Você está na página 1de 31




Course : Master of Business Administration Level I Term II



Data communication is the active process of transporting data from one point to another.
Data communication refers to meaningful exchange of information between two entities. The
information to be transmitted is processed to ensure its reliability, integrity, and intelligibility
during transfer.

The effectiveness of a data communication system depends on three fundamental characteristics:

Delivery: The system must deliver data to the correct destination. Data must be received by the
intended device or user and only by that device or user.
Accuracy: The system must deliver data accurately. Data that have been altered in transmission
and left uncorrected are unusable.
Timeliness: The system must deliver data in a timely manner. Data delivered late are useless.
In the case of video, audio and voice data, timely delivery means delivering data as they are
produced, in the same order that they are produced, and without significant delay. This kind of
delivery is called real-time transmission.

Data Communication Component

The following are the basic components for working of a communication system.

1. Transmitter

2. Receiver

3. Medium

4. Message
5. Protocol

The transmitter sends the message and the receiver the message. The medium is the
channel over which the message is sent and the protocol is the set of rules that guides how the
data is transmitted from encoding to decoding. The message of course is central to all the
components. The message is the data that is being communicated.

Fig : Data Communication Components

Transmitter: The transmitter is the device that sends the message. It can be a computer,
workstation, telephone handset, video camera, and so on.

Receiver: The receiver is the device that receives the message. It can be a computer,
workstation, telephone handset, television, and so on.

Medium: The transmission medium is the physical path by which a message travels from sender
to receiver. It can consist of twisted pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, laser or radio
waves (terrestrial or satellite microwave).

Message: The message is the transmission (data) to be communicated. It can consist of text,
number, pictures, sound, or video or any combination of these.

Protocol: A protocol is a set of rules that governs data communication. It represents an

agreement between the communicating devices. Without a protocol, two devices may be
connected but not communicating, just as a person speaking German cannot be understood by a
person who speaks only Japanese.

A network is a series of points or nodes interconnected by communication lines. The

nodes may be devices dedicated to single function such as computer used for client application
or router used for connecting networks. The whole purpose of any network is to enable two
endpoints, networks, servers, routers and so on to communicate with each other and transfer data.

Networks are typically classified by the amount of geographical coverage. There are 4
primary types:

LAN ( Local Area Network )

MAN ( Metropolitan Area Network )
WAN ( Wide Area Network )

LAN ( Local Area Network )

A LAN is a data communication network which connects many computer or workstations
( computer and printer terminal ) and enables exchange among them over same network medium.
LANs are usually confined to a geographically area such as home, school, computer laboratory,
office building. or college campus. The distance between two end points connected on the same
channel is usually upto 2 to 5 kms.
Characteristics of LAN:

All the devices in a network share the transmission media

Area covered is small
Every device in a network can communicate with any other device in a network
Usually cost of setting a network is low

WAN (Wide Area Network)

Wide Area Networking connects multiple LANs that are geographically separate. This can
be accomplished by connecting different LANs using services like dedicated leased line, dial-up
phone, satellite links and data packet carrier services. WAN is high speed, long distance
communication technology. The computer connected to WAN are connected to telephone lines
or satellite. The main purpose of WAN is to provide reliable, fast and safe communication
between two or more places.
The main difference between LAN and WAN is that, the LAN is under complete control of the
owner , whereas WAN require another authority like Telephone Company. Usually LANs have a
lower error rate than WANs.

MAN ( Metropolitan Area Network )

The Metropolitan Area Network ( MAN ) is larger computer networkcovering an area size of
city, campus or building. Two main features which differentiate MAN from LAN or WAN are:

1. The size is between LAN and WAN. A MAN typically covers an area of between 5 to 50km
2. A MAN often acts as a high speed network to allow sharing of resources. It is also used to
provide a shared connections to other networks using a link to WAN.


Computer network requires the following devices (some of them are optional):-

Network Interface Card (NIC)

Cables and connectors
1. Network Interface Card

Network adapter is a device that enables a computer to talk with other computer/network.
Using unique hardware addresses (MAC address) encoded on the card chip, the data-
link protocol employs these addresses to discover other systems on the network so that it
can transfer data to the right destination.

There are two types of network cards: wired and wireless. The wired NIC uses cables
and connectors as a medium to transfer data, whereas in the wireless card, the connection
is made using antenna that employs radio wave technology. All modern laptop computers
incorporated wireless NIC in addition to the wired adapter.

Network Card Speed

Network Interface card, one of the main computer network components, comes with
different speeds, 10Mbps, 100Mbps, and 1000Mbps, so on. Recent standard network
cards built with Gigabit (1000Mbps) connection speed. It also supports to connect slower
speeds such as 10Mbps and 100Mbps. However, the speed of the card depends on your
LAN speed.

For example, if you have a switch that supports up to 100Mbps, your NIC will also
transfer a data with this same speed even though your computer NIC has still the capability
to transfer data at 1000Mbps (1Gbps). In modern computers, network adapter is integrated
with a computer motherboard. However if you want advanced and fast Ethernet card, you
may buy and install on your computer using the PCI slot found on the motherboard
(desktop) and Express Card slots on laptop .

2. Hub

Hub is a device that splits a network connection into multiple computers. It is like a
distribution center. When a computer request information from a network or a specific
computer, it sends the request to the hub through a cable. The hub will receive the request
and transmit it to the entire network. Each computer in the network should then figure out
whether the broadcast data is for them or not.

Currently Hubs are becoming obsolete and replaced by more advanced communication
devices such as Switches and Routers.

3. Switch

Switch is a telecommunication device grouped as one of computer network components.

Switch is like a Hub but built in with advanced features. It uses physical device
addresses in each incoming messages so that it can deliver the message to the right
destination or port.

Like Hub, switch dont broadcast the received message to entire network, rather before
sending it checks to which system or port should the message be sent. In other words
switch connects the source and destination directly which increases the speed of the
network. Both switch and hub have common features: Multiple RJ-45 ports, power supply
and connection lights.

4. Cables and connectors

Cable is one way of transmission media which can transmit communication signals. The
wired network typology uses special type of cable to connect computers on a network.

There are a number of solid transmission Media types, which are listed below.

Twisted pair wire

Coaxial cable
Fiber-optic cable

5. Router

When we talk about computer network components, the other device that used to connect
a LAN with an internet connection is called Router. When you have two distinct
networks (LANs) or want to share a single internet connection to multiple computers, we
use a Router.

In most cases, recent routers also include a switch which in other words can be used as a
switch. You dont need to buy both switch and router, particularly if you are installing
small business and home networks.

There are two types of Router: wired and wireless. The choice depends on your physical
office/home setting, speed and cost.

6. Modems

A modem enables you to connect your computer to the available internet connection
over the existing telephone line. Like NIC, Modem is not integrated with a computer
motherboard. It comes as separate part which can be installed on the PCI slots found on

A modem is not necessary for LAN, but required for internet connection such as dial-up
and DSL.

There are some types of modems, which differs in speed and transmission rate. Standard
PC modem or Dial-up modems (56Kb data transmission speed), Cellular modem (used in a
laptop that enables to connect while on the go), cable modem (500 times faster than
standard modem) and DSL Modems are the most popular.

7. Server

A server is not computer program that waits for requests from other machines or software
(clients) and responds to them. A server typically processes data. The purpose of a server is to
share data or hardware and software resources among clients. This architecture is called
the clientserver model. The clients may run on the same computer or may connect to the server
over a network. Typical computing servers are database servers, file servers, mail servers, print
servers, web servers, game servers, and application servers.
Server machines (which can be either actual or virtual machines) run server programs. In turn, a
server program turns the machine on which it runs into a server machine. However, designating a
machine as "server-class hardware" implies that it is more powerful and reliable than standard
personal computers or is specialized for performing the server's role. Servers may be composed
of large clusters of relatively simple, replaceable machines.
The term server occurs in many different contexts in information technology. In theory, any
computerized process that shares a resource to one or more client processes is a server. So, while
the existence of files on a machine does not classify it as a server, if it uses some mechanism to
share these files then one can regard it as a file server. Similarly, web-server software can run on
any capable computer, and so a laptop or a personal computer can fulfill the role of a web server.
When referring to hardware, the word server typically designates computer models specialized
for their role. In general, a server will perform its role better than a generic personal computer.

Hardware requirement for servers vary widely, depending on the server's purpose and its

8. Workstation

A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended

primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area
network and run multi-user operating systems. The term workstation has also been used loosely
to refer to everything from a mainframe computer terminal to a PC connected to a network, but
the most common form refers to the group of hardware offered by several current and defunct
companies such as Sun Microsystems, Silicon Graphics, Apollo
Computer, DEC, HP and IBM which opened the door for the 3D graphics animation revolution
of the late 1990s.
Workstations offered higher performance than mainstream personal computers, especially with
respect to CPU andgraphics, memory capacity, and multitasking capability. Workstations were
optimized for the visualization and manipulation of different types of complex data such as 3D
mechanical design, engineering simulation (e.g.computational fluid dynamics), animation and
rendering of images, and mathematical plots. Typically, the form factor is that of a desktop
computer, consist of a high resolution display, a keyboard and a mouse at a minimum, but also
offer multiple displays, graphics tablets, 3D mice (devices for manipulating 3D objects and
navigating scenes), etc. Workstations were the first segment of the computer market to present
advanced accessories and collaboration tools.
The increasing capabilities of mainstream PCs in the late 1990s have blurred the lines somewhat
with technical/scientific workstations. The workstation market previously employed proprietary
hardware which made them distinct from PCs; for instance IBM used RISC-based CPUs for its
workstations and Intel x86 CPUs for its business/consumer PCs during the 1990s and 2000s.
However, by the early 2000s this difference disappeared, as workstations now use
highly commoditizedhardware dominated by large PC vendors, such as Dell and HP & Fujitsu,
selling Microsoft Windows or GNU/Linux systems running on x86-64 architecture such as
Intel Xeon or AMD Opteron CPUs.

Network Topology is the schematic description of a network arrangement, connecting various
nodes (sender and receiver) through lines of connection.

Types of Network Topology

Bus Topology
Ring Topology
Star Topology
Mesh Topology
Tree Topology
Hybrid Topology

BUS Topology
Bus topology is a network type in where every computer and network device is connected to
single cable.

Features of Bus Topology

1. It transmits data only in one direction.

2. Every device is connected to a single cable

Advantages of Bus Topology

1. It is cost effective.
2. Cable required is least compared to other network topology.
3. Used in small networks.
4. It is easy to understand.
5. Easy to expand joining two cables together.

Disadvantages of Bus Topology

1. Cables fails then whole network fails.

2. If network traffic is heavy or nodes are more the performance of the network decreases.
3. Cable has a limited length.
4. It is slower than the ring topology.

RING Topology
It is called ring topology because it forms a ring as each computer is connected to another
computer, with the last one connected to the first. Exactly two neighbours for each device.

Features of Ring Topology

1. A number of repeaters are used and the transmission is unidirectional.

2. Date is transferred in a sequential manner that is bit by bit.

Advantages of Ring Topology

1. Transmitting network is not affected by high traffic or by adding more nodes, as only the nodes
having tokens can transmit data.
2. Cheap to install and expand

Disadvantages of Ring Topology

1. Troubleshooting is difficult in ring topology.

2. Adding or deleting the computers disturbs the network activity.
3. Failure of one computer disturbs the whole network.

STAR Topology
In this type of topology all the computers are connected to a single hub through a cable. This hub
is the central node and all others nodes are connected to the central node.

Features of Star Topology

1. Every node has its own dedicated connection to the hub.

2. Acts as a repeater for data flow.
3. Can be used with twisted pair, Optical Fibre or coaxial cable.

Advantages of Star Topology

1. Fast performance with few nodes and low network traffic.

2. Hub can be upgraded easily.
3. Easy to troubleshoot.
4. Easy to setup and modify.
5. Only that node is affected which has failed rest of the nodes can work smoothly.
Disadvantages of Star Topology

1. Cost of installation is high.

2. Expensive to use.
3. If the hub is affected then the whole network is stopped because all the nodes depend on the hub.
4. Performance is based on the hub that is it depends on its capacity

MESH Topology
It is a point-to-point connection to other nodes or devices. Traffic is carried only between two
devices or nodes to which it is connected. Mesh has n (n-2)/2 physical channels to link
hn devices.

Types of Mesh Topology

1. Partial Mesh Topology : In this topology some of the systems are connected in the same
fashion as mesh topology but some devices are only connected to two or three devices.
2. Full Mesh Topology : Each and every nodes or devices are connected to each other.

Features of Mesh Topology

1. Fully connected.
2. Robust.
3. Not flexible.
Advantages of Mesh Topology

1. Each connection can carry its own data load.

2. It is robust.
3. Fault is diagnosed easily.
4. Provides security and privacy.

Disadvantages of Mesh Topology

1. Installation and configuration is difficult.

2. Cabling cost is more.
3. Bulk wiring is required.

TREE Topology
It has a root node and all other nodes are connected to it forming a hierarchy. It is also called
hierarchical topology. It should at least have three levels to the hierarchy.

Features of Tree Topology

1. Ideal if workstations are located in groups.

2. Used in Wide Area Network.

Advantages of Tree Topology

1. Extension of bus and star topologies.

2. Expansion of nodes is possible and easy.
3. Easily managed and maintained.
4. Error detection is easily done.

Disadvantages of Tree Topology

1. Heavily cabled.
2. Costly.
3. If more nodes are added maintenance is difficult.
4. Central hub fails, network fails.

HYBRID Topology
It is two different types of topologies which is a mixture of two or more topologies. For example
if in an office in one department ring topology is used and in another star topology is used,
connecting these topologies will result in Hybrid Topology (ring topology and star topology).

Features of Hybrid Topology

1. It is a combination of two or topologies

2. Inherits the advantages and disadvantages of the topologies included

Advantages of Hybrid Topology

1. Reliable as Error detecting and trouble shooting is easy.

2. Effective.
3. Scalable as size can be increased easily.
4. Flexible.

Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology

1. Complex in design.
2. Costly.


Data is represented by computers and other telecommunication devices using signals. Signals are
transmitted in the form of electromagnetic energy from one device to another. Electromagnetic
signals travel through vacuum, air or other transmission mediums to travel between one point to
another(from source to receiver).

Electromagnetic energy (includes electrical and magnetic fields) includes power, voice, visible
light, radio waves, ultraviolet light, gamma rays etc.

Transmission medium is the means through which we send our data from one place to another.
The first layer (physical layer) of Communication Networks OSI Seven layer model is dedicated
to the transmission media, we will study the OSI Model later.
Factors to be considered while choosing Transmission Medium

1. Transmission Rate
2. Cost and Ease of Installation
3. Resistance to Environmental Conditions
4. Distances

Bounded/Guided Transmission Media

It is the transmission media in which signals are confined to a specific path using wire or cable.
The types of Bounded/ Guided are

Twisted Pair Cable

This cable is the most commonly used and is cheaper than others. It is lightweight, cheap, can be
installed easily, and they support many different types of network. Some important points :

Its frequency range is 0 to 3.5 kHz.

Typical attenuation is 0.2 dB/Km @ 1kHz.
Typical delay is 50 s/km.
Repeater spacing is 2km.

Twisted Pair is of two types :

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)

Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable

It is the most common type of telecommunication when compared with Shielded Twisted Pair
Cable which consists of two conductors usually copper, each with its own colour plastic
insulator. Identification is the reason behind coloured plastic insulation.

UTP cables consist of 2 or 4 pairs of twisted cable. Cable with 2 pair use RJ-11 connector and 4
pair cable useRJ-45 connector.

Installation is easy
It has high speed capacity,
100 meter limit
Higher grades of UTP are used in LAN technologies like Ethernet.

It consists of two insulating copper wires (1mm thick). The wires are twisted together in a helical
form to reduce electrical interference from similar pair.


Bandwidth is low when compared with Coaxial Cable

Provides less protection from interference.

Shielded Twisted Pair Cable

This cable has a metal foil or braided-mesh covering which encases each pair of insulated
conductors. Electromagnetic noise penetration is prevented by metal casing. Shielding also
eliminates crosstalk.
It has same attenuation as unshielded twisted pair. It is faster the unshielded and coaxial cable. It
is more expensive than coaxial and unshielded twisted pair.

Easy to install
Performance is adequate
Can be used for Analog or Digital transmission
Increases the signalling rate
Higher capacity than unshielded twisted pair
Eliminates crosstalk

Difficult to manufacture

Coaxial Cable
Coaxial is called by this name because it contains two conductors that are parallel to each other.
Copper is used in this as centre conductor which can be a solid wire or a standard one. It is
surrounded by PVC installation, a sheath which is encased in an outer conductor of metal foil,
barid or both.

Outer metallic wrapping is used as a shield against noise and as the second conductor which
completes the circuit. The outer conductor is also encased in an insulating sheath. The outermost
part is the plastic cover which protects the whole cable.

Here the most common coaxial standards.

50-Ohm RG-7 or RG-11 : used with thick Ethernet.

50-Ohm RG-58 : used with thin Ethernet
75-Ohm RG-59 : used with cable television
93-Ohm RG-62 : used with ARCNET.

There are two types of Coaxial cables :

This is a 50 ohm () coaxial cable which is used for digital transmission. It is mostly used for
LANs. Baseband transmits a single signal at a time with very high speed. The major drawback
is that it needs amplification after every 1000 feet.
This uses analog transmission on standard cable television cabling. It transmits several
simultaneous signal using different frequencies. It covers large area when compared with
Baseband Coaxial Cable.


Bandwidth is high
Used in long distance telephone lines.
Transmits digital signals at a very high rate of 10Mbps.
Much higher noise immunity
Data transmission without distortion.
The can span to longer distance at higher speeds as they have better shielding when compared to
twisted pair cable


Single cable failure can fail the entire network.

Difficult to install and expensive when compared with twisted pair.
If the shield is imperfect, it can lead to grounded loop.

Fiber Optic Cable

These are similar to coaxial cable. It uses electric signals to transmit data. At the centre is the
glass core through which light propagates.
In multimode fibres, the core is 50microns, and In single mode fibres, the thickness is 8 to 10
The core in fiber optic cable is surrounded by glass cladding with lower index of refraction as
compared to core to keep all the light in core. This is covered with a thin plastic jacket to protect
the cladding. The fibers are grouped together in bundles protected by an outer shield.
Fiber optic cable has bandwidth more than 2 gbps (Gigabytes per Second)


Provides high quality transmission of signals at very high speed.

These are not affected by electromagnetic interference, so noise and distortion is very less.
Used for both analog and digital signals.


It is expensive
Difficult to install.
Maintenance is expensive and difficult.
Do not allow complete routing of light signals.

UnBounded/UnGuided Transmission Media

Unguided or wireless media sends the data through air (or water), which is available to anyone
who has a device capable of receiving them. Types of unguided/ unbounded media are discussed
below :

Radio Transmission
MicroWave Transmission

Radio Transmission
Its frequency is between 10 kHz to 1GHz. It is simple to install and has high attenuation. These
waves are used for multicast communications.

Microwave Transmission
It travels at high frequency than the radio waves. It requires the sender to be inside of the
receiver. It operates in a system with a low gigahertz range. It is mostly used for unicast

There are 2 types of Microwave Transmission :

1. Terrestrial Microwave

For increasing the distance served by terrestrial microwave, repeaters can be installed with each
antenna .The signal received by an antenna can be converted into transmittable form and relayed
to next antenna as shown in below figure. It is an example of telephone systems all over the

2. Satellite Microwave

This is a microwave relay station which is placed in outer space. The satellites are launched
either by rockets or space shuttles carry them.
These are positioned 3600KM above the equator with an orbit speed that exactly matches the
rotation speed of the earth. As the satellite is positioned in a geo-synchronous orbit, it is
stationery relative to earth and always stays over the same point on the ground. This is usually
done to allow ground stations to aim antenna at a fixed point in the sky.


The OSI model, and any other network communication model, provide only a conceptual
framework for communication between computers, but the model itself does not provide specific
methods of communication. Actual communication is defined by various communication
protocols. In the context of data communication, a protocol is a formal set of rules, conventions
and data structure that governs how computers and other network devices exchange information
over a network. In other words, a protocol is a standard procedure and format that two data
communication devices must understand, accept and use to be able to talk to each other.

The protocols are defined by many standard organizations throughout the world and by
technology vendors over years of technology evolution and development. One of the most
popular protocol suites is TCP/IP, which is the heart of Internetworking communications. The IP,
the Internet Protocol, is responsible for exchanging information between routers so that the
routers can select the proper path for network traffic, while TCP is responsible for ensuring the
data packets are transmitted across the network reliably and error free. LAN and WAN protocols
are also critical protocols in network communications. The LAN protocols suite is for the
physical and data link layers communications over various LAN media such as Ethernet wires
and wireless waves. The WAN protocol suite is for the lowest three layers and defines
communication over various wide-area media, such as fiber optic and copper cable.

Network communication has gradually evolved Todays new technologies are based on
accumulation over years of technologies, which may be still existing or obsolete. Because of this,
the protocols which define the network communication, are highly inter-related. Many protocols
rely on others for operation. For example, many routing protocols use other network protocols to
exchange information between routers.

ISO/OSI Reference Model


ISO/OSI Reference Model

This model is based on a proposal developed by the International Standards Organization

(ISO) as a first step toward international standardization of the protocols used in the various
layers (Day and Zimmermann, 1983). It was revised in 1995 (Day, 1995). The model is called
the ISO OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model because it deals with connecting
open systemsthat is, systems that are open for communication with other systems

The OSI model has seven layers.

1. A layer should be created where a different abstraction is needed.

2. Each layer should perform a well-defined function.

3. The function of each layer should be chosen with an eye toward defining
internationally standardized protocols.

4. The layer boundaries should be chosen to minimize the information flow across the
5. The number of layers should be large enough that distinct functions need not be
thrown together in the same layer out of necessity and small enough that the architecture does

not become unwieldy

Fig : The OSI reference model

The Physical Layer

The physical layer is concerned with transmitting raw bits over a communication channel. The
design issues have to do with making sure that when one side sends a 1 bit it is received by the
other side as a 1 bit, not as a 0 bit. These design issues largely deal with mechanical, electrical,
and timing interfaces, as well as the physical transmission medium, which lies below the
physical layer.

The Data Link Layer

The main task of the data link layer is to transform a raw transmission facility into a line that
appears free of undetected transmission errors. It does so by masking the real errors so the
network layer does not see them. It accomplishes this task by having the sender break up the
input data into data frames (typically a few hundred or a few thousand bytes) and transmits the
frames sequentially. If the service is reliable, the receiver confirms correct receipt of each frame
by sending back an acknowledgement frame.

The Network Layer

The network layer controls the operation of the subnet. A key design issue is determining how
packets are routed from source to destination. Routes can be based on static tables that are
wired into the network and rarely changed, or more often they can be updated automatically
to avoid failed components.

The Transport Layer

The basic function of the transport layer is to accept data from above it, split it up into smaller
units if need be, pass these to the network layer, and ensure that the pieces all arrive correctly at
the other end

The Session Layer

The session layer allows users on different machines to establish sessions between them.
Sessions offer various services, including dialog control (keeping track of whose turn it is to
transmit), token management (preventing two parties from attempting the same critical operation
simultaneously), and synchronization (checkpointing long transmissions to allow them to pick up
from where they left off in the event of a crash and subsequent recovery).

The Presentation Layer

Unlike the lower layers, which are mostly concerned with moving bits around, the presentation
layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information transmitted. In order to make
it possible for computers with different internal data representations to communicate, the data
structures to be exchanged can be defined in an abstract way, along with a standard encoding to
be used on the wire. The presentation layer manages these abstract data structures and allows
higher-level data structures (e.g., banking records) to be defined and exchanged.
The Application Layer

The application layer contains a variety of protocols that are commonly needed by users. One
widely used application protocol is HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol), which is the basis for
the World Wide Web. When a browser wants a Web page, it sends the name of the page it wants
to the server hosting the page using HTTP. The server then sends the page back. Other
application protocols are used for file transfer, electronic mail, and network news.


TCP/IP is a set of protocols developed to allow cooperating computers to share resources across
the network. This model was initially developed & used by ARPANET (Advanced Research
Project Agency Network). ARPANET was a community of researchers sponsored by the U.S.
department of defence. It connects many universities and government installations using leased
telephone lines. ARPAnet is the best- known TCP/IP network. TCP/IP is a family of protocols.
Initially TCP/IP was used mostly between minicomputers or mainframes.

The Link Layer

All these requirements led to the choice of a packet-switching network based on a

connectionless layer that runs across different networks. The lowest layer in the model, the link
layer describes what links such as serial lines and classic Ethernet must do to meet the needs of
this connectionless internet layer. It is not really a layer at all, in the normal sense of the term,
but rather an interface between hosts and transmission links. Early material on the TCP/IP model
has little to say about it.

The Internet Layer

The internet layer is the linchpin that holds the whole architecture together. It is shown in the
figure as corresponding roughly to the OSI network layer. Its job is to permit hosts to inject
packets into any network and have them travel independently to the destination (potentially on a
different network). The internet layer defines an official packet format and protocol called IP
(Internet Protocol), plus a companion protocol called ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)
that helps it function. The job of the internet layer is to deliver IP packets where they are
supposed to go. Packet routing is clearly a major issue here, as is congestion (though IP has not
proven effective at avoiding congestion)

The Transport Layer

The layer above the internet layer in the TCP/IP model is now usually called the transport layer.
It is designed to allow peer entities on the source and destination hosts to carry on a
conversation, just as in the OSI transport layer. Two end-to-end transport protocols have been
defined here. The first one, TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), is a reliable connection-
oriented protocol that allows a byte stream originating on one machine to be delivered without
error on any other machine in the internet. It segments the incoming byte stream into discrete
messages and passes each one on to the internet layer. At the destination, the receiving TCP
process reassembles the received messages into the output stream. TCP also handles flow control
to make sure a fast sender cannot swamp a slow receiver with more messages than it can handle.
The second protocol in this layer, UDP (User Datagram Protocol), is an unreliable,
connectionless protocol for applications that do not want TCPs sequencing or flow control and
wish to provide their own. It is also widely used for one-shot, client-server-type request-reply
queries and applications in which prompt delivery is more important than accurate delivery, such
as transmitting speech or video. The relation of IP, TCP, and UDP is shown in Fig. 1-22. Since
the model was developed, IP has been implemented on many other networks.
The Application Layer

The TCP/IP model does not have session or presentation layers. No need for them was
perceived. Instead, applications simply include any session and presentation functions that they
require. Experience with the OSI model has proven this view correct: these layers are of little use
to most applications. On top of the transport layer is the application layer. It contains all the
higher-level protocols. The early ones included virtual terminal (TELNET), file transfer (FTP),
and electronic mail (SMTP). Many other protocols have been added to these over the years.
Some important ones that we will study, shown in Fig. 1-22, include the Domain Name System
(DNS), for mapping host names onto their network addresses, HTTP, the protocol for fetching
pages on the World Wide Web, and RTP, the protocol for delivering real-time media such as
voice or movies.

Fig : The TCP/IP model with some protocols


The OSI and TCP/IP reference models have much in common. Both are based on the concept of
a stack of independent protocols. Also, the functionality of the layers is roughly similar. For
example, in both models the layers up through and including the transport layer are there to
provide an end-to-end, network-independent transport service to processes wishing to
communicate. These layers form the transport provider. Again in both models, the layers above
transport are application-oriented users of the transport service.

Despite these fundamental similarities, the two models also have many differences. In this
section we will focus on the key differences between the two reference models. It is important to
note that we are comparing the reference models here, not the corresponding protocol stacks. The
protocols themselves will be discussed later. For an entire book comparing and contrasting
TCP/IP and OSI, see Piscitello and Chapin (1993). Three concepts are central to the OSI model:

1. Services.

2. Interfaces.

3. Protocols.

Probably the biggest contribution of the OSI model is that it makes the distinction between these
three concepts explicit. Each layer performs some services for the layer above it. The service
definition tells what the layer does, not how entities above it access it or how the layer works. It
defines the layers semantics.

A layers interface tells the processes above it how to access it. It specifies what the parameters
are and what results to expect. It, too, says nothing about how the layer works inside.

Finally, the peer protocols used in a layer are the layers own business. It can use any protocols it
wants to, as long as it gets the job done (i.e., provides the offered services). It can also change
them at will without affecting software in higher layers.

These ideas fit very nicely with modern ideas about object-oriented programming. An object,
like a layer, has a set of methods (operations) that processes outside the object can invoke. The
semantics of these methods define the set of services that the object offers. The methods
parameters and results form the objects interface. The code internal to the object is its protocol
and is not visible or of any concern outside the object.

The TCP/IP model did not originally clearly distinguish between services, interfaces, and
protocols, although people have tried to retrofit it after the fact to make it more OSI-like. For
example, the only real services offered by the internet layer are SEND IP PACKET and
RECEIVE IP PACKET. As a consequence, the protocols in the OSI model are better hidden than
in the TCP/IP model and can be replaced relatively easily as the technology changes. Being able
to make such changes transparently is one of the main purposes of having layered protocols in
the first place.
The OSI reference model was devised before the corresponding protocols were invented. This
ordering meant that the model was not biased toward one particular set of protocols, a fact that
made it quite general. The downside of this ordering was that the designers did not have much
experience with the subject and did not have a good idea of which functionality to put in which

For example, the data link layer originally dealt only with point-to-point networks. When
broadcast networks came around, a new sublayer had to be hacked into the model. Furthermore,
when people started to build real networks using the OSI model and existing protocols, it was
discovered that these networks did not match the required service specifications (wonder of
wonders), so convergence sublayers had to be grafted onto the model to provide a place for
papering over the differences. Finally, the committee originally expected that each country
would have one network, run by the government and using the OSI protocols, so no thought was
given to internetworking. To make a long story short, things did not turn out that way.

With TCP/IP the reverse was true: the protocols came first, and the model was really just a
description of the existing protocols. There was no problem with the protocols fitting the model.
They fit perfectly. The only trouble was that the model did not fit any other protocol stacks.
Consequently, it was not especially useful for describing other, non-TCP/IP networks.

Turning from philosophical matters to more specific ones, an obvious difference between the two
models is the number of layers: the OSI model has seven layers and the TCP/IP model has four.
Both have (inter)network, transport, and application layers, but the other layers are different.

Another difference is in the area of connectionless versus connection-oriented communication.

The OSI model supports both connectionless and connection oriented communication in the
network layer, but only connection-oriented communication in the transport layer, where it
counts (because the transport service is visible to the users). The TCP/IP model supports only
one mode in the network layer (connectionless) but both in the transport layer, giving the users a
choice. This choice is especially important for simple request-response protocols.


1. What are the characteristics of data communication?

2. Define Network. What are the various types of Network?
3. Write about the types of network topology?
4. What are the components of data communication? Explain.
5. Write short notes on i) Network Interface Card ii) Router
6. Explain about the classification of network.
7. Write short notes on Bus topology.
8. Write notes about network protocol.
9. What are the various categories of Transmission Media.
10. Write the difference between OSI AND TCP/IP Reference Models


1. Explain in detail the various types of Network Topology.

2. Define Network . Explain the various types of Network.
3. Explain TCP/IP reference model in detail.
4. Write about ISO/OSI Reference Model
5. Write short notes on i) Bus topology ii) Mesh Topology iii) Hybrid Topology
6. Explain in detail the network Architecture.
7. Explain in detail the Bounded transmission media.
8. What are the various types of Transmission Media? Explain.
9. What are the components of computer network ? Explain.
10. Explain in details the components of data communication