natural
cycles of warming and cooling still dominate the climate.The180 year cycle which is the most
important of all other patterns predicts that temperatures in the Northern hemi sphere reach a
minimum every 180 years. The last cycle was in 1800 years. This denotes that the days ahead
would be colder than earlier. Yet it forecasts a natural warming trend before the end of this century.
Table A shows this.
Mechanisms of the greenhouse effect:
In order to make the global temperature stable, the incoming solar radiation must match the
outgoing thermal radiation from the earth.35% of the solar radiation is reflected back into space,
47% is absorbed by the surface and 18% is absorbed by the atmosphere. In order to make the
temperature constant, the radiation absorbed by the atmosphere must be radiated back. The earth
must radiate in the 5-micron to 30 micron region. Water vapor is a strong absorber of radiation.
Combined with CO2 it causes greenhouse effect. This hampers the ratio of radiation which has to
go back to space. When the climate becomes hotter, the positive feedback mechanisms aggravate
the problem.
The Carbon Cycle:
The increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere depends on many factors. It includes the
amount of CO2 produced from fossil fuels. Deforestation is another cause of increasing CO2 in the
atmosphere.50% CO2produced from the fossil fuel remains in the atmosphere. The other portion is
absorbed into sinks.
Industrial Revolution has added a large portion of CO2 in the atmosphere. It is about 250.4G
ton of carbon. People have started using carbon based fuel in a large amount and the increase in the
carbon in the atmosphere is exceptionally high. It is 4.3% per year from 1860 to the mid 1970-
s.However, if the cost of the energy becomes high, it would slow down the use of fuels.
236 Communication Skill-II

Table A : Estimated carbon Added to the Atmosphere by the burning of fuels

(G tons per year)

Year 1970 Carbon added 4.78

Year 1990 Carbon added 20.67

Year 2011 Carbon added 60.9

The produce of carbon can be reduced by developed countries .But it will again be increased
by developing countries.
CO2 produced by different fuels:
The amount of the carbon which is added to the atmosphere also is increased by the types
of the fuel burnt. Table B describes the amount of CO2 released by each type of fuel in various

CO2 Released by fuel type

Fuel Carbon in 10- 15 gms

Oil 5.00 gms

Gas 4.05

Coal 6.05

Synfuel 8.06

Climatic Effects of CO2 Concentration:

The climate is largely affected by CO2 Concentration. The earth is affected by

l Draught
Group-II (English) 237

l Increase in Sea Level

l Increase in Tropical Storm
How to reduce Greenhouse Effect:
l Efforts must be made to reduce absorption of carbon in the atmosphere by the year
l It can be done by fuel consumption
l A tax can be charged on using fossil fuel.
l Use of combined fossil fuels can reduce the absorption of carbon.
l Alternate energy resources like solar or nuclear have to be developed.
l Reforestation has to be developed.
l Research into carbon cycle is needed to curb the factors responsible for global

The most harmful pollution in the atmosphere is caused by carbon dioxide accumulation in
the atmosphere. This leads to global warming. CO2 allows radiation from the sun to be absorbed by
atmosphere. The heat from the earth along with water vapor causes greenhouse effect. Use of
Fossil fuel adds to this. This is increasing day by day. This can cause the doubling of CO2 by the
year 2020 to 2075.This might change the weather patterns. In order to curb the problems fossil fuel
consumption has to be reduced. Other sources of energy should be used and reforestation must be
1. Google Wikipedia
2. Bernard Harold-The Greenhouse Effect
Project Reports

What is a Project Report?

A Project Report is an account of the proposal of a project. It ascertains the prospects of a
proposed plan. There are varieties of projects. An industrial project consists of the following
1. Land or building
2. Machinery
3. Raw materials
4. Supply of Power and water
5. Manufacturing capacity
6. Manufacturing Process
238 Communication Skill-II

7. Manpower
8. Marketing
9. Cost of the Production
10. Economic viability and financial analysis
It is prepared with the help of fixed guidelines. It includes all the above-mentioned necessary
Sample Project Report

The Six- lane- highway Project

Client: ICT & Soma Co.
Location: Varanasi, U.P
Duration:2011-to Present
The Six-lane highway Project Varanasi has been started by Central Government of India
recently. This consists of widening of the existing four-lane highway from Varanasi to Aurangabad
including all the structures to six lane configuration. The national highway authority is the principal
owner .Construction is being carried out by a concessioner under the technical guidance of a
consultant approved by NHI.
This widening of the lane would facilitate the traffic congestion. It would reduce the number
of accidents.
The project road is a part of NH-2 connecting Delhi-Agra-Allahabad-Varanasi-Aurangabad-
Kolkata and is one of the important links of the National Highway network and also one of the arms
of the Golden Quadrilateral for widening to a 6-lane configuration by National Highways Authority
of India (NHAI).
Project Road
The present stretch of National Highway NH-2 considered for six laning starts from Varanasi
(Ch.786.000) and ends at Aurangabad (Ch.978.400). The total length of the section is 192.4 km
between the two places mentioned above. The project road in its present condition is a four lane
divided highway from Ch.786.000 to Ch.978.400 and service roads at few locations in urban sections.
Total length is 192.4 km in which 85.2 km (km 862.100 km 907.100 & km 938.200 km 978.400)
are concrete pavement and remaining 107.2 km are flexible (bituminous pavement). The location
map indicating the project road is presented in Figure - 1.1.
Group-II (English) 239

Objective of Consultancy Services

The primary objectives of the consultancy services are as follows:
1. Enhanced operational efficiency of the highway
2. Enhanced level of safety for traffic, the road users and the people living in the near
3. Providing for the access needs of the local population
4. Minimal adverse impact on the road users and the local population due to
5. Feasible and constructible options for the project with least cost options
Scope of work:
The scope of the services in the above-mentioned project includes the following tasks:
1. Review the as-built drawings and various reports of the completed 4-lane project
2. Conduct supplementary surveys to validate and update the data available from the
completed 4-lane project
3. Environmental and social impact assessment on cultural properties, natural
habitation, involuntary resettlement etc
4. Assessment of additional right of way requirement
5. Public consultation along with communities along the road and other stake holders
6. Traffic studies including traffic forecasting
7. Toll option studies for next thirty years
8. Road inventory and condition survey
9. Inventory and condition survey for structures
10. Identification of construction materials sources
240 Communication Skill-II

Presentation of this report:

After introduction, the Second & Third Chapter presents the Socio Economic profile of
Project influence area and state and final provision of the design of project road respectively from
Varanasi (Km.786.000) to Aurangabad (Km. 978.400) of NH- 2 as prepared by STUP Consultants
P. Ltd. and discussed with NHAI time to time for information and comments. To some extent, this
Chapter also serves as the summary of the complete report.
Chapter 4.0 presents the field investigation report based on Traffic Surveys, & analysis,
Topographic survey, Pavement Investigation Survey & Soil Investigation
Chapter 5.0 presents the Preliminary Design of the project road like Alignment & Geometry
& pavement design
Chapter 6.0 & 7.0 presents the Environmental Impact Assessment & Social Impact
Assessment of the project road respectively.
The block cost estimates are presented in Chapter 8.0.
Brief discussion of traffic signs, road marking and safety measures are included in chapter
Conclusion & recommendation are indicated in Chapter 10.0
The Geotechnical investigation report, Traffic survey report, Benkelman Deflection Test
Analysis, Analysis of Axle load survey data/VDF, Inventory & condition survey for Road & Bridges,
Roughness Survey & Analysis will be included as an Annexure to this report in separate volume.

1. Prepare a brief technical report on Photosynthesis.
2. Prepare a brief technical report on Telephone wiring.
3. Prepare a brief technical report on Water Leakage Problem in a building.
4. Prepare a brief Project report on Sewage Treatment Plant.
5. Prepare a brief Project Report on Installing Fuel Cells in Warehouses.
HintsWhy fuel cells?Safe for environment

Efficiency More efficient than combustion system

Green Power Without Pollution
Power Quality High quality electricity
Backup power direct DC supply, power for telecom switch nodes, cell towers, other
electronic systems
6. Warehouse operations-used in warehouses
Green technology saving money-for storage purpose
Passengers vehicle less pollution, same efficiency as petrol
Group-II (fgU
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t krk gS
A bl l sO;fDr; ksa ] l ew
gks, oafoHkkxksadschp l w pukv ksadk v knku&i znku gksrk gS A bl ds}kjk v kd M+ksav kS
lwpukv ksadk l a i zs"k.k eq
[ ; foHkkx l smi foHkkxksaesami foHkkxksal sO;fDr; ksa; k l ew
gksadksfd; k t krk gS
lai zs"k.k dh i zd fr l Uns'kksa, oav UrZ
l EcU/ksadksi jLi j v nyk&cnyh dh gksrh gS
Al a
i zs"k.k fyf[ kr ekfS[ kd]
JO; v kS
j n`' ; v kfn gksl drk gS A
la i zs"k.k dk eq
[ ; mn~
ns'; gksrkgSfd l Uns'k i zkIrdrkZl Uns'k dksew y : i vkS j ew y nf"Vdks.k l hl e>st S
pkjd ( i zs"kd) usHkst k gS
Al Ei zs"k.k rHkh i zHkkoh gksrk gSt c og i zkIrdrkZ}kjk i w
. kZ
r ; k l e> fy; kt krk gSA
lans'kokgu dk mn~ ns'; l wfpr fd, x; sO;fDr esaoka fNr i zfrf; k t kxr djuk gS
Av r%l a ns'kogu dsi woZ
bl ckr dkfo' okl i zkIr dj ysukpkfg, fd O;fDr; ksaesal w puki kusdhv fHk: fp rFkkml sLohdkj djusdhbPNk
gSfd ugha Al a i zs"k.k dk ek; e Li "V v kS j xzg.k djus; ksX; gksuhpkfg, Aek; e l jy v kSj Li "V gksusl sv f/ dka
yksx ml sl e> dj v uq d j.k v kS
j i z;ksx esaykrsgS

5- i zLr q
r h esan`' ; ] pkVZVscq
y v kfn d k i z;ksx

fdl h Hkh dk; Zdksv kd"kZ d v kS j i zHkkoh cukusdsfy, n`' ; ] pkVZVscq

y v kfn dk mi ; ksx v ko' ; d gS A
la i zs"k.k esan`' ; l kexzh pkVZVscqy v kfn i zR;{k v uq Hko gh i zLrq
r ughadjrh] v fi rqfopkj&i zf; k esal gk; d gksrh
gSAfopkj&i zf; kesal a d Yi ksa
{ kdYi ukrFkkrdZdkl eUo; gksrkgS AeuksoS
Kkfud i z;ksxksal sHkhfofnr gq
v kgSfd
n`' ; ] pkVZVscq y v kfn Kkuksikt Z
u dks35 v f/ d rhozdjusrFkk / kj.kk dks55 v f/ d LFkk; h cukusesal gk; d
Group-II (fgU
nh) 243

gksrh gS
Av xj i zLrqfr esan`'; ; k pkVZVscq y dk i z;ksx djrsgSrksl a i zs"k.k l q
xe v kS
j Li "V gksrk gS A; g fo"k; &oLrq
dksLi "V djusesal gk; d gksrkgS A; g Kku dsLFkkf; Ro esal gk; d gksrkgS Av r%l a i zs"k.kesan`' ; l a
d sr fp=k] i sfUVx]
pkVZ] js[kkfp=k] uDdk' kh] [ kq
] i ksLVj] l kbucksMZbR;kfn dk i z;ksx fd; k t k, A

[ k. M&II
l Ei zs"k. k d si zd kj

1- v kS
i pkfj d ] v ukS
i pkfj d

i zs"k.k , d ekuoh; i zf; k gSbl fy, i ' kq
&i f{k; ksa}kjk dhxbZl a
i zs"k.k dks{ks=k l sckgj j[ kk t krk gS
A; g
Kkfud , oal kekft d i z.kkyh gS A
v k/ q
fud ; q
x esav kS
i pkfjd v kS
j v ukS
i pkfjd nksuksai zd kj dsl Ei zs"k.k i zx; ksx esayk, t krsgS
pukkfUr dsorZ eku ; qx esal apkj dsfy, i jEi jkxr ek; e t S l si =kkpkj] Vsy hi Q
ksu l ekpkj i =kesal w
foKfIr dsl kFk v k/ q fud l Ei zs"k.k Vsy hi Q
Dl ] bZ
S esy ] bUVjusV fofM; ksdkW Usfl a
x] eksckbZy la ns'k bR;kfn v kS
i pkfjd
l Ei zs"k.k dsv UrxZr v krsgS
Al kew fgd l a okn] fopkjxks"Bh] i =k l a
ns'k] fp=k] i sUfVx] pkVZ ] js[kkfp=k] uDdk'kh] fi Q Ye]
iqfLrdk, ] ' kjhj l a
pkyu] i ksLVj] l kbucksMZbR;kfn v ukS i pkfjd l a i zs"k.k dgst k l drsgS A
dHkh&dHkhvkSi pkfjd v kSj v ukS
i pkfjd l a i zs"k.kesava
r j Li "V djukl a
Hko ughagksi krkgS
Al e; ] i fjfLFkfr
dsv uq
l kj v kS
i pkfjd v kS
j v ukS
i pkfjd l ai zs"k.k cnyrsjgrsgS A

2- Hkkf"kd k , oaxS
j Hkkf"kd k

Hkkf"kdk&i zkf.k; ksaesaeuq"; Js"B bl fy, ekuk t krk gSfd bl dsi kl ' kkfCnd Hkk"kk gS At cfd v U; i zk.kh
dsoy ofu , oab' kkjsrd l hfer gS A' kCn Hkk"kkl sv fHkO;fDr l jy] l q
xe , oacks/xE; gkst krhgS
A' kCnka
x; sl a
pkj dksnksoxksZ aesaoxhZ d r fd; k x; k gSA
( i) ekS
f[ kd l apkj& t c dksbZl Uns'k ; k l w puk cksy dj i zsf"kr dh t k, rksbl sekS f[ kd l apkj dgrsgS Al axBu
esav kS
i pkfjd v kS
j v ukS i pkfjd l a pkj dk ek; e ekS f[ kd gh gksrk gS AekSf[ kd l a pkj dsek; e&
v keus&l keusokrkZy ki ] l Hkk, ] Hkk"k.k] nw
j Hkk"k i j okrkZ
y ki ] l k{kkRdkj l Eesy u] ?kks"kuk, ] l kew
fgd l a
bR;kfn gSA
( ii) fyf[ kr l a
i zs"k.k & t c l Ei zs"khdksbZl wpuk v Fkok l a
ns'k fyf[ kr esal Ei zsf"kr djrkgSrksog fyf[ kr l ai zs"k.k
dgykrk gS Ai =k] Vsy hxzke] i fji =k] i zfrosnu] l w
puk] i z'ukoyh] js[kkfp=k] pkVZ ] bZ
&esy ] i Q
Dl bR;kfn
fyf[ kr l a
i zs"k.k gS
j Hkkf"kdk& bl i zd kj dsl apkj esafdl hHkhi zd kj dsHkk"kkxr ' kCnksadki z;ksx ughafd; kt krkgS Av' kkfCnd
ek; e esan`' ; l ad sr] dsv UrxZ r fp=k] i sfUa
Vx pkVZ
] js[kkfp=k] uDdk'kh] bR;kfn v krsgS aAJO; l ad sr esa<ksy ] uxkM+
l kbju v krsgS AnS fgd Hkk"kk esamQ ph v Fkok / heh v kokt bR;kfn v krsgS A
244 Communication Skill-II

[ k. M&III
i zHkko' kky h l a
i zs"k. k d h i fj Hkk"kk , oai zd kj

1- i fj Hkk"kk

i zHkko' kkyh l a
i zs"k.k , d O;fDr l snw
l jsO;fDr dksl w
puk, , oal e> gLrkUrfjr djusdh i zf; k gS
i zHkko' kkyhl a
i zs"k.k l srkRi; Znks; k v f/ d O
; fDr; ksadse; l w
pukv ksa, oafopkjksa, oarF; ksadkbl i zd kj
v knku&i znku gSfd osbudk vFkZl e> l dsarFkk v FkZdsl kFk gh mudh Hkkoukv ksa ] rdksZ
] fufgrkFkksZ
av ki l h l e>
rFkk fo' okl ksadksl e> l dsa A

2- l iazs"k. k

; g , d ekuoh; i zf; kgS Abl dsfy, dq Nl wpuk, rFkkfopkj] fu.kZ ; Hkkouk, bPNkrFkkl a osx v ko' ; d
gSAl ai zs"k.k i sz"kd v kS j i zkIrdrkZdsO;ogkjksadksi zHkkfor djrk gS Av r%bl esav Ur%f; kgksrhgS Al ai zs"k.kdhi zd fr
l Uns'kksa, oav Url Z EcU/ksadksi jLi j v nyk&cnyhdhgksrhgS Al a pkj ( l a
i zs"k.k) fy[ kr] ekS f[ kd] JO; v kS j n`' ; v kfn
gksl drk gS Al a i zs"k.k dk eq [ ; mn~ns'; gksrk gSfd l Uns'k i zkIrdrkZl Uns'k dksew y : i v kSj ew
y nf"Vdks.k l sl e>s
tSl k i zs"kd usHkst k gS Al a i zs"k.k rHkh i zHkkoh gksrk gSt c og i zkIrdrkZ}kjk i w . kZ
r ; k l e> fy; k t krk gS A

3- i zHkko' kky h & l a

ns'k d h r S
; kj h , oaLo: i

l Ei zs"k.kesai zHkko' kkyh& l a

ns'kdhv ko' ; drkgksrhgS Al wpukesaLi "Vrkdhv ko' ; drkgS A; fn l a
i <+
usl snksv FkZfudyrsgksarksHkze gksusdhl EHkkoukbruhcM+ hgksv kS
j u ghbruhNksVhgksfd og fdl hdhl e>
esau v k; A
s ; fn l a ns'k l a LFkk dh uhfr; ksams'; ksa, oadk; Z
e dsv uql kj u gksrc Hkh Hkze mRiUu gksl drk gS A
i zHkkoh l a
ns'kogu dsfy, Hkh vko' ; d gSfd v f/ dkfj; ksarFkk deZ
/ kfj; ksadschp e/ q
j l EcU/ gksa
esa, d&nwl jsdsi zfr fo' okl , oal g; ksx dh Hkkouk gksuh pkfg, Abl dsfy, v PNsl EcU/ uhfr; ksav kS j O;ogkj
v ko' ; d gS A
ns'kogu dksi zHkko' kkyhcukusdsfy, i zs"kd dks, d v PNkJksrkHkhgksukpkfg, ; fn i zs"kd Bhd i zd kj
l snw l jsdsl a ns'kksadksughal q urk gSrksl Uns'k dk i zHkko de gkst krk gS Amfpr l Ei zs"k.k O;OkLFkk dsek; e l s
i zcU/ d l a LFkk dsdeZ pkfj; ksadksl wpuk nsd j] mUgsaHkyh i zd kj l sl e>kdj i kjLi fjd fgr ksa ] i z;Ruksaes a, dr k]
l Urqy u r Fkkl eUo; LFkkfi r djds>xM+ ksadksde dj l drsgS Av usd ckj , sl kHkhgksrkgSfd l w pukv ksadsv f/
dr L=kksr dsl gh: i esaughai gq p i kusdsdkj. k erHksn] Hkze bR;kfn mRiUu gksrsgS av kS j la
adsmRiUu gksus
dh l a Hkkouk c<+t kr h gSAi zHkko' kkyh l ans'k dsek; e l sl gh l wpuk; sal gh L=kksr l si zsf"kr djdsl a ?k"kksZ
fd; k t k l drk gS A
Group-II (fgU
nh) 245

4- i Q

i zHkko' kkyh l a
i zs"k.k dsfy, l nS
o iQ
M dh v ko' ; drk gksrh gS
d }kjk ; g l e>k t k l drk gSfd i zs"kd Lrj i j v ojks/ ; k ek; e Lrj i j v ojks/ ; k i zkIrdrkZ
dsLrj i j v ojks/ gksjgk gS

1- i zs"kd Lr j i j v oj ks/

( i) i zs"kd }kjk v l Urq

fyr l Ei zs"k.k
( ii) i zs"kd }kjk xyr rjhdsdk i z;ksx
( iii) i zs"kd dk vi ; kZ
Ir ; k =kq
fVi w
. kZHkk"kk dk Kku

2- ek; e Lr j i j v oj ks/

( i) Jksrk dsv uq
: i ek; e dk u gksuk
( ii) , d l kFk dbZfoi jhr ek; e dk i z;ksx
( iii) la
pkj ek; e dk xyr p; u

3- i zkIr d r kZd sLr j i j v oj ks/

( i) : fp dk v Hkko
( ii) i zkIrdrkZds' kkjhfjd] Jo.k , oanf"Vnks"k
( iii) i zkIrdrkZdsv / khjrk , oaekufl d : i l sv LOkLFkrkA
bl i zd kj fofHkUu i zd kj ds=kq
fV; ksa, oaudkjkR
de fopkjksa
] dk; ksZ
adksi Q
d dsek; e l sfuokj.k fd; k t k l drk

[ k. M&IV
f[ kd l a
i zs"k. k , oa' kkj hfj d Hkk"kk i zd kj
1- r kS
j r j hd s, oav k/ kj Hkw
r f' k"Vkpkj

f' k"Vkpkj euq"; dst hou esav fr v ko' ; d gksrk gS Af' k"Vkpkj gheuq "; dksi ' kql sv yx djrkgS A^euq*
t h us^euq
Lefr * esafy[ kk gS& ^^euqHkZ
o**] ^^f' k"V%Hko** v FkkZr euq"; cuksf' k"V ( l H; ) cuksAf' k"Vkpkj ds}kjk
ge l ekt esai fjokj esav i usdk; ZLFky i j v kSj vUrohZ{ kk esa, d LFkku cuk l drsgS Adgk x; k gS&
^^v kpkjghue~u i q
ufUr osnk**] v FkkZ
r v kpj.k l sghu O;fDr dksosn Hkhi fo=k ughadj l drsgSAv r%gesa
j rjhdsHkhl h[ kukpkfg, ] okrkZy ki e; e v kokt esagksukpkfg, ] ckr djusdsl e; ' kjhj dksfgykukughapkfg, A
, d dq ' ky Jksrk cuuk pkfg, ] i q
u%ge oDrk Hkh cu l drsgS A
246 Communication Skill-II

2- ' kkj hfj d Hkk"kk } kj k l a

i zs"k. k

, d l H; euq"; dks' kkjhfjd Hkk"kk] ' kkjhfjd HkkoHka

fxek }kjki gpku fd; kt k l drk gS
At c ge fdl hl s
okrkyZki djrsgSrks' kkjhfjd Hkko Hkafxek }kjk gekjsO;fDrRo dk i gpku gksrk gS A
y ki esagekjsv kRecy dki rkpyrkgS Agekjsi ks'kkd Hkhi fjfLFkfr] okrkoj.k, oa' kkjhfjd cukoV ds
v uq
dwy gksuk pkfg, Av xj ge i zHkkodkjh, oamfpr i ks'kkd dks/ kj.kfd, gq , gSrksgekjk l ai zs"k.k i zHkkodkjhgksrk
Age l aokn }kjk v i us' kkjhfjd HkkoHka
fxek }kjk yksxksadsO;fDrRo i j v i uk v feV Nki NksM+ r sgS

3- eq
[ kkd fr } kj k l a
i zs"k. k

i zHkkodkjh l ai zs"k.k dsfy, eq

[ kkdfr dk fo' ks"k i zHkko i M+
r k gS
Al a
i zs"k.k esagekjk HkkoHka
fxek l E; d: i l s
jguk pkfg, AokrkZ y ki djrsl e; nf"V l Eca / v ko' ; d gksrk gS Av xj ge v usd yksxksadschp esal a okn djrsgSrks
Hkh gekjh nf"V i zR;sd l nL; ksal sfeyuh pkfg, A
gekjsv k[ kksesav kRefo' okl ] eq
[ k i j i zlUurk dk Hkko >yduk pkfg, Agekjseq [ k i j fpUrk dk Hkko]
mnkl hurk dk Hkko] ks/ dk Hkko dnkfi ughajguk pkfg, Agekjseq [ k i j usrRo dk Hkko] fouezrk dk Hkko fn[ kuk
pkfg, A
bl i zd kj ge eq
[ kkdfr }kjk l a
i zs"k.k dksi zHkkodkjh cuk l drsgS

4- l kew
fgd i fj ppkZ
] fookn] foLr r ' kS
y h d k fod kl

l kew
fgd i fjppkZgekjsKku dksfoLrr v kS j i zHkkodkjhcukrk gS Arqy l hnkl t husjkepfjreku esafy[ kk gS
& ^^fcukl Rla x foosd u gksbZ
**] v xj dksbZHkhO;fDr l ew g esav i usfopkjksadksv i usrdksZ
adksLi "V v kS
j i zHkkodkjh
: i l si zLrqr djrkgSrksml esav kRecy c<+ r kgS
Av xj O;fDr dsi zLrq r hdj.kesadksbZ=kqfV jgrkgSrksl ewg ds}kjk
fuokj.k fd; k t krk gS A
l kew
fgd i fjppkZv kSj fookn esaO;fDr dsJo.k ' kfDr] Lej.k' kfDr v kS j okDi Vq
r k esamkjksrj fodkl gksrk
t krkgSAl kew
fgd i fjppkZds}kjki zHkkodkjhokDi Vq r kfodfl r gksrhgSusrRo i zn' kZ
u dkHkko t kxzr gksrkgS ] ' kkjhfjd
fxekesal w
/ kj gksrkgS
] l Ei zs"k.k ' kfDr , slhi zHkkodkjhgkst krhgSfd O;fDr dsO;fDrOr dk l okZ a
Li "V : i l sfn[ kkbZnsrk gS

Assignment d k; Z
Hkkj @
i z'u

1- la
i zs"k. k i zf; k l sl a
f/ r Mk; xzke

i zs"k.k
fo' ks"krk i zd kj i zHkkoh l a
i zs"k.k iQ
Group-II (fgU
nh) 247

2- la
i zs"k. k d si zd kj , oafLFkfr

( i) v kUrfjd ( ii) okg~

; ( iii) oS
; fDrd

3- fo"k; d sv uq
l kj d gkuh y s[ku , oav uq
PNsn y s[ku

dgkuh esafed fodkl

i k=k] i fjos'k v kS
j la
i k=kksadk okrkZ
y ki v kS
j pje mRd"kZ
dgkuh dh f' k{kk
v uq
Hkk"kk ' kq
] de ' kCnksaesavf/ d l sv f/ d Hkko v kS
j fopkj fufgr gksAokD; , d&nw
l jsl sl a
f/ r gksA
Hkko v kS j Hkk"kk dh v fHkO;fDr esaLi "Vrk ekS
fydrk v kS
j l jyrk gksuh pkfg, A
l s&i jh{kk Hkou dk n`' ; ] LokLF; gh t hou gS
] ukjh ' kfDr] jk"Vh; , drk] bR;kfn

4- r d uhd h , oaoS
Kkfud ' kCnkoy h

frd ; k v t Sfod l a
?kVd] v uS frd ; k t S fod l a ?kVd i znw"k.k dk mn~
xe] ehFksu] dkcZ
ueksuksv kDl kbM]
v kl sZ
fud] yksjkbM] v i ekt Z
d ] enk i znw
"k.k] jsfM; ks/ehZ
] v kst ksuA

5- cS
d l sl a
a ca
f/ r ' kCnkoy h

xzkgd l sok] fuf/ v a

r j.k] orZ
eku cS y sa
l ] psd dk LVkW
i i sesa
V] psd dk LVsVl ] , l , e , l cS
fdx dk
t hdj.k] vkj Vh t h, l ] , ub, i Q
Vh] eYVh psd ] sfMV] MsfcV] ' ks"kjkf' k

6- O;ol kf; d i =kksad ksfy [ ksa

( i) ukS
d jh dsfy, v kosnu
( ii) iq
Lrd fosrk dsi kl i q
Lrd dsfy, i =k
( iii) l ekpkj i =k esafdl h fLFkfr dk o.kZ
u bR;kfn
248 Communication Skill-II

Sem-I (Group-II)

fo' ks"k i kB`; l kexzh(B)

s"k. k ; k l a
p kj d h d fr

lapkj dh i zd fr i j fopkj djrsl e; ; g i z'u mBrk gSfd ; g dyk gS; k foKku\ fdl h fo"k; fo' ks"k
l sl EcfUkr] O;ofLFkr , oaec v ; ; u dksfoKku dgrsgS A Kku oS
a Kkfud fof/ ; ksai j v k/ kfjr gksuk pkfg, _
t cfd dyk, d , slkdkS ' ky gSft l sv H; kl ds}kjki zHkkoh<a x l sfodfl r fd; kt krkgS Abu i fjHkk"kkv ksadsi fji zs{;
esage i krsgSfd l a pkj i zf; k dksl Ei w . kZ, oai zHkkoh cukusdsfy, ec Kku gh i ; kZ Ir ughagS ] cfYd i zLrq r
djusdhv fHkO;fDr Hkh v ko' ; d gS Abl sv H; kl }kjk v kS j v f/ d i zHkkohcuk; k t k l drk gS Abl i zd kj ge i krs
gSafd l a
pkj dykv ksj foKku nksuksadkfeJ.kgS Al apkj dksi q
j kuhdykv kS j u; kfoKku dgkt krkgS Al pakj dhi zd fr
dyk v kS j foKku nksuksadh gS A
pkj dsfl kUr l oZ O;ki d i zd fr dsgksrsgS AokLro esa
a ] i zHkkoh l a
pkj dh l eL; k gj t xg O;kIr gS A
bl fy, l a pkj dksi zHkkoh cukusdh fof/ ; k l oZ O
; ki d : i l sv i ukbZt k l drh gS Al a
a pkj dsnksuksai {k&i "zskd , oa
i zkIrdrk]Zl kekft d i zk.kh gksrsgS
Al a
a pkj dh l Ei w. kZi zf; k O;fDr; ksadsl ew g dse; gh l Ei U u gksrhgS A
pkj dh i zf; k l ekt dsi zR;sd O;fDr }kjk v i ukbZt krh gS Ai zR;sd O ; fDr dh v fuok; Zv ko' ; drkv ksa
, oabPnk dhi w frZdsfy, ] O;fDr dksfo' o dhi fjfLFkfr l si fjfpr jgusdsfy, l a pkj , d ; U=k ds: i esadk; Z
djrk gS A; g , d i zkdfr d i zf; k gS
Ai zHkkoh l a
pkj dsfy, cksy us] l q
uus] fy[ kus; k i <+usdh fui q
. krk dk gksuk
v ko' ; d gSA

i zs"k. k d h fo' ks"kr k, (Characteristics of Communication)

lapkj , d ekuoh; i zf; k gSbl fy, i ' kq

&i f{k; ksa}kjk dh xbZl a
pkj i zf; k dk slEi zs"k.k ds{ks=k l sckgj
gh j[ kk t krk gS
Al a
pkj , d euksoS Kkfud , oal kekft d i z.kkyh gS Al a
pkj dsfy, de l sde nksi {kksa &i zs"kd v kS
i zkIrdrkZdk gksuk v ko' ; d gksrk gS
pkj dsfy, dq Nl w puk, rFkk fopkj] fu.kZ
; ] Hkkouk, ] bpNk rFkk l a
osx v ko' ; d gS
Al a
a pkj i zs"kd v kS
i zkIrdrkZdsO;ogkjksadksi zHkkfor djrk gS Av r%bl esav Ur% f; k gksrh gS
pkj esami ; qDr ek; e dk p; u l ksp l e> dj djuk pkfg, Al a
pkj dsl k/ u dbZi zd kj dsgksl drs
a f[ kd] fyf[ kr ; k l a
d sr vkS
j b' kkjsA
pkj dsi kp rRo gksrsgS
( i) l Uns'kokgd oDrk v Fkok ys[kd@
( ii) fopkj] t ksl Uns'k] v kns'k ; k v U; : i esagS
( iii) la
okgu dgus] fy[ kus; k t kjh djusds: i esa
ek; e
Group-II (fgU
nh) 249

( iv) l Uns'k i zkIr djusokyk@

i zkIrdrkZ
( v) l Uns'k i zkIrdrkZdh i zfri q
i zfrf; k
lapkj dk vFkZl w
pukv ksa, oal U
ns'kksadks, d O;fDr ( l ew
g) l snwl jsO;fDr ( l ew
g) rd Hkst ukghi ; kZ
Abl dsl kFk gh; g t : jhgSfd l w puk dksi zkIrdrkZml h v FkZesal e>sft l Hkko esaml wl w
puk nhxbZgS A
puk Hkst us@
i zs"k.k djusokyksdks'Encoder' rFkk l w
puk i zkIr djusokysdks'Decoder' dgk t krk gS

fopkj l Uns'k l Uns'k i zkfIr fopkj

V ys[ku ek; e dw
la pkj f}ekxhZi zf; kgS
Abl esanksO;fDr ; kl ew
gksdse; l Uns'kdhv nyk&cnyhgksrhgS
Ai zkIrdrkZv i uh
i zfrf; k i zs"kd dksi znku djrk gSArHkh l a pkj dh i zf; k l Ei w
. kZekuh t krh gS
l Uns'k i zs"k.k ek; e i zkIrdrkZ

ek; e
pkj , d : Vhu , oal rr i zf; k gS
AdHkh u l ekIr gksusokyh l a
pkj i zf; k yxkrkj fo| eku jgrh gS
v k/ q
fud ; q
x esav usd l a pkj ek; e i z;ksx esayk, t krsgS Al w
a puk kfUr dsorZ eku ; qx esal apkj dsfy,
i jEi jkxr ek; e_ t Sl s& i =kkpkj] Vsy hi Q
ksu] l ekpkj i =k dsl kFk&l kFk rhozxfr okysv k/ qfud l a pkj ek; e t Sl s&
Vsy hi Q
Dl ] bUVjusV] bZ
S &esy ] fofM; ksdkW Usafl a
x i z;ksx esayk, t k jgsgS
Aeksckby i Q
a ksu dsi z;ksxdrkZ
v ksadhl a
[ ; k esa
rhozof gq bZgS Al a
pkj dhkfUr usfo' o dksbruk fudV dj fn; gSfd bl soS f' od xko dh l a Kk nht kusyxh
pkj dk {ks=k v R;Ur O;ki d gS
A; g , d v UrfoZ
"k; d gS
] ft l esav usd dkjdksadk feJ.k gS
Al a
pkj dks
xBu dk frU=kdk Hkh dgk t krk gS

p kj d si zd kj (Types of Communication)

fdl h l a
xBu esal a
pkj fuEufyf[ kr rhu i zd kj dk gksrk gS
( i) v kUrfjd ( ii) ck l a
pkj ( iii) oS
; fDrd l a
pkj dh fn' kk dsv uq
l kj] l a
pkj dk oxhZ
d j.k bl i zd kj fd; k t krk gS
( i) mQ
i j dh v ksj l a
pkj ( ii) uhpsdh v ksj l a
pkj ( iii) l eku Lrj dk l a
pkj dsfuEufyf[ kr i zeq
[ k ek; e gS

1- ' kkfCnd ek; e (Verbal Medium)

i zkf.k; ksaesaeuq
"; Js"B bl fy, ekukt krkgSfd bl dsi kl ml dh' kkfCnd Hkk"kkgS At cfd v U; i zk.khdsoy ofu
, oab' kkjsrd l hfer gS A' kCn Hkk"kk l sv fHkO;fDr l jy] l q
a xe , oacks/xE; gkst krh gS
250 Communication Skill-II

( d ) ekS
f[ kd l a
p kj (Oral Communication)

t c dksbZl a
ns'k; kl w
pukcksy dj i zsf"kr dht k, rksbl sekS
f[ kd l a
pkj dgrsgSAbl esanksi {k&i zs"kd v kS
a j i zkIrdrkZ
Abl i zd kj dsl a pkj }kjkghekuoh; l EcU/ksadhLFkki ukgksrhgS Al a
xBu esav kSi pkfjd v kS j vukS i pkfjd
lapkj dk ek; e ekS f[ kd gh gksrk gS A
ekS p kj d sek; e& ekS
f[ kd l a f[ kd l a
pkj esafuEufyf[ kr ek; e mi ; ksx esayk, t krsgS
( i) v keus&l keusokrkZ
y ki ( ii) nw
j Hkk"k i j okrkZ
y ki ( iii) jsfM; ksi zlkj.k
( iv) Vsi fjdkMZ
j ( v) l k{kkRdkj ( vi) l kew
fgd l a
( vii) l Hkk, ( viii) l Eesy u ( ix) fopkj xks"Bh
( x) Hkk"k.k ( xi) ?kks"k.kk,
f[ kd l a p kj d sxq y kHk& ; g l a
. k@ pkj dk' kh/ zre ek; e gS
Abl l s/ u o l e; dhcpr gksrhgS A; g v f/
d iH zkkoi w
. kZgksrk gS
AmPpkj.k ds<a x] v fHkO;fDr dhHkko&Hkafxek] gko&Hkko }kjkl Uns'kksadksi zHkko' kkyhcuk; k
t k l drk gS Al Uns'k dh fo"k; &l kexzh dksfp=k , oav fHku; }kjk Hkh i zHkkoh cuk; k t k l drk gS A
bl l apkj l srq
j Ur i zfri q
f"V i zkIr gksrhgS
A; fn l Uns'k dsl UnHkZesadksbZv Li "Vrk gSrksml dkfuokj.krq
j Ur gks
t krk gS
Av ' kq
rk rFkk rksM+ &ejksM+dh l EHkkouk, l ekIr gkst krh gSA
f[ kd l a pkj dhdksbZoS/ kfud ekU;rk ughagksrhAl kFkgh; g nh?kZ d ky dsfy, mi ; ksxhughagksrkAbl dk{ks=k
dki Q h l hfer gksrk gS
j LFk O;fDr; ksadh v oLFkk esa; g l EHko ughagksrkA
fl l t s oj ft u usl kr ro crk, gS
ka ] ft ul sekS
a f[ kd l a
pkj dksv kS
j i zHkkohcuk; k t krk gS
& Li "Vrk] i w
. kZ
f{kIr] ' k
q ] l jy] okLrfod] fo' okl i w
. kZ

( [ k) fy f[ kr l a
p kj (Written Communication)

t c l Ei zs"khdksbZl w
pukv Fkokl Uns'k fyf[ kr esal Ei sf"kr djrkgSrksog fyf[ kr l apkj@l Ei zs"k.kdgykrk gSAbl
i zd kj dsl a pkj dsfy, fdl h Hkk"kk] dwVl a d sr v kfn dk i z;ksx fd; k t krk gS
AfoLrr] LFkk; h rFkk Hkfo"; esa
l UnHkZds: i esaj[ kst kusokysl Uns'kksadk fyf[ kr l a pkj fd; k t krk gS
i =k] Vsfyxzke] i fji =k] Kku] i zfrosnu] i Q
] lw
{ e] l w
puk] i z'ukoyh] fuekoyh] js[kkfp=k] fp=k] pkVZ
] iQ
Dl ]
bZ&esy ] dkWEi S
DV fMLd] yki h , oafyf[ kr ' kCn&fyf[ kr l apkj esa' kkfey gksrsgS
fyf[ kr l Eizs"k.k dk{ks=kv R
; f/ d O;ki d gS
A; g nw
j LFk{ks=kksaesaHkhv kl kuhl si gqp t krkgSA; g LFkk; hfjdkMZ
ds: i esaoS | kfud : i l sLohdkj fd; k t k l drk gSA; g mkjnkf; Ro fu/ kZ j .k esal gk; d gksrk gSAbl dk
f; kUo; u gksusi j mkjnk; h O;fDr dh i gpku v kl kuh l sdh t k l drh gS A
fdUrqbl i zd kj dk l a
pkj egxk gS
Abl esal e; yxrk gS
Group-II (fgU
nh) 251

1- v ' kkfCnd ek; e (Non-Verbal Medium)

bl i zd kj dsl a
pkj esafdl hHkhi zd kj dsHkk"kkxr ' kCnksadki z;ksx ughafd; k t krkAbl esafpUgksa
] y{k.kks] l d
a srks
rFkk l w
fpr fpUgksadk i z;ksx fd; k t krk gS
v ' kkfCnd ek; e dk oxhZ
d j.k bl i zd kj fd; k t k l drk gS
( i) n`' ; l ad sr& fp=k] i sfUa
Vx] pkVZ
] js[kkfp=k] uDdk'kh] [ kq
] i ksLVj] l kbu cksMZ
] i fjogu ekXkZdh
cfk; k (yky] i hyh] gjh) , Ecq y sUl , oav f/ dkjh dh xkM+ h i j ?kw
erh ckhA
( ii) JO; l a
d sr& <ksy ] uxkM+
k] l kbju] gw
Vj dh v kokt A
( iii) nS
fgd Hkk"kk& ' kjhj l a
pkyu] Hka
fxek] eq
k] nf"V l EcU/A
( iv) i k' oZHkk"kk& ekS
f[ kd l a
pkj dsl e; oDrkdsLojksadkmrkj&p<+
ko] / kjki zokg v Fkokv i zokg] mQ
v Fkok / heh v kokt dk v ut kusesai z;ksxA
ek; e dsv k/ kkj i j l a
pkj dksrhu oxksZ
d r fd; k t krk gS
( i) Jo.kkRed l a pkj& mu l k/ uksal sl a
pkj] ft l dksO;fDr l q
u l drkgS
f[ kv kns'k] Vsy hi Q
ksu] jsfM; ks
i zlkj.k] Hkk"k.k] ehfVa
x] l Eesy uA
( ii) n`' ; kRed l a
pkj& fyf[ kr v kns'k] i fji =k] fji ksVZ
] iq
fLrdk, ] foojf.kdkA
( iii) Jo.kkRed&n`"VkRed l a
pkj& fi Q
Ye] Vsy hfi Q
Ye v kfnA

i zHkkoh l a
p kj esack/ k, (Impediments in Effective Communication)

la pkj dsekxZesadHkh&dHkhdq N ck/ k, v kt krhgS ] ft udsdkj.kl a pkj / kjkv i usmn~

ns'; dksi zkIr ughadj
i krh gS
Abu ck/ kv ksadsdkj.k l Eizs"k.k esaork] v ' kq
rk rFkk v i ; kZ
Irrk vk t krh gS
Abu ck/ kkv ksadksfuEu
sesackV l drsgS&
( i) euksoS
Kkfud v ojks/& bl dsv U rxZ
r v : fp] i w
/ kj.kk, ] fpUrk] v o/ ku dkv Hkko] erHksn] foi jhr
Hkkouk, rFkk / kj.kk, ] Hk; v kfn v krsgS
( ii) i `"Bxr v ojks/& i `"BHkw
fe] f' k{kk v kS
j i zR;k' kk esav Urj gksusl sl kekft d rFkk jkt uhfrd fopkjksaesa
v Urj v k t krk gS
( iii) Hkk"kkxr vojks/& Hkk"kk gekjsfopkjksadksi zd V djusdk eq [ ; ek; e gS
] i jUrqHkk"kk dhfofHkUurk
i zHkkoh l a
pkj dsekxZdh l cl scM+ h ck/ k gSAHkk"kk l EcU/h v Kkurk] v FkZdh v Li "Vrk] mPpkj.k
nks"k] v Li "V l a
d sr v kfn dksbl dsv UrxZ
r l fEefyr djrsgS A
( iv) HkkS
frd vojks/& bl dsv UrxZ
r ge ekufl d rFkk' kkjhfjd nks"k] nw
j h] v n`' ; rk] v U;=kO
; Lrrkv kfn
dks' kkfey djrsgSA
bu v ojks/ksadksl a
pkj i zf; k dsfofHkUu pj.kksa@
Lrjksai j ns[k l drsgS
252 Communication Skill-II

(d) i zs"kd Lr j i j v oj ks?k ( Hindrance at Sender Level)

( i) i zs"kd }kjk v l a
fyr l Eizs"k.kA
( ii) i zs"kd }kjk xyr rjhdsdk i z;ksxA
( iii) i zs"kd dk i k; kZ
Ir o =kq
fVi w
. kZHkk"kk KkuA
( iv) i zs"kd }kjk l Ei sz"k.k gsrqvi zHkkoh okrkoj.k dk fuekZ
. kA

( [ k) ek; e Lr j i j v oj ks?k ( Hindrance at Medium Level)

( i) Jksrk dsv uq
: i ek; e dk u gksukA
( ii) , d l kFk dbZfoi jhr ek; e dk i z;ksxA
( iii) la
pkj ek; e dk xyr p; uA

( x) i zkIr d r kZd sLr j i j v oj ks?k ( Hindrance at REceiver Level)

( i) : fp dk v Hkko rFkk oS
; fDrd , oaoS
pkfjd fHkUurk dk gksukA
( ii) i zkIrdrkZds' kkjhfjd] Jo.k , oanf"Vnks"k
( iii) i zkIrdrkZdh v / hjrk rFkk ' kkjhfjd , oaekufl d : i l sv LoLFkrk

d {kk esai zHkkoh l a

p kj (Effective Communication in Class)

d{kkesai zHkkohl apkj , d i zd kj dkl a

pkj gS
Abl esanksi {kv ; ki d v kS j f' k{kkFkhZgksrsgS
Abl esaeq
a [ ; Hkw
f' k{kd fuHkkrk gS
] fdUrq; g Hkhl R; gSfd f' k{kd v kS j fo| kFkhZ
f' k{kkFkhZnksuksagh d{kk esal a
pkj i zf; k esa
l h[ krsHkh gS
av kS
j fl [ kkrsHkh gSA
d{kk dsf; k&dyki Hkhl a pkj i zf; k esa' kkfey gS
Abl esafopkjksarFkkl w
a pukv ksadk v knku&i znku gksrk gS
; fn l Ei zs"k.k dsv k/ kj i j f' k{k.k v f/ xe i zf; k dksns[kk t k, rksLi "V gksxk fd f' k{k.k l a
pkj i zf; k
okLro esal Ei zs"k.k i zf; k gh gS ] t ksfujUrj pyrh jgrh gS A
d{kk esal a
pkj i zf; k rRo fuEufyf[ kr gS
( i) i w
Nuk ( ii) dguk ( iii) l q
uuk ( iv) l e>uk

d {kk esai zHkkoh l a

p kj d sfy , v ko' ; d r o

(Essential Elements for Effective Communication in Class)

, d v PNsf' k{kd dh {kerk dk v kdyu ml dsckS fd Lrj dsl kFk ml dh f' k{k.k i fr dh fof' k"Vrk
v kS
j fofo/ rkv ksai j djuk pkfg, Ad{kk esai zHkkohl apkj dsfy, v ko' ; d gSfd f' k{kd dksv i usNk=kksa
dksl e>usv kS j fo| kfFkZ
; ksadsckS
fd Lrj dsv uq l kj mul sokrkZ
y ki djusdh; ksX; rkgksuhpkfg, Af' k{kd
Group-II (fgU
nh) 253

gh v i usfo"k; esai w . kZKku gksusi j fo| kfFkZ ; ksaesafo"k; dsi zfr : fp mRiUu dj mudh ft Kkl k dks' kkUr
dj l dsxkApw fd f' k{k.k i zf; k l kekU; ekSf[ kd l a pkj gksrk gS, oai zs"kd vkS
j i zkIrdrkZv keus&l keusgksrs
] bl fy, ; g v f/ d i zHkkohgksrkgSv kS
a j f' k{kd v i uhckrksadksl e>kusdsfy, i zkst sDVj] xzki Q ] js[kkfp=k
rFkkf' k{kk{ks=kesami ; ksxhuohure mi dj.kdki z;ksx dj l drkgS Abl rjg i zs"kd dsLrj i j mRiUu gksus
okyh ck/ kv ksadksnw j dj d{kk esai zHkkoh l a pkj fd; k t k l drk gS A
ekS f[ kd l a
pkj esaek; e ughagksrkgSv r%i zHkkohl a pkj dsfy, ; g v ko' ; d gSfd i zkIrdrkZ( f' k{kkFkhZ)]
i sz"kd ( v ; ki d) l si zkIr l w
puk , oarF; ksadksl gh : i esaxzg.k djsAbl dsfy, f' k{kd dkspkfg, fd
og Nk=kksadsckS fd Lrj dsv uq : i f' k{kk nsAd{kk dk okrkoj.k v uq dw
y v kS
j i zt krkfU=kd gksuk pkfg, ]
ft l esaNk=kksadksi z'u i wNusv ksj v i uh jk; nsusdh i wj h LorU
=krk gksA
bl l a pkj i zf; k esai zfri q
f"V rq
j Ur gh i zkIr gkst krh gSft l l sl a
pkj dh l i Q
yrk fdruh gq bZ
] bl dh
t kudkjh fey t krh gS ANk=kksadksDykl @ d{kk esav i usfopkj j[ kusdk ekS d k nsuk pkfg, ANk=kksadsfopkj
dks; ku l sl quusv kSj mudsmi; q Dr fopkjksadhl jkgukv kS j xyr / kj.kkdksfopkj fofue; v kS j O;k[ ; ; k
}kjk l gh djuk pkfg, A
bl dsv frfjDr i zR;sd Lrj i j okrkoj.kdsl kFkl EidZesajgukpkfg, Af' k{kd v i uht kudkjhdksv | ru
j[ ksa
AubZrFkk mke i kB ; kst ukv ksadk l ekos'k djuk pkfg, ANk=kksadh ; ksX; rk dsv uq
dwy fofk; ksav kS
l kefxz;ksadk i z;ksx djuk pkfg, ANk=kksadksfopkj djus] rdZdjusv kS j l eL; k gy djusdk ekS d k nsuk
pkfg, A
f' k{k.k@
d{kkesai zHkkohl a
pkj dsfy, v ko' ; d gSfd Nk=kksads] mudsv fHkHkkodksadsl kFkf' k{kd dsl Ei dZ
v PNsgksaAbl l sNk=kksadh?kjsy wl eL; kv kS
j v fHkHkkodksadsnf"Vdks.kdksl e>dj] f' k{kd Nk=kdheuksn' kk
dsv uq : i f' k{kk nsl dsxkA
d{kk v kS i pkfjd f' k{kk i zkIr djusdk i zeq
[ k LFkku gS
A; gk ckyd O;ofLFkr v kS
j mn~ ns'; i jd f' k{kk i zkIr
djrk gS Ackyd v i usv ; ki d , oav i usl kfFk; ksadsl kFk v Ur% f; k djrk gSAd{kk esal Ei zs"k.k ekS
f[ kd
; kfyf[ kr gksrkgS Av ; ki d dksckyd dsl kFkl kekU; Hkk"kkesal Ei zs"k.kdjukpkfg, Av ; ki d dkdkZ O;
gSfd og f' k{k.k dsl kFk&l kFk Nk=kksadh ft Kkl ko ' ka d kv ksdk l ek/ ku djrk pysAn`' ; , oaJO;&n`' ;
l k/ uksadk i z;ksx i zHkkoh l a
pkj dsfy, fd; k t k l drk gS A

t ul a
p kj (Mass Communication)

t ul apkj dsek; e l sns'k esayksxksadksLoLFk euksjat u dsl kFk&l kFk jk"Vh; uhfr v kS
j dk; Zeksadsi zfr
t kx: d cukusrFkkjk"VfuekZ . kdsi z;kl esaHkkxhnkj Hkhcuk; kt krkgSAl wpuk] i zlkj.kv kS
j fi Q
Ye {ks=krhu
i zeq
[ k t ul a
pkj dsl k/ u gS
Abudk fu; eu , oafu; U=k.k l w
a puk v kSj i zlkj.k eU=kky; djrk gS A
l ekpkj&i =k dsdkedkt i j Hkkjrh; i zsl i fj"kn~ut j j[ krh gS Al jdkj dh ehfM; k bdkb; k Hkh gS & i =k
lwpuk dk; kZy; ] i Q
ksVksi zHkkx] l ekpkj i =k i a
t h; d] xos"k.kk , oai zf' k{k.k foHkkx] i zd k' ku foHkkx] xhr o
ukVd i zHkkxA
i zlkj.kds{ks=kesai zlkj Hkkjrh] ft l so"kZ1997 dsv f/ fu; e l sxfBr fd; kx; kAnw
j n' kZ
u v kS
j v kdk' kok.kh
254 Communication Skill-II

dksbl dsvUrxZ r yk; k x; kAns'kHkj esadjhc l kSfut h pS uy rFkk dscy usVodZi zlkj.k {ks=k dsv UrxZ r
gSAfi Q
a Ye fuekZ. kxSj &l jdkjh{ks=kesagSysfdu fi Q
Ye i zHkkx] fi Q
Ye l ekjksg funs'kky; ] jk"Vh; fi Q
Ye fodkl
fuxe] dsUnzh; fi QYe i zek.khdj.k cksMZ
] Hkkjrh; fi Q
Ye v fHkys[kkxkj v kSj cky fi Q Ye l kslk; Vh dsek; e
l sl jdkj fi Q
Yeksads{ks=kesaHkkxhnkjhdjrhgS Al jdkj usnksfi Q Ye , oaVsy hfot u l a LFkku LFkkfi r fd, gSA
1980 dsn' kd esanw j n' kZ
u usvi uspS uyksadsjk"VO;ki h i zlkj.k dsfy, bul sV dk i z;ksx ' kq
: fd; k v kjS
ns'kHkj esa1000 l sv f/ d Hkw&fLFkr Vka
l ehVj LFkkfi r fd, x, gS Al w
a pukdsl ad yu v kS j i zlkj esadEi ; V
dsmi ; ksx l skfUrdkjh i zxfr gq bZgS
duot sZ l ; kuh l al k/ uksadscgqfo/ mi ; ksx dk i zpyu , d v kS j i zkS
| ksfxd i zxfr gS
] ft l usl ewpsehfM; k
i fjn`' ; dksi zHkkfor fd; k gS Afi QYe] Vsy hfot u v kS j la
xhr m| ksx dh fofHkUu ' kk[ kkv ksaesa; gh i z.kkyh
v i ukbZt k jgh gsAnw jl a
pkj] dEI; w
Vj ; k i zlkj.k l Hkh dsfy, , d gh mixzg v kS j v kW
fIVdy i Q kbcj dks
lwpuk i zlkj dsew y <kpsds: i esai z;ksx fd; k t k jgk gS A

i zl kj Hkkj r h %eq
[ ; ky ; %ubZfnYy h (Prasar Bharti : Headquarter : New Delhi)

i zlkj Hkkjrh ns'k esal koZ

t fud i zlkj.k l sok gS
Abl dsnks?kVd gS & v kdk'kok.kh rFkk nw
a j n' kZ
uA23 uoEcj]
1997 dksi zlkj Hkkjrhdk xBu fd; kx; kAbl sfuxe cuk fn; kx; kAfuxe dkdk; Zl a pkyu i zl kj Hkkjrh
cksMZ}kjk fd; k t krk gS ] ft l esa, d v ; {k] , d dk; Z
d kjh l nL; ( eq
[ ; dk; Z
d kjh v f/ dkjh) ] , d fok
l nL; ] , d dkfeZ d l nL; rFkk N%v a ' kdkfyd l nL; gksrsgS Abl dk v ; {k v a
a ' kdkfyd l nL; gksrk gS ]
ft l dk dk; Zd ky 6 o"kZdk gksrk gS Ai zlkj Hkkjrh dk eq[ ; ky; ubZfnYyh esagS A

v kd k' kok. kh (Akashvaani)

Hkkjr esajsfM; ksdk i gyk dk; Z

e o"kZ1923 esaeq EcbZdsjsfM; ksDyc }kjk gq v kAbl dsckn o"kZ1927 esa
eqEcbZrFkkdksy dkrkesafut hLokfeRo okysnksVka l ehVjksal si zl kj.kl sokdhLFkki ukgq
Ao"kZ1930 esabUgsa
l jdkjhfu; U =k.kesaysfy; kx; kv kS
j Hkkjrh; i zlkj.kl sokdsuke l si zkjEHkfd; kx; kAo"kZ1936 esabl dk
uke v kW
y bf.M; k jsfM; ksrFkk o"kZ1957 esav kdk' kok.kh dj fn; k x; kA
LorU=krk i zkfIr dsl e; ns'k esaNg v kdk' kok.khdsU
nzv kS
j 18 Vka
l ehVj Fksv kS
j 11 i zfr' kr t ul a
[ ; k rd
bl dh i gq
p FkhAbl l e; 215 v kdk' kok.kh dsUnzv ksj 337 Vka
l ehVj gS ] ft udh i gq p ns'k dh
99-13 i zfr' kr t ul a
[ ; k rd gS
v kdk' kok.kh ^cgq t u fgrk; ]cgq
tulq[ k; * dsy{; i j ; ku dsfUnzr djrsgq
, dke djrk gSrkfd l p wuk]
f' k{kk v kS
j euksja
t u dsek; e l st uer dh [ kq
' kgkyh v kS
j mudsdY; k.k dksi zksRlkgu fn; k t k l dsA
v kdk' kok.kh fuEuka
fdr pS
uyksads}kjk v i uh l sok, i znku djrk gS
( i) i zkFkfed pS
uy ( ii) jk"Vh; pS
uy ( iii) fofo/ Hkkjrh
( iv) , i Q
, e pS
yu ( v) fons'k i zlkj.k pS
1 v i zS
y ] 2004 l sv kdk' kok.kh ds12 dsUnzksal s^fdl kuok.kh* dk; Z
e ' kq
: fd; k x; k gS
, e i j ^Kkuok.kh* pS
uy i zkjEHk fd; k x; k gS
] ft l dspkj ?k.Vsdsi zlkj.k esa' kkL=kh; l a
Group-II (fgU
nh) 255

d{kk&f' k{k.k] foKku o cPpksadsfy, dk; Z

e gksrsgSA' kke esabl dk i q
a ui zZ
l kj.k fd; k t krk gS
A; g bXuw
dsl g; ksx l scuk; k x; k dk; Z
e gS
: esa, i Q
, e i j ^' kkL=kh; l a
xhr* pS uy ' kq
: fd; k x; k gS
bUVj, fDVo jsfM; ksl sok dsek; e l sJksrk] dk; Z
e i zLrq
r drkZl sckrphr dj l drsgS
av kS
j v i uhi l Un
dk xhr l qukusdk v kxzg dj l drsgS A
v kdk' kok.kh dk fons'k l sok i zHkkx Hkkjr v kS
j ' ks"k fo' o dschp l w
=k dk dke djrk gS
Abl l e; nq
fu; k
Hkj dsyxHkx 100 ns'kksadsfy, 16 fons'kh rFkk 11 Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkv ksaesa; g i zlkj.k djrk gSA
l keq
nkf; d jsfM; ksLVs'ku@
i zlkj.kdsykbLksUl ekU;rki zkIr l q
O;ofLFkr f' k{kkl a
laxBuksadksfn; sx, gS

nw u ( Doordarshan)
j n' kZ

nwj n' kZ
u dk i gyk i zlkj.k 15 fl rEcj] 1959 dksv kdk'kok.kh Hkou] ubZfnYh esafd; k x; kAo"kZ1965 esa
l ekpkj cq y sfVu dkfu; fer i zlkj.k' kq
: gq
v kAl kr o"kZckn eq
EcbZesanw l jsVsy hfot u dsUnzesai zlkj.kl sok
' kq
: gq bZ
xhu i zlkj.k dh ' kq
: v kr o"kZ1982 esaubZfnYh esav k; ksft r , f' k; kbZ[ ksy ksadsnkS
j ku gq
bl l e; nw j n' kZ
u ds25 pS
uyksal sdk; Z
e fn[ kk, t kjgsgS
AMhMh] us'kuy MhMh U;w
a t ] MhMh Li ksV~
MhMh Hkkjrh] MhMh Kkun' kZ
u v kfnA
MhMh us'kuy i j jk"Vh; dk; Z
e fn[ kk, t krsgS
] ft udk eq [ ; mn~ ns'; jk"Vh; , drk dksc<+
koknsuk rFkk
, dt q
Vrk , oaHkkbZ
pkjsdh Hkkouk i S
nk djuk gS An' kZ
d ksadh l a
[ ; k dh nf"V l sns'k esabl pS
uy dk i gyk
LFkku gS
MhMh Hkkjrh f' k{kk v kS
j euksja
t u ^, t q
VsuesUV* i j v k/ kfjr pS
uy gS
Abl pS
uy dsrhu [ k.M gS
&LokLF; ]
cky] dyk , oal a Ldfr A
xq. kokk; q
Dr f' k{kk rd l cdh i gq p dk; e djusdsmn~ ns'; l snwj n' kZ
u us26 t uojh] 2000 l s' kS { kf.kd
pSuy Kku n' kZ u v kjEHk fd; k gS A; g mi xzg pS uy bXuwv kSj ekuo l a l k/ u fodkl eU=kky; dsl g; ksx l s
lapkfyr fd; kt k jgkgS Abl dsdk; Zeksaesai zkFkfed] ek; fed v kS j fo' ofo| ky; Lrjh; f' k{kk] rduhd
v kSj O;kol kf; d i zf' k{k.k dsckjsesat kudkjhnht krhgS A; g f' k{kk dsi zfr l efi Z
r Hkkjr dk i zFke pS uy
gSA fodkl l a pkj i zHkkx dh LFkki uk ekpZ2001 esadh xbZ A bl dh LFkki uk l jdkj dseU=kky; ksarFkk
l koZt fud {ks=k dsmi eksadsfy, foi .ku rFkk dk; Z e djkusdsfy, dh xbZ Abl i zHkkx dsdY; k.kh
v fHk; ku uso"kZ2004 esajk"Ve.My dk i zfrf"Br ^xsV~ l eysfj; k v okMZ * t hrkA

i zsl , oafi zUV ehfM; k@ t h; d ( Press and Print Media)

l ekpkj i =k i a

l u~1953 esai zFke i zsl v k; ksx dh fl i Q kfj' k dsvk/ kkj i j 1 t q

y kbZ
] 1956 dksHkkjr dsl kekpkj i =k
iat h; d ; k i zsl i a
t h; d dk dk; kyZ; v fLrRRo esv k; kAo"kZ2003&2004 dh fji ksVZdsv uq l kj 31 ekpZ
2004 rd i a t hdrekpkj i =k@
i f=kdkv ksadh dq y la[ ; k 58]469 FkhA bl esa6]287 nS fud] 361 f=k@ f}
l kIrkfgd] 20329 l kIrkfgd] 7]694 i kf{kd] 17]124 ekfl d] 4]101 =kS ekfl d] 541 okf"kZ
d , oa2]032
v U; dky v of/ dsFksAfnYyh esa11 Hkk"kkv ksaesai =k&i f=kdkv ksadk i zd k'ku gq v kAbl dsckn egkjk"Vesa
256 Communication Skill-II

10 Hkk"kkvksaesa] dsjy rFkk dukZ Vd esa9&9 Hkk"kkv ksaesarFkk i f' peh ca

xky esa7 Hkk"kkv ksaesai d
z k' ku gq
v kA
mkj i zns'k esal cl sv f/ d ( 9]492) l ekpkj i =kksadk i at hdj.k gq v kAegkjk"Vl si zd kf' kr gksjgk ^ckEcs
l ekpkj* ns'k dk l cl si q j kuk v [ kckj gS

i =k l w y ; %ubZfnYy h ( Press Information Bureau)

p uk d k; kZ

i =kl w
pukdk; kZ y ; ( i hv kbZch) l jdkj dhuhfr; ksa ] dk; Z e i gy v kS j mi yfC/ ; ksadsckjsesal ekpkj i =kksa
rFkk bysDVkW
fud ehfM; k dksl w puk nsusokyh i zeq [ k , t sUlh gS
A; g i zsl foKfIr; ksa] i szl uksV] fo' ks"k ys[kksa
l UnHkZl kexzh] i zsl czhfi Q
x] i Q
ksVksxzki Qv kfn dksl a oknnkrk l Eesy u] l k{kkRdkj] i zsl nkS j sv kS
j dk; kZ
y ; dh
oscl kbV dsek; e l sl w puk dksl oZ =k i gq
pkrk gS
bl ds{ks=kh; rFkk ' kk[ kk dk; kZ
y ; ] v i us{ks=k esa
] dsUl jdkj dsl Hkh dk; kZ
y ; ksadsfy, i zeq
[kl w
dk; kZ
y ; ds: i esadk; ZdjrsgS A
fofHkUu i zk: i ksaesagS
. Mv kmV] i Q
hpj rFkki Q
ksVks] i zsl dkst kjhdjuki =kl w
pukdk; kZ
y ; dsi zeq
[ kdk; Z
d yki ksa
esa' kkfey gS A

l kekpkj , t sfUl ; k ( Mred Shrmvord)

i zsl VLV v kW
i Qbf. M; k ( i hVhv kbZ) & ; g Hkkjr dh l cl sl ekpkj , t sUlh gS
] t ksfcuk fdl h eq
uki Q
dspykbZt kusokyh l gdkjh l a LFkk gS
Abl dh LFkki uk 27 v xLr] 1947 dksgq bZv kS
j 1iQ jojh] 1949 l s
bl usv i uh l sok, i zkjEHk dj nha
i hVhv kbZ
v a
xzst hv kS
j fgUnhesav i uhl ekpkj l sok, nsjghgS
A^Hkk"kk* , t sUlhdhfgUnhl ekpkj l sok gS
;wukbVsM U;w t v kWi Qbf. M; k ( ; w ) & ; w
, uv kbZ ukbVsM U;w
t v kWi Qbf.M; k dh LFkki uk o"kZ1956 ds
dEi uhdkuw u dsrgr 19 fnl Ecj] 1959 dksbq bZ
Abl us21 ekpZ] 1961 l sdk; Zdjuk' kq
: fd; kAo"kZ1982
esabl usi w
. kZ: i l sfgUnhrkj l sok^; w
* dk' kq
HkkjEHkfd; kv kS
j Hkkjr dhi gyhfgUnhl ekpkj , t sUlh
cu xbZ A
, uv kbZ
fo' o dh l cl scM+
hl w
puk dEi uh ^jk; Vj* dsek; e l sfo' o dsl ekpkj forfjr djrh gS
xq y & ; g xq
Vfuj i s{k l ekpkj , t sUl hi w Vfuji s{kns'kksadhl ekpkj , t sfUl; ksadschp l ekpkj v knku&i znku
dhO;oLFkk FkhA; g o"kZ1976 esa' kq : gq
v kAi w y dsl ekpkj pkj Hkk"kkv ksaesai zsf"kr fd, t krsgS
& va
a xzst h]
Li sf' ku] sa
p v kS
j v jchA
& bl dh LFkki uk l ekpkj i =kksadhLorU=krk dh j{kk djusv kS
Hkkj r h; i zsl i fj "kn~ j Hkkjr esal ekpkj i =kksa
v kS
j l ekpkj , t sfUl; ksadsLrj dkscuk, j[ kusv kS j ml esal q
/ kkj ykusdsmn~ns'; l sl al n dsv f/ fu; e ds
rgr dh xbZ Abl i fj"kn~dsv ; {k Hkkjr dsmPpre U ; k; ky; dsl sokfuor U;k; k/ h'k gksrsgS
A11 ekpZ ]
2005 dksU;k; ew frZJh t h, u jsdksv ; {k cuk; k x; kA
i fj"kn~dhv k; dsv i usL=kksr gS
A; g i a
a t hdr l ekpkj i =kksav ksj l ekpkj , t sfUl; ksal s' kq
Yd ol w
y djrh
gSAdsUnzl jdkj l sv uq
nku Hkh i zkIr djrk gS
A; g , d l okZ f/ d rFkk v ZU;kf; d l a xBu gSA
Group-II (fgU
nh) 257

i zd k' ku foHkkx %ubZfnYy h ( Publishing Department : New Delhi)

i zd k' ku foHkkx] jk"Vh; ego rFkk Hkkjr dh l e` i jEi jk dksn' kkZ usokyh i qLrdksarFkk i f=kdkv ksadk
i zd k' ku Hk.Mkj gS Aog okf"kZ d l UnHkZxzUFk ^Hkkjr* dk i zd k' ku djrk gSAfoHkkx i zfro"kZ120&150 i q Lrdksa
dki zd k' ku djrkgS ] ; g foHkkx 18 ekfl d i f=kdkv ksadk i zd k' ku djrkgS] ft l esacky Hkkjrh] v kt dy]
; kst uk] dq : {ks=k] jkst xkj l ekpkj v kfn i zeq
[ k gS

n`' ; &J O; ehfM; k ( Audio-Visual Media)

o"kZ1895 esaYrq fe; j cU/q

v ksa}kjk eks'ku fi Dpj i Q
ksVksxzki Q
h dsckn n`' ; ehfM; k v fLrRo esav k; kAew
fi QYe ds; q x esao"kZ1912&13 esav kjVh Vksuhus, ut h fp=ksdsl kFk , d fi Q Ye ^i q. Mfyd* cukbZFkhA
nwl jh fi QYe ^jkt k gfj' pUnz* nknk l kgsc i Q kYdsuscukbZFkhAi gyh Hkkjrh; cksy rh fi Q Ye ^v kyev kjk*
v knsZ
' khj bZ
j kuh uscukbZ A

fi Q EcbZ( Film Institution : Mumbai)

Ye i zHkkx %eq

o"kZ1943 esaLFkkfi r ^bf.M; u U;wi jsM rFkk bUiQ

' ku fi Q
a Yel ~v kW
i Qbf.M; k* dk i q
u%ukedj.k dj
t uohj] 1948 bZ
esafi Q
Ye i zHkkx dk xBu fd; k x; kA

EcbZ( Central Film Certification Board : Mumbai)

d sUh; py fp=k i zek. ku cksMZ%eq

fl usekVksxzki Qv f/ fu; e] 1952 dsrgr LFkkfi r dsUh; pyfp=k i zek.ku cksMZ

] Hkkjr esal koZ
t kfud i zn' kZ
dsfy, fi Q Yeksadk i zek.ku djrk gS
Abl cksMZesa, d v ; {k v kS
j 25 v U; xSj &l jdkjh deZ pkjhgksrsgS A

Ye fod kl fuxe fy feVsM ( National Film Development Corportation Limited)

j k"Vh; fi Q

bl fuxe dh LFkki uk o"kZ1975 esagq bZFkhAo"kZ1980 esaHkkjrh; pyfp=k fu; kZ r fuxe v kS j fi Q

Ye fok
fuxe dsfoy; dsckn bl dki q uxZBu fd; kx; kAbl fuxe dkeq [ ; mn~ ns'; Hkkjr esafl usekdhxq . kokk
esal q
/ kj ykuk rFkk JO;&n`' ; , oal Ecf/ r {ks=kksaesav fr v k/ q
fud i zkS
| ksfxdh fodfl r djuk gS A
fuxe }kjk: i ; s4-48 djksM+dhjkf' kl sLFkkfi r fl usdykdj dY; k.kdks"kHkkjrh; fi Q
Ye m| ksx dkl cl s
; kl gSA
fi Q
Ye l ekjksg funs'kky; dh LFkki uk o"kZ1973 esadh xbZ
Abl dk mn~
ns'; v PNsfl usek dksi zksRlkgu nsuk

j k"Vh; fi Q . ks( National Film Museum : Pune)

Ye v fHky s[kkxkj %i q

bl dhLFkki uko"kZ1964 esal w

puk, oai zlkj.keU=kky; dsv / hu , d LorU=kehfM; kbdkbZds: i esadh
258 Communication Skill-II


Hkkj r h; cky fi Q EcbZ( Indian Children Film Society : Mumbai)

Ye l fefr %eq

bl dh LFkki uk o"kZ1955 esacPpksadksfi QYeksal smPp v kn' ksZ

adh i zsj.kk nsusokyk euksja
t u i znku djusds
mn~ns'; l sdh xbZ A; g i zR;sd nw
l jso"kZv UrjkZ
"Vh; cky fi Q
Ye l ekjksg dk v k; kst u djrh gS A

foKki u , oan`' ; i zl kn funs'kky ; %fnYYkh (DABP)

( Directorate of Advertisement and Visual Pulicity: Delhi)

; g Hkkjr l jdkj dh i zeq[ k eYVhehfM; k foKki u , t sUlh gS

A l jdkjh uhfr; ksav kS
j dk; Z
ek; eksal si zpkfjr djusokyh ; g fl a
xy foaMks, t sUlh gS

oLr q
fu"B i z'u

1- dEI; w
Vj&l gk; &v uq
ns'ku fopkj&l Eizs"k.k l cl sgksrk gS
Av ki bl dFk l sfdrusl ger gS
( a) l jy fopkj ( b) v R;Ur gh dfBu fopkj
( c) l kekU
; fopkj ( d) l Hkh i zd kj dsfopkj
2- fLuX/ fopkj&l Ei zs"k.k l cl sv Pnk gksrk gS
Av ki bl dFku l sfdrusl ger gS
( a) i w
. kZl ger ( b) i zk; %l ger
( c) l EHkor%v l ger ( d) i w
. kZv l ger
3- YkEcsokD; rFkk udkjkRed Hkk"kk] fopkj&l Ei i zs"k.k dkscukrsgS
( a) v i zHkkoh ( b) i zHkkoh
( c) dfBu ( d) l kekU;
4- dfBu , oat fVy fo"k; &oLrqdksi <+
uk pkfg,
( a) ckn esa ( b) [ k.Mksaesa
( c) chp&chp esa ( d) Nk=kksadh bPNkuq
l kj
5- KkukRed Lrj i j i <+
krsl e; v ; ki d dksi <+
kuk pkfg,
( a) l jy o l q
xerki w
d ( b) t Ynh&t Ynh
( c) dfBu fo"k; &oLrq ( d) Nk=kksadh bPNkuq
l kj
Group-II (fgU
nh) 259

6- la
pkj dksi zHkkoh cukusgsrqfuEufyf[ kr esal sdkS
u&l k dk; Z
e v f/ d i zHkko' kkyh gksxk\
( a) Vhoh dk ( b) i zkst sDV dk
( c) f' k{k.k fof/ dk ( d) bu l Hkh dk
7- Nk=kksaesaHkk"kk dsmfpr fodkl gsrqfuEufyf[ kr esal sdkS
u&l k dk; Z
e v f/ d i zHkko' kkyh gksxk\
( a) dfo l Eesy u ( b) ys[ku i zfr; ksfxrk
( c) okn&fookn i zfr; ksfxrk ( d) Hkze.k dk; Z
8- f' k{k.k dsl e; fopkj&l a
pkj }kjk Nk=kksai j i zHkko Mkyk t k l drk gS
( a) euksoS
Kkfud ( b) l kekU;
( c) nyxr ( d) ' kS
9- t c v ki d{kk esaf' k{k.k djkrsgS
arksd{kk esa--------- dsl kFk&l kFk pyuk pkfg, A
( a) ekS
f[ kd fopkj&l a
pkj ( b) xS
j &' kkfCnd fopkj&l a
( c) l jy l Ei zs"k.k ( d) l Hkh i zd kj dsl Ei zs"k.k
10- ; gk i j fdl h O;k[ ; ku dsi zkjfEHkd pj.k l sl EcfU/r dq
N f; kv ksadk mYys[k fd; k x; k gS
1- i zLrq
r i zd j.k dksHkkoh v f/ oku l sl Ec djuk
2- i zLrq
r i zd j.k dksi w
i fBr i zd j.k l sl Ec djuk
3- Nk=kksaesa: fp t xkuk v kS
j mUgsav fHki zsfjr djuk
4- i w
oZt kudkjh dkst kpuk
5- fo"k; &oLrql a
{ ksi.k
fdl h O;k[ ; ku dsi zkjfEHkd pj.k dsfy, fuEufyf[ kr esadkS
u&l k esy l okZ
f/ d mi ; q
Dr gS
( a) 1] 2 v kS
j 3 ( b) 1] 3 v kS
j 4
( c) 1] 4 v kS
j 5 ( d) 3] 4 v kS
j 5
11- ; gk i j fdl h O;k[ ; ku dh i zLrq
fr ' kS
y h l sl EcfU/r dq
N dkS
' ky dk mYys[k fd; k x; k gS
1- l a
d ;q
fDr; ksadk i z;ksx
2- mn~
nhi dksaesafofo/ rk
3- Nk=kksadk v fHki zsj.k
4- i w
. kZKku dh t kp
5- i z'u Kku dh t kp
O;k[ ; ku dh i zLrq
r ' kS
y h l sl EcfU
/ r f' k{k.k dkS
' kyksadk dkS
u&l k esy l okZ
f/ d mi ; q
Dr gS
( a) 1] 2 v kS
j 3 ( b) 1] 3 v kS
j 4
( c) 2] 3 v kS
j 5 ( d) 1] 2 v kS
j 5
260 Communication Skill-II

12- fdl h O;k[ ; ku dsnkS

j ku l a
pkj i zf; k dsdq
N i {kksadk mYys[k fuEufyf[ kr gS
1- foi ; Z
2- ew
Y; ka
3- l a
d sU.k
4- fun' kZ
5- v frja
fdl h l Uns'k dsfoi j.kksal scpusdsfy, l Ei zs"k.k i zf; k dsfuEufyf[ kr esy ksaesal sdkS
u&l k l okZ
mi ; q
Dr gS\
( a) 1] 2 v kS
j 3 ( b) 1] 3 v kS
j 4
( c) 2] 3 v ksj 4 ( d) 3] 4 v kS
j 5
13- fujUrj v kU
rfjd i jh{k.k l sfuEufyf[ kr esal sdkS
u&l k ykHk l cl sv f/ d egoi w
. kZgS
( a) bl dsdkj.k Nk=k i w
j k o"kZi fjJe djrsgS
( b) bl l sv uq
' kkl u cuk, j[ kusesal gk; rk feyrh gS
( c) bl l sNk=k v ; ki dksadk v f/ d v knj djrsgS
( d) bl l sNk=kksadksv f/ d v a
d i zkIr gksrsgS
14- fuEu esal sfdl v ; ki d dksv ki l cl sv f/ d i l U
n djsa
( a) og v ; ki d t ks' ; kei V~
V dk cgq
r gh de i z;ksx djrk gS
( b) og v ; ki d t kspkVZrFkk ekufp=kksadk i z;ksx djrk gS
( c) og v ; ki d t ksfi Q
Ye i zkst sDVj dk ' ; kei V~
V dsl kFk&l kFk mfpr <a
x l si z;ksx djrk gS
( d) og v ; ki d t kspyfp=kksadksdsoy et cw
j h esai z;ksx djrk gS
15- v ; ki u i zf; k esanf"V ekW
My ughac<+
k l drk gS
( a) : fp rFkk i zfri q
f"V dks
( b) Lej.k&' kfDr rFkk ekgkS
y esa<yusdks
( c) ruko rFkk mQ
c dks
( d) ft Kkl k rFkk l a
d sU.k dks
16- , l v kbZ
VhbZdk RkkRi; ZgS
( a) fl LVe i Q
j bUVjus'kuy VsDukW
y kt h , UM bU
t hfu; fja
( b) l S
Vsy kbV bULVD' kuy Vsy hfot u , Dl i sfjesUV
( c) l kmFk bf.M; u VsM LVsV
( d) mi jksDr l Hkh
Group-II (fgU
nh) 261

17- fdl h Hkh i zHkkoh l a

pkj i z.kkyh esai zfri q
f"V i z.kkyh dk i z;ksx fd; k t krk gS
] rkfd&
( a) i zf; k esav ko' ; d mi kUrj.k fd; k t k l ds
( b) v UroZ
Lrqdsckjsesav kS
j T; knk l e>k t k l ds
( c) i zs"kd ( v ; ki d) dsnks"kksadk i rk yxk; k t k l ds
( d) xzkgd ( Nk=k) dsnks"kksadk i rk yxk; k t k l ds
18- fuEufyf[ kr esal sdkS
u&l k rjhdk f' k{kkFkhZdks, d&nw
l jsdksi zHkkfor djusdh v f/ d Nw
V nsrk gS
( a) y?kql ew
g esappkZ ( b) fi Q
Ye i zkstsDVj dk i z;ksx
( c) nw
j n' kZ
u i j ns'kO;ki h d{kk dk; Z
e ns[kuk ( d) fo' ks"kKksa}kjk ysDpj
19- v ; ki d dsfy, i <+
kukft rukegoi w
. kZgSmrukghegoi w
. kZgSNk=kksa}kjki w
Nsx, i z'uksadsdq
' kyrki o
mkj nsukAv ki bl dFku l sdgk rd l ger gS \
( a) i w
. kZv l ger ( b) i w
. kZl ger
( c) v ka
f' kd l ger ( d) l EHkor%
20- l jy fuEuLrjh; RkFkk KkukRed Lrj dsfo"k; dk l Eizs"k.k djusdsfy, fdl i zd kj dh l Ei zs"k.k&uhfr
dh v ko' ; drk gksrh gS
( a) fu.kZ
; &l kj.kh ( b) l rr jkxkRed
( c) Hkk"kkxr ( d) JO;kRed
21- v ki dsNk=kksadh v ksj l sl nS
o ; g f' kdk; r jgrh gSfd v ki d{kk esai <+
krsl e; t Ynh&t Ynh cksy rs
Abl dk i zeq
a [ k dkj.k gksl drk gS&
( a) mi yC/ l e; de gS ( b) v ki esav kRfo' okl dh deh gS
( c) Nk=k v knh gksx, gS
a ( d) dg ughal drs
22- d{kk&d{k f' k{k.k v ; ki d dsfopkj i zLrq
r hdj.k dsdkS
' ky i j v k/ kfjr gksrk gS
A; g dFku&
( a) l R; gS ( b) v l R; gS
( c) v ka
f' kd : i l sl R; gS ( d) dgk ughat k l drk
23- fuEufyf[ kr esal sdkS
u&l h fof/ oS
; fDrd fofHkUurkv ksadh mi s{kk djrh gS
( a) l ew
g fof/ ( b) O;k[ ; ku fof/
( c) l w
{ e l ew
g f' k{k.k fof/ ( d) ; w
fuV fof/
24- la
pkj dkS
' ky v ft Z
r fd; k t k l drk gS
A; g dFku&
( a) l R; gS ( b) yxHkx l R; gS
( c) v l R; gS ( d) v Li "V gS
25- f}i {kh; l a
pkj i zHkkoh gksrk gS
( a) dHkh ugha ( b) l nS
262 Communication Skill-II

( c) v f/ dka
' kr% ( d) dHkh&dHkh
26- fuEu dFkuksaesal sdkS
u&l k l gh ughagS
( a) , d v PNk l Eizs"kd , d v PNk f' k{kd ughagksl drk
( b) , d v PNk l Ei zs"kd v PNk gkL; &cks/ j[ krk gS
( c) , d v PNk l Ei zs"kd O;ki d v ; u okyk gksrk gS
( d) mi jksDr esal sdksbZugha
27- , d i zHkko' kkyh l a
pkj fdl dh v i s{kk ughadjrk\
( a) okd~
&i fr esai fjorZ
u ( b) l Vhd gko&Hkko
( c) fo"k; oLrqi j v f/ dkj ( d) v kd"kZ
d O;fDrRo
28- fuEu esa, d dksNksM+
d j l Hkh f}&ekxhZ
; l k/ u dsmnkgj.k gS
Aog , d dkS
a u&l k gS
( a) t ul Hkk, ( b) i n ; k=kk
( c) l M+
d ksai j ukVdksadk v k; kst u ( d) i zn' kZ
u rFkk jS
29- fuEu esa
l sdkS
u xzkeh.kksadsv Unj l k{kjrk dksc<+
kok nsusesal a
pkj dk v PNk <+
x ughagksl drk\
( a) djdsfn[ kkuk ( b) fy[ kuk rFkk i <+
( c) dsoy fy[ kuk ( d) dsoy i <+
30- la
i zs"k.k esaHkk"kk gS
( a) v ekS
f[ kd ( b) ekS
f[ kd
( c) i zrhdkRed ( d) fp=kkRed
1& ( b) 2& ( a) 3& ( a) 4& ( b) 5& ( a) 6& ( b)
7& ( b) 8& ( a) 9& ( b) 10& ( b) 11& ( c) 12& ( b)
13& ( a) 14& ( c) 15& ( c) 16& ( b) 17& ( a) 18& ( a)
19& ( b) 20& ( b) 21& ( b) 22& ( a) 23& ( a) 24& ( a)
25& ( d) 26& ( a) 27& ( d) 28& ( c) 29& ( b) 30& ( c)
Group-II (fgU
nh) 263

Sem-I (Group-II)
Model Paper-B

[ k. M&I

1. (i) l a
i zs"k.k dh D; ksav ko' ; drk gS
\ [2]
(ii) la
s"k.k f; k dh i fjHkk"kk nsa
\ [2]
(iii) Lrq
fr esan`' ; ] pkVZVscq
y D; ksav ko' ; d gS
a [1]

[ k. M&II

2. (i) l a
i zs"k.k fdrusdkj dsgksrsgS
\ uke fy[ ksa
A [1]
(ii) Hkkf"kdk , oaxS
j Hkkf"kdk esav a
r j Li "V djsa
A [4]

[ k. M&III

3. (i) i zHkko' kkyh l a
ns'k dh rS
; kjh D; ksav kS
j dS
l sdh t k, \ [2 ]

(ii) iQ
d D; k gS
\ [2 ]

[ k. M&IV

4. (i) v k/ kjHkw
r f' k"Vkpkj D; ksavko' ; d gS
\ [2 ]

(ii) ' kkjhfjd Hkk"kk }kjk l a
i zs"k.k dS
l sl a
Hko gS
\ [1 ]
(iii) l kew
fgd i fjppkZdh D; ksav ko' ; drk gS
a [1]
Note: l Hkh mkj i kB`; i q
Lrd esagS
264 Communication Skill-II