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TOTSI Teacher Training Manual

Table of Contents
Introduction........................................................................................................ 3
General Teaching Skills ....................................................................................... 6
Pair and Group Work Activities for Increasing Students Involvement in Large Classes ..................................... 7
Cooperative Learning Techniques ................................................................................................................... 13
How to Design Measurable Lesson Objectives ................................................................................................ 22
Using Warmers, Icebreakers and Lead-ins During a Lesson ............................................................................. 31
Using Pair and Group Work to Increase Student Involvement ......................................................................... 37
Using Scaffolding in EFL ................................................................................................................................... 41

Speaking ........................................................................................................... 47
Ways to Use Short Videos to Integrate Developing Speaking Skills and Civics ................................................. 48
Integrating Speaking Fluency through Civics ................................................................................................... 52
Teaching Fluency in Speaking through Argumentation and Debates ............................................................... 55
Developing Speaking Skills by Using Games with Teenagers ........................................................................... 62
Creating Speaking Opportunities in the Intermediate English Classroom ........................................................ 72
Controlled Practice Communication Games for Young Learners ...................................................................... 75
Using Dictogloss as a Means of Improving Speaking and Writing Skills ........................................................... 89
Developing Speaking Skills through Class Activities ......................................................................................... 95

Listening ......................................................................................................... 104


Implementing Pre-During-Post Listening Activities Effectively ...................................................................... 105
How to Teach Listening Using the PDP Framework ....................................................................................... 110
Integrating Listening Skills through Civics ...................................................................................................... 115

Reading........................................................................................................... 126
Reading for Gist Tasks ................................................................................................................................... 127
Pre-reading strategies with young learners (9-10 years old) .......................................................................... 135
Teaching Reading Skills: Scanning ................................................................................................................. 141
Developing Young Learners Thinking Skills through Storytelling .................................................................. 149
Developing Reading Skills Based on Group Work .......................................................................................... 153
Developing Reading Skills through Civic Education........................................................................................ 159

Writing ........................................................................................................... 165


Teaching Descriptive Paragraph Writing to Teenagers .................................................................................. 166
How to Make Writing Letters More Collaborative for Intermediate Students ............................................... 173
How to Teach Students to Write Indirect Questions in Formal Letters .......................................................... 180
How to Design Effective Written Feedback on Composition for Teens .......................................................... 186
Teaching Creative Writing Using Short Videos ............................................................................................... 192
Teaching Creative Writing ............................................................................................................................. 194

Grammar ........................................................................................................ 201


Reviewing and Practicing Grammar for Different Levels of Students ............................................................. 202
Reviewing and Practicing Prepositions of Position with Young Learners ....................................................... 208
Teaching Grammar through Songs ................................................................................................................ 213
Teaching Grammar through Games ............................................................................................................... 226
Teaching and Learning Grammar with Fun-Tips for Effective Grammar Acquisition ...................................... 235
Teaching Grammar Creatively Using PPU ...................................................................................................... 247
Teaching Modal Verbs through Various Kinds of Activities ............................................................................ 254
Communicative Grammar Activities for Teens .............................................................................................. 260
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How to Teach Grammar Using Authentic Texts ............................................................................................. 266

Vocabulary...................................................................................................... 274
Teaching Vocabulary to Young Learners ........................................................................................................ 275
Making Vocabulary Memorable .................................................................................................................... 280
Teaching Vocabulary to High School Students (Polysemy Approach) ............................................................ 289
3

Introduction
Background

This handbook contains a collection of teacher training session plans developed by 22 Georgian
teachers as a capstone activity at the end of their training as teacher trainers under the US
Embassy funded Training of Trainers Summer Institute 2016 (TOTSI 2016) program. The
TOTSI 2016 program was implemented by PH International while their partner organization
World Learning-SIT Graduate Institute carried out the Teacher Trainer Development component
of the program. All program activities took place during 2016 and 2017.
During the TOTSI 2016 program, the teachers who contributed training session plans to this
handbook participated in a number of distinct training activities: intensive instruction and
experience in training techniques, cultural explorations and leadership skills in the USA,
personalized feedback on training session plans and online post-session reflections, in-country
observations of training sessions by peers and by World Learning-SIT trainers, and presentation
of their training sessions at the program capstone conference in Tbilisi, during March and April
2017.

A Work In Progress

This handbook does not set out to present a set of perfect training plans. It is a collection of plans
developed by newly trained teacher trainers and is presented as a work in progress. The manual
will serve as a template for experimentation for the trainers who developed the plans, and who
will continue to amend them over time as they deliver them and learn from their experiences and
from the feedback their training participants will provide. For all other current or future teacher
trainers who will access this handbook and borrow, amend and deliver some of the training
activities elaborated here, the contents will be a useful starting point from which to build a
personal portfolio of training session plans.

Developing the plans

The training plans contained in this handbook were developed to this point by the trainers
themselves, with support from World Learning-SIT trainers and with the input of a cohort of
peers. The training sessions were delivered by the teacher trainers during training events in their
own schools or regions and observed by their cohort members and by members of the World
Learning training team.
Following feedback from World Learning-SIT trainers, the teacher trainers made extensive
changes to session plans which were then posted again within their online groups. Further
amendments in some cases were necessary to ensure that the plans were of a sufficient standard
to be implemented and limited enough in scope to be covered in the 45 and 60-minutes time
4

limits which for logistical reasons needed to be adhered to. When this stage of the work had
been completed, many of the authors of the plans continued to propose further additions and
amendments to their plans. This speaks well for the enthusiasm of the new teacher-trainers and
for their future work with Georgian teachers. Most of these plans will be capable of being used
on their own as material for short teacher training sessions, possibly in the teacher trainers own
schools. We also envision them being used later, either as components of longer training
workshops or, in an expanded form, as 90 or 120-minute training sessions. We feel certain that
these teacher trainers will have lots of creative ideas about how best to use their work in the
coming months and years.

Creative use of a standard model

Many of the session plans follow a particular model, based on a version of the Experiential
Learning Cycle, which allows the workshop participants to actually experience the technique as
students, then step back and describe what happened, analyze the teaching practices it contained
and then create a plan for using the ideas in their own teaching. This method was experienced by
the teacher trainers during their training in the USA. It is a relatively easy framework for new
teacher trainers to implement and provides a helpful starting point for trainers who will later
move on to develop a more personal style of training and presentation.
Several of the session plans in the handbook show signs of creativity, imagination, fun and
excellent teacher trainer potential which will, we hope, be of enormous benefit to future
generations of Georgian teachers, as these newly trained teacher trainers disseminate their skills
and knowledge among their colleagues.

Benefit to local teachers and learners

One goal of this program was to support the development of trainers who would bring new ideas
and methodologies back to their regions to share with their colleagues. The greatest advantage to
using local trainers is that they would have a depth of knowledge about their local context and
needs that a foreign specialist would not. The session plans contained within this handbook are a
good example of this. There are plans geared towards teaching speaking and communicative
activities meant to motivate, engage and inspire learners to use their English in meaningful ways;
grammar sessions that move away from teacher-centered lectures towards context-derived or
reflexive methodologies; writing sessions in which the students are writing for an audience,
usually each other; grouping techniques to keep classes fresh; ice-breakers and warmers to set
students at ease and to create a warm, supportive learning atmosphere; activities and sessions
devoted to ideas for grouping students effectively. The fact that the session topics were so well
chosen reflects the hard work and sense of responsibility that these education professionals feel
towards their teaching peers and their local students across Georgia.
5

We are proud of the work produced by the new teacher trainers and have every confidence that
they will continue to develop their training expertise and contribute in many meaningful ways to
the development of English language education in Georgia. We are pleased to return their work
to them in this manual for future use.
We would also hope that when using these plans, you add further components that will
strengthen the sessions and provide handouts or additional activities and exercises that teachers
can bring directly back to their classrooms, as well as web links to let teachers continue
researching on their own.

Washington DC, USA, April 30th 2017


6

General Teaching Skills


7

Pair and Group Work Activities for Increasing Students Involvement in Large
Classes
Ia Manjgaladze

The audience of this session is ETAG members from Kvemo Kartli Region. I have chosen this topic
because very often I hear from my colleagues about the difficulties working with large classes. They
mention that a limited number of students regularly work and that there is usually too much noise
during the lesson. After reading the book Maximizing learning in large classes written by the British
Council, I decided to try some activities in my classes of 28-30 students and then share my experience
with my colleagues through this workshop.

Session Pair and group work activities for increasing students involvement in large classes
title

Time 60 min

Session By the end of the session, the participants will be able to analyze the reasons why there
objectives may be lack of student involvement in large classes and examine ways of increasing
student involvement and independent learning in large classes using pair and group work
activities.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the activity Interaction Material

5 min Warm up To get to know Whole group


each other and to
"snowball sentence": The trainer encourage a
says My name is ______ and I like positive
_____ and asks the participants atmosphere.
to repeat and then say their name
and what they like one by one. Itll
be a good challenge for the last
person.
5 min Activating prior knowledge To meet the Individually Poster and
teachers where Whole group stickers
The trainer writes on the poster they are and
Large class is and asks the activate their prior
participants to finish the sentence knowledge.
thinking about difficulties and
problems (challenging
characteristics).

5 min Introducing key concepts To present the T-Pts PPT (slide


main topic. 1,2,3)
The trainer speaks about
definitions, challenges, difficulties
8

and problems in teaching and To analyze the


learning in large classes. reasons why there
may be lack of
Participants also share their student
thoughts. involvement in
large classes.

5 min Class discussion To help to examine T-Pts PPT (slide


ways of increasing 4,5,6)
The trainer asks participants: student
Which activities can be used to involvement and
involve students in large classes? independent
learning in large
The trainer then speaks about classes using pair
different ways of increasing and group work.
students involvement in large
classes. And underlines pair and
group work.

25 min Experiential activities Sample activities Pair and group Board


for participants to work Notebook
The teacher shares/implements experience
the following activities: different
strategies/activities
for large group
1. Activity #1: Agreeing and classes.
disagreeing
A) The teacher puts the
students into groups of 4-
6 so that each group can
be divided into pairs. To enable students
B) Writes on the board 10 to express the
statements. extent to which
C) Each student decides they agree or
individually whether they disagree with a
agree or disagree with statement.
each statement.
D) Pairs of students
discuss their feelings
about each statement to
find out the similarities
and differences in their
responses with supporting
statements: I agree
withbecause
E) Pairs of students tell the
rest of their group about
their discussion, using
9

sentences such as: We


both agree
thatbecause; We
both disagree with the
statement
thatbecause; One of
us agrees thatbut the
other doesnt because
F) Each group nominates a
spokesperson to tell the
class about one aspect of
their group discussion.

The trainer asks the following Reflection Pair and group Handout #1
questions for reflection: What did work
we do? Why? How can you change
the activity for different levels?
Would you like to try them out?
Why do you think the activity
might be helpful for large classes?
What skills does the activity
develop?

Text
2. Activity #2: Teaching To teach reading (handout
reading skills with limited using limited #2)
resources resources and to Board
A) Students form groups involve students in
of no more than 6. a collaborative
B) Each group receives an reading activity; to
envelope containing the engage all students
contents of the entire in an active reading
passage, neatly cut up into task.
paragraphs. Each
paragraph is numbered.
C) Each student in the
group receives a
paragraph.
D) Students take turns
reading aloud the
paragraphs they have
received.
E) Students then discuss
the content and arrange
them in what they think is
the correct order. They
10

should explain their


decision.
F) A volunteer from each
group then writes their
order on the board.
Group 1
Group 2
G) Once all groups have
recorded their paragraph
order, the whole class
discusses their decisions.
H) Finally the correct order
is agreed on. Reflection Onion circle

The trainer asks the following Handout #3


questions for reflection: What did
we do? Why? What skills does the
activity develop? Why do you
think the trainer used the text
about class size for the activity 2?
How can you change the activity
for different levels? Would you
like to try them out?

15 min Final reflection Individually T-Pts Poster and


Gallery walk stickers
The trainer shares the poster PPT (slide 7)
labelled: The large class is and
asks the participants to finish
thinking about positive aspects.

The trainer gives the participants


the useful links and bibliography.

References
How to remember names. (2017, April 23). Retrieved from:
https://www.edutopia.org/pdfs/blogs/edutopia-finley-remembering-names.pdf

Ideas for warm up activities. (2017, April 23). Retrieved from:


http://teindia.nic.in/files/teacher_trg_module/17_cambodia%20module.pdf

Maximizing learning in large classes. (2017, April 23). Retrieved from:


http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/sites/teacheng/files/ELT-16-screen.pdf

http://www.biography.com
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Handouts

Handout #1
(This text will be cut up and distributed to the participants during the second activity)
12

Handout #2

Reflection questions for activity 1 (speaking):

1. What did we do?

2. Why?

3. What skills does the activity develop?

4. Would you like to try it out?

5. How can you change the activity?

Handout #3

Reflection questions for activity 2 (reading):

1. What did we do?

2. Why?

3. What skills does the activity develop?

4. Would you like to try it out?

5. How can you change the activity for different levels?

6. Why do you think the trainer used the text about large class sizes for this activity?
13

Cooperative Learning Techniques


Veriko Michitashvili

Cooperation is a way of sharing, interacting and learning that encourages and requires for students to
work together as a team. Through cooperative learning, students work with both individual and team
responsibilities. During this workshop session, participants will experience and reflect on different
techniques for using cooperative learning in the ESOL classroom.

Session Cooperative learning techniques


title

Time 60 min

Session By the end of this session, participants will be able to use cooperative learning
objectives techniques in terms of providing equal opportunity for the students and analyze how to
incorporate them in their classes.
Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
5 min Generating ideas To generate Ps-Ps Board
ideas and find Whole
The trainer puts the following sentence out where the group
on the board: Cooperative learning is participants
... and asks participants to think first are in their
individually, then share with a partner understanding
and finally share with the whole group. of this topic

12 min Student caps on! To experience Individual Paper


the topic for work Projector
The trainer asks participants to put on the learners
their students caps for the next portion perspective Team work
of the workshop.

Experiential activity
To engage all
Demonstration of the technique Silent the students
Card Shuffle (Demo lesson) and categorize
the cards
1) The teacher distributes envelopes according to
with cards in it. The students task is to the parts of
classify the cards into 7 categories speech.
without talking.
2) When finished team members may Students
talk and make changes. reinforce the
usage of the
14

3) Groups leave one representative, parts of


while the others visit other groups and speech
make suggestions.
4) Students return to their home tables
and decide if they wish to make further
changes.
5) Students self-correct using the slide
projected.
6) Students use the cards to construct
the best sentences in groups.

5 min Reflection To reflect on Pair work Projector


the activity
The trainer puts the questions about the
activity Silent Card Shuffle on the slide
for the participants to think for a while
and answer the following questions:

What did you enjoy about this


activity?
What did you find challenging?

17 min Jigsaw activity Loop input Individual Projector

The trainer introduces the steps of the To develop Team work Handouts
following jigsaw: team building poster
skills
1) The trainer divides the participants
into groups. To raise
2) The trainer divides the content into awareness of
chunks. cooperative
3) The trainer assigns one chunk of learning and 5
content to each member of the group. basic elements
4) Each participant reads and studies of cooperative
independently. learning
5) Participants with the same chunks
gather in expert groups and prepare
the presentation/ poster for their
original jigsaw groups.

5 min Reflection To reflect on Pair work Projector


the activity
The trainer puts the questions about the
activity Jigsaw on the slide for the
participants to think for a while and
answer the following questions:
15

How can jigsaw make reading


more cooperative?
What are advantages and
disadvantages of jigsaw?
How can this be adapted for
younger learners?

4 min Trainers experience To inform the T-Ps Projector


participants
The trainer gives the names and about other
descriptions of other cooperative cooperative
techniques and shares his/her personal techniques
experience about some of the
techniques used in her/his classes.

12 min Reflection and wrap-up To find out T-Ps Projector


what
Timed Pair Share The trainer puts participants Pieces of
reflective questions on the slide, sets are taking paper
time for the participants to answer each from the
question. Participants think about it and workshop and
state their opinion in pairs and then how they are
with the whole group. planning to
What are the main benefits of incorporate
using cooperative learning what they
techniques? learned in
How can these cooperative their classes
learning techniques help
learning?
Would you apply these
techniques to your classes and
what will you do differently?

References
Orr, J. K. (2006). Growing up with English. Washington: Office of English Language Programs. United
States Department of State.

The essential 5: A starting point for Kagan Cooperative learning. (2017, April 28). Retrieved from:
https://www.kaganonline.com/free_articles/research_and_rationale/330/The-Essential-5-A-Starting-
Point-for-Kagan-Cooperative-Learning

Five basic elements of cooperative learning. (2017, April 28). Retrieved from:
http://tutorials.istudy.psu.edu/cooperativelearning/cooperativelearning4.html
16

Handouts

Silent card shuffle

NOUNS ADJECTIVES VERBS ADVERBS ARTICLES PREPOSITIO PRONOU


NS NS

-ly IN a cup
THE judge WHO
says so?

Flagpole barefoot dive quickly the up they

Businessm tropical break carefully a for it


an

Elevator green climb often an of he

Voice terrific tiptoe gracefully the through us


17

Cooperative Structures

Think-pair-share. Give students a question or a problem and have them think quietly of an
answer or solution. Have them discuss their response with a student sitting close by, and then
have them share with the entire class. A time limit of one or two minutes should be used for the
pair exchange. This is a good technique for breaking up a presentation, as well as an assessment
of student understanding.

Three Step Interview. Students form pairs and one-partner interviews the other on a
predetermined topic (What are some of the most significant health issues facing humankind
today?) for two or three minutes; partners switch roles. Then pairs combine to form groups of
four. Each group member introduces his or her partner, sharing the information from the original
interview. This is a great icebreaker activity and also fosters active listening.

Jigsaw. Each member of a "base group" is assigned a mini-topic to research. Students then meet
in "expert groups" with others assigned the same mini-topic to discuss and refine their
understanding. Base groups reform, and members teach their mini-topics to each other. You can
give a brief oral or written quiz to the group, representative, or each member of the team to
assess mastery of the material.

Numbered heads together. Each member of a team of four is assigned a number. Pose a thought
question, a problem and allow a few minutes for discussion with the groups. Call out a number
after randomly selecting a numbered card from a deck. The person whose number is called stands
and represents the group. Call on selected students who are standing.

Roundtable/Circle of Knowledge. Groups of three or more members brainstorm on an assigned


topic, with each member taking turns to write down one new idea on a single piece of paper. The
process continues until members run out of ideas. When time is up, the group with the most
number of independent ideas presents to the class.

Talking Chips. This is a method to ensure equal participation in discussion groups. Each member
receives the same number of chips (or index cards, pencils, pens, etc.). Each time a member
wishes to speak, he or she tosses chip into the center of the table. Once individuals have used
up their chips, they can no longer speak. The discussion proceeds until all members have
exhausted their chips.

Co-op cards. Each partner in a pair prepares a set of flashcards with a question or a problem on
the front and correct answer(s) on the back. One partner quizzes the other until the latter
answers all the questions or problems in the set correctly. Then they switch roles and use the
other set of flashcards. A great technique to help students memorize information and review.

Inside/Outside Circles. This discussion technique gives students the opportunity to respond to
questions and/or discuss information with a variety of peers in a structured manner. Students
18

form two concentric circles and exchange information with a partner until the teacher signals
the outer circle to move in one direction, giving each student a new peer to talk to
How to Use
1. Split the Class
Decide which half of the students will form the inside circle and which half will form the outside circle.

2. Question
Put a question or statement on the board. Give students at least ten seconds to think of an answer on
their own.
3. Share
Ask students in the inside circle to share their response with the classmate facing them in the outside
circle. When they have done this, ask them to say "pass, at which point their partners in the outside
circle will share their responses.
4. Rotate
On your signal, have the outside circle move one step to the left or right and discuss the same question
with the new partner. Option: post a new question or give the new partners a different discussion point.
19

Five Basic Elements of Cooperative Learning


The five basic elements of cooperative learning are:

Positive interdependence
Individual and group accountability
Interpersonal and small group skills
Face-to-face interaction
Group processing

Positive Interdependence

Positive interdependence means team members need each other to complete the task. So everyone
knows they sink or swim together. The efforts of each person benefit not only the individual, but also
everyone else in the group. Teachers may structure positive interdependence by establishing mutual
goals (learn and make sure all other group members learn), joint rewards (if all group members achieve
above the criteria, each will receive bonus points), shared resources (one paper for each group or each
member receives part of the required information), and assigned roles (summarizer, encourager of
participation, elaborator).

Individual and Group Accountability

The group is accountable for achieving its goals, and each member must be accountable for contributing
a fair share of the work toward the group goal. Everyone must learn the information, so everyone can
contribute to the project. Teams succeed when every member has learnt the material and every
member has helped to complete the task.

Interpersonal and Small Group Skills

Interpersonal and small group skills are required to function as part of a group. These are basic
teamwork skills. Groups cannot function effectively if students do not have and use the needed social
skills. Collaborative skills include leadership, decision-making, trust-building, communication, and
conflict-management skills.

Face-to-Face Interaction

This means that students promote each other's success by sharing resources. They help, support,
encourage, explain and praise each other's efforts to learn. Team members sit facing each other and
having an eye contact and thinking about what they are saying.

Group Processing

Groups need specific time to discuss how well they are achieving their goals and maintaining effective
working relationships among members. Teacher should give students the time and the procedures to
analyze how well their teams are functioning with: learning task, social skills and self-assessment.
20

Kagans cooperative structure: Numbered heads together

Dr. Spencer Kagan is world renowned author and keynote speaker in the field of education and
psychology. He was a clinical psychologist and full-time professor of psychology and education at
the University of California Berkley. Kagan established Kagan Publishing and Professional
Development and has provided workshops and keynotes in over thirty countries. His main belief
about behavior is that it should be established by using structures in order to prevent
misbehavior. Spencer Kagan has developed more than 100 structures to incorporate the basic
principles of cooperative learning. He developed the popular brain-based, cooperative learning,
and multiple intelligence structures like "Numbered Heads Together" and "Timed Pair Share,"
which are used in classrooms worldwide. Kagan's research focuses on establishing harmonious
classrooms, promoting responsible behavior, improving students' social skills, character qualities,
and academic achievement.

Numbered head together developed first by Spencer Kagan (1993) to involve more student in
learning material which consist in a lesson and to know their knowledge about the material given.
The purpose of this cooperative structure is:

To check for understanding and review


To create active involvement
To create interaction among students
To help master basic facts and information

Students are placed in groups and each person is given a number. The teacher poses a question
and students put their heads together to figure out the answer. The teacher calls a specific
number to respond as spokesperson to the group. By having students work together in a group,
this strategy ensures that each member knows the answer to problems or questions asked by
the teacher. Because no one knows which number will be called, all team members must be
prepared.

Here are several steps in implementing Number Head Together, they are:
Divide the students into group of four and give each one a number from one to four
Asks the groups either a very specific of broad question depending on the subject matter.
Have students gather to think about the question and to make sure everyone in their group
understands and can give an answer
Ask the question and call out a number randomly
The students with that number raise their hands, and when called on, the students share (answer
orally or write) their answers with the entire class.
21

What is cooperative learning?


Cooperative learning is a well-researched instructional strategy which has been reported to be highly
successful in the classroom. Students work together in small teams and learn through interaction with
each other while the teacher coaches the process.

Not all group learning is considered as cooperative learning. Group members argue, one member
doesnt work, while the others talk about sport. A more talented member may come up with all the
answers, work separately, ignoring other group members. But in cooperative learning students work
together on a structured activity. They are individually accountable for their work, and the work of the
group as a whole. Cooperative groups work face-to-face and learn to work as a team. Team members
are responsible for their own individual learning as well as for their teammates learning. Teams are
made up of high, medium and low academic achieving students. Team members contribute their
knowledge, experience, skills and resources to the group. Team members acquire new skills and
knowledge. Teams differ from groups because they include the following basic elements of cooperative
learning:

Goals are shared


Information is circulated
Roles are assigned
Materials are managed
Teammates depend on each other to complete tasks successfully
Students gain respect for each others contributions to the team

In cooperative learning students have two main responsibilities:

1. Learn the assigned material.

2. Ensure that all the members of the group learn the assigned material. There are two types of
assessment: individual and group. Individual assessment is more frequent than group assessment.

In order to create an environment in which cooperative learning can take place, three things are
necessary. First, students need to feel safe, but also challenged. Second, groups need to be small
enough that everyone can contribute. Third, the task that the students work together on must be clearly
defined.
22

How to Design Measurable Lesson Objectives


Tinatin Vardidze

Writing a learning goal is a fundamental aspect of lesson planning, and many teachers struggle to
write goals that are specific and measurable. In this session, Participants will look at how the acronym
SMART can help in the process of writing learning goals.

Session How to Design Measurable Lesson Objectives


title

Time 1 hour.

Session By the end of this session participants will be able to describe the characteristics of a
objectives well-defined, measurable lesson goal.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
6 min. Getting to know each other: To get to know Whole class PPT slide
Trainer introduces the goals and each other. 1-2
objectives of the session and presents
herself to the audience saying her name, Think-Pair-
workplace, and the sentence One of the Share/TPS
challenges in my classroom is that (my
students dont like to speak English).
After modelling, Trainer asks participants
to introduce themselves.

After this activity is done, Trainer asks


Participants what they think was the goal
of the activity.

Trainer asks participants to share their


responses with a partner.

5 min. Participants work individually to fill out To analyze where Individual Handout
Entry Tickets (Handout 1) which are on the teachers are. 1
each table upside down. Teacher collects
the tickets.
5 min. Participants work in small groups and try To encourage Small PPT slide
to find connection between the picture group work. groups 2
provided and the learning process. Picture
To make
predictions about
the session.
23

10 min. Trainer asks Participants to To become Whole PPT slides


Brainstorm what is a Goal? acquainted with Group 3-13
Participants share ideas. SMART goals.
Trainer explains what SMART Goals are.

9 min. Participants look at two objectives on the To identify Pair work PPT slides
slides. Trainer asks participants to explain characteristics of 14-15
how those objectives are SMART. SMART goals. Handout
(Extra activity handout 2) 2

5 min. Participants work in groups to read To link the Group work Textbook
through a lesson and write down a lesson content of a sample
goal. lesson with an page
Trainer asks participants to check that appropriate
the goal is SMART. objective.
6 min. Participants look at the sample lesson To connect Group work Textbook
and discuss the goals for each activity. activity goals to sample
the lesson goal. page
9 min. Participants work in groups to analyze To collaborate in Group work Handout
cases and write a measurable goal for the writing a goal. 3
activities on handout. After having
discussed in small groups, participants
present it to the whole group using
flipcharts.
5 min. Participants fill out exit ticket. To reflect on Individually Handout
Participants self-evaluate their what was 4
knowledge and awareness of SMART learned.
learning goals.

References
Spenser, D. (2011) Gateway A2. MacMillan

Slideshare.com. Retrieved October 11, 2016


24

Handouts
Handout #1

Name: ___________________________________ Date______________

Entry Ticket

What do I know about writing Lesson Goals?

What question do I have about writing Lesson Goals?

What is my confidence level about writing Lesson Goals?

Name: ____________________________________ Date______________

Entry Ticket

What do I know about writing Lesson Goals?

What question do I have about writing Lesson Goals?

What is my confidence level regarding writing a Lesson Goal?


25

Handout #2
Example 1

By the end of the lesson 90% of the students will be able to analyze the importance of word
stress in English though 5 activities done at the lesson.

Fill in the form:

Who: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------

What: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------

When: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------

How Measured: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------

Proficiency level: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------
26

Example 2
Fill in the form:

By February 2017, 10th grade students of Akhaltsikhe Public School N1 will conduct a survey
on Environmental Protection in the community and interview at least 10 people each.

Who: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------

What: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------

When: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------

How Measured: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------

Proficiency level: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------
27

Handout #3
Case 1
Please find your groups and sit together. Each group will receive a set of vocabulary with the
definitions. Try to match the word with its definition and write down your own sentence using the
words

Case 2
I am going to read a text. Its a story. You have to listen carefully for the first time, dont write
anything. When I read for the second time you should write down any verbs that you hear which
are written in past simple tense.

Case 3
Please work individually to fill out entry tickets that are on your table.
28

Handout #4

Name: ___________________________________ Date______________

Exit Ticket

What did I learn about writing Lesson Goals?

What question do I have about writing Lesson Goals?

What is my confidence level regarding writing a lesson goal?

Name: ____________________________________ Date______________

Exit Ticket

What did I learn about Lesson Goal?

What question do I have about Lesson Goal?

What is my confidence level about Lesson Goal?


29

Picture
30

Textbook Sample Page


31

Using Warmers, Icebreakers and Lead-ins During a Lesson


Lela Tsagareishvili

Lesson beginnings and transitions can be a great opportunity to get students thinking or to get them
to be even more motivated throughout the lesson. This session explores examples of activities as well
as a discussion on the reasons why these activities are important.

Session Using Warmers, Icebreakers and Lead-ins During a Lesson


title

Time 60 min

Session By the end of the session, participants will have experienced different types of warmers,
objectives coolers, lead-ins and icebreakers and will discuss their differences and opportunities to
use them.
Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
4-5 min Ice-breaker: To help Trainer- Paper
Trainer distributes the pieces of paper and participants get Participants and pen
asks the participants to draw an animal or to know each
bird they associate themselves with (in case other. Whole Class
they cannot draw, they may just write a
word)
Participants show the drawings and explain To model an ice-
why they think they associate themselves breaker
with that particular animal or bird.
(e.g.: I have drawn a fish, as I associate
myself with it in the way that I prefer
listening to others rather than speaking.)
All the participants present their drawings
and introduce themselves.

Discussion: To activate prior Trainer- PPT


5-6 min Trainer asks the participants about the knowledge Participants
following: Handout
-aim of the previous activity To share ideas
-name of the types of activity
-other types of short activities in the Whole Class
beginning, middle and end of the lesson
-reason why a teacher may use these
activities
-differences among this kind of activities
(Handout, questions 1and 2)
32

After discussion, Trainer shows the second,


third, fourth and fifth slide of the PPT to
summarize what was already said.

4-5 min Experience: To experience Trainer- Board


Trainer tells Participants they will imagine and develop and Participant chalk/
themselves as students for the next part of awareness of markers
the session. why to do Whole class
Put Students cap on. something like
this in
Activity 1: Miming adverbs Participants own
lessons
Trainer writes a list of manner adverbs on
the board and checks understanding from To give an
Participants (e.g. quickly, angrily, happily, example of a
calmly, sadly etc.) warmer
Trainer writes a short sentence on the
board:
Come here!
Trainer explains the procedure for this
activity.
One student comes to the board. Trainer
whispers one of the adverbs written on the
board to the participant, the participant has
to say this word in accordance with the
manner adverb she/he was told. The rest of
the class have to guess what the adverb is.
Activity 2: Finish the Quote To experience Trainer- Board
4-5 min Trainer prepares flipchart (or slide) with the and develop and Participants chalk/
quotes of famous people written on it. The awareness of markers
quotes are incomplete. why to do Pair work
Participants take some time to think about something like Paper
how to complete the quotes. Several pairs this in Whole class and pen
share what they think is the part that is Participants own
missing. Pairs compare, and the one that is lessons
closest to the original is kept.
(This material is connected to an activity To give an
that will be presented later on). example of a
lead-in activity
4-5 min Activity 3: Two truths and a lie To experience Trainer- Board
and develop and Participants Chalk/
A volunteer comes to the front and says (or awareness of markers
writes on the board) three statements: why to do Pair work
Two of them are true about the person, one something like
is a lie. this in Whole class
The rest of the class guess which one is a lie. Participants own
This could be done in smaller groups as well. lessons
33

To give an
example of an ice
breaking activity
15-20 Discussion: To discuss and Trainer- PPT
min Trainer tells Participants that the student share experience Participants
experience has ended. on importance of Paper
Take student caps off. using warmers, Pair work and pen
Trainer asks Participants to look through ice breakers and
handout 2 to remember the procedure of lead-ins in their Whole class
each activity. lessons.
Trainer asks Participants to discuss the
following reflection questions:
-Which from the above was an icebreaker, a
warmer or a lead-in activity?
-When is it preferable to use each one?
When and why?
-What are some advantages and
disadvantages of doing these activities in
the lesson?
(Trainer shows PPT slides to sum up the
discussions.)
-What are some variations or changes a
teacher can do depending on the aim or
need of the class?
-Why is it a good or bad idea to use at least
one of this kind of activities during a lesson?

5-10 Sharing experiences: To share more Pair work Paper


min Interview your partner: real examples of and pen
Trainer asks Participants to interview a activities which Whole class
partner and ask him/her to describe one work well in the
warmer, lead-in or icebreaker he/she uses. classroom.
Volunteers share their partners favorite or
most effective warmer, icebreaker or lead-in
to others.
3-5 min Wrap up To wrap up the Whole class Paper
Snowstorm: session. and pen
Participants write down one thing they have To share ideas
learned during the session on a piece of among the
scratch paper and make a paper ball. Given participants.
a signal, Participants throw their paper To recall the
snowballs in the air. Each Participant picks activities and
up a nearby response and reads it aloud. discussions
conducted
34

References
Telephone: Grammar Introductions. (2017). Retrieved from http://busyteacher.org/12730-telephone-
grammar-introductions.html

Two truths and a Lie. (2017) Retrieved from https://www.activityvillage.co.uk/two-truths-and-a-lie

Unusual Words. (2011, December 29). Retrieved from


http://users.tinyonline.co.uk/gswithenbank/unuwords.htm

Ur, P. and Andrew Wright. (1992). Five Minute Activities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
35

Handouts

Handout #1

Warmers, Icebreakers and Lead-ins


(Please answer only one question at a time)

1. What is the difference among warmers, icebreakers and lead-ins?


When and why could they be used?

2. What are the advantages of using this kind of activities with students? What are the advantages
for teachers? What could be some disadvantages?

3. Recall the activities we did. Look through handout 2 and identify which activity is a warmer, an
ice breaker or a lead-in activity. Write your answers below.

4. Interview your Partner: Describe one warmer, lead-in or icebreaker you use in your classroom.
Write your interview notes below.
36

Handout #2
Activity 1
Draw an animal

Activity aim: Help learners get to know each other better from a different perspective

Teacher distributes pieces of paper and asks the participants to take a minute to think of an animal, a
bird or a plant they associate themselves with draw it on the paper. Students can write if they do not
feel comfortable drawing. When they are finished, students turn to their partners and tell them about
the animal they chose and explain why they chose that animal.
Optional: Have volunteers present their drawings and explanations in front of the whole class.

Activity 2
Finish the quote

Activity aim: Help raise interest towards new material

Teacher prepares flipchart (or PPT slide) with the quotes of famous people written on it. The quotes are
incomplete. Students take some time to think about how to complete the quotes. Several pairs share
what they think is the part that is missing. Pairs compare, and the one that is closest to the original is
kept.

Activity 3
Miming Adverbs

Activity aim: Recap on the previous lesson and/or promote relaxation and fun

Teacher writes manner adverbs on the board checks understanding (e.g. quickly, angrily, happily, calmly,
sadly etc.). Then she writes a short sentence like Come here! One student comes to the board.
Teacher whispers one of the adverbs written on the board to the student, and the student has to say
this word in accordance with the manner adverb she/he was told. The rest of the class guess what the
adverb is.

Activity 4:
Two truths and a Lie

Activity aim: Let students check if they know each other well

A volunteer comes to the front says three statements about him or herself. (They could be written on
the board also). Two of the statements are true about the student. One of the three statements is a lie.
The rest of the class guess which one is a lie. This same activity can be done in groups of three or four
students.
37

Using Pair and Group Work to Increase Student Involvement


Ketavan Chedia

Pair and small group work is essential in the language learning classroom. It helps maximize student
participation and speaking time. During this workshop session, participants will be able to experience
and analyze several different small group configurations in order to increase student involvement.

Session Using pair and group work to increase student involvement


title

Time 60 min

Session By the end of the session, participants will be able to analyze several grouping techniques and
objectives describe how they might be used in their own classrooms.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity

4 min Greeting students! To greet and TT-Ts PPT


welcome the
The trainer welcomes, greets and participants
introduces her/himself to the
participants.

Warm-up To activate
5 min students prior Pair share
The trainer shows participants pictures knowledge and
on the screen and asks them to work in previous
pairs and try to connect the picture with
experiences
activities they might do in their
classrooms.

Introducing the session topic To introduce the


2 min TT-Ts
topic and aim of
The trainer shares with the participants the session to
the topic and objectives of the session.
the participants
This information is on the third slide of
the PowerPoint presentation.

5 min Generating ideas To brainstorm Pair work Pictures and


and generate words
The trainer asks participants to stand up,
walk around, and find their
38

partner/match based on pictures they ideas about the


are given. In these pairs, participants talk topic
about the following questions:

1) Why might we use pair work in the


classroom?

2) What might be some benefits of using


pair work?

3) How often do you use pair work in


your classroom? For what purposes?

1 min Experiential activity #1 To experience TT-Ts Sheets of


different papers with
Students are asked to put on their student grouping defined roles
caps and to act as students. strategies for group
The teacher introduces one of the members
effective group work techniques by and colored
grouping the students according to To avoid one and badges.
10 min. TT-Ts-Ts
numbers and giving them roles. The the same
teacher makes groups of four people, students having
gives them badges with students roles leading roles and
on them. The teacher says that the leader help more
in the group is the person whose birthday passive ones feel
is the closest one. The presenter is the encouraged to
person who is sitting next to the leader. participate
The scribe is the person who is sitting left
to the presenter. The time keeper is the
person who is sitting left to the scribe.

The teacher then introduces the topic:


Pros and cons of homeschooling. Flipchart
What is homeschooling? The teacher
shares a short introduction.

The students begin to work. The teacher


observes the process and then lets the
Ss-Ss
presenter share the information to the
rest of the class.
39

5 min Experiential activity #2 To experience Ss-Ss Pieces of


different paper with
The teacher demonstrates a second grouping verbs, its
grouping technique: Find the collocation strategies collocation
pair! and the
The teacher gives students pieces of meaning.
paper that have one of the following
options: 1) a verb, 2) its collocation, or 3)
its meaning. The students mingle to find
their 3 partners and then sit together.

Experiential activity #2 To experience Ss-Ss Just the


different participants!
5 min. The teacher demonstrates a third
grouping
grouping technique: Our colors! strategies
The teacher asks students to stand up
and make groups of 2-3 people based on
similarities they can find in something
they are wearing. For example, three
people who are wearing blouses or t-
shirts with different blue tones might be
a group.

Reflection To look at the TT-Ts


activities from
1 min Participants are asked to put their teacher the teachers
caps back on. perspective
The trainer asks participants the To reflect on
20 min following reflective questions using the their learning
ELC about the session and participants from different
contribute to the whole group. perspectives.
Feelings: How did they feel as students?

Description: Describe one specific


moment that caught your attention.
Imagine you were looking through the
lens of a camera. What happened?

Analysis: What helped and hindered your


learning of different grouping strategies?
40

Generalization: What is one realization


you had during this session about
grouping strategies?

Action plan: How might you adapt or


change what we did today to better serve
your learners?

2 min Wrap-up Having listened Ts-Ts Small sheets


to their of paper
Participants are kindly asked to write at colleagues ideas,
least one contribution on a small sheet of participants now Sticky tape.
paper and stick it on the board for have a chance to
everyone to read. look at them or
even write them
down for better
understanding
and
remembering.
41

Using Scaffolding in EFL


Marina Kazaryan

Scaffolding is a concept derived from Cognitive Psychology that can be sometimes hard to implement
concretely in the classroom. This session explores concrete ways to put scaffolding into practice as well
as brainstorm ways in which scaffolding can be used further.

Session title Using Scaffolding in EFL

Time 60 minutes

Session By the end of the session, Participants will brainstorm ways in which scaffolding can
objectives be used in a language lesson.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
8 min Lead-in: To Trainer- PPT
Trainer shows a picture of people introduce Participants
reaching for something and asks the topic.
Participants questions, leading them to Pair work
the idea that when the task is beyond
someones reach they need support in
order to cope with it.
Trainer tells Participants that students
often need this support.

Trainer tells Participants they will


experience a lesson that exemplifies this.

Trainer tells Participants about the lesson


topic and objective and asks Participants
to think of challenges for which students
would need support.

Trainer elicits and writes ideas on the


board.
Trainer asks Participants to participate as
students.

30 min Lesson Demo To Individual Handout 1


experience Handout 2
See handout 1 for lesson outline. a lesson as Pair work Handout 3
students. PPT
Group work
42

15 min Trainer tells Participants that the Demo is To identify Pair work Handout 1
over and that they will now think about scaffolding
the lesson as teachers. techniques
in a lesson.
Trainer asks Participants to get together in
pairs. Trainer gives each pair a copy of the To identify
lesson outline and asks them to add other where
things they saw or things that could have teachers
been done in the lesson to help students. could use
scaffolding
Trainer elicits responses from Participants. in a lesson.

7 min Participants are given a list of scaffolding To describe Pair work Handout 4
tools on a handout. Each pair is assigned ways in PPT
with one of the scaffolding strategies and which
say for which skill it could be used and scaffolding
how. can be used
when Trainer-
Wrap-up: teaching Participants
Participants are shown a picture of different
construction scaffolds and asks language
Participants how this is related to skills.
scaffolding in language learning. Unlike
scaffolding in construction, in language
teaching scaffolding is removed step by
step as students internalize the skill.

Trainer shares definitions of scaffolding by


scholars.

Trainer elicits from Participants about


ideas they are taking back to their
classroom after this session.
43

Handouts
Handout #1

Lesson Outline

Objective: Students will be able to talk about traditions for New Years Eve from around the world.

1. Pre-reading: Brainstorming holidays. Teacher has a talk with Students about New Year
celebrations in different countries. Students speak about New Year traditions in Georgia.
(Scaffolding: Activating prior knowledge, checking how much vocabulary students have
regarding the new topic, connecting to the topic)

2. Reading: Students read a text about New Year celebrations around the world. Based on the text
students speak about New Year traditions around the world. (Scaffolding: Students read the text
at least twice. The first time they skim, the second time they read at their own pace.)

3. Post-reading: Teacher divides the class into pairs sitting in two onion circle rows. T shows how to
fill out the table and each pair fill out the table with information about one of the countries
assigned to them. (Scaffolding: Talking about the content and revisiting the text will clarify ideas
and will emphasize important information from the text.)

After that the outer circle change their partners by moving right and do information gap activity.
They ask their partners questions about another country and fill out the corresponding part of
the table.

Students change their partners in the same way as before and play a guessing game. They
describe New Year celebrations in one of the countries and his partner is to guess the name of
the country.

Students change their partners and share with them in which country they would like to see the
New Year in and why. Volunteers share with the whole group.
44

Handout #2

New Years Eve Around the World

(From New Inspiration 2, MacMillan ELT, page 28)

In England people often have parties on New Years Eve. People who live in London go to Trafalgar Square
and wait for midnight. At midnight, people in the square listen to the bells of Big Ben. After midnight,
people hold hands and sing a special song. People open bottles of champagne and say Happy New Year
to each other.
New Years Day is a special holiday in the USA. The celebration starts on December 31. Horns, whistles
and other noisemakers are very popular. This is an old tradition. People made loud noises to scare away
evil spirits. People throw paper confetti, call out Happy New Year and raise their drinks in a toast to the
future. In New York, people gather in Times Square to celebrate. They look at the
Ball drop there.
The Chinese celebrate the start of the Chinese New Year in January or February and it is the longest, the
noisiest and the most exciting holiday of the year. On New Years Eve all the children wear new clothes
and everyone eats special food. New Year celebrations last 15 days. There are dragon parades and lion
dances in the streets.
In Brazil, people wear white clothes on New Years Eve (31 December) because it brings good luck. At
midnight people go to the beach and jump over the waves seven times. Then they throw flowers into the
sea and make wishes for the New Year. Some people light candles and there are lots of parties.
In Japan, most people celebrate New Year with their family. They eat special noodles on 31 December and
at midnight they listen to the bells, which ring 108 times. On New Years Day people drink sake, traditional
Japanese rice wine and eat a special kind of soup. Children get envelopes with money and everyone sends
New Year greeting cards.
Italy celebrates the arrival of the New Year with fireworks. On New Years Eve everyone eats lentils at a
large meal that starts late in the evening. Some people also put lentils into their purse or wear red clothes
for good luck. Another tradition is to put a candle in the window for every member of the family.
45

Handout #3

Country Time Place Activities Clothes Food/Drinks Songs/Dances Special Other


traditions

England December Trafalgar Listen champagne Special


31 Square to the
bells of
Big Ben
46

Handout #4

Scaffolding strategies.

1. Giving time to think


2. Brainstorming
3. Activating background knowledge
4. Providing visual aids
5. Demonstrating what is expected of students
6. Doing activities in a Class-Group-Pair- Student sequence
7. Providing questions
8. Making up a plan
9. Pre-teaching vocabulary
47

Speaking
48

Ways to Use Short Videos to Integrate Developing Speaking Skills and Civics
Lela Tsagareishvili

Developing Speaking can be greatly supported by internet-based materials such as short videos as
well as reinforce connections with other subject-areas, such as Civics. In this session, participants
explore a short demo lesson and discuss how they can adapt the activities to their own context.

Session Teaching Creative Writing Using Short Videos


title

Time 60 minutes

Session Participants will experience a short demonstration of using short videos to support the
objectives development of speaking skills and Civics Education.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
Lead-in To break the ice. Trainer and Handout
5-7 min. Find Someone Who: Participants 1
Participants walk around the room and To activate prior
try to find someone who knowledge
1. has used only text book based
materials in their lessons.
2. has used songs.
3. has used advertisements.
4. has used any kinds of videos or film
trailers.
5. has used cartoons.
6. has used weather forecasts.

Trainer elicits responses and elicits


reasons as to why use or not use the
materials mentioned above.

32 min. Trainer tells the participants that now To experience a Trainer - Handout
they are going to explore how using lesson as a participants 2
internet based materials (a short video) student.
will encourage their students to speak Pair Work Projector,
and share ideas on one of the civic speakers,
education topics. Trainer asks the laptop,
participants to imagine themselves as internet
students of the 9th grade.
Trainer takes the role of a teacher and
teaches the lesson Silent night.
49

(See Handout 2 for Demo lesson plan


procedure for Silent Night).
6 min. Reflection on the demo lesson - To recall Demo Trainer - Pieces of
Participants become teachers again and lesson elements. participants paper
in groups of four think of the following:
1 thing they liked in the demo session
and
1 thing they would avoid or do differently
if deliver this lesson in their classrooms,
explain why. 2 min to think, 4 min to
share

15 min. Final Reflection: To reflect on the Trainer Paper


Trainer asks Participants to discuss the session. participants and pen
following questions in pairs:
To contextualize
-How did you feel as students? the session Pair Work
-What helped or hindered your learning? content to their
-What are some other ways to adapt the own classroom Whole class
activities from the demo session? situation.
-What are some other ways to
incorporate internet based materials in
your teaching?
-Is it the English teachers responsibility
to teach civics?
What are some topics we can use for this
purpose?

Trainer elicits responses.

References

tolerance. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved April 28, 2017 from Dictionary.com
website http://www.dictionary.com/browse/tolerance

Notte Sento. (2008) Seagate Creative Fund [movie] Retrieved from


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NsAhqEDFhb4
50

Handouts

Handout #1

Find someone who

1has used textbook based materials only


during lessons
2. has used songs at lessons
3. has used advertisements
4. has used any kinds of videos or film trailers
5. has used cartoons
6. has used weather forecasts
51

Handout #2
Grade: IX
Lesson duration: 30 minutes
Lesson Objective: students will be able to predict and discuss the events happening in the movie, in a
conversation.
Civic education objective: Students will discuss diversity and tolerance.
Stage of the lesson Activity Time
Activity 1 Teacher diversity and tolerance scrambled on the 2 -3 m
board. Teacher asks the students to guess what the topic of
the lesson is.
Activity 2 pre- After guessing, Teacher asks the students to explain what 2 -3 m
watching these two words mean. Teacher asks two students to look
up the definition to check if predictions were correct.
Activity 3 Then the teacher tells the Ss they are going to 10-12 m
While-watching watch a short silent movie, which will be stopped
several times to ask for predictions and/or
summarize the episode watched, (the movie is
called Notte Sento, please see the link below:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NsAhqEDFhb4

Movie starts, teachers pauses it (0.34m), asks the


questions to the students. They answer according
to what they have already understood from the
passage (e.g. Who is the girl? Where is she from?
Where is she going? Where is she at the moment?)
Second pause, (01.20m) teacher asks
What did she ask at ticket office? What answer did
she receive? Why did she write her question on the
paper?)
Students watch the whole movie until the end.
There is a short discussion on where the movie
could be stopped on the later stages.
Activity 4 Teacher asks students the following question 3m
Did you like the story? What would you do if you
were the main character of the movie? What are
the ways to provide support to people with
different abilities? Examples? Suggestions?
Activity 5 Jumbled sentences, (optional) teacher gives the 3 min.
After-watching students slips of paper with jumbled sentences
describing the story. Students have to put them in
order individually, first, then share with a partner.
Think-Pair-Share.
Activity 6 Teacher asks the students to write a short 5-6 min.
or homework paragraph or a short story which could be the
continuation of the movie they have watched.
52

Integrating Speaking Fluency through Civics


Nanuli Tatiashvili

Civics and cultural differences can be used as an opportunity to not only talk about values from each
country, but also to help learners develop speaking skills in the target language. In this session,
participants will experience a speaking activity related to culture and will also discuss how this idea
can be adapted to teachers own contexts.

Session Integrating Speaking Fluency through Civics


title

Time 60 minutes

Session By the end of the session participants will discuss ways to integrate civics as a way to
objectives develop fluency in speaking.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
2 min Introduction To introduce the Trainer-
Trainer greets the trainees. Trainers asks topic Participants
Participants to guess the title of the Generate ideas
session by looking at the scrambled word about the topic
on the board.

9 min Trainer introduces the words related to


the topic: etiquette, culture, and Poster or
diversity. Trainer asks for the meaning of PPT
these words and then asks Participants to
talk about the importance of integrating Board
speaking fluency through civics:
-What is fluency?
-What is the most important thing to
achieve in fluency?
-How often do you use civics while
teaching a language? Why?

Trainer elicits ideas from Participants and


writes them on the board.

7 min Experience: To see an activity Trainer-


Trainer tells Participants they will and its outcome Participants
experience an activity as students. through the eyes
Trainer tells Participants to speak about of the learners
the traditions of Georgia in different
regions. Some examples of this could be Pair work
53

sharing a tradition or a special day, its


importance and how this day is
celebrated. Trainer tells Participants to
line up facing each other and speak about
the topic to the person in front of them
for 3 minutes. After three minutes, one
line moves one space, and now with new
partners, Participants share about the
same topic for 2 minutes. After the 2
minutes, they move again and speak for 1
minute.
6 min Trainer asks Participants if they have To elicit Trainer-
travelled abroad and asks them if they background Participants
saw something strange that surprised information
them. Trainer elicits responses from
Participants.
15 min Trainer splits Participants into 3 groups To engage in Trainer- Markers,
according to a series of colored papers speaking and Participants paper,
given to them previously. Trainer tells writing, posters
them that there is some etiquette in discussing
diverse countries. Trainer asks customs
Participants to talk about two countries: Group work
The U.S. and Georgia. Trainer tells
Participants to write on a paper what the
differences and similarities are between
both countries. Participants work in
groups and compare them. They use a
Venn Diagram and write their ideas on
their posters.
10 min Trainer tells Ss to write tips for visitors To share ideas Trainer- Posters,
that come to Georgia. These will be good Participants markers
tips in order to act properly when visiting.
Participants work in groups. A presenter
from each group sticks the posters and
reads them in front of the class. Trainer Group work
tells them this is the end of the
experience and that they now can
participate as teachers.

11 min Trainer talks about the benefits of To explain how


developing fluency in speaking. speaking can be
integrated with
Reflection: civics
Participants discuss the questions below. Individual
-How did you feel?
-Is using civics an effective way of
teaching speaking fluency? Yes? No? Think-Pair-
Why? Share (TPS)
54

-Why is this specific speaking technique


useful in our context?
-How did speaking in this activity help
you learn?
-How would you adapt or change this
activity?
-What will you take to your classroom?
-Was the lesson interesting? Yes? No?
Why?

Optional: Trainer writes notes on the


board next to the questions for some of
Participants answers.

References
culture. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved April 24, 2017 from Dictionary.com website
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/culture

diversity. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved April 24, 2017 from Dictionary.com website
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/diversity

etiquette. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved April 24, 2017 from Dictionary.com website
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/etiquette
55

Teaching Fluency in Speaking through Argumentation and Debates


Maia Teliashvili

Speaking is one of the most important and challenging skills to practice when learning a new
language. Students need and want to practice their fluency abilities when speaking. During this
session, participants will have an opportunity to experience ways of teaching fluency in speaking
through argumentation and debates.

Session title Teaching speaking fluency through argumentation and debates

Time 60 minutes

Session By the end of the session, participants will have experienced, analyzed and reflected
objectives on strategies for developing fluency skills in speaking through argumentation and
debates.
Session outline

Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity

5 min Getting started! Lead-in and Pairs Handout #1


provoking
Trainer distributes handout #1 and asks interest in the
participants to read the following opinions, topic.
think of them and discuss in pairs using given
agree and disagree phrases. These opinions
are connected to the topic of the session.

After that, the trainer introduces the topic.

10 Generating initial ideas To activate Pair work Handout #2


min participants
Trainer asks participants to think individually prior knowledge
and then discuss the following questions in
pairs:
What abilities does speaking fluency
skill refer to? How can this skill be
taught and developed?
What do you think argumentation
is?
What are the benefits/challenges of
using argumentative debates in the
classroom?
56

25 Student caps on To experience Small Green and


min the activities as groups red cards
The trainer asks participants to put on their learners
student hats for the following section of the
workshop.

Experiential activity

1) The teacher tells students that their task is To Introduce the


to debate about the topic Playing computer topic of the
games has positive effects on children. debate and
Then, the teacher divides the class into brainstorm ideas
groups of four and distributes two green and about positive
two red cards to each group. Two students and negative
having green cards are supposed to think of effects of
positive effects of playing computer games playing
on children, and two students having red computer
cards should think of negative effects of games.
playing computer games. Students write
their ideas on sticky pieces of paper, come to
the board and stick these papers around the
words-:positive effects or negative
effects and share their ideas with the class.

2) The teacher distributes handout #3. Handout #3


Students should divide ideas into positive
and negative ones. After that those students
who have green cards in the group choose
positive effects and students having red
cards choose negative ideas.

3) Then, the teacher introduces target To review useful Handout #4


language for argumentative speech by doing language for the
a matching activity in groups. The teacher discussion
distributes handout #4 and asks them to
match the phrases with their functions.
Students already know most of them, but
the teacher still does a drilling activity in
order to reinforce pronunciation of several
of the phrases.

4) Its time to debate in groups of four. Two To produce and


students are for the idea and the other two perform final
students are against the idea. While product (debate)
debating, they are supposed to use all
argumentative phrases taking turns and by
using ideas about positive or negative effects
they should debate till all argumentative
57

phrases are used up. The teacher observes


and listens to each group. The group that
first uses up all phrases will win.

15 Teacher caps on To reflect on the Small


min experience groups
The trainer asks participants to put their participants just
teacher caps back on to reflect on the participated in
activity they just experienced. and wrap-up the
session.
Reflection

How did you feel as a student?


What helped learning and how?
How was the lesson scaffolded so
the students were ready to use the
target language?
How does this activity help students
develop speaking fluency?
What hindered learning and why?
How might you adapt this activity?
What other types of speaking
interactions can be taught in a
similar way?

Wrap-up

The trainer asks 3-5 participants to share


some of their thoughts with the whole class
about how they might use argumentation
and debates in their own classrooms.
58

Handouts

Handout #1

Choose one of the opinions that you agree or disagree with and discuss your opinion with your partner
using the expressions below.

1. The basic function of language is to communicate.


2. People can build fluency by repeating single words or short phrases.
3. Swain (1985) wrote "We learn to speak by speaking" and that goes for teachers as well as
students.
4. Those who want to speak well do not need to have fluency.
5. Fluency relates to being able to speak for longer periods of time in a smooth way.

Expressions to Agree

Youre absolutely right


Yes, I agree
I think so too.
I couldnt agree more

Expressions to Disagree

I dont agree with you.


Thats not entirely true.
Im sorry to disagree with you.
Im not so sure about that
59

Handout #2
TPS: Think, Pair, Share
Think about these questions and then share your opinions in pairs:

1. What abilities does fluency in speaking refer to?


How (with the help of what activities) can this skill be taught and developed?

2. What do you think argumentation is?

3. What might be some benefits/challenges of using argumentative debates in the classroom?


60

Handout #3
Positive effects of playing computer games on children

Many games require abstract and high level thinking in order to win, skills that may not be
taught at school.
Games can inspire kids to think about the broader world, and help them discover other
interests.
Many games are based on real facts so children can learn about ancient Egypt or baseball
while playing.
In the game kids make their own decisions and strive to meet challenges that they themselves
have chosen.
It can teach people more about life. Virtual pet games, for example, can help teach people
about what is involved in raising a pet.
Puzzle, adventure and word games can help improve problem solving and logic skills.
Children playing educational games learn more because they do not realize that they are
learning.
They are fun.
Negative effects of playing computer games on children

Many games contain too much violence.


Many games involve children helping their character to kill, kick, stab and shoot.
This may lead to increased aggressive feelings, thoughts and behaviors.
They reduce opportunities for outdoor activities and thereby lead to obesity and poor physical
health.
Children dont spend time doing such activities as reading a book, playing outside or engaging
with friends.
Children become addicted to video games and they do not go to school, do not eat properly and
do not exercise enough.
Games promote poor health
61

Handout #4

Match the following phrases with the appropriate functions.

Language for argumentative speech

Stating the idea

In my opinion
If you ask me
As far as I am concerned

Asking for an opinion

How do you feel about that?


Do you have anything to say about that?
What do you think?

Expressing agreement

I agree with
I think
Yes, thats right.
You are absolutely right.
I couldnt agree more.

Expressing disagreement politely

Thats a good point, but


Perhaps, but dont you think that...
Yes, but

Interruptions

Excuse me for interrupting, but


Can I ask you a question?
Can I say something?
Can I add something?

Adding ideas

In addition to
Whats more
One more idea
62

Developing Speaking Skills by Using Games with Teenagers


Mari Kurashvili

Games are fun, engaging and teenagers love playing them in the classroom. They are also a great way
to get students using and practicing the language. During this workshop session, you will be able to
explore and analyze ways to use a variety of games to help students work on their speaking skills.

Session Developing speaking skills by using games with teenagers (8-9 grades)
title

Time 60 min

Session At the end of the session, participants will be able to experience and analyze different
objectives games that can help teenagers develop their speaking skills.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
8 min Getting started! To make Tt-Ts Poster
participants Ts-Tt PowerPoint
The trainer greets the participants and aware of the Presentation
shows them the poster of a hangman and topic.
encourages them to play a game of
Hangman to guess the topic of the
session. The participants guess the topic
and the trainer introduces the aim and
asks them questions:
Did you like games in class when
you were students?
Do your students like games?
Why might we use games to
teach?
Why might games be
important/helpful when
practicing speaking skills?
The trainer also share a little of her/his
experience about the topic questions in
short. The trainer speaks about some of
the challenges in her/his own class and
the importance of games to develop
speaking skills, as a way, to revise the
material students have learned to engage
and motivate them during the lesson.
63

1 min Students caps on To experience TtTs


The trainer asks participants to act student learning
students roles (Grade 9).

13 min Experiential activities: Taboo To promote Tt-Ss Handout A


creative thinking, Ss-Tt (Power
The teacher divides the students into two asking questions Ss-Ss Point)
groups (Group A and Group B) and and developing
encourages them to play a game, speaking skills
Taboo. The teacher has created a
PowerPoint presentation with each slide
containing a noun. She has one student
from Group A come to the front of the
room and sit with her back to the
PowerPoint. The students in Group A
should take turns describing the words
for the student in the front of the room
to guess. The more words she guesses,
the more scores the group has. Then, the
student from Group B comes to the
board and the task is the same. Timing is Check students
very important. Each group has 5 understanding
minutes to do the task. The winner is the
group with more words. The teacher asks
CCQs and participants start the game.
10 min Experiential activities: Whats my Promotes Tt-Ss Notes
problem? creative thinking Ss-Tt PowerPoint
and helps to Ss-Ss Handout B
The teacher encourages the class to play build a friendly
a game called Whats my problem? The environment in
teacher writes problems related to class.
lessons on post-it notes on each Students practise
students back. giving advice and
reviewing
The teacher asks students to mingle vocabulary and
around and ask for advice from other grammar.
students to solve their problem. Students
should be able to guess their problem
based on the advice they get from their
peers and they should tell the class what
the problem is. The teacher asks
participants CCQs and then they start the
game.

Experiential activities: Making sentences! Promotes Tt-Ss Handout C


8 min creative thinking Ss-Tt PowerPoint
and generates Ss-Ss
ideas
64

The teacher encourages the class to play


a game called Make Sentences. The
teacher divides the students into groups.
Then, she/he shows them a PowerPoint
presentation with 60 words (the teacher
can also use a flipchart with words),
ensuring the participants have a balance
of parts of speech and gives them 7
minutes to create one sentence with
three words, one sentence with four
words, one sentence with five words etc.
The winner is the group with more
sentences. Checking
students
E.g. 1. Radio is free. understanding
2. Most parents are happy.

3. My parents dont trust me.

The teacher asks participants CCQs and


then they start the game.

15 min Reflection To demonstrate Tt-Ss Handouts


the Ss-Tt Back pocket
The participants change their roles again understanding of Ss-Ss activity
and the trainer distributes the handouts the teaching Handout D
of the activities they just did. The trainer process.
provides them with a link for English
games, gives the participants her printed
lesson plan and also shares another back
pocket activity for developing speaking
skills: Two truths and a lie

Then the trainer divides participants into


three groups and assigns Taboo,
Whats my problem? and Make up
sentences activities to each group.
She/he asks the groups to discuss and
make the presentation on the flipchart
based on the following questions:

1. What did you do? (step by step)


65

2. How did you feel as students?


3. How did this promote
fluency/accuracy?
4. What vocabulary/grammar did
the game practice?
5. What might be some benefits of
doing this activity with your
students?
6. How would you modify this
activity to suit your students
level?

5 min Participants reflect on what they have


done and think about how they might use
these approaches to helping students
work on their speaking skills.

2 min Wrap-up To determine the Individual A training


effectiveness of work evaluation
Participants are asked to fill in a training the workshop form
evaluation form and to get (Handout E)
feedback from
the participants

References
Lander, E. (2017, April 22). 10 Best games for ESL teacher abroad. Retrieved from:
https://www.gooverseas.com/blog/10-best-games-esl-teachers

Teenagers: Game 8: Making mistakes. (2017, April 22). Retrieved from:


http://www.onestopenglish.com/teenagers/skills/games/teenagers-game-8-making-
sentences/146736.article

12 Fun speaking games for language learners. (2017, April 22). Retrieved from:
https://www.edutopia.org/discussion/12-fun-speaking-games-language-learners
66

Handouts
Handout A

Activity #1: Taboo (group-work)

The teacher divides the students into two groups (Group-A and Group-B) and encourages them to play a
game Taboo. The teacher has created a PowerPoint presentation with each slide containing a noun.
She/he has one student from Group-A come to the front of the room and sit with her/his back to the
PowerPoint. The students in Group-A should take turns describing the words for the student in front of
the room to guess. The more words she/he guesses, the more scores the group has. Then the student
from Group-B comes to the front of the room and the task is the same. Timing is very important. Each
group has 5 minutes to do the task. The winner is the group with more words.
The teacher asks CCQs and participants start the game.

Group-A Group-B
1. Cap 1. Christmas Tree
2. Coat 2. Butter
3. Slippers 3. Sugar
4. Scarf 4. Clown
5. Policeman 5. Boxer
6. Tractor 6. Socks
7. Computer 7. House
8. Newspaper 8. Sea
9. Fridge 9. ticket
10. TV 10. Bread
67

Handout B

Activity #2: Whats My Problem?

The teacher encourages the class to play a game Whats My Problem? The teacher writes problems
related to lessons on post-it notes on each students back. The teacher asks students to mingle, ask for
advice from other students and ask for advice to solve their problem. Students should be able to guess
their problem based on the advice they get from their peers. Afterwards, they should be able to tell the
class what the problem is. Timing is very important. The teacher gives student 7 minutes to do the task.
The teacher asks participants CCQs and then they start the game.

1. Shy student
2. The student who falls asleep
3. The student who lies
4. The student who swears
5. The tease
6. The gum chewer
7. The forgetful student
8. The chatter
9. The student who cheats
10. The troublemaker
11. The class clown
12. Messy student
13. The noise maker
14. Lazy student
15. Reserved student
16. The bully
17. Impatient student
18. Too curious student
19. Unmotivated student
20. The student who calls out
68

Handout C
Activity #3: Making Sentences (group-work)

The teacher encourages the class to play a game called Make Sentences. The teacher divides the
students into groups. Then, she/he shows them a PowerPoint presentation with 60 words (the teacher
can also use a flipchart with words), ensuring the participants have a balance of parts of speech and
gives them 7 minutes to create one sentence with three words, one sentence with four words, one
sentence with five words etc. The winner is the group with more sentences.

E.g. 1. Radio is free.

2. Most parents are happy.

3. My parents dont trust me.

The teacher asks participants CCQs and then they start the game.
69

SPAIN SAILS IN ON TO

THE ARRESTED TEENAGERS VERY


THEIR

SAY RADIO PROBLEM WAS A MUSTNT

DANCING COWS THINK WE MONEY

MORE RICHER ENJOY FREE POLITICS

MOST HAPPY COFFEE ENGLISH QUICKLY HAVE

PARENTS IS TRUST EAT GREEN FAT

GETS RICH BY HARDLY CRAZY HAT

WANT EVER I YOU LIE ME


CHESS

MY DONT LIKE TO PLAY PEOPLE

HOBBY MEAT AM MUCH VEGETABLES


70

Handout D

Back Pocket Activity: Two Truths and One Lie (pair-work)

The teacher asks each student to write three facts about her/his hobbies on a piece of paper. Two of
the facts should be true and one should be a lie. Students read out the facts and give the other
students a chance to question them and decide which statement is a lie. The teacher gives students 8
minutes for the task, asks CCQs to lead them to the topic and shows a model sentence.

1. I played basketball in my childhood


2. My collection of stamps is very interesting
3. I enjoy fishing
71

Handout E

Evaluation Form

Date:
Title:
Trainer:

Use the notes to answer the questions below

1 2 3 4 5
Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree

________________ Clear Instructions

________________ Well-organized

_________________ Clear explanation

__________________ All participants are involved

__________________ Understanding is checked

__________________ Support is given

___________________ Constructive feedback

___________________ Presentation skills

____________________ Rapport with trainees

____________________ Motivating

_____________________ Effective activities

_____________________ Friendly and warm atmosphere


72

Creating Speaking Opportunities in the Intermediate English Classroom


Nana Litvinenko

Speaking is one of the most challenging, exciting and important skills to practice when learning a new
language. During this workshop session, participants will be able to experience and discuss about a
few different strategies for promoting for speaking interaction in the classroom.

Session Creating speaking opportunities in the intermediate English classroom


title

Time 60 min

Session By the end of the session, participants will be able to analyze and discuss different
objectives strategies to help students improve their speaking skills.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity

2 min Lead-in To motivate and T-Ps PPT


activate
The trainer greets participants as they schemata about
walk in and asks them what school they the content of
work in, what ages they teach and
the session.
introduces the session topic.

3 min Generating ideas To generate and Group work PPT


elicit ideas Ps-Ps
The trainer shows the following quote on
related to topic
the PPT: Conversation is the central
focus of language and the keystone of
the language acquisition by Jack
Richards

Participants share in pairs their thoughts


on this quote.

20 min Introductory discussion To discuss about Small Posters


key aspects of groups
Trainer invites participants to discuss teaching
with in small groups the following speaking
questions on PPT:
73

Who normally speaks more in the


classroom, the teacher or the
student?
What strategies and activities do you
think teachers use the most when
teaching speaking?
In the same small groups, participants
make posters with their answers to these
questions and hang them on the walls.

Gallery walk

Everyone walks around to see what other


groups wrote on their posters.

The trainer shows slides with different


activities and participants discuss ideas
and compare them to their answers.

20 min Demo lesson To activate T-Ps Board


adjectives and
The trainer asks participants to put learn new Pair work
on their student hats and become vocabulary.
pupils. The trainer delivers a demo
lesson and asks participants to think To tell the same
of the best and the worst thing that story with less
happened to them yesterday and time to improve
writes the adjectives on the board. fluency.
They will be telling their stories soon.
The trainer asks participants for
vocabulary that signals time order:
before, first, meanwhile, as soon as,
finally, etc. and points out that these
words will help them to organize
their story and connect events.
The trainer suggests the 3-2-1
strategy using main points, adjectives
and time organizers written on the
board. For the first round,
participants have 3 minutes to tell
their story to their partner. For the
second round, participants repeat the
same story in 2 minutes now with a
74

new partner. Finally, they tell their


story one last time with a different
partner in 1 minute.
15 min Reflection To reflect on the Individual PPT
most important work
The trainer asks participants to take off aspects of the Notes
their students hat and think of the session
following questions as teachers:

How did it feel to be a student in the


lesson?
What did you find most interesting
about this activity?
What was most frustrating or difficult
about this activity?
Would you do anything differently
when you do it and why?

Individually, participants write down


some of their ideas and then share their
thoughts with a partner.

Wrap-up

The trainer asks 3-5 participants to share


some of their thought after reflecting on
the session.

References
Chapman and King. (2009). Creating opportunities for students to take ownership of their learning.

Bonner. (1994) Using organizers in the text.


75

Controlled Practice Communication Games for Young Learners


Natia Shevardenidze

Students love learning and practicing the language through fun and engaging games. During this
session, you will learn more about the advantages and disadvantages of controlled practice within
communication games for elementary students.

Session Controlled practice communication games for young learners


title

Time 60 min

Session By the end of the session, participants will experience, analyze and discuss key benefits and
objectives disadvantages of controlled practice activities for communication games designed for
elementary students.
Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
3min Getting started!
Establishing Whole
Activity: 2 truths and a lie rapport group
The trainer gives 3 personal statements
and participants try to guess the false one
by asking indirect questions about them.

5min Reflection on the 2 truths and a lie Lead-in to the TPS Handout:
activity: topic Communicat
What kind of activity is it? ion games
What is the aim? reflection
What is the language focus? chart
How can it be adapted to better fit your
teaching context?

10min The trainer shares some challenges she Introduce the Whole
has faced when helping students develop topic group check
communication skills. Participants share
their experiences as well.

The trainer shares with participants Scott TPS PPT


Thornburys definition of controlled
practice and has them discuss the
differences between controlled and free
practice activities. Participants also
discuss about the PPP framework.
76

7min Activity: Chit-Chat Handout:


Trying out a Mingle Chit-Chat
The trainer gives role cards to the controlled role-cards
participants: one group receives a practice act. and personal
questionnaire and another group cards information
with personal information. The first group cards
finds people by mingling and asking
questions and then their writing names in.
The goal in this competition is to see who
finds the most amount of people in the
questionnaire in 5 min
Handout:
Participants reflect on the activity using TPS Communicat
5min the chart labeled: Communication games ion games
reflection chart reflection
chart

Handout:
Participants analyze the activity according Small Controlled
to the characteristics of controlled and groups and free
freer practice. practice
10 min Experiencing the activities Handouts:
Sets of
The trainer divides the group into two. Giving Group work activities
participants free
choice

5min The trainer gives participants sets of Experiencing the


activities and they choose one and activities
present it in front of the whole group.
5 min per each group.

Participants share what they liked about Reflecting on the Whole


the activities. experience group

10min Reflection Identifying what Onion circle


they are taking TPS
In an onion circle format, students discuss home with them
the following questions: from the
workshop
Which activity did you like the
most?
What types of activities did we
deal with?
What are the benefits of
controlled activities?
77

What are the disadvantages?


What are the benefits of freer
activities?

5 min Wrap-up Whole


group
Participants come up with 1-2 action plans
based on this workshop and share them
with the whole class

References

Activities to promote interaction and communication. (2017, April 22). Retrieved from:
http://cal.org/caela/tools/program_development/elltoolkit/Part2-41Interaction&Communication.pdf

From controlled practice to communicative activities. (2017, April 22). Retrieved from:
http://caite.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/projects/english-flipped/module_content.php?m=4

Garber, P. (2008). 50 Communications activities, ice breakers, and exercises. Amherst, MA, HRD Press.

Hadfield, J. (1984). Elementary communication games: a collection of games and activities for
elementary students of English. Walton-on-Thames: Nelson.

Which are the advantages and disadvantages of using games to develop oral communicative skills?
(2017, April 22). Retrieved from: https://www.quora.com/Which-are-the-advantages-and-
disadvantages-of-using-games-to-develop-oral-communicative-skills
78

Handouts

Communication Games
Activity chart

N Name of the activity Aim/type Language focus Possible adaptations

4
79

Controlled and Freer Practice

Categorize the following statements:

Theres no room for choice


Ready materials provided
Learner-controlled
Focus on fluency
Language students produce is 100% predictable
No teacher intervention
Real-life, authentic
Dialogues with a script
Focus on language form
Focus on content
Open (no single answer)
Focus on accuracy
High teacher intervention
Variety of language
Closed (one right answer)
Practicing one language item
Students personalize the language
Students are experimenting with the language

Controlled practice Freer practice


80

Read this set of activities and choose one to present to the other groups.

1. Busy day (Practicing daily routines, times)

The teacher asks students to make a list of activities done yesterday or planned to be done tomorrow.
Students make a day schedule, indicating times and give it to the teacher. The teacher mixes the cards
and distributes them randomly. Students have to mingle and ask questions to find the author of the list.

2. Where are my glasses? (Practicing prepositions)

Students are divided in A and B, each student has different pictures. The lost objects are shown on the
picture given to the other partner. Students ask questions and try to draw the things found in their
picture and vice versa.

3. Looking for Mr. X (Practicing asking personal info)

Students are given the chart and they have to search for information and fill in the gaps by moving
around and asking questions. Each student has different information. They have to find all the
information for each person.

Read this set of the activities, choose one and present it to the other groups

1. Sunday Afternoon (Practicing giving suggestions, agreeing/disagreeing)

The teacher divides the students in small groups and puts situation cards on the table. They take one at
a time and give suggestions about what to do. Once they agree, they move to the next situation.

2. Landladies (Practicing asking for permissions)

The teacher gives roles to the students, landladies and tenants. First, they make a set of rules to obey
and tenants make a list of things they want to be allowed to do. Next, they come to the landladies and
ask questions to find out where to live.

3. Computer dating

Students write down their likes and dislikes (5 per each). Then, they mingle and try to find the best
partner based on who they have most in common with.
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85
86
87
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89

Using Dictogloss as a Means of Improving Speaking and Writing Skills


Nino Kalandia

Speaking and writing are productive skills that require lots of practice from students to develop these
essential linguistic skills. During this workshop session, participants will explore and analyze the use of
dictogloss as a strategy for helping students practice and improve their writing and speaking skills.

Session Using dictogloss as a means of improving speaking and writing skills


title

Time 60 minutes

Session By the end of the session, participants will be able to use dictogloss to help improve their
objectives students speaking and writing skills.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
8 min Lead-in and introduction of the topic To lead the T-Ps Board
participants to Individual PPT
The trainer greets and introduces the topic of the work
herself/himself to the participants. session and to
She/he asks them to make a word with generate ideas.
the letters posted on the board. The
trainer gives the hint that the word is
connected to language learning skills
(reading, listening, writing, speaking).

After guessing the word (dictogloss), the


trainer asks the participants to answer
the questions:

What do you know about


dictogloss?
Have you ever used this teaching
method in your class?
(If Yes) What was the purpose of
using it?

The trainer introduces the topic and the To introduce the


aim of the session. topic and the aim
of the session.
90

2 min Student caps on! To experience


the activities as
The trainer asks participants to put on learners.
their teacher caps for the next section of
the workshop.
30 min Experiential activity T-Ps PPT or
Individual picture
The teacher shows a picture and asks To identify the Group work Board
students to brainstorm before listening topic and key T-Ps Marker
to a text and asks questions: vocabulary
What words do you think will
come up in the text? To check
Call out as many words as you students
can using the picture. understanding of
The teacher writes the words the topic
students call out on the board
and then later she/he erases the
board.
The teacher explains to the To reconstruct Handout
students that she/he will read the text #1
the text twice and gives handouts
for noting and reconstructing the
text.
The teacher reads the text while
students listen, they dont take
notes.
The teacher reads the text for a
second time and asks students to
write down as many key words as
they can.
After reading the text the teacher
asks students to reconstruct the
text they heard by using their
notes then they are divided into
groups where they nominate the
writer and write their final
version as accurate as possible.
Gallery walk: The groups paste Analyzing
their versions on the blackboard mistakes
and share with other groups,
they add missing information,
analyze and correct grammar and
spelling mistakes for the final
version.
91

At last, the teacher distributes Handout


the rubric with the original text #2
and students grade their work.
Students analyze their mistakes Handouts
and write them in the handout. #2 and #3

10 min Reflection T-Ps

The trainer asks the Ps to take off their Pair work


student hats and asks them to discuss the
following questions:
How did you feel as a student?
What helped/hinder you?
What skills are being developed?

The trainer adds some more information


about this technique and distributes
sticky papers to the participants for them
to think about advantages and
disadvantages of using Dictogloss.
Participants work in pairs and share their
ideas by sticking these papers on the
blackboard.

10 min Wrap-up To give and T-Ps


receive feedback. Individual
The trainer asks participants to discuss work
these following questions in pairs:

1. Might you be able to use


Dictogloss in your practice? Why?
Why not?

2. How might you be able to


adapt/change this activity for
your teaching context?

The trainer asks 2-3 participants to share


their final thoughts with the whole class.

References
5 fun ways to use a Dictogloss in the EFL class. (2017, April 26). Retrieved from:
http://eslcarissa.blogspot.com/2012/09/5-fun-ways-to-use-dictagloss-in-efl.html

Thornbury, S., & Harmer, J. (2013). How to teach grammar. Harlow: Pearson education.
92

Handouts
Handout #1

DICTOGLOSS
NOTICING LANGUAGE

TEXT RECONSTRUCTION
93

Handout #2

Were these ideas included in your reconstruction?


1 pt 0.5 pt 0 pt
(fully) (partially) (not at
all)

Dictogloss is a classroom dictation activity

where learners are required to reconstruct a short text

by listening and noting down key words,

which are then used as a base for reconstruction.

Learners discuss the sea.

The teacher then explains the task,

and reads a short text on the sea to the class, who just
listen.

The teacher reads the text again,

and the learners take notes.

In groups, the learners then reconstruct the text.

TOTAL: ______________ /10pt


94

Handout #3

Reflection Sheet

List the type of error you Indicate how the specified error Indicate your knowledge of
committed and give an was detected (check as many as the error (check one)
example you want)

Grammar, vocabulary, By a By me Other (by I Ive The


collocation, spelling, etc. classmate book, knew heard error is
notes, the about the new for
dictionary, error error me
teacher,
etc.)
1.

2.

3.
95

Developing Speaking Skills through Class Activities


Zurab Mushkudiani

For students to improve their speaking skills, they need to practice using the language orally in
meaningful ways and consistently. As teachers, it is our responsibility to vary these activities as much
as possible to help students stay engaged. During this workshop session, participants will experience
and reflect on different activities to help students develop their speaking skills.

Session Developing speaking skills through class activities


title

Time 60 min

Session By the end of the session, participants will be able to experience, analyze and reflect on
objectives a variety of speaking activities and main considerations when working with a speaking
skills lesson.
Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
2 min Lead-in and introduction of the topic To motivate and T-PS Flipcharts
activate Individual Paper
The trainer greets participants and schemata about work
introduces the topic of the session. the content of Pair work
the session
The trainer asks the participants to
introduce each other with a warm-up
activity.
5 min Warm up For participants Ps-Ps
to get to know
The trainer asks to participants to walk each other and
around the room and talk to as many to help them feel
different people as possible. Ask relaxed and
questions to find three people that you motivated
have at least three things in common
with. You can only count things that you
do not already know. For example, we
are both female is not valid for this
activity.

15 min Generating ideas To generate and Group work Slip


elicit ideas Ps-Ps papers
1) Participants in pairs discuss the related to topic
following questions:
96

What do you find is the biggest challenge


while speaking for you as teachers and
for your students?
How often do you speak in a lesson?
What techniques and strategies are used
while speaking?
Is speaking one of the most important
skill? Why? Why not?

2) The trainer asks participants to talk


about speaking activities that they have
done or seen before, such as: opinion
dictation, role plays, a cup of
conversation, guessing game,
simulations, information gaps,
brainstorming, storytelling, interviews,
story completion, reporting, playing
cards, picture narrating, advantages and
disadvantages. Participants talk in pairs
and then share some of their thoughts
with the whole group.

20 min Student caps on! To experience Ps-Ps Handouts


and feel the Individual #1, 2, 3
The trainer asks participants to put on activities as work and 4
their student caps for the next section of learners Pair work
the workshop. Small
groups
Experiential activities

The trainer has students work in small


groups. They are assigned one of the
following activities and given the
corresponding handout.

Activity #1: Opinion dictation


Activity #2: A cup of conversation
Activity #3: Role play
Activity #4: Guessing game

Teacher caps back on!

The trainer asks participants to reflect in Handout


the same groups they just did their #5
activity with. The trainer gives
participants a handout with specific
questions about these activities.
97

15 min Reflection To reflect on Individual


their learning work
1) The trainer asks participants in pairs or from different Pair work
small groups to discuss the following perspectives Whole
questions about the session using the group
ELC:

Feelings: How did you feel as students?

Description: Describe one specific


moment that caught your attention.
Imagine you were looking through the
lens of a camera. What happened?

Analysis: What helped and hindered you


while learning?

Generalization: What is one realization


you had during this session? What are
some grammar aspects for speaking
activities?

Action plan: How might you adapt or


change what we did today to better serve
your learners?

2) The trainer asks 3-5 participants to


share some of their final thoughts based
on their previous discussion.

3) The trainer shares his/her own


experience using activities like these with
her/his students.

4) The trainer gives participants


additional resources of controlled
practice activities.
3 min Wrap-up Having listened Ps Ps Small
to their sheets of
The trainer asks participants to write at colleagues ideas, paper
least one benefit of this kind of speaking participants now
activities on a small sheet of paper and to have a gallery Sticky
stick it on the board. walk and share tape
their main
takeaways with
each other
98

References
Kayi, H. (2006). Teaching Speaking: Activities to promote speaking in a second language. The Internet
TESL Journal, 12 (11).

Teaching 1peaking skills 1. (2017, April 27). Retrieved from:


https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/teaching-speaking-skills-1

Thornbury, S. (2005). How to teach speaking. Harlow: Longman.


99

Handouts

Handout #1

Activity #1: Opinion dictation

I agree I disagree It depends

Work in groups. Discuss the following statements. Do you agree or disagree with them? Give reasons.

Statements should be read out and placed in the right column.

Everybody should speak English in todays world.


A teacher should have maximal authority and minimal power.
We teachers can only help the work going on, as servants wait upon a master.
Technology is just a tool. In terms of getting the kids working together and motivating them, the
teacher is the most important.

Why did you put these statements in each column? Explain why.
100

Handout #2
Activity #2: A cup of conversation

Pick a slip of paper from the coffee cup. Talk to your partner about the topic you get for one minute
without stopping. Then, switch and have your partner do the same.

6. Tell us
about your 5. Where do
closes friend? 2. What do you you think you
like about the will go on
place where you holiday this
were brought up?
1. What kind of year?
music do you
enjoy listening 3. What subject
to? 4. What do you did you enjoy
think you will more at school?
be doing in the
five years time?
101

Handout #3
Activity #3: Role-play
102

Handout #4

Activity #4: Guessing game


103

Handout #5
The trainer asks participants to discuss the following questions in small groups:

a) Is it practical? Consider how easy the activity is to set up and manage. For example, does it need any
materials? Do the learners need time to prepare?
b) Is it purposeful? Do the learners have a purpose for doing the activity? Is there an outcome?
c) Is it productive? How much speaking will it generate?
d) Is it predictable? How easy is it to predict the language that the learners will need in order to do the
activity? For example, what vocabulary and grammar are they likely to need?
e) Is it adaptable? How versatile is the activity type? For example, could you adapt it for a higher or
lower level?

Is it practical Is it practical Is it Is it Is it
productive? predictable? predictable?
Opinion dictation

A cup of
conversation

Role play

Guessing game
104

Listening
105

Implementing Pre-During-Post Listening Activities Effectively


Maia Kemoklidze

Developing listening skills requires more than just listening to songs and watching movies. Structured
practice of listening skills through a Pre-During-Post framework can help students develop listening
skills effectively.

Session Implementing Pre-During-Post Listening Activities Effectively


title
Time 60 minutes

Session By the end of the session, participants will be able to brainstorm appropriate activities for
objective each stage of a listening lesson.
Session outline
Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material
activity
Lead-in: Think-Pair-Share To T-Ps
introduce
3 min Trainer asks Participants: the topic of
-Do you often do listening lessons? the session.
-What activities do you use for each stage? To meet the
teachers
where they
are.

20 min Trainer tells Participants they will experience a To T-Ps Handout


listening lesson as students and that they will experience 1
later extract principles from it. a listening
Student caps on. lesson as
Demo Lesson students.
(See Handout 1: Daniel by Elton John)
(Song link:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UA78e27R_
J4 )
7 Trainer asks Participants to do the following: To analyze T-Ps
min -Recall the three main activities done in the what
lesson. happened
-Do these activities reflect the Pre-During-Post during the
listening framework? lesson.
-How did the Pre-listening help you?
-How did the During-listening help you?
-How did the Post-listening help you?
-What is the role of each of these stages? Can
they be skipped? Why? Why not?
106

Trainer elicits responses and elaborates on the


purpose for each stage

20 min Trainer gives Participants a list of activities to To work Audio


classify as Pre, During, or Post. Trainer elicits collaborativ Material
responses. ely. Song
Trainer divides Participants into three groups. lyrics
Participants listen to another song. Handout
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XAFS43NK 2
Fag)
Lyrics will be made available for Participants who
request it.
Group one prepares pre- listening activities.
Group two prepares during listening activities
Group three prepares post-listening activities.
Each group writes their ideas on poster paper. All
groups present and Trainer makes one whole
lesson based on the ideas they provided.

10 Trainer asks Participants to get together with a To reflect


minutes partner and discuss the following questions: on the
How does using PDP framework help session
learners build their listening abilities? content.
What is one thing you learned today?
What is one question you still have To plan for
about teaching listening? material
How can these ideas be applied to young from the
learners? session that
What is one idea you can try out this could be
week? useful in
their own
contexts.

References
Taupin, B. (1973, March 26) Daniel. [Recorded by Elton John]. On Dont Shoot Me-Im Only the Piano
Player[Vinyl Record 7]. MCA.

Freudenthaler, P and Volker Hinkel (1994) Yellow Lemon Tree [Recorded by Fools Garden]. On Dish of
the Day [CD single]. Intercord.
107

Handouts
Handout 1
108
109

Handout 2

Types of activities for Listening Lessons

Label each activity as follows:

Pre if most likely to be used during the pre-listening stage.


D if most likely to be used in the during-listening stage.
Post if most likely to be used after the listening stage.

A. _____ Give students the title of the song and ask them to predict words and phrases that they
expect to hear.
B. _____ Students listen to a song and make a note of 6 or 8 words that they hear. Then they use
these words as the basic vocabulary for composing a poem in pairs.
C. _____ Students look for specific information.
D. _____ Dictate a list of words which appear in the song - in a random order and add one extra
word which doesn't appear. Students write the words then listen to the song, ticking off the
words as they hear them. They should end up with one word.
E. _____ Students listen and delete extra words which they do not hear. (You will need to prepare
a song page with extra words.)
F. _____ Show the picture to the students and ask them to describe it.
G. _____ Put the pictures in order.
H. _____ Students brainstorm all of the words that they have heard and then listen again and
check to see how many are correct.
I. _____ Students listen and fill gaps (open cloze or multiple choice)
J. _____ Fill in the blanks, cloze test using the vocabulary acquired in the listening.
K. _____ Role plays
L. _____ Students answer True\False sentences.
M. _____ Students listen again and order the lines or verses of the song.
N. _____ Discuss what they liked / didn't like about the song.

O. _____ Students follow a route on a map.


P. _____ Group discussion
Q. _____ Mime it: If there is a dialog in the listening, mime part of it.
R. _____ Writing essays on the same topic.
S. _____ Students write another verse for the song in pairs or small groups.

Answer Key:

A. Pre I. During Q. Pre


B. Post J. Post R. Post
C. During K. Post S. Post
D. During L. During
E. During M. During
F. Pre N. Post
G. During O. During
H. During P. Post
110

How to Teach Listening Using the PDP Framework


Nino Kalandia

Listening is a receptive skill that students need to practice and work on continuously to improve their
comprehension skill and become better listeners. PDP serves as a useful framework that helps prepare
and guide learners in their understanding of specific listening texts.

Session How to teach listening using the PDP framework


title

Time 60

Session By the end of the session, participants will be able to analyze and reflect on the
objectives effectiveness of PDP as a framework for teaching listening.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
4 min Greeting and introduction To greet the TT-Ts PPT
participants and TPS
The trainer greets and introduces for the trainer to
her/himself to the participants. introduce
her/himself.

4 min Warm up: A sound game! To help


participants feel
Participants listen to the sounds of free and relaxed.
transport and animals carefully. After
listening, they write down as many words
as they can, then they check with their
pairs and share. The pair with most
words is the winner.

The trainer asks participants to work in To lead the TT-Ts


pairs and answer the following questions: participants to TPS
the topic of the
Which skill does the activity session and to
develop? generate ideas.
What listening activities do you
use in your class?

2 min The trainer introduces title and topic of To introduce the TT-Ts
the session topic and the aim
of the session.
111

6 min Student caps on! To create an T-Ss PPT


opportunity for Photo
The trainer asks the participants to put participants to Pen
on their student caps for the following experience paper
section of the session. student learning.

Sample PDP lesson

Warm up: The teacher tells students that To involve TPS


she/he is thinking about a famous person participants in
who is now dead, but doesnt say the the specific topic,
name. Students can ask up to 20 Yes/No activate prior
questions to find out who she/he is. The knowledge and
person who guesses first is the winner. provide a
purpose for
Pre-listening: In pairs, students look at listening.
the photo and note down information
about Marilyn Monroe in the handout
with categories: movies, education, other
jobs, death.

5 min Teacher caps on! For participants TT-Ts PPT


to identify the TPS
The trainer asks participants to discuss purpose of these
the following questions in pairs: activities.
What do you think is the goal of this
stage?
What other activities could you use for
pre-listening stage?

10 min Student caps on! To move from Ss CD


general to TPS
During listening: Students listen to the specific
CD and check their ideas from the pre- understanding of
stage. the text
During listening: The teacher plays the
CD again for students to complete the fill-
in-the gaps exercise.
During listening: Students listen to the
CD again to complete the timeline of the
life of Marilyn Monroe.
112

5 min Teacher caps on! For participants TT-Ts


to identify the TPS
The trainer asks participants to discuss purpose of these
the following questions in pairs: activities.

What do you think is the goal of this


stage?
Why did I play the CD 3 times?
Why did I not immediately say if the
answer was correct or not?
What other activities can you use for the
during stage?

7 min Student caps on! To develop T-Ss


language by TPS
Post Listening: The teacher asks students integrating
to tell their partners about their favorite listening with
film star. Afterwards, students share other skills.
what their partner told them with the
rest of the class.

Homework: To make a poster about your


favourite film star.

5 min Teacher caps on! For participants TT-Ts


to identify the
The trainer asks participants: purpose of these
What do you think is the goal of this activities.
stage?
What other activities could you use for
post-listening stage?

10 min Reflection To reflect on the TT-Ts PPT


most important TPS
The participants discuss the following aspects of the
question in pairs or small groups: session

How did you feel as a student in


the sample lesson?
What did you like about the
activity?
What helped/hindered you
learning?
How does PDP help students
learning?
What will you take to your
classroom?
113

The trainer asks 3-5 participants to share


some of their final thoughts after doing
the reflection.

2 min Final assessment To determine the Individual Training


effectiveness of work Evaluatio
Participants are asked to fill in a Training the workshop n Form
Evaluation Form before leaving. and to get
feedback from
trainees.

References
A framework for planning a listening skills lesson. (2017, April 26). Retrieved from:
https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/a-framework-planning-a-listening-skills-lesson
114

Handouts

Merylin Monroe Trivia

Merylin Monro once sang (a) .. for the American president John
Kennedy.

Before she became famous, she worked in (b) . .

She made the famouse film Gentlmen Prefer Blonds in (c) . .

One of her popular song was Diamonds are (d) .

She studied (e) .. at the University of California, Los Angeles.

She was (f) . Years old when she died.


115

Integrating Listening Skills through Civics


Nanuli Tatiashvili

Civics and values permeate content across subject areas. As such, it can be used as a springboard to
develop language skills such as listening as well as encouraging the development of strong values. In
this session, integrating civics and listening skills will be discussed.

Session Integrating Listening Skills through Civics


title

Time 60 minutes

Session At the end of the sessions Participants will be able to discuss how civics can aid in the
objectives development of listening as well as provide opportunities to talk about values.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
2 min Introduction To introduce and Trainer- Poster
Trainer greets trainees and introduces generate ideas Participants
the title of the session. Trainer asks about the topic.
participants about the importance of
integrating listening (songs) through To meet the
civics. trainees where
they are.
Trainer asks Participants the following:
-How often do you use songs for teaching
6 min English?
-What are the benefits of teaching songs?
-How many stages do listening lessons
have?
-What activities do you use for each stage
in a listening lesson?
-Why is integrating civics important in
English teaching?

7 min Experience: To experience an Trainer- Pictures


Trainer tells Participants they will activity through Participants
experience this activity as students. the learners
perspective.
Trainer introduces the words related to
the topic.
PRE LISTENING: Trainer shows pictures
that are connected with the song and
116

tells Ss to predict what the song will be


about based on the words and pictures.
(These pictures will also help them get
the meaning of the song). Trainer shows
some pictures of famous musicians and
asks Participants to predict the author of
the song.

4 min Trainer gives handouts to Participants To get the gist of Individual handouts
and asks them to guess that the song will the song
be about. Participants have to choose the
correct answer.
Trainer-
Participants

Pair Work

Group
Work

Whole class
11 min WHILE LISTENING To listen for key Trainer- Paper
Trainer gives Participants strips of paper words. Participants strips
of lines in the song (gaps are included in To check
each). Trainer asks Participants to read understanding of Pair Work
them and put them in the right order. the song.
Trainer tells Participants to listen to the Group
song and fill in the gaps with the correct Work
word. Participants listen to the song and
check their answers in pairs and then as a
whole class.
3 min WHILE LISTENING To check if they Pair work
Trainer tells Participants to sing the song. can listen and get Whole class
They all sing together. correct
POST LISTENING information
PRODUCTION
Trainer speaks briefly about America in
13 min the 1960s and tells Participants to think Posters
about the problems in the song why the Markers
author was singing about them. Trainer
tells Participants to write about the To Share ideas.
problems in their community and
describe how to make their community Group work
and the world a better place to live.
Trainer divides Participants into groups
according to colored papers and asks
117

them to work on a poster. After they To develop ss


finish their posters, a presenter from self-assessment
each group presents their ideas in front skills
of the class.
14 min Trainer distributes sheets of papers on Individual Refl.
which Participants choose their To reflect on the work Handout
appreciation with different figures after experience.
the lesson. Pair work
Trainer tells Participants it is the end of To discuss
the experience and that they will now applications. Group work
continue discussing as teachers.
BECOME TEACHERS AGAIN.
Trainer shows the benefits of developing
listening skills. (Use Power point
Presentation.)
Reflection:
Trainer asks Participants to write answers
to the following questions:

-How did you feel?


-Do you consider using songs as an
effective way to develop listening skills?
-How would you adapt or change this
activity?
-What 3 things from todays session do
you think were the most important for
you to learn?

After all Participants finish writing their


responses, they put their papers around
the classroom and read others
responses. As they read others
responses, they must think of three
takeaways from the session and their
favorite response.

References
Dylan, B. (1962). Blowin in the Wind. [Recorded by Columbia Recording Studios]. On The Freewheelin
Bob Dylan [7 single]. New York City, New York. Columbia
118

Handouts
Handout #1

BLOWING

CANNON

BANNED

DOVE

DEATH
119
120
121
122

The song is about

a. every day problems


b. real world
c. human feelings
d. war
e. nature

The author of the song is

a. John Lennon
b. Bob Dylan
c. Robert Burns
123

Handout #2

Blowin in the Wind


BOB DYLAN

How many roads must a man walk down before you can call him a man?

How many seas must a white ..sail. Before she sleeps in the sand?

Yes, and how many times must the.. balls fly. Before theyre forever?

The answer, my friend, is blowin in the wind. The answer is blowin in the wind.

Yes, and how many years can a mountain .. Before it is washed to the sea?

Yes, and how many years can some people exist. Before they are allowed to be free?

Yes, and how many times can a man turn his head. And that he just doesnt see?

The answer, my friend, is.. in the wind. The answer is blowin in the wind

Yes, and how many times must a man look up. Before he can see the sky?

Yes, and how many ears must one person have. Before he really hears people cry?

Yes, and how many. will it take til he knows. That too many people have died?

The answer, my friend, is blowin in the wind. The answer, is blowin in the wind.
124

Handout #3

Blowin in the Wind


BOB DYLAN

How many roads must a man walk down .Before you can call him a man?
How many seas must a white dove sail. Before she sleeps in the sand?
Yes, and how many times must the cannon balls fly. Before theyre forever banned?
The answer, my friend, is blowin in the wind .The answer is blowin in the wind.
Yes, and how many years can a mountain exist .Before it is washed to the sea?
Yes, and how many years can some people exist. Before they are allowed to be free?
Yes, and how many times can a man turn his head. And pretend that he just doesnt see?
The answer, my friend, is blowin in the wind. The answer is blowin in the wind
Yes, and how many times must a man look up. Before he really see the sky?
Yes,and how many ears must one person have. Before he can hear people cry?
Yes, and how many deaths will it take til he knows. That too many people have died?
The answer, my friend, is blowin in the wind. The answer, is blowin in the wind.
125

Handout #4

Reflection on the Session

1. How did you feel?


2. Is this an effective way
3. to develop listening skills?
4. How will you adapt or
change this activity?
5. What will you take to your
classroom?
126

Reading
127

Reading for Gist Tasks


Ketevan Ghvania

Reading for gist is a helpful skill for language learners to develop because it can help them find the
main ideas and overall meaning of important texts. During this workshop session, participants will be
able to experience different skimming strategies for reading for gist and reflect on how they could
adapt these to better fit their teaching contexts.

Session Reading for gist tasks


title

Time 60 min.

Session By the end of the session, participants will be able to analyze the importance of reading
objectives activities for gist and how to adapt them for their own teaching contexts.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
5 min. Lead-in T-Pts

Trainer meets participants and presents


the session topic and objectives.

Trainer asks participants to close their To raise Handout


eyes, think about the moments they participants
encounter with reading. Then, motivation
participants open their eyes and share
their thoughts.

3 min. Generation of ideas

Trainer groups the participants To raise Individually Sticky paper


according to the sticky paper that is participants
placed on their backs. Everyone should motivation
have one. Then, participants stand up,
3 min. move around, find their group mates
and sit together.
To generate the Group Handout # 1
Trainer distributes a handout and topic related work
participants make a list of things they ideas.
5 min. have read in the past few days and
share.
Moving from Group Poster
Trainer asks participants to categorize general to work
the list according to: specific
128

a) reading for enjoyment


7 min. b) reading by pure accident
c) reading through the day

Trainer elicits participants knowledge Handout #2


about reading skills and its sub skills
(skimming, scanning). Trainer gives the
handout about ways of reading and
participants choose the sub-skill for
10 min. each of the text types.

Trainer asks participants to contribute To clarify and Poster


their ideas about using skimming and check
write on the poster and present. understanding

Trainer provides participants with PPP


her/his ideas about using skimming.

10 min. Demo lesson: A different way of using To experience a


skimming while teaching reading different way of
using skimming
Trainer asks participants to put their to read for the
students caps on for a demo lesson. gist of a text

1) The trainer tells the participants that Pair work Handout


they are going to read the topic about
English schools.

The trainer writes on the board the title


of the text: English Schools. Then, asks
the participants to brainstorm some
ideas about English schools.

2) The trainer gives the text to the


participants and asks them to read first
without filling in the gaps and to try to
understand the meaning.

3) Then, participants read it again and


choose the correct word for each
space.

If theres enough time, the trainer can


provide participants with more
skimming activities (optional).
129

10 min. Reflecting on the session Participants Individually


reflect on the
Describe and analyze what happened activities they
during the lesson. experienced
Was this a good way to
introduce the skimming
activities? Why/why not?
What worked? Why?
What did not work? Why?
What did you learn about using
skimming activities?
Describe one thing you liked
from the session?
What helped/hindered you
while learning?

7 min. Wrap- up Key takeaways


participants are
The trainer gives the participants the taking away
handout with the geometric figures for with them.
them to complete three steps:

1) Under triangle participants write 3 Individual Handout


important points to remember from
the session.

2) In the square they write something


that they understand well from the
session

3) Under circle they write how they


might adapt the session to make it
better serve their own teaching
context.

References
Harmer, J. (2013). The practice of English language teaching. Harlow: Longman.

Teaching English-TKT Essentials. (2017, April 23). Retrieved from:


https://www.britishcouncil.az/en/teach/online-development-courses/tkt-essentials
130

Handouts
131
132

When and how to use skimming!

When to use skimming

When one needs to know the overall sense or the main ideas of a text.

When there are large amounts of reading and limited time to review it in detail.

When one is seeking specific information rather than reading for comprehension or pleasure.

When it is necessary to find out if it is a book that should be read at all or in more detail.

When one needs to know if a text may be of your interest or not.

How to use skimming

Read the title, subtitles and subheading to find out what the text is about.

Look at the illustrations to give you further information about the topic.

Read the first and last sentence of each paragraph.

Don't read every word or every sentence. Let your eyes skim over the text, taking in key words.

Continue to think about the meaning of the text.


133

Lets reflect on the session!

Describe what happened in the lesson.

Was this a good way to introduce the skimming activities? Why? Why not?

What worked? What did not work?

What did you learn about skimming activities?

Describe something you liked or found helpful from the session.

What helped/hindered your learning while learning (as students)?

How could you adapt or change to make it better serve your learners in your teaching context?
134

List key takeaways from this session!

3 important points to remember from the session.

Write something you understand well from this session.

How would you adapt the activities for your classroom?


135

Pre-reading strategies with young learners (9-10 years old)


Nino Begishvili

Pre-reading activities can be a useful scaffold for students to successfully develop reading
comprehension. This session gives participants the opportunity to explore a variety of pre-reading
activities and their usefulness to set students up for reading tasks.

Session Pre-reading strategies with young learners (9-10 years old)


title

Time 60 minutes

Session By the end of the session participants will be able to:


objectives analyze the importance of pre-reading activities by experiencing them as
learners.
use different strategies to prepare their students for reading.
Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
6 min. Trainer introduces herself to the To get to know Whole Sheets of
participants. each other; group; paper
She shows them a folded paper with her create friendly Pairs
Name on one side and a picture of an atmosphere
Animal on the other side and explains
how she is like that animal.

Trainer asks participants to do the same


with a paper and share with a partner.
Teachers are advised to write a name of
an animal in case they can`t draw it.
Then, teachers should have a chance to
introduce their partners to the whole
group.

Trainer asks participants to put the


papers in front of them in order for her
to see their names during the whole
session.
5 min. Trainer presents the title of the session To see teachers Whole projector;
(see above) and asks the group to prior experience group board or
discuss the following questions: with the topic; to flip chart
Do you do any activities before your lead them to the paper;
students start reading? If yes, provide session topic
some details.
Do the activities help students to
prepare for reading? In what ways?
136

Trainer writes their ideas on the


board.
15 min In groups of three or four, participants To provide p-s Small Handout 1
are given names of certain pre-reading with additional groups - pre-
strategies and their descriptions on information on Whole reading
separate pieces of paper (e.g. the topic and group strategies;
predicting). They are to match the align the content projector
reading strategies to their definition. with the process
They are also given the following
questions to think about:
Which strategies are familiar to you?
Which can be used with young
learners? How?
How do these activities support
reading?
Why should they be done as pre-
reading activities?
Participants discuss the questions and
match them to the previously described
strategies. Then they share their ideas
with the whole group.
The trainer hangs flip chart paper with
the list of strategies and their definitions
on the wall.
1 min. Trainer tells participants that they will To set let
have to role play being students doing participants
the activities and that she will play the know the activity
role of the teacher. This will help them rationale and
later to reflect on the activities from the objective
learners perspective.
15 min. Demonstration activity: To elicit Whole Pictures;
Teacher shows students big pictures of a background group Colourful
pilot and a nurse posted on the wall and knowledge; sticky
asks the following questions: papers;
Who do you think they are? Board or
Where do they work? flip chart
What do they do? paper;
When students provide the answers, the
teacher writes the title on the board (A To make
helicopter pilot and a hospital nurse) and predictions
ask students to predict topic of the text. about the topic;
(Students are allowed to answer either
in English or in Georgian).

Teacher puts target vocabulary on the To pre-teach key


board written on colourful sticky papers, vocabulary from
explains the words and briefly goes over the text
137

pronunciation with students: First


teacher says a word and students repeat
it. Then she points the words on the
board and students say them.

Teachers removes the words one by one,


points to the blank space left, and invites
students to say the word that was just
taken off.
Once all the words have been taken off,
teacher ask students to stick them back
on the board.
Option B (for predicting topic)
Teachers asks students to look at the
pictures of the pilot and the nurse again.
Teacher mimes the previously shown
words and students are say them as
quickly as possible. Students who guess
them first are invited to remove the
words from the board and stick them on
the right place next to the pilot or the
nurse.

Teacher asks students again predict what


the text will be about but now based on
the words from the blackboard.
3 min. Teacher divides students into pairs and To focus Pairs Handout 2
distributes Handout 2 (sentences from students - sentences
the text). Students are to group attention on the from the
sentences referring to the pilot and the information to text
nurse correspondingly. be found in the
When finished teacher tells students text while
they will later have to find the sentences reading later; To
in the text. They are going to read make predictions
silently and check if their prediction was
correct.
13 min. Role playing teacher and students ends. To ask Whole board;
Trainer asks participants to reconstruct participants to group Handout 1;
the previous two activities by describing look at the projector
the steps taken. Trainer elicits and writes lesson from the
the steps and stages on the board. learners
Trainers asks the group to discuss the perspective and
following questions: to reflect on
How did you feel as students? their learning/
Do you find the activities useful? For
what purposes? As a learner, how To connect their
would the activities help reading? experience to
their own
138

How would you adapt the activities? classroom


What would you change? practices
How do you see the role of
importance of pre-reading activities?
Trainers writes their ideas on the board
during the discussion.
Trainer brings participants attention to
the list of pre-reading strategies again
and asks the following:
Which pre-reading strategies were
used during the session?
Can you think of any additional pre-
reading strategies not mentioned but
that were used?
Which strategies/activities would you
try with your students?
2 min Participants are asked to fill in a Training To determine Individuals A Training
Evaluation Form participant Evaluation
reaction to the Form
workshop; to get
feedback from
trainees.

References
Slattery, M. and Jane Willis. (2001) English for Primary Teachers. Oxford University Press.

Scott, W.A. and Ytreberg, Lisbeth H. (1995) Teaching English to Children. Addison and Wesley.

Examples of Pre-reading Activities. (2013, January 31). Retrieved from


https://englishpost.org/2013/01/31/examples-of-pre-reading-activities/

Making Reading Communicative. (2007). Retrieved from


https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/making-reading-communicative

Developing Reading Activities. (2004). Retrieved from


http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/reading/developread.htm

Pre-reading Activities for ELLs. (2013). Retrieved from


http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/pre-reading-activities-ells#h-pre-reading-strategies-to-
increase-comprehension

7 Pre-reading Strategies That Will Increase Comprehension. (2010, September). Retrieved from
http://www.thereligionteacher.com/pre-reading-strategies-that-increase-comprehension/
139

Handouts

Handout #1
1. Brainstorming
In this pre-reading activity, teachers ask students to examine the title of the passage they are about to
read. Students can work in pairs or groups to list everything that comes to mind from reading the title.
The teacher will list all or some of the information students brainstorm on the board.

2. Building background knowledge


The purpose of this strategy is to help build background knowledge when students are going to read
about something unfamiliar to them. This strategy will help them to be more successful and have a
clear context for understanding the ideas presented.

3. Picture walk
This strategy uses pictures in a text to guide students to make predictions about the content of a text.

4. Pre-teaching vocabulary
Using this strategy, the teacher provides students with target vocabulary to help them make predictions
about the content of a passage and prepares them for deeper level comprehension of it.

5. Class discussion
This activity serves as a technique to find out what knowledge about the topic students have prior to
reading. Teachers can use this to get a clear idea of what their students know or time needed to build
background information.

6. KWL
This strategy provides a structure for organizing information students know about a topic, what students
want to know, and listing what theyve learned.

7. Possible sentences
Using this strategy the teacher provides students with a list of key terms and phrases from a reading
passage. Additionally, students create possible sentences they might come across while reading the
passage.

8. Visual Aids
These materials can activate students prior knowledge. A simple picture may be useful to help students
recall background information.
140

Handout #2
Task: Write either Nurse or Pilot next to sentences.

1. This person wears sunglasses as part of work.

2. This person works in a hospital.

3. This person wears a blue uniform.

4. This person flies a helicopter for a living.

5. This person used medical equipment.

6. This person may administer medication.

7. This person has a special watch.

8. This person may wear a headset under the helmet.

9. This person communicates with tower control.

10. This person needs to have clean hands to work.


141

Teaching Reading Skills: Scanning


Nino Begishvili

Developing reading skills can be done through simple and engaging tasks. This session explores
examples of activities to promote the development of scanning as a reading skill.

Session Teaching Reading Skills: Scanning


title

Time 60 minutes

Session By the end of the session, participants will be able to select age-appropriate scanning
objectives activities for a reading lesson.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
5 min. Trainer introduces herself to the To get to know Whole group Handout 1
Participants. each other. Pairs
She distributes Handout 1 and asks
Participants to fill in the chart about
their partners. They are given 1
minute. After they finish,
Participants are to share the
information to the whole group.

10 min. Trainer asks Participants to say what To lead the Pairs Projector
kind of activity they think it was. Participants to Whole group
(speaking, reading, listening or the session Board or flip
writing) topic. chart paper

Could the previous activity have To meet


been done as a reading activity? teachers where
How? they are.
How do we call the reading
technique that is used when you
want to find specific information
quickly?

Participants discuss the questions


with partners and then share with
the whole group.
Trainer writes their ideas on the
board.
142

15 min Trainer divides Participants into To build prior Small groups Handout 2
groups of three according to the knowledge if Whole group
colors posted on the back of theirs needed. Projector
chairs.
To engage
The groups are given Handout 2. Participants in
They are to read the sentences and the discussion.
identify which of them are steps of
scanning.

Trainer displays poster with correct


responses. Participants check their
answers.

Trainer asks Participants to discuss


each step.

Trainer displays a second poster


with the remaining sentences from
Handout 2 and asks Participants
which reading strategy steps they
are.
Trainer asks Participants about the
difference between skimming and
scanning.
Trainer tells Participants that they To practice Individual Handout 3
7 min. will assume the role of students for students
the following activities. scanning skills Board

Trainer writes ay on the board


and two words containing it. Trainer
asks Participants to practice
pronunciation. Trainer distributes
Handout 3 (a short text) and asks
Participants to read the text quickly
in order to find the words which
contain ay and circle them.
Trainer tells them that there are 17
words with ay. The first person to
find all of them wins.
10 min. Trainer divides the class into pairs, To provide Pairs Handout 4
and each pair into Student A and Participants Handout 5
Student B. Each student sits at one with a
end of the classroom. collaborative
Trainer sticks the text to be read reading
(Handout 4) on the wall at the other experience
end of the room.
143

Trainer gives Student As a list of


questions (Handout 5). Student As
read the first question to Student
Bs, who have to run down the
classroom to find the answer in the
text. They then run back to dictate
the answer to Student As. This is
done with the first three questions
and then students swap roles.
The first pair to answer all the
questions wins.
15 min. Participants are no longer students. To make Ts Whole group Board;
Trainer asks Participants to look at the
reconstruct the previous two lesson from the Projector
activities. Trainer writes teachers
Participants ideas on the board. perspective and
to reflect on
Trainer asks Participants to discuss their learning
the following questions:
How did you feel as students?
Did you enjoy reading?
How would you adapt the
activities to fit higher level
students? What would you
change?
Could you think of any other
scanning activities?
What is one thing you would try
with your students?
Trainer elicits ideas after
Participants share with a partner.
Trainer writes Participants ideas on
a piece of paper.

References
Bowen, L. and Liz Hocking. (2014) English World 3. Retrieved from https://student.unsw.edu.au/reading-
strategies

Making Reading Communicative. (2007) Retrieved from


https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/making-reading-communicative

Reading Strategies. (2017) Retrieved from https://student.unsw.edu.au/reading-strategies

Skimming (2017) Retrieved from https://www.aacc.edu/tutoring/file/skimming.pdf

Warner, M. (2017) Skimming and Scanning. Retrieved from


http://www.teachingideas.co.uk/reading/skimming-and-scanning
144

Handouts
Handout #1

Find the following information about your partner:

1. Name of your partner

2. Date when he/she was born

3. Age of your partner

4. Name of the school he/she teaches at

5. Holiday he/she likes the most


145

Handout #2

Read the sentences. Tick the ones that belong to scanning.

* Keep in mind all the time what it is you are searching for.

* Read the summary or last paragraph completely.

* Read the introduction or the first paragraph.

* Try to anticipate in what form the information is likely to appear numbers, proper nouns, etc.

* When you find the sentence that has the information you seek, read the entire sentence.

* Read the title it is the shortest possible summary of the content

* Use headings and any other aids that will help you identify which sections might contain the
information you are looking for.

* Read the first sentence of every other paragraph.

* If there are headings and sub-headings, read each one, looking for relationship among them.

* Selectively read and skip through sections of the passage.

* Notice any pictures, charts, or graphs.

* Notice any italicized or boldface words or phrases.


146

Handout #3

Circle all the words that contain ay

Amys Birthday

It was Sunday, May 15. Amy was excited because it was her birthday. She always
loved this day as she got many presents.

Mum baked a big cake for her. Sam wrote Happy Birthday to you Amy with
colorful crayons and hung the words on the wall. Amy helped Mum to lay the table.
At 5 oclock Amys friends came to congratulate her. They gave her nice present
saying Happy Birthday.

They all had a good holiday dinner. Mother brought a cake with 11 candles on it.
When Amy blew all the candles out her friend shouted hooray and clapped hands.
During their gay party, they sang songs, danced, made jokes and played games.
Amys friends were having such a great time that they stayed till night.
Amy enjoyed her birthday party very much. It was one of the best days for her.
147

Handout #4
148

Handout #5

Find the following information about London.

What is the name of the river in


London?
What is the name of the big Bell in
clock tower?
What is the weight of Big Ben?
What is the name of the Bridge which
opens and closes?
Which year was the Great Fire of
London?
Which year was the London Eye
opened?
149

Developing Young Learners Thinking Skills through Storytelling


Ana Giorganashvili

Teaching young learners, especially 10-12 year olds, requires the consideration of certain teaching
techniques and strategies such as activities that involve movements and the senses. Storytelling is a
great way to include this. When telling stories to young learners, language can be adapted to fit
students level, physical movement is included, students can get involved in the characters and plot of
the story, students anxiety levels are lowered, and thinking skills for remembering, understanding,
applying, analysing, evaluating, and designing are developed.

Session Developing Young Learners Thinking Skills through Storytelling (10-12 year olds)
title

Time 60 minutes

Session By the end of the session, Participants will have experienced and discussed how
objectives storytelling can help students develop thinking skills.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
Trainer greets the participants, tells them To introduce the Trainer-
5 min. the topic and the aim of the session. topic. Participants
Trainer elicits from Participants ideas To generate
about thinking skills. ideas for later
-How can we help our students to use.
develop thinking skills?
Trainer says that storytelling is one of the To set up the Trainer-
2 min. ways of developing critical thinking skills. experience as Participants
The participants take off their teachers part of the
hats and put on the students ones. Experiential
Trainer tells Participants that they will Learning Cycle
now experience activities from the (ELC)
students perspective.
Trainer gives two groups of Participants a To provoke Trainer- Pieces of
3 min. picture to be unscrambled and asks interest. Participants a picture
questions: of a
-What did you get? garden
-Have you got trees in your gardens?
-Do you have your favourite trees?

Trainer tells Participants that today they


will be talking about a special tree: a
Giving Tree.
Trainer asks Participants if they can come
up with things that a tree can give us.
150

Trainer elicits responses.

15 min. Trainer chunks the text into parts, reads To develop Trainer- Handout
each one, and asks questions to the different levels of Participants 1
Participants: thinking

1. Whom did the tree love? What did the To motivate and
tree give to the boy? Was the tree engage students.
happy?
2. Why did the boy come back to the
tree? What did the tree give to him? Was
the tree happy? What about the boy?

Trainer shows the last part of the story


on slides/posters.

Trainer asks the following questions:


-Did the boy love the tree? Why?
-Whom do you love?
-Why do you love them?
-What do you do to make someone
happy?
10 min. Trainer tells Participants that they will To develop Trainer- Pieces of
become Giving children. Trainer asks, thinking skills. Participants paper,
What can we do for the tree to make it poster
happy?
On small pieces of paper, they write one Individual
word or draw something which they work
would give to the tree to make it happy.
Participants stick the pieces of paper on a
poster with a tree on it.
Trainer asks Participants, How would
you feel if you were the tree?

5 min. Trainer tells the Participants that the To check where Trainer-
lesson part of the session is over. They the teachers are. Participants
will now go back to assuming teachers
roles.
Trainer makes overall comments on
thinking skills. Trainer also points out that
this particular topic can be connected to
the civic education (as the tree gives
everything to the boy, the earth gives us
everything). Trainer asks Participants
about strategies and activity types that
promote the development of thinking
skills.
151

20 min. Reflection: To demonstrate Trainer-


Trainer asks Participants to answer the the Participants
following questions in small groups: understanding of
the teaching
-What did you do? Can you recall the process
stages of the lesson? according to the
-How did you feel during the stages of ELC.
the lesson?
-What is there in the lesson that supports
the development of thinking skills?
-What could have been done differently?
-What are other stories or materials that
you can use to improve Students
thinking skills?
-What might have hindered the students
understanding?
-How would you adapt these ideas about
developing critical thinking with your
teaching?

References
Cowling, T. (2012) The Giving Tree: A Lesson Plan for Pre-school Children. Retrieved from
http://www.brighthubeducation.com/preschool-lesson-plans/66174-the-giving-tree-literature-activities-
and-lesson/

Critical Thinking. Retrieved from http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/our-concept-and-definition-of-


critical-thinking/

Wartenberg, T. (2017) Teaching Children Philosophy: The Giving Tree. Guidelines for Philosophical
Discussion. Retrieved from http://www.teachingchildrenphilosophy.org/BookModule/TheGivingTree
152

Handouts

Handout #1

The Giving Tree


Shel Silverstein

Text retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/TheGivingTree/The_Giving_Tree_djvu.txt

Once there was a tree. And she loved little boy. And every day the boy would come
And he would gather her leaves. And make them into crowns and play king of the forest.

He would climb up her trunk. And swing from her branches. And when he was tired, he would sleep in
her shade.

And the boy loved the tree Very much. And the tree was happy.

But time went by, and the boy grew older. And the tree was often alone. Then one day the boy came to
the tree and the tree said:

"Come, Boy, come and climb up my trunk and swing from my branches and eat apples and play in my
shade and be happy."

"I am too big to climb and play," said the boy. "I want to buy things and have fun. I want some money.
Can you give me some money?"

"I'm sorry," said the tree, "but I have no money. I have only leaves and apples. Take my apples, Boy, and
sell them in the city. Then you will have money, and you'll be happy"

And so the boy climbed up the tree and gathered her apples and carried them away. And the tree was
happy...

But the boy stayed away for a long time and the tree was sad.

And then one day the boy came back and the tree shook with joy, and she said:

-"Come, Boy come and climb up my trunk and swing from my branches and eat apples and play in my
shade and be happy"
153

Developing Reading Skills Based on Group Work


Tamar Kaladze

Developing effective reading skills for detailed comprehension of texts in English is something many
language learners struggle with in the ESOL classroom. During this session, participants will
experience different reading strategies that will help teachers better guide their learners in working
on comprehension skills in a more cooperative way.

Session Developing reading skills based on group work


title

Time 60 minutes

Session By the end of the session, participants will experience and analyze 2-3 different ways to
objectives help develop students reading skills for detailed comprehension through cooperative
learning and reading circles.
Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
Greeting For the trainer TT Ts
1 min. The trainer greets and introduces to great the
her/himself to the participants. participants and
introduce
him/herself.

Warm-up To get TT Ts Questionnaire


5 min. The trainer asks participants to participants to Ts Ts
introduce each other in a pair-share know each
activity using a small questionnaire. other and to
Then, they take turns introducing their help them feel
partners to the whole group. relaxed and
enthusiastic.
Session topic and aim introduction To share the TTTs
2 min. The trainer shares the title and the aim aim of the
of the session with the participants. session with the
participants.

Students caps on To experience TTTs


1 min. The participants are asked to put on student
their student caps and to play student learning
roles (6th graders).
154

5 min. Warm-up (2 truths and 1 lie) To help TSs Three small


The teacher reads three sentences and students feel gifts (flags or
the students guess which 2 are true and enthusiastic to key-holders
which one is false. Heres the teachers think and with national
example for this activity: participate symbols)
1. The most important tradition in my actively
country (Georgia) is to attend the
church service at Easter holiday. To lead
2. Good citizens in my community try to students to the
be active members of the society. topic of the
3. Religion and sports are safe topics for lesson: culture.
conversation in my country.

The student, who guesses which one is


false, will be awarded (nine questions,
three awarded kids).

6 min. Grouping students To avoid having TTTs Sheets of


Teacher makes groups of three people one and the Ts paper with
and gives them handouts with roles: same students defined roles
1. Leader: makes sure the group having leading for group
remains on task. roles and make members
2. Recorder: writes down each passive ones
participant`s goal. encouraged to
3. Presenter: shares the information participate.
gained from his/her group to other
students.

The teacher says that the leader in a


group is the person, whose coming
birthday is the closest one, the recorder
is the student sitting left to the leader.
The presenter will be the person sitting
left to the recorder.

4 min. Key concept To introduce a TSs Pictures


key concept for
Teacher introduces a concept of the this session.
word 'stereotype'.

The teacher gives students two different


pictures of different countries and asks
them to find the cultural difference.
155

7 min. Practicing reading To practice SsSs Texts about


reading. different
Students are given texts about different countries and
countries and culture (one text for each their culture
group). Students then read them and list
the cultural characteristics of the
country.

8 min. Sharing of findings To share SsSs Flipcharts


information
The teacher observes the process with
properly and then lets the presenter presentations.
present the information to the rest of
the class.
8 min. Guessing meaning from context SsSs Questions
To understand
Teacher asks the students to read the
the language by
texts more carefully and answer the
make certain
questions (pair work)
guesses from
the context.

3 min. Mini-culture presentation To enrich TTTs Computer


The shows the PowerPoint presentation students newly Projector
about different countries and culture to gained
the students. knowledge
about different
cultures.
1 min. Home task: To use TTTs
Search for new information about any technology
other country or culture from the reasonably and
Internet. learn more
about the topic
discussed at the
lesson.
1 min. Teachers caps on To look at the TT Ts
lesson from the
Participants are asked to put their teachers
teacher caps back on to reflect on the perspective.
sample activities they just experienced.
156

6 min. Reflection To reflect on TTTs


The trainer asks participants the their learning TsTT
following reflective questions using the from different
ELC about the session and participants perspectives.
contribute to the whole group.

Feelings: How did they feel as students?

Description: Describe one specific


moment that caught your attention.
Imagine you were looking through the
lens of a camera. What happened?

Analysis: What helped and hindered you


while learning?

Generalization: What is one realization


you had during this session?

Action plan: How might you adapt or


change what we did today to better
serve your learners?

2 min. Wrap-up Having listened Ts Ts Small sheets


to their of paper
Participants are kindly asked to write at colleagues
least one contribution on a small sheet ideas, Sticky tape
of paper and stick it on the board for participants
everyone to read. now have a
chance to look
Participants then walk around and read at them or even
what other people wrote. write them
down for better
understanding
and
remembering.
157

Handouts

QUESTIONNAIRE

1. One interesting thing about you.

2. What is your hobby?

3. Where do you want to travel?

4. Do you prefer working with young students or high-schoolers?

5. What is the most challenging for you in teaching EFL?

ROLES
1. Leader: makes sure the group remains on task.

2. Recorder: writes down each participant`s goal.

3. Presenter: shares the information gained from his/her group to other students.
158
159

Developing Reading Skills through Civic Education


Tamar Kaladze

Practicing reading skills are essential to students ability to improve their reading comprehension.
During this workshop, participants will experience a sample PDP reading lesson to explore different
reading strategies through civic education.

Session Developing reading skills through civic education (Civic education topic: Healthy
title lifestyle / Lesson topic: Vegetarianism)

Time 60 minutes

Session By the end of the session, participants will become aware of how to develop students
objectives reading skills for detailed comprehension of a text through civic education.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
1 min. Greeting To greet and TT Ts
The trainer greets and introduces introduce.
her/himself to the participants.

6 min. Warm-up To get the TT Ts Sheets of


The trainer shows the participants a few participants to Ts Ts paper and
paintings and asks them to guess what know each other markers
they mean to them. Then the and to help
participants draw some paintings and let participants feel
their colleagues guess their importance. relaxed and
The participants are kindly asked to enthusiastic.
share the newly learned information to
the whole group.

2 min. Session topic and aim introduction To get TTTs Poster


The trainer presents the title and the participants to (session
aim of the session. understand the topic and
aim of the aim on it)
session and get
them aware of
the session
outcome.

1 min. Student caps on! To experience TTTs


The trainer asks the participants to act student learning
students roles.
(9th graders)
160

3 min. Warm-up To help TSs Pictures of


The teacher shows different pictures of participants feel different
food to the students and asks: enthusiastic to food (in the
Onions or carrots? think and ppt.)
Apples or bananas? participate Whiteboard
Milk or juice? actively; a warm- and marker
Students give answers. The last question up activity also
is: leads to the
Meat or vegetables? lesson topic
The teacher finishes the warm-up vegetarianism.
activity with these questions:
Do you know that there are people, who
never eat meat?
How do we call a person, who does not
eat meat at all?
Students answer. The teacher writes the
word Vegetarian on the board.

3 min. Pre-reading: To help students T Ss


The teacher gives students pre-reading think about
questions: vegetarianism
Do you know any vegetarians? and vegetarian
Do vegetarians eat sea food? food.
Why do people choose not to eat meat?
Students give answers.

5 min. While reading: Students read the text To read for the TSs Hand-out
about reasons of vegetarianism and try gist. #1 (text)
to give it a title. To become
aware of the
reasons of
vegetarianism.
5 min. While reading: The teacher asks To work on TSs Strips of
students to read the text again and vocabulary. SsSs paper with
match the underlined words with definitions
definitions. Students check their answers on them
in pairs. The teacher checks the (handout
matching results in the whole group. #2)

5 min. While reading: The teacher gives To define true TSs Hand-out
students some statements from the text and false #3 (T/F
and asks them to define whether they statements. statements)
are true or false. The teacher checks this
exercise in the whole group.

5 min. While reading: The teacher makes pairs To find the


and asks students to turn their reading specific SsSs
material over and think about as many
161

reasons for why people become information from


vegetarians. The teacher lets students the text.
share their ideas with the whole class.

4 min. Post reading: The teacher asks students To make SsSs


to turn to a student sitting next to them students think
and ask: If you were a doctor, what more about
would you advise to me concerning vegetarianism
food? (good and bad
sides).

3 min. Self-assessment To develop self- TSs Self-


The teacher distributes self-assessment assessment skill assessment
sheets. Students will circle the small in Students. sheets.
signs of different face expressions
according to their feelings after the
lesson. T collects the self-assessment
sheets to have a careful look at them
later for future consideration.

14 min. Teachers caps on and Reflection To look at the TTTs


The trainer asks participants the lesson from the TsTT
questions about the session and the teachers
participants contribute. perspective.
Questions are the following:
How does the PDP framework help To reflect on
students learning? their learning
What is the benefit of moving from from different
general to specific tasks? perspectives.
How does talking about vegetarianism
have benefits?
What issues could you bring up in class
that would be engaging for your
students?

3 min. Participants are kindly asked to write at Having listened Ts Ts Small


least one idea of something they learned to their sheets of
in this workshop on a small sheet of colleagues paper,
paper and stick it on the board. ideas, sticky tape.
participants now
Participants are kindly asked to go have a chance to
around and look at them to see what look at them or
other people got from the session. write them down
for better
understanding /
remembering.
162

Handouts

Handout #1

1. Religious beliefs:
Some religions have dietary restrictions. Many religious texts promote vegetarianism.

2. Personal Preference:
People, who dont like the taste of meat, choose vegetarianism. Those who eat seafood are not true
vegetarians.

3. Environmental reasons:
Some vegetarians think that land should be used for crops. In this way, it can help feed more people
than to raise cows.

4. Cost:
In many countries, people cant afford to eat meat. You can save a lot of money on a vegetarian diet.

5. Health problems:
Some people have problems with digesting meat. Red meat can be very difficult to digest.

6. Animal rights:
Vegetarians are often animal lovers. They disagree with the use of animals for food and complain about
it.

7. Peer pressure:
Many people become vegetarians in their teens. Pear pressure can cause a boyfriend to choose
vegetarianism to please his girlfriend, or vice versa.

8. Family:
Some people are born in vegetarian families.

9. Weight concerns:
Vegetarians are less likely to be overweight. Fruit and vegetables have fewer calories than meat.
163

Handout #2

English definitions
1. It is used to say that the opposite of a situation you have just described is also true.

2. To change food that you have just eaten into substances that your body can use.

3. A rule or law that limits or controls what people can do.

4. To have enough money to buy or pay for something.

5. To say that you are unhappy about something.


164

Handout #3

True or False?

1. Many people have problems with digesting red vegetables __

2. Fruit has more calories than meat __

3. Those, who eat seafood, are not true vegetarians __

4. In many countries, people cant afford to eat meat __

5. Many people become vegetarians in their teens __


165

Writing
166

Teaching Descriptive Paragraph Writing to Teenagers


Ana Giorganashvili

In Middle School, students are often asked to write a descriptive paragraph. This is challenging for
most students, and many of them have no enthusiasm for carrying on with this task. Teaching
students to write more descriptively will improve their writing, will make it more interesting and
engaging for readers, and at the same time, it will boost students creative thinking skills.

Session Teaching Descriptive Paragraph Writing to Teenagers


title

Time 60 min

Session By the end of this session, participants will be able to analyze a descriptive
objectives paragraph writing lesson that they experienced in order to adapt it for
their own classroom situations.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
2-3 min. Trainer greets the participants, tells To make Trainer-
them the topic of the session and aim. introduce the Participants
Trainer elicits the answers about the topic.
writing task types and problems
connected to them. Trainer briefly
discusses the descriptive paragraph
writing aspects and tells them that the
main thing in descriptive paragraph is
not to tell but show.
Trainer tells Participants that for the
next part of the lesson they will
experience activities as students.
5 min. Trainer asks the participants to close To experience a Trainer-
their eyes and imagine stepping off a writing activity. Participants
plane onto an exotic island.
To promote
The trainer asks questions related to creative thinking,
the senses (What do you see? What generate ideas
can you smell? Whats the weather for later.
like? What can you hear?)
Participants think while having their
eyes closed.
3 min. Participants write down 5 words/ideas To Prepare Trainer- A piece of
related to each sense. Trainer elicits Students for Participants paper
some of their responses. writing
167

3 min. Trainer asks Participants to answer the To activate prior Trainer-


following questions: knowledge. Participants
-What did we do? To determine
-What can we describe? how much
-When we describe something which students know
words do we use? about writing a
-When we write a paragraph how do descriptive
we combine ideas? paragraph.
8-10 min. Trainer divides the Participants into To become Group work, Handout A
groups and gives them strips of paper aware of the
to put a text in the correct order. structure of a Board
Trainer asks participants to give her descriptive Trainer-
the words that helped them rearrange paragraph. Participants Marker
the sentences and writes them on the
board.
Trainer gives them the original text to
compare and check.
10-12 min. Trainer gives a chart to each To become Group work Handout B
participant and asks each to make an aware of the
outline of the paragraph. Trainer structure of a Trainer- Board
points out the topic and opinion, descriptive Participants
relevant details/senses, location, paragraph. Marker er
spatial order, and conclusion. They
share with a partner and then with the
whole class.
(Optional: Divide the class into groups
and give them separate points from
the outline to work on. Members fill in
the outline poster on the board.

Trainer debriefs the activity and points


out the importance of having an
outline of the paragraph as a guide.

3 min. Trainer tells the trainees that they will To reflect on the Trainer-
now switch points of view back to experience. Participants
being teachers.
Trainer tells Participants about the
possible outcome of the lesson. In this
lesson, students would be shown the
picture related to the text, students
would write a descriptive paragraph,
they then would display their work on
the walls and through a gallery walk,
have the chance to stand up and read
other students papers. They can
choose their favorite one.
168

15 min. Trainer gives Participants a handout To demonstrate Trainer- Handout C


and asks them to recall the stages of the Participants
the writing lesson. Trainer writes the understanding of
stages on the board. They discuss the the teaching
sequence of the lesson stages and process
effectiveness of the scaffolding according to the
provided in the lesson. Experiential
Learning Cycle
Participants work on the questions (ELC).
below (provided in the handout) and
write their answers. They then share
with a partner and then with the rest
of the class.

-How did you feel during the stages of


the lesson?
-What is there in the lesson that
supports the development of writing
skills?
-What purpose did the gallery
walk(post- writing activity) serve?
-What could have been done
differently? -What might have
hindered the students
understanding?
-How would you adapt these ideas
about descriptive writing with your
teaching?
3 min. Trainer gives session evaluation forms
to participants.

3 min. Trainer shows the quote by Confucius Trainer- Handout


on the slide: Participants D
Tell me and I will forget, show me
and I may remember, involve me and I
will understand
Trainer gives the participants a
handout with some tips on writing a
descriptive paragraph and thanks the
trainees for active involvement.

References
Descriptive Writing. (2017) Retrieved from
http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/descriptive_writing
Zemach, D. and Liza A. Rumisek. (2005). Academic Writing: from Paragraph to Essay. MacMillan.
169

Handouts
Handout A

The Beach in Hawaii

A beach in Hawaii is like a paradise.

To start with, the beach smells fresh like a new ocean air freshener.

The sand is so hot that when you walk on it as you leave water, you feel like you walk on a
burning grill.

Not far from the shore, you can see the palm trees.

They sway in the air from the strong wind.

In the distance, there is a beautiful house by the water, so you can see the navy blue ocean
every day.

People are laughing and playing on the burning sand, and others are relaxing on the beach
sunbathing.

From a distance, the ocean is a deep navy blue.

At nights, you can only hear the waves of the ocean and the light wind, which comes from the
huge palm trees.

To sum it up, this beach is an amazing place for a perfect summer holiday.
170

Handout B

Topic: __________________________________
Opinion: _______________________________
Relevant details: __________________________
People: _________________________________
Location: ________________________________
Sight: ____________________________________
Smell: ____________________________________
Sound: ___________________________________
Taste: ____________________________________
Touch: ___________________________________
Logical order (space, time):_____________________
Conclusion: ____________________________________
171

Handout C

1. Recall the stages of the lesson.

2. How did you feel during the stages of the lesson?

3. What is there in the lesson that supports the development of writing skills?

4. What purpose did the gallery walk (post-writing activity) serve?

5. What could have been done differently? What might have hindered the students
understanding?

6. How would you adapt these ideas about descriptive writing to your own teaching?
172

Handout D

Descriptive Writing

The primary purpose of descriptive writing is to describe a person, place or thing in such a way that a
picture is formed in the reader's mind. Capturing an event through descriptive writing involves paying
close attention to the details by using all of your five senses.

There's no one way to teach descriptive writing. However, teachers can:

-Develop descriptive writing skill through modelling and the sharing of quality literature full of
descriptive writing.
-Call students' attention to interesting, descriptive word choices in classroom writing.

Descriptive writing shares the following characteristics:

1. Good descriptive writing includes many vivid sensory details that paint a picture and appeals to all of the
reader's senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste when appropriate. Descriptive writing may also
paint pictures of the feelings the person, place or thing invokes in the writer.
2. Good descriptive writing often makes use of figurative language such as analogies, similes and
metaphors to help paint the picture in the reader's mind.
3. Good descriptive writing uses precise language. General adjectives, nouns, and passive verbs do not
have a place in good descriptive writing. Use specific adjectives and nouns and strong action verbs to
give life to the picture you are painting in the reader's mind.
4. Good descriptive writing is organized. Some ways to organize descriptive writing include: chronological
(time), spatial (location), and order of importance. When describing a person, you might begin with a
physical description, followed by how that person thinks, feels and acts.

Descriptive Writing. (2017) Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/descriptive_writing


173

How to Make Writing Letters More Collaborative for Intermediate Students


Ia Manjgaladze

Writing letters is a skill that learners will be able to use in their roles as students, future professionals,
and in their personal lives. During this workshop session, participants will experience and reflect on a
more collaborative way of guiding students in developing the skill of writing letters.

Session How to make writing letters more collaborative for intermediate students
title

Time 60 min

Session By the end of the session, participants will be able to identify and analyze how to
objectives integrate desk-bound activities with blackboard activities to make writing letters more
collaborative.
Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the activity Interaction Material

5 min Warm-up To settle the positive Individually Pieces of


environment. paper
Look at your partner, smile and say
something pleasant.

The trainer gives participants To introduce the topic


questions: Do your students like to of the session and to
write letters? Why? Why not? meet the participants
and How do you engage them? where they are.
and asks them to write their
answers on a piece of paper.

Experiential activity To provide a classroom Whole


experience for group
The trainer tells participants that participants.
they are going to be students in a
sample lesson. They will be wearing
student hats for this experience.

5 min The teacher gives students a letter Handout


and they read it individually before Individually 1
discussing the content and the In pairs (Gateway
structure. Then, they answer the B1
questions and discuss different Students
features of an informal and friendly book -
letter: the sender, the address, how p27, ex. 1)
the date is written, etc.
174

7 min
The teacher elicits the ideas.
15 min Whole
The teacher divides the students group Handout
into four groups, gives them the 2
second letter and students read it Individually (Gateway
individually and then write an In pairs B1
answer. Two groups write a Workbook
positive reply and two groups write p35 ex. 1)
a negative reply. While students
are writing, the teacher draws two
squares on the board for positive Board
and negative replies. Students go to
the board one by one and write
individual lines of the letters, they
take into consideration the
suggestions made by other
students and the teacher. Then,
they discuss different ways of
writing the phrases and comment
on different ideas. The final
product is two different letters.

The teacher asks students to write


a letter to a friend for homework
answering: What happened to you
last week-end? And then they
assess it in several ways:

1. Does it answer the question?


2. Is it easy to understand?
3. Is it well organized?
4. Do I think the grammar is
correct?
5. Have I used varied vocabulary?
6. Have I used punctuation and
capital letters correctly?

18 min Reflection To reflect on the Whole


activity. group
The trainer asks the participants
the following questions:
1. How did you feel as
students? Why?
2. How did you feel as
teachers? Why?
The trainer divides the participants
into groups and gives them
175

handouts with jumbled steps of the To share ideas and Small


sample lesson. They put them in check the groups
order and write an aim (objective) understanding of the
of each stage. aspects introduced

The trainer and the participants


discuss the lesson. Whole
group
5 min Trainers experience To show that it is Whole
manageable and group
The trainer gives her/his own possible to design
experience of teaching how to collaborative writing
write letters through activities without
communication and introduces the additional materials,
results and benefits gained after only with the course
such experience. book.

The trainer mentions that the


activity was made only based on
the students book without any
additional material and asks which
other topics or lessons they can
adapt to make written tasks more
communicative.
5 min Reflection and assessment To analyze the benefits Individually Pieces of
of collaborative paper
The trainer asks the participants to activities.
look into their notes of the first For the trainer, to have
three questions and ask if anything contact with
would change after the sample participants and to
lesson. know what they are
taking from the session. Whole
The trainer asks the participants group
about their ideas of planning such
lesson. The trainer gives feedback
charts for participants to complete.
He/she also shares useful links to
use and her/his e-mail (she asks the
participants to contact her with any
question or idea theyd like to
share). Sharing your email is
optional.
176

References
Best practices in teaching writing. (2017, April 23). Retrieved from:
http://www.learner.org/workshops/middlewriting/images/pdf/HomeBestPrac.pdf

Harmer, J. (2004). How to teach writing. Harlow: Longman.

Spencer, D. (2011). Gateway. Oxford: Macmillan.


177

Handouts
Handout #1
Read the letter first individually. Then, discuss with you partner: the content, the structure. Is it formal or
informal? Who is the sender? How are the address and the date written?

6 Smithdown Road,

Oldham,

OL3 8 RG.

10th January 2011

Hi Billy,

Thank you for your letter. I thought about you yesterday. Do you remember when you lost your bag?
Well, yesterday I was walking home from school with two of my friends when we found a handbag in
the street. It looked new.

At first we didnt know what to do. Our first idea was to take it to the police but my friend Luke thought
we should open the bag to find out who it belonged to.

So I opened it. Inside there was a mobile phone and money, but no identification. I thought I recognized
the mobile phone but I wasnt sure.

Suddenly my mum appeared at the end of the road. She was looking for something. When she saw me
she ran up to me and said, What are you doing with my bag? I couldnt believe it it was my mums
new bag!!!

Write back soon and tell me all your news!

Love,

Josh.
178

Handout #2
Read the following letter and think about the answer in terms of positive and negative and formal and
informal responses.

July, 30

Marc,

Congratulations! Todays the big day, isnt it? Youre getting old. Listen, give me a call asap. Ive bought
you a small present (I havent got enough money to buy you a big present sorry). Id like to give you
the present today. When can I see you? Let me know.

Jenny.

PS Josh says Happy Birthday too!

Homework:

Write a letter to a friend. Describe what happened to you last weekend. Give marks (0-10) in several
positions:

1. It answers the question.


2. It is easy to understand.
3. It is well organized.
4. I think the grammar is correct.
5. I have used different words.
6. I have used punctuation and capital letters.
179

Handout #3
Stages of the lesson. Put the following steps in order and write an aim/purpose for each stage.

1. Eliciting the ideas about formal and informal letter types.___

2. Giving homework.___

3. Discussing the first letter in pairs.___

4. Reading the first letter individually.___

5. Writing Yes/No letters on the board.___

6. Reading the second letter.___

7. Making suggestions, discussing different ways of writing the phrases, commenting on the

different ideas.___
180

How to Teach Students to Write Indirect Questions in Formal Letters


Mari Kurashvili

Writing indirect questions is a grammatical skill that students oftentimes find challenging. During this
workshop session, participants will experience sample activities and discover new strategies for
making this skill more accessible for their language learners.

Session How to teach students to write indirect questions in formal letters (14-15 olds)
title

Time 60 min

Session By the end of this session, participants will become aware of how to help students write
objectives indirect questions in formal letters and how to incorporate them in their teaching.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
7 min. Awareness activity To make the TT-Ts Video clip
participants Ts-TT Board
*The trainer greets the participants and aware of the Flipchart
shows them a video clip. The trainer asks topic.
the participants if their students write
formal letters and which speech is used
in the letter (indirect speech). The trainer
asks the participants if they can guess the
topic of the session and writes it on the
board. The trainer tells them the aim and
gives participants questions to discuss:

Do your students like to write


formal letters? Why? Why not?
How do you engage them?

The trainer asks the participants to write


their answers on a piece of paper.

5 min. Generating ideas Promote creative TT-Ts


thinking and Ss-Ss
*The trainer asks the participants to generate ideas Ss-Tt
change their roles to student ones and for later.
then asks the participants to think of a
person who might ask them a question (it
can be a police officer, a doctor, a taxi
181

driver, a mother). The trainer gives the


participants some time (2 minutes) to
write down one sentence and
participants should tell their partner
what their imaginary person asked. The
model sentence is: This person would
like to know... Partners should guess
who asked the sentence and tell the
group their sentence using the whole
model. E.g. The teacher would like to
know why she didnt know the lesson.

3 min. Checking understanding Check their TT-Ss


understanding Ss-TT
*The trainer asks CCQs to lead the
participants to the topic and shows a
model sentence herself/himself.

5 min. Preparing for writing Prepare Ss-Ss. Ss-Tt A piece of


participants for paper
*Participants write down sentences and writing
tell their partners what their imaginary
people asked them. The partner
demonstrates the full sentence (pair
work).

5 min. Introducing key concepts To introduce key TT-Ss Board


aspects of Ss-Tt and
*The trainer writes the sentences on the indirect speech marker
board and asks the participants what kind
of speech is used in the sentences. Handout
Trainer shows them the Power Point A
presentation of indirect speech.
1. A question word at the start
2. No verb before the subject
3. Inability to stand alone as a sentence
(replaceable by a noun)
4. A full stop at the end (not a question
mark)

5 min. Preparing for writing Prepare the TT-Ss Handout


participants for Ss-TT B
*The trainer divides the participants into writing
groups, distributes some questions and Handout
asks them to identify one mistake in each C
182

question. Then she/he distributes a text


and asks the participants to check if they
were right.

10-15 Practice activity Participants T-Ss Ss-T Handout


min. practice how to D
* The trainer distributes to the use indirect
participants an advertisement and asks questions in
them to write a formal letter with the formal letters
help of the questions given in the text
(group work).

Volunteers read out their letters.


20 min. Wrap-up and reflection To demonstrate TT-Ts Board
the Ts-TT
*The participants change their roles understanding of
again and the trainer asks them the teaching
questions for reflection: process
1. How do you feel?
2. How could it be done differently?
3. What kind of speech would this activity
encourage?
4. How would you adapt this activity for
your own teaching context?
The participants write their answers in
the handouts given by the trainer. Then
they discuss their ideas in groups and
finally in the session.

References
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ns_Fxn-oz_E
183

Handouts

Handout A
Indirect Speech

1. A question word at the start.


2. No verb before the subject.
3. Inability to stand alone as a sentence (replaceable by a noun).
4. A full stop at the end, not a question mark.

Handout B
The examples below illustrate some polite question forms that you could use. Identify one mistake in
each question and check your answers:

1. I would like to know how much would an extra night cost if I arrived on Saturday and the course
started on Monday.

2. Id really appreciate it if could you tell me something about the teachers?

3. I would be pleased to know are meals also included in the price?

4. I cant find your exact location on google maps, so I would like to know how can I get to your
location in Derbyshire from Manchester airport.

5. I wonder what are the local attractions that I could visit during my stay.
184

Handout C

``

Dear Sir/Madam,

I am writing in order to get some more information about your summer arts course. It
sounds like a wonderful way of spending the summer from the description in the
advertisement I saw so Im really interested in knowing a bit more.

Firstly, to help me plan my trip, I would like to know know how much an extra two nights
would cost if I arrived on a Saturday and the course started on Monday? I have been doing a
bit of research on the Internet but I cannot find your exact location on google maps so I would
like to know how I can get to your location in Derbyshire from Manchester airport. For
example, are there buses or trains?

I know from your advert that accommodation is covered by the price so I would be pleased to
know if meals are also included in the price? If meals are not provided, I would like to
know if there is a kitchen on the site or a reasonably priced restaurant nearby. Please bear in
mind that I am a vegetarian.

Regarding the course itself, I have attended some painting classes before and found that the
best ones have teachers who really know their subject. I would really appreciate it if you
could tell me something about the teachers. Do they have a lot of experience and training?
In addition, would you mind telling me whether I need to bring materials like paintbrushes
and paints? I would not have much space in my luggage as I am planning on spending 3
months in the UK but I could bring a few things if I needed to.

Finally, I have not been able to find much information online about things to do in Derbyshire
so I wonder what the local attractions are that I could visit during my stay.

I think that is everything for now.

I look forward to receiving your reply. Many thanks in advance.

Yours faithfully,

M.
185

Handout D

Central School of England

Come and study English at our school!

Two week courses for all levels (Can I do a three-week course?)


Highly qualified experienced teachers
Reasonable prices (How much exactly?)
Accommodation with host families (With other students or on my own?)
Extensive social program

For further information contact Jane Black


jblack@centralschool.co.uk
186

How to Design Effective Written Feedback on Composition for Teens


Natia Shevardenidze

Effective written feedback is essential for students to improve their writing skills. During this
workshop session, participants will be able to identify and practice using key aspects when giving
students written feedback on their writing.

Session How to design effective written feedback on composition for teens


title

Time 60 min

Session By the end of the session, participants will:


objectives become aware of key aspects of effective written feedback
analyze specific examples of feedback and practice giving collaborative written
feedback
Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
3 min Getting participants interested! To raise T-Pts PPT
participants
The trainer projects a definition of motivation by
feedback on the PPT. Participants try to creating a
guess the topic of the session. mystery

3 min The trainer shows a picture of a writing PW


piece crossed out in red and has brief
discussion on negative aspects of this
kind of correction with the participants.

Participants are asked to share their


experience in giving feedback in pairs and
then share with the whole class.

4 min Activating prior knowledge and To meet Pts Handout


generating ideas participants A
where they are
The trainer gives a short sample piece of and activate their
writing and participants write short prior knowledge
comments the way they would normally
do it.

3 min The trainer asks participants to write 1-2 To generate T-Pts Sticky
aspects of good written feedback. Then, ideas about the notes
they share in small groups and create a topic Poster
list of aspects and present to the rest of
187

7 min the class a poster titled: Effective To make Pts feel Whole PPT
feedback should be their ideas are group
10 min Discussion based on participants ideas valued
about feedback and why each aspect is
important.

The trainer projects the list of aspects on


PPT and they compare it with their list
and add more as they find necessary.

The trainer introduces TAG:


T-ell something you like
A-sk a question
G-ive a positive suggestion

The trainer gives Nicols list of important


aspects and analyzes them one at a time.

The trainer leads a small competition in


which participants have to guess which
aspects are included in the assessment
chart.
7min Practice activities To share ideas Group work Handouts
and check B and C
The trainer divides participants in groups understanding of
and gives them examples of feedback. the aspects
First, they perform a matching task, in introduced
which they match the weaker version of a
piece of feedback to the more effective
version. Then, participants assess these
examples of feedback using the given
feedback assessment chart.

5min Participants come back to the feedback Practice giving Individual


they wrote in the beginning and try to collaborative work
change it based on what they have feedback
learned or reviewed in the workshop.

5min The whole group shares ideas about the PW/Whole


changes made. class

Trainers experience To share ideas Whole class


3min and show that it
The trainer gives his/her own experience is manageable
of doing written feedback on a regular despite having a
basis. busy schedule
188

Share a quote: No time for feedback


actually means no time to cause learning

5min Reflection To revisit the Individual Pieces of


main ideas writing paper
The trainer asks participants to draw a focused on in this Whole
cup of coffee on a piece of paper. workshop and group
personalize sharing
On the fume stripes, they write 3 things them.
they gained from this workshop, on the
left side of the cup 1 thing that is still left
ambiguous, and on the right side how
they might be able to manage giving
collaborative feedback regularly.

5min Share ideas with the whole group.

References
Brookhart, S. M. (2017). How to give effective feedback to your students. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Giving Effective Feedback. (2017, April 22). Retrieved from


https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/teachlearn/student/activity3_3.pdf

Harmer, J. (2004). How to teach writing. Harlow: Longman.

Nicol, D. (2017, April 22). Good designs for written feedback for students. Retrieved from
https://score.hva.nl/Bronnen/Nicol,%20Written%20feedback%20(2009).pdf

Wiggins, G. (2012). Seven keys to effective feedback. Feedback for Learning, 70(1), 10-16.

Writing Matter #2. (2017, April 22). Retrieved from http://manoa.hawaii.edu/mwp/program-


research/writing-matters/wm-2
189

Handouts

Handout A
The environment is one of the most important issues in the world, but governments aren`t
doing enough for it. Do you think that individuals can help to protect the environment?

Pollution of the enviroment is one of the most important problem in our lovely world, there
are many old cars which are poluiuting the air. so living and breathing on the earth is too becoming
difficult, i think people must be very sensitive about this problem.

At first I think we must take some dimensions , goverment should check cars and solve the
problems which they have if not they must be expluated, if they are too harmful for enviroment they must
be fixed or prohibit to use it. At second if they don't foresee this, goverment must heavy fine them.

There are some another ways to claim the problem, we must reduce polluting the air, the ways to do this
aren't simple but goverment should do everythings for it.

At the end, i think individuals can solve this sensitive problem but they can't do everything
without our support, we must think about the future.

Post you feedback here:

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
190

Handout B

Match the weaker version of feedback to the more effective ones.


Evaluate them using the feedback assessment form (handout C).

1. Look at the sample again. You haven't written a summary. It's not only incoherent but you
included your opinions as well. ----------

2. Your lit review is comprehensive. You brought in all the right studies (including a few I wasn't
aware of--thank you!). But the review is too long. You used too many quotations. --------------

3. I had trouble following your argument as I read your paper. It's not coherent. There aren't any
transitions between your ideas or clues about what you are trying to say. I didn't know what
your point was until I read the last paragraph. ----------------

A. A lot of this is pretty fuzzy and your logic gets tangled. But then I get to your final paragraph and
it's a good summary, and I think, YOU DO KNOW HOW TO WRITE CLEARLY! Would you want to
try that paragraph as your first paragraph? It could provide your reader with a neat outline of
what will come next (and provide you with an organizational plan).

B. In your second paragraph, you did a good job sticking to the main point plus key evidence,
something I hope to see more of in your next summary. In the other paragraphs, you
mixed in your personal opinions (I underlined opinions).

C. In psychology, we usually summarize research findings rather than quote from research reports.
In your revision, try to summarize what you quoted. Your lit review will only be half as long.

Reference: http://manoa.hawaii.edu/mwp/program-research/writing-matters/wm-2
191

Handout C
Written feedback assessment form (insert a tick if your answer is positive)

Feedback Understandable Specific Non-judgmental Balanced Forward-looking

Written feedback assessment form (insert a tick if your answer is positive)

Feedback Understandable Specific Non-judgmental Balanced Forward-looking

C
192

Teaching Creative Writing Using Short Videos


Nana Litvinenko

Creative writing can be supported through materials that are engaging for students as well as
learning strategies that complement these materials. In this session, Participants will experience a
short demonstration using a video and other strategies to support creative writing.

Session Teaching Creative Writing Using Short Videos


title

Time 60 minutes

Session Participants will experience a short demonstration of using short videos to support
objectives creative writing.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
5 min. Warm up: To break the ice. Trainer and
Continuous Storytelling Participants
Trainer asks a Participant to say a To engage in
sentence. The next person should creative thinking.
continue with another sentence as if it
were a story. The whole class creates one
big story.
Trainer tells Participants that in this
session they will explore creative writing
using a video as well as other supporting
techniques.
Trainer tells Participants they will
experience the next part of the lesson as
students.
5-10 min. Trainer shows Participants her hand and To prepare for Trainer - Projector
tells them they will do five-finger writing. participants
retelling. Trainer tells Participants what Laptop
each finger means (and writes it on the Pair Work
board: character, setting, problem,
events, solution.)
Trainer tells Participants they will watch a
video and they will retell it to their
partner using the five-finger retelling.

Watch the video The Piano.


5-10 min. After the video, Participants are asked to To engage in Trainer - Handouts
create the story through the perspective creative thinking. participants and
of an old man. projector
193

Trainer asks Participants to discuss with a


partner the details of what they saw in
the video, thinking of the five senses:
-what did you see?
-what could you hear?
-what could be felt in the video?

Participants share and use this


information to fill out Handout 1.
15 min. Participants exchange stories with a To share writing. Trainer - Paper
partner. They have time to make any participants and pen
changes they would like to make after
they receive feedback from their
partners. Participants display their
writing around the wall and do a Gallery
Walk. They draw a smile on the writing
they liked most.
15 min. Trainer tells Participants they will now To reflect on the Trainer - Paper
continue the session no longer as session. participants and pen
students but teachers.
To analyse what
Participants will be grouped according to would work in
the five senses and discuss the following their own
questions in their groups. classroom.

How did it feel to be a student in the


lesson?
What did you find most interesting
about this activity?
What was the most frustrating or
difficult part about this activity?
Would you do this with your
students? How would you do it
differently?

Link to video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0uHCMt3wm04
194

Teaching Creative Writing


Khatuna Khvedelidze

Making writing relevant for students is a challenge many English teachers face. In this session,
Participants will explore strategies to make writing relevant for students by tapping
into creative writing.

Session Teaching Creative Writing


title

Time 60 minutes

Session By the end of the session Participants will have experienced and reflected on a model
objectives strategy to approach paragraph writing.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
10 min. Trainer greets Participants. Trainer writes To introduce Trainer- Board
two scrambled words on the board: the topic. Participants
avicerteand tiwnigr.
Trainer asks Participants to guess the Pair work
topic of the session.

Trainer asks Participants to discuss the


following question with a partner:

-How important do you think creative


writing is for your students? Why?

Trainer elicits responses from pairs.


Trainer writes notes on the board.
10 min. The trainer gives participants strips of To meet the Trainer- Handout 1
paper to put the stages of the writing teachers where Participants
process in the correct order. they are. Handout 2
Trainer elicits the correct order.
Trainer discusses the story writing stages Group-work
and suggests some advice for creative
writing. Trainer speaks about the
importance of using figurative language
expressions during such kind of writing.
Participants read a short text to find out
some of figurative expressions there.
10 min. Trainer tells Participants that they will To prepare for Individual Handout 3
experience the next part of the session as writing. Group work
learners.
195

Trainer asks Participants to think about


the most exciting event in their lives and
to write the following:
-3 adjectives describing their feelings,
-3 verbs
-3 words associated to the event. (place,
person, object).
Participants share it with their group
members

Optional: Participants could also make a


mind map with their ideas.
10 min. Trainer models writing using the ideas To write their Individual Handout 4
from the previous activity. Trainer asks own paragraph.
Participants to do the same and provides
a stem sentence to start writing.
Participants listen to a piece of music and
make up their own stories.
8 min. After they finish, Trainer asks Participants To edit their Pair-work
to exchange papers and proofread their writing.
paragraphs for verb tenses. Participants
have some time to rewrite their
paragraph but do not finish.
12 min. Trainer tells Participants they will now To review Individual
participate as teachers and will discuss material from
the following: the session. Pair-work

-How did you feel while doing these Group work


activities?
-What did the Trainer do that you think
helped in the process of writing your
story?
-What strategy used today would you
take back to your classroom? How would
you adapt it?

Trainer asks Participants to share with a


partner.
Trainer elicits responses from the group.

References
Scrivener, J. (2005) Learning Teaching. MacMillan

Harmer, J. (2004) How to Teach Writing. Pearson Education ESL


196

Handouts
Handout #1
Stages of the Writing Process

Match the stages of the writing process with their definitions.

Using your plan & ideas to write a rough first


Pre-writing
version

Presenting the piece of writing to the readers


Draft

Checking, making alterations and re-writing


Editing

Generating ideas and planning what to write


Publishing
197

Handout #2
Look at the following writing sub-skills and match each one to a stage of the writing process.

Planning evaluation brainstorming re-ordering

structuring mind-mapping revising Planning out the paragraphs

forming opinions restructuring putting ideas into sentences Revising

Selecting/rejecting ideas presenting finished piece focusing on grammar and vocabulary

Process writing stages Sub-skills

Pre-writing

Drafting

Editing

Publishing
198

Figurative Expressions- Figures of Speech

Hyperbole is an extreme exaggeration used to make a point.


Ex.
It was so cold I saw polar bears wearing jackets.
I am so hungry I could eat a horse.
If I can't get a Smartphone, I will die.
She is as thin as a toothpick.
This car goes faster than the speed of light.
My mom works her fingers to the bone.

Metaphor is a figure of speech which makes an implicit, implied or hidden comparison between two
things that are unrelated but share some common characteristics.

The detective listened to her tales with a wooden face.


She was fairly certain that life was a fashion show.
Anger bottled up inside
Kisses are the flowers of love in bloom.
His cotton candy words did not appeal to her taste.
Her eyes were fireflies.
Raining cats and dogs

Simile is a figure of speech in which two unlike things are explicitly compared.

As American as apple pie.


As big as an elephant.
As black as coal.
As blind as a bat.
As boring as watching paint dry.
As brave as a lion.
As bright as a button.

Underline examples of figurative language in the text below.

A short, thin man was standing in front of a big box. He was skinny enough to jump through a keyhole. His
big eyes were popping out and his mouth was full of saliva. He was thinking, This is my catch! I will no
longer be hungry, skinny and weak.
Suddenly a large woman appeared from nowhere. She lifted the heavy box as if it were empty, and ran
away with it as fast as the wind. The man was frozen like a statue and before he could say anything, two
policemen came running up behind him and asked, Have you seen a big box anywhere?
He looked at the policemen with speechless eyes and then turned around again, but the woman and the
box had disappeared.
199

Handout #3 (Optional Mindmap)


200

Handout #4

Write your story in the space provided below.

___________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________.
201

Grammar
202

Reviewing and Practicing Grammar for Different Levels of Students


Babulia Kenchuashvili

Teaching grammar is a challenge. Students need to use grammar structures in different kinds of
meaningful contexts to acquire and be confident in using them. In this session, teachers will take on
the roles of students, practice some of the grammar structures for different levels of students and see
how effective they are for their classrooms. Finally, they will analyze their effectiveness for
their teaching context.

Session Reviewing and practicing grammar for different levels of students


title

Time 60 minutes

Session By the end of the session, participants will have participated as students in three
objectives different grammar activities and have analyzed how effective thy can be for reviewing 2nd
conditional, present perfect and present continuous forms in their own teaching
contexts.
Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
7-10 min Getting started and generating ideas Generating Pair work Board
ideas and PowerPoint
Introduce the session topic creating Presentation
Using PowerPoint ask the interest in
participants why teaching grammar the topic
can be a challenge.
Participants discuss in threes, then Slide 2
share their ideas and compare them
with the ones given on the slide.
Lead-in: write on the board: Slide 3
Teaching grammar is important
because and ask participants to
write the ending of the sentence.
Share ideas.
Tell participants they are going to
practice some of the grammar
structures as students and see how
effective they can be in their
classrooms.
10 min Experiential activity #1 To Group Pieces of
experience work paper
Camel Riders the content Pens
from the
1) Divide students into groups of three. Two learners
of them are camel riders, one is the Judge. perspective
203

Camel riders are riding camels and


describing everything they see, feel, hear, or Practice in
smell (using complex object). They should using
say as many correct sentences as possible in complex
the time allocated. The Judge decides who object
says the most correct sentences and names
the winner.

E.g. Rider one: I see young children playing Slide 4 and 5


in the sand. I feel the wind blowing. I hear a
small child calling her mum, etc. The same
kind of sentences are made up by the
second rider.

Time allocated for each rider 1 min.

2) Reconstruct the steps of the activity on


the board.

3) Show reflection questions. Ask to discuss Slide 6


in pairs and share with the class.

Experiential activity #2
Providing Pair work
15 min Changing Three Real Things practice in
using Present Slide 5
1) Review some of the active vocabulary (I Continuous
think you are wearing, As far as I can and Present
remember, I have forgotten that, etc.) Perfect)

2) Students stand back-to-back in pairs.


They describe each other using Present
Continuous and do not make any comments
while they are being described. (E.g. I think
you are wearing a blue jacket, earrings, a
watch, etc.)
Then they turn around and look at each
other (Oh, I was wrong you are wearing a
white blouse, a bracelet, black jeans, etc.)

3) They stand back-to-back again and


change three things.

4) Then they look at each other again and


say the changes they notice using Present
Perfect (e.g. Oh, I see. You have taken off
your watch, and put on your glasses, etc.)
204

5) Reconstruct the steps of the activity on


the board.

6) The trainer shows reflection questions. Slide 6


Ask to discuss in pairs and share with the
class.

Experiential activity #3 .
Practice in Pair work HOs for
10 min Dream Shop using Second each
Conditional participant
1) Before the activity ask students one or
two simple questions using Second
Conditional: e.g. What would you do if you
could choose your profession? Where would
you go if you had a chance?

2) Put students into pairs. Give out a


handout to every student. It is a list of the
items sold in the shop. Students look
through the lists, choose three items from
the list and put ticks on them (I have chosen
A Magic Mirror, A Magic Ring and Good Luck
at Exams). Then, they say how they would
use these magic things (If I had a Magic
Mirror, I would see what is happening in my
friends house, If I had a magic ring I
would., etc.).

3) Write sample answers from the students


on the board. Students who are struggling Additional
get pieces of paper with the beginning of HOs for slow
the sentence to finish e.g. If I had a magic students
mirror I , if I had a lot of money, I . with the
beginnings
4) Students share their partners ideas with of sentences
the class using 3rd person singular. to finish

5) Reconstruct the steps of the activity on


the board.

6) Show reflection questions. Ask Slide 6


participants to discuss in pairs and share
with the class.
205

Reflection questions

Participants discuss in groups of three the Reflection


15 min following questions: questions
How did you feel in the roles of on slide 6
students?
Do you think your students will
benefit from the activity? If yes, in
what way?
If no, why?
What would you do in a different
way?
What is it that does not fit your
classroom?

The trainer asks 3-5 participants to share


their final thoughts about their discussion.

References
Kuprashvili, V, Chkonia, M, Kobakhidze, S, Tkavashvili, E. (1999). Lets Communicate in the Classroom.
Tbilisi, Volume 1.
206

Handouts
207

Sentence starters for students who are struggling

If I had a magic medicine, I .

If I had robot Liza, I .

If I had a magic note-book, I

If I had a good luck at exams, I .

If I had a lot of money, I

If I had a magic TV, I .

If I had a well-paid job, I


208

Reviewing and Practicing Prepositions of Position with Young Learners


Babulia Kenchuashvili

Too often, grammar activities are left on the textbook page when the content is much better suited for
kinesthetic, tactile or auditory methods of introduction and practice. In this workshop, participants
will engage in four activities that engage the learners in reviewing and practicing prepositions of
place; these activities will take advantage of the natural context provided by the target grammar to
get the students moving around the classroom and doing pair work that should provide greater
cognitive depth to the learning

Session title Reviewing and Practicing Prepositions of Position with Young Learners

Time 60 min

Session By the end of the session participants will have participated as students in different
objectives activities and have analyzed them for effectiveness in their own teaching context.

Time Procedure Aim of the Interaction Materials


activity
5 min Greeting To activate T-Ss None
Simon Says giving instructions schema and
using prepositions. provide a sense
of fun to begin
the session
7 min T asks how many of the participants teach To introduce the Pair work Board
young learners. topic and
Think-Pair-Share (TPS) about what brainstorm
techniques they use for reviewing teaching ideas
prepositions with young learners.
5 min Experiential Activity #1: Memory Game To experience an T-Ss Realia: toys
engaging and
T puts different objects in different grammar review classroom
objects
places in the room. activity
T asks the Ps to have a good look at
them and try to remember where they
are.
T asks the Ps to close their eyes,
visualize where the things are and
answer the questions. (Where is ..?
What is between .? What is next to ...
etc.) To generate a
Ps reconstruct the activity written record of
the activity
209

6-7 Experiential Activity #2: Running and Placing To experience an Realia: toys
min engaging and
T puts objects in different places. grammar review classroom
objects
Class is divided into two groups. activity
Members of each group have to follow
the trainers instructions to find the
object and put it in the assigned place.

Ps reconstruct the activity To generate a


written record of
the activity
5-6 Experiential Activity #3: Train Game
min
T selects three Ps to be Train leaders To experience an Ss-Ss Flashcards
Each leader receives a set of flash cards. engaging
The leaders circulate about the grammar review
classroom collecting passengers for their activity
train.
The leaders ask their Ps where the
object is placed. If the answer is correct,
the P joins the trains.
The longest train wins.

Ps reconstruct the activity.


To generate a
written record of
the activity
10 Experiential Activity #4: Reading and
min Checking
Pair work HOs
T distributes texts to Ps (A and B) To experience an
Ps read and circle the correct engaging
preposition. grammar review
Ps read and underline the incorrect use activity
of preposition.
Ps exchange their texts and check for
the correctness (If a preposition is
correctly used, they put a, if it is used
incorrectly, put an .)
Ps compare in pairs.
210

Trainer reads the correct variants.


To generate a
written record of
Ps reconstruct the activity.
the activity

20 Reflection questions Ss-Ss Board


min The trainer asks participants the following
reflective questions using the ELC about the To look at the
session and participants contribute to the activities from
whole group discussion. the student and
teachers
Feelings: How did you feel in the roles of perspective
students? How do your Ss normally feel
when doing grammar review?

Description and Analysis: Look back at the


steps of the activities as they were
reconstructed earlier: What made these
activities engaging?
To reflect on
T boards the Ps ideas on the conditions that their learning
create engagement in grammar practice from different
activities. T then elicits any further ideas the perspectives.
Ps may have on this.

Analysis: Do you think your students will


benefit from the activities? In what way?
What challenges would you have in
implementing these?

Action plan: Thinking of your own


To brainstorm
classroom, how could you adapt these ideas
ways of adapting
to fit with the content you are currently
the content of
teaching?
this workshop to
With a partner, come up with two other
the Ps own
language patterns that would benefit from
contexts
being taught using more kinesthetic, tactile
or auditory methods.
211

Experiential Activity #4: Reading and Checking


Text 1
212

Text 2
213

Teaching Grammar through Songs


Ketevan Ghvania

Music is an amazing tool for engaging students and helping them identify and analyze different
grammatical structures. During this workshop session, participants will have an opportunity to
experience a sample lesson and discuss the benefits of using songs in the ESOL classroom for
learning grammar.

Session Teaching grammar through songs


title

Time 60 min.

Session By the end of the session, participants will be able to experience and discuss the benefits
objectives of teaching grammar through songs.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
5 min. Lead-in To raise Whole class
participants
The trainer projects an incomplete motivation
quote as the first slide of the
PowerPoint presentation.

The trainer creates groups of 3 by Small Photos


distributing photos cut up in 4 pieces. groups
They should find the right pieces that go
together and sit together.

Participants finish the following quote:


Grammar does not need to be
_______

Generating ideas To activate prior PPT


knowledge and
5 min. The trainer shows the following generate new Small
question on the PPT for participants to ideas groups
discuss in pairs or small groups:
How can songs be used to teach
grammar?

5 min. The trainer then shares with Whole


participants why he/she thinks it is group
214

helpful to use songs when teaching


5 min. grammar. Whole
group
The trainer asks participants to share
with the whole class their thoughts
about why they think songs might be
helpful for teaching grammar.
Sample lesson Experience a
sample lesson
25 min. The trainer asks participants to put on using a song to
student caps for the following sample teach grammar
song lesson: If you were a sailboat by
Katie Melua

Pre-listening task:

The teacher gives students a handout Pre-teaching Pair work Handout


with pictures for them to label. vocabulary with
pictures
During listening task:

Students listen to the song three times. To move from Individual


Each time they listen to the song, they general to work
try to complete one of the following specific listening Pair work
tasks. After listening and completing skills Whole class
each task, students check their answers
in pairs and then with the whole class.

1. Students listen for the first time and


answer these questions: What is the Strips of
song about? Do you like the song? Why? paper with
2. Students listen for a second time and pieces of
try to put pieces of the song in order the song
while listening to the song.
3. Students listen for a third time and fill Fill-in-the
in the blanks with the missing words. blanks
handout
Post listening task:
The teacher asks the students to discuss Exploring Small
in pairs or small groups the following grammar groups
questions: through the
What grammar structure is used in the song
song?
How is the 2nd conditional formed?
When do we use the 2nd conditional
form? (unreal/unlikely to happen in the
present or future)
215

The teacher writes the formula for the


second conditional on the board and
gives students a handout for them to Handout
match the sentences using second
conditional from the song.

Production task:
The teacher asks students in pairs to
create their own lyric lines on a poster Small
using the 2nd Conditional. groups or Poster
pairs paper
Students organise a gallery walk and
compare their lyrics.

10 min. Reflection Reflecting on the Pair work PPT


sample lesson
Participants work in pairs describing, for teaching
analyzing and reflecting on what grammar
happened in the sample lesson.

What did we do in this lesson?


What were the steps?
Was this a good way to
introduce the second
conditional? Why/why not?
What worked well? Why?
What did not work? Why?
What did you learn about using
songs to teach grammar?
Describe something you liked
from the session.
What helped/hindered your
learning in this lesson?
How could you adapt/change
things?

5 min. Wrap- up: Sharing key Individual Image of the


takeaways from work mirror
The trainer gives participants a picture the session
of a mirror and they list key takeaways
from the session.
216

References

Harmer, J. (2013). The practice of English language teaching. Harlow: Longman.

https://en.islcollective.com/resources/printables/worksheets_doc_docx/if_you_were_a_sailboat_-
_katie_melua/conditionals

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8hOwLap5Je8 (Link to the song: If you were a sailboat by Katie


Melua)
217

Handouts

If You Were a Sailboat by Katie Melua

Activity #1: Label pictures


218

If You Were a Sailboat by Katie Melua


Fill in the blanks

If you were a ---------, I would trail you


If you were a piece of --------, Id nail you to the floor
If you were a ---------, I would sail you to the shore
If you were a -------, I would swim you
If you were a house, I-------- live in you all my days
If you ------- a preacher, Id begin to change my ways

Sometimes I believe in fate


but the chances we create
always seem to ring more true
you took a chance on loving me
I took a chance on loving you

---- I was in jail I know youd spring me


If I -------- a telephone you------- ring me all day long
If I was in pain I know youd sing me soothing songs

Sometimes I believe in fate


but the chances we create
always seem to ring more true
you took a chance on loving me
I took a chance on loving you

If I ------ hungry you ----------- feed me


if I was in ------- you would lead me to the light
If I was a book I know you -------- read me every night

If you ------ a cowboy, I -------- trail you


If you were a piece of wood Id nail you to the floor

If you were a -------- I would sail you to the shore.


219

Focus on Grammar
Match the beginnings to the ends of the sentences

1. If you were a cowboy A. I would swim you.


2. If you were a piece of wood B. I know youd spring me.
3. If you were a sailboat C. You would lead me to the light.
4. If you were a river D. Youd sing me soothing songs.
5. If you were a house E. Youd read me every night.
6. If you were a preacher F. I would sail you to the shore.
7. If I was in jail G. I would live in you all my days.
8. If I was a telephone H. you would lead me to the light
9. If I was in pain I. Youd feed me.
10. If I was hungry J. Youd ring me all day long.
11. If I was in darkness K. Id nail you to the floor.
12. If I was a book M. I would trail you.

2nd Conditional Practice


Fill in the gaps with the correct verb forms

If I ____ in jail I know you____ spring me


If I ____ a telephone you ____ring me all day long
If I ____ in pain I know you____ sing me soothing songs
If you _____a cowboy I _____ trail you
If you ______a piece of wood I____ nail you to the floor
220

Your own Lyrics!

Write your own lyric lines:

e.g. If you were a mountain I would climb you.

If you

If you.

If I.

I If I.

If we.
221

Katie Melua Lyrics If You Were a Sailboat

If you were a cowboy, I would trail you


If you were a piece of wood, Id nail you to the floor
If you were a sailboat, I would sail you to the shore
If you were a river, I would swim you
If you were a house, I would live in you all my days
If you were a preacher, Id begin to change my ways

Sometimes I believe in fate


but the chances we create
always seem to ring more true
you took a chance on loving me
I took a chance on loving you

If I was in jail I know youd spring me


If I were a telephone youd ring me all day long
If I was in pain I know youd sing me soothing songs

Sometimes I believe in fate


but the chances we create
always seem to ring more true
you took a chance on loving me
I took a chance on loving you

If I was hungry you would feed me


if I was in darkness you would lead me to the light
If I was a book I know youd read me every night

If you were a cowboy I would trail you


If you were a piece of wood Id nail you to the floor
If you were a sailboat I would sail you to the shore
If you were a sailboat I would sail you to the shore
222

Lets Reflect on the Session!

Describe what happened in the lesson. What were the steps?

Was this a good way to introduce the second conditional? Why or why not?

What worked well? What did not work?

What did you learn about using songs to teach grammar?

Describe one particular thing you liked from the session.

What helped/hindered your learning while learning (as students)?

How could you adapt/change things?


223

List Key Takeaways from this Session!


224

Benefits of Teaching Grammar through Songs

Songs can motivate students to be engaged in grammar practice.

Songs provide authentic language models and vocabulary.

Songs provide multiple encounters with the target structure in a natural way (students
can experience a wide range of accents).

The repetitive quality of songs will help students memorize the pattern more quickly.

Songs are easily obtainable.

Song lyrics can be used in relating to situations around us.

Benefits of Teaching Grammar through Songs

Songs can motivate students to be engaged in grammar practice.

Songs provide authentic language models and vocabulary.

Songs provide multiple encounters with the target structure in a natural way (students
can experience a wide range of accents).

The repetitive quality of songs will help students memorize the pattern more quickly.

Songs are easily obtainable.

Song lyrics can be used in relating to situations around us.


225

Internet resources for teaching grammar!

www.tefltunes.com/grammarsongs
www.esolcourses.com/topics/learn-englishwithsongs
www.languagebysongs.eu/doc.
www.eslsongsforadults
www.songsforteachenglishgrammar

Internet resources for teaching grammar!

www.tefltunes.com/grammarsongs
www.esolcourses.com/topics/learn-englishwithsongs
Error! Hyperlink reference not valid.
www.languagebysongs.eu/doc.
www.eslsongsforadults
www.songsforteachenglishgrammar

Internet resources for teaching grammar!

www.tefltunes.com/grammarsongs
www.esolcourses.com/topics/learn-englishwithsongs
Error! Hyperlink reference not valid.
www.languagebysongs.eu/doc.
www.eslsongsforadults
www.songsforteachenglishgrammar

Internet resources for teaching grammar!

www.tefltunes.com/grammarsongs
www.esolcourses.com/topics/learn-englishwithsongs
Error! Hyperlink reference not valid.
www.languagebysongs.eu/doc.
www.eslsongsforadults
www.songsforteachenglishgrammar
226

Teaching Grammar through Games


Maia Teliashvili

Games are amazing resources for engaging students and helping them identify and analyze
grammatical structures. During this workshop session, participants will have an opportunity to
experience and reflect on a sample lesson and discuss the benefits of using games in the ESOL
classroom for the purpose of learning grammar.

Session title Teaching Grammar through Games

Time 60 minutes

Session By the end of the session, participants will be able to experience, analyze and reflect
objectives on a variety of games for the purpose of teaching grammar.

Session outline

Time Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
7 min Warm-up Get to Trainer- Pieces of
know the participants paper
Trainer draws several images connected to her/his participants
life on a piece of paper (e.g. two children, school, and break Pencils
sea) and asks participants to guess how these the ice.
images are connected to her/him by asking general
questions. Then she/he asks trainees to draw
things themselves, walk around the room and ask
each other questions and find out as much
information about each other as they can. In the
end trainees, share what they learned about each
others interests with the whole group.

7 min Generating ideas To Pairs Handout


brainstorm #1
Trainer distributes handout #1 with the questions and have an PPT
about the benefits and challenges of grammar idea about
games and asks participants to think and speak in the
pairs (Socratic Questioning). They discuss in pairs importance
the following questions: of grammar
games.
1. What might be some benefits of using
games for teaching grammar?
2. How can grammar games contribute to
learning?
3. What skills (fluency, accuracy, etc.) do they
help students improve?
227

4. What are the challenges of grammar


games?
5. What grammar games do you use?

Afterwards, the trainer briefly reviews advantages


and disadvantages of grammar games, tips, and
when to use grammar games.

1 min Student caps on To


experience
The trainer asks participants to put on their student the content
hands and to play the role of students for the as learners.
following section of the session.

10 Game #1: Pass the box! To practice The whole A box


min any class with
Students sit in a circle. The teacher has a box with grammar pictures
some pictures in it. She/he gives it to the first topic (e.g.
student and plays the music. Students pass around present A phone
the box. The teacher stops playing the music. The continuous) for
student who is holding the box opens it, takes out . playing
one picture, shows it to others and describes it. music
Students should use present continuous to
describe the pictures. Then, again the music plays
and students pass the box to each other. The game
continuous till all the pictures are described.

Game #2: Making up sentences To Small A board


10 experience groups
min The teacher writes about 20-25 verbs on the board. the
Each verb is worth points (e.g. study: 600 points, technique
wash: 300, watch: 800, etc.). The class is divided of
into groups of four or five. The first student throws practicing
the dice. After throwing the dice first time, the different
number on it shows the subject (1-I, 2-you, 3- grammar
he/she, 4-they, 5-his mother, 6-their friends) and points
by the second time throwing they know what kind through a
of sentence to make (1, 4-positive, 2, 5-question, points
3,6-negative). Students from group 1 choose the game (e.g.
verb themselves and make the sentence. If they present
make it correctly, they receive points. The teacher simple).
sums up the points the groups receive.

You can watch this game on:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_c_KhqRdHbk
&t=3s)
228

10 Game # 3: Tell me what I do To practice Whole class Pieces of


min present paper
The teacher sticks the pieces of paper with simple with
profession words on students backs. Students are interrogativ professio
supposed to walk in the room and ask one another e and n words
the questions to find out what their profession is. develop
E.g. Do I work in hospital? speaking
Do I teach children? And so on fluency

15 Teacher caps on To reflect Whole Flip chart


min on group Markers
The trainer asks participants to put back on their grammar Pair work
teacher caps to reflect on the session. activities
and analyze
Reflection different
ways of
Trainer divides participants into three groups. Each using them Handout
group is supposed to think and write a reflection on in the #2
one grammar activity. Each group is asked to classroom.
answer the following questions:
What is the aim of the activity?
How did you feel as a student?
What helped/hindered learning?
How can this activity be adapted?
At what stage can this activity be used
(presentation, practice, production)?
What other grammar topics can you teach
with this activity?

Participants put up their reflections on the wall


(gallery walk) in order to share their reflections Handout
with other groups. #3

At the end of the session, the trainer asks


participants to think and write three things that
they liked most of all about the session, two things
that they would change and do in a different way
and one recommendation for the trainer.
229

References

Advantages and disadvantages of GTM in TEFL. (April 25, 2017). Retrieved from:
http://www.ehow.com/info_8059435_advantages-disadvantages-gtm-tefl.html

Different methods of teaching grammar. (April 25, 2017). Retrieved from:


https://www.inklyo.com/methods-of-teaching-grammar/

Games for grammar. (April 25, 2017) Retrieved from:


https://cambodianwriter.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/english-cambridge-university-press-games-for-
grammar-practice.pdf

Grammar activity. (April 25, 2017). Retrieved from:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_c_KhqRdHbk&t=3s

Grammar games 1. (April 25, 2017). Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_kB-


OiIePGk&t=206s

Harmer, J., & Thornbury, S. (2011). How to teach grammar. Harlow: Pearson Longman.

How to teach grammar. (April 25, 2017). Retrieved from: https://blog.udemy.com/how-to-teach-


grammar/

How to teach grammar effectively. (April 25, 2017). Retrieved from:


http://www.myseveralworlds.com/2011/02/19/esl-educators-guide-teach-grammar-effectively/

Teaching grammar with games. (April 25, 2017) Retrieved from:


https://www.teachingenglishgames.com/Articles/Teaching_Grammar_with_Games_in_the_ESL_Classro
om.htm

Why use games in teaching English? (April 25, 2017) Retrieved from:
http://www.teflgames.com/why.html
230

Handouts

Handout # 1
TPS: Think, Pair, Share
Discuss the questions in pairs:

1. What might be some benefits of grammar games? How can grammar games contribute to
learning?

2. What skills (fluency, accuracy, etc.) do grammar games help students improve?

3. What are the challenges of using grammar games?

4. What grammar games do you use?


231

Handout #2

Game #1

Students sit in a circle. The teacher has got a box with some pictures in it. She/he gives it to the first
student and plays the music. Students pass around the box. The teacher stops playing the music. The
student who is holding the box at that moment opens it, takes out one picture and describes it. Students
should use present continuous to describe the pictures. Then again the music plays and students pass
the box to each other. The game continuous till all the pictures are described.

Please discuss these questions in groups:

What is the aim of the activity?

How did you feel as a student?

What helped learning?

What hindered learning?

How can this activity be adapted? What other grammar topics can you teach with this activity?
232

Game #2

The teacher writes about 20-25 verbs on the board. Each verb is worth points (e.g. study: 600 points,
wash: 300, watch: 800, etc.). The class is divided into groups of four or five. The first student throws the
dice. After throwing the dice first time, the number on it shows the subject (1-I, 2-you, 3-he/she, 4-they,
5-his mother, 6-their friends) and by the second time throwing they know what kind of sentence to
make (1, 4-positive, 2, 5-question, 3,6-negative). Students from group 1 choose the verb themselves and
make the sentence. If they make it correctly, they receive points. The teacher sums up the points the
groups receive.

Please discuss these questions in groups:

What is the aim of the activity?

How did you feel as a student?

What helped learning?

What hindered learning?

How can this activity be adapted? / What other grammar topics can you teach with this activity?
233

Game #3

The teacher sticks the slips of paper with profession words on students backs. Students walk around the
room, ask each other Yes/No questions (e.g. Do I work at a school?) and find out what their professions
are.

Please discuss these questions in groups:

What is the aim of the activity?

How did you feel as a student?

What helped learning?

What hindered learning?

How can this activity be adapted? / What other grammar topics can you teach with this activity?
234

Handout #3
Please think back over the training session, activities that were done, anything in general and take
notes:

Please write three things you liked most of all and might be able to use in your classroom:

Please write two things you would change and do in a different way. Why?

Please write one recommendation for the trainer.


235

Teaching and Learning Grammar with Fun-Tips for Effective Grammar Acquisition
Mariam Zakariashvili

Learning Grammar is fundamental for language learning, yet many teachers experience challenges
when teaching it. In this session, participants will have the opportunity to reflect on the challenges of
teaching grammar, think of ways to overcome those challenges and explore real activities that can
help make grammar teaching more interactive, meaningful and fun!

Session Teaching and Learning Grammar with Fun - Tips for Effective Grammar Acquisition
title

Time 60 min

Session
objectives Participants will explore and discuss grammar activities with a communicative focus.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
5-7 min Speed dating. Trainer asks Participants Warm-up & lead- Trainer- List of
to sit in two rows facing each other. in Participants questions
Trainer asks questions and Participants (Trainer)
answer it in a given amount of time. After
each question one row moves one seat
away. Participants now have new
partners.
Trainer asks participants to guess the
topic of the session and introduces the
aim and steps they will cover for the
following hour.

7 min Trainer divides Participants into two To meet where Group Sticky
groups and gives them colored, sticky teachers are work. notes,
notes. Trainer asks them to write 3 flipchart.
challenges that they and their students
have with grammar. (Note: with a bigger
number of participants, Participants can
write 2 challenges: one for students and
another one for teachers)
After 3 minutes, Trainer takes papers
from each group and swaps them. Trainer
asks Participants to write a solution they
suggest to those challenges. After 3
minutes, Trainer takes the papers and
sticks them on the flipchart.
236

Trainer tells the participants they will get


back the challenges they wrote (along
with their solutions) later.
(Anticipated challenges: using grammar
structures correctly while speaking,
mixed grammar tenses, make up
sentences, grammar rules, motivation,
etc.)
Trainer shows a list of tips and To share trainers Trainer- Board,
10 min suggestions that have proven (to experience. Participants paper,
Trainers experience) to help in the pens
teaching and learning of grammar. Pair work
Trainer shows teachers two photos of a Practice. Pair work Pictures
place; one is taken some years ago and To illustrate/
8 min the other at present. Trainer asks demonstrate the
Participants to think and say the changes tips and
they see in pairs. suggestions for
Trainer asks participants what grammar teaching
structures they used. Trainer asks grammar in a
Participants to think about the list they real activity.
read before and asks them to point out
aspects from the list that relate to the
activity.
3-5 min Trainer reads the challenges that To provide
participants wrote earlier, and makes answers to
connections to the tips and suggestions challenges
list.
Trainer divides Participants into three Teachers see Group work Flipcharts
groups and assigns speed dating, what they have
problem solving and two pictures done and how
15 min activities to each group. Trainer asks the can they use
groups to discuss and make the those
presentation on the flipchart according approaches.
the following questions:
1. What did you do (step by step)?
2. How did you feel?
3. What grammar points would you use
this activity for?
4. How will your students benefit from it?
5. How would you modify this activity?

After 5 minutes, one member from each


group will present.

3min Two stars and a wish Reflection Reflect on the Participants Handouts
Activity: content of the
session
237

Trainer distributes reflection papers.


Participants will write two important
things they found out during the session
and one wish/question they have or area
about which they want to know more
about.

2 min Evaluation

References

Harmer, J. (2015). The Practice of English Language Teaching. Pearson Education ESL.

Spenser, D.; MacMillan Education (producer). (2017) Grammar is Wanted - Dead or Alive [video
webinar]. Retrieved April 21, 2017 from http://www.macmillan.sk/seminare/94-webinar-david-
spencer/741-webinar-david-spencer-wanted-grammar-dead-or-alive

Thornbury, S. (2000). How to Teach Grammar. Pearson Education ESL.

www.Englishclub.com. Retrieved April 21, 2017

www.softschools.com. Retrieved April 21, 2017

www.usingenglish.com. Retrieved April 21, 2017


238

Handouts

Handout #1

Two Stars and a Wish

Two significant things from todays session and one aspect about which you would like to know
more.
239

Handout #2

Tips and Suggestions


1. Instead of saying, Now we are going to speak about Past Simple you can
say, Today we will learn about how to tell someone what happened
yesterday.

2. Use songs. (See separate handout, pgs. 1-2)

3. Find or design language practice games that will allow your learners to
practice the language while having fun. (See separate handout, pgs. 3-6)

Jeopardy
Bingo
Speed dating
Charades
Stop the bus
Grammar auction

4. Keep in mind the proportions and balance of input and output in your
lesson.

5. Explanations should be short, simple and clear.

6. Encourage students to work out the rules of a particular grammar point you
are teaching.

7. Review and recycle grammar points frequently so that learners get


adequate experience to the grammar points. This can be done through
online grammar quizzes.
240

Handout #3

I Still Havent Found What Im Looking For (by U2)


Write the Past Simple and Past Participle of each verb:

Be _________ _________ find _________ _________


believe _________ _________ hold _________ _________
break _________ _________ kiss _________ _________
burn _________ _________ loose _________ _________
carry _________ _________ run _________ _________
climb _________ _________ scale _________ _________
crawl _________ _________ speak _________ _________
feel _________ _________
241

Handout #4

Listen to the song and fill in the missing blanks.

I ______________ the highest mountains I ___________ with the tongue of angels


I __________________ through the fields I _______________ the hand of the devil
Only to be with you It was warm in the night
Only to be with you I was cold as a stone
I have run, I ______________________ But I still _____________
I ___________________ these city walls what I'm looking for
These city walls But I still _____________
Only to be with you what I'm looking for
But I still ____________ I believe in the Kingdom Come
what I'm looking for Then all the colors will bleed into one
But I still ____________ Bleed into one
what I'm looking for But yes ___________________________
I ______________________ honey lips You broke the bonds
_____________ the healing fingertips And you loosed the chains
It burned like fire Carried the cross and
This burning desire All my shame, all my shame
You know I ___________________ it
242

Handout #5
Carly Rae Jepsen Call Me Maybe
Complete the following chart.
infinitive Past simple participle gerund
hold
take
throw
come
blow
give
show
know
meet
miss
look

Fill in the blanks with the verbs from the previous exercise. Use Past Simple or Past Continuous
I (1).. a wish in the well, And this is crazy,
Don't ask me, I'll never tell But here's my number,
I (2) to you as it fell, So call me, maybe?
And now you're in my way
And all the other boys,
I'd trade my soul for a wish, Try to chase me,
Pennies and dimes for a kiss But here's my number,
I (3). for this, So call me, maybe?
But now you're in my way
You (8).. your time with the call,
Your stare (4).., I (8).. no time with the fall
Ripped jeans, skin (5).. You (9). me nothing at all,
Hot night, wind (6). But still, you're in my way
Where you think you're going, baby?
I beg, and borrow and steal
Hey, I just (7) you, Have foresight and it's real
And this is crazy, I (10). I would feel it,
But here's my number, But it's in my way
So call me, maybe?
Before you (11).. into my life
It's hard to look right, I (12).. you so bad
At you baby, I (12).. you so bad
But here's my number, I (12).. you so, so bad
So call me, maybe? Before you (11).. into my life
I (12) you so bad
Hey, I just met you, And you should know
243

Handout #6
Speed Dating

This activity is great way to start or end a lesson. It can be easily modified to any levels and any
grammar structure. It is a great activity to encourage speaking as well.

Ask your students to sit/stand in two rows facing each other, so they are in pairs.
Write a grammar structure on the board (e.g. I have ________, but I have never______; if
it_________ I will_________) and ask them to make up sentence and tell each other.
Students move one seat, so they have another partner. This is repeated so that they can
practice with various partners.

Conditional chain game

This game is good to revise and practice structures in the first conditional.

The teacher begins with a sentence.


Example: "If I go out tonight, I'll go to the cinema."
The next person in the circle must use the end of the previous sentence to begin their
own sentence, e.g. "If I go to the cinema, I'll watch The Last Samurai." The next person
could say, "If I watch The Last Samurai, I'll see Tom Cruise" etc.

Charades
This is a perfect activity for vocabulary review or for grammar.
Prepare slips of paper with some action verbs/ sentences written on them.
Divide class into two teams.
Explain that they have to act the verbs/ sentences out without speaking and the other
team has to guess, using the correct structure (this is the structure you chose for that
lesson).

Example sentences:

1. I was walking to class and saw a bird.


2. I was eating a banana and choked.
3. I was playing tennis and got hit by the ball
4. I was smelling a flower and got stung by a bee.
5. I was climbing a ladder and fell off.
244

Grammar Auction

This is a great activity not just for grammar but for reading classes as well.

Put the students into pairs or small groups and give each pair a sheet of sentences and their
money limit.
Ask the students to plan which sentences they are going to bid for.
Establish a fun, auction-like atmosphere.
After all the sentences are sold, get a class vote on which sentences are correct. Confirm the
answers.
Ask them to add up their money. Who has lost money on incorrect sentences?
Ask pairs to decide why the sentences are not correct.

Sample auction sheet:

1. I am living in Paris since 1998.


2. Has Pascal ever been to London?
3. Betty hasnt went to England yet.
4. Nobody in the class has been to America.
5. How long are you studying English?
6. I havent seen my cousin since a long time.
7. We have seen each other last summer.
8. When were you born?
9. Ive been born in 1987.
10. Ive never seen a film in English but Ive read a book.
11. Sallys lived in London for 10 years now.

Jeopardy
This is a great way either to practice one aspect or review different grammar points. It also
works really well with reading. For reading, questions should be prepared beforehand.
Divide the class into several groups;
Groups, one by one, choose a category and the point which leads to a question; if they
answer correctly they win the points which were assigned to that question.

Present simple Past simple Present continuous Past continuous Present perfect Past perfect

10 10 10 10 10 10

20 20 20 20 20 20
30 30 30 30 30 30
245

When did you last?


Activity from Stuart Wiffin, from www.teachingenglish.org.uk

Write up on the board: When did you last go to a restaurant? (or a similar question which best
suits the age and culture of your students, e. g. When did you last go the park? or When did
you last go to the cinema?).
Ask students what other questions you could ask about this event.
Build up a list of as many questions as you can on the board.

Which restaurant did you go to?


With whom did you go?
What did you eat?
Did you like it?
Did you have dessert?
What did you talk about?

Once you have a good number of questions on the board, group students into two or three and
ask them to ask and answer questions together.
Tell them they dont need to write anything as the aim of this activity is speaking practice.
Monitor as the students speak, but dont interrupt.
Focus on students use of the past simple and make a note of any problems or mistakes. As
students ask you for help with vocabulary and phrases write these up on the board in your
vocabulary section.
Bring students back together after about 10 minutes and go through any difficulties that you
picked up with the use and form of the past simple during monitoring.
Move students around to form new pairs or groups of threes and give each group another
When did you last? Question. Again you should choose these to suit your students but they
may include go to the cinema? go on holiday? go shopping? visit a relative?.
Give students a time limit, about 5 or 10 minutes, depending on how easily they can work with
the target language, and ask them to write as many questions as they can think of for the
situation theyve been given. The teacher moves round the groups helping and correcting the
questions. Make sure all students in the group write the questions as they will need them later.
Further semi-controlled speaking practice.
Change students into new groups and tell them to ask their questions and this time to write
down the answers. You can monitor and write up the vocabulary that students need.
246

Other Materials
247

Teaching Grammar Creatively Using PPU


Nino Khabazishvili

Learning grammar can be a challenging and difficult task for many language learners. Being able to
practice and learn grammar in a more creative and fun one can make the challenge more achievable
and enjoyable. During this workshop session, participants will experience and reflect on different PPU
activities for making grammar more communicative and creative.

Session Teaching grammar creatively using PPU


title

Time 60 minutes

Session By the end of the session, participants will become aware of developing, adapting and
objectives using PPU activities for making grammar more communicative and creative.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
2 min Greeting To greet the TT Ps
participants and
The trainer greets everyone and for the trainer to
introduces herself/himself to the introduce
participants. The trainer briefly talks himself/herself.
about her/his experience of TOTSI to
share the reason why he/she wants to
share this with her/his colleagues.

5 min Warm-up For participants TT Ps


to get to know Ts Ps
The trainer asks the participants to each other and
introduce each other in a pair-share to help them feel
activity. Say a name. relaxed and
motivated.

6 min Generating ideas To generate TT Ps


The trainer asks participants in pairs to ideas and Ts Ps
discuss the following questions: become
How did you learn grammar materials interested in the
when you were students? topic of the
How do you teach grammar now? session.
What are some basic problems?
What are some most effective ways of
teaching grammar in your practice?
What is PPU?
248

How often do you use PPU activities for


grammar?
Do you have any favourite ones?

The trainer also shares a little of her/his


experience about the topic briefly.

1 min Session topic and aim introduction For participants TTPs


to understand
The trainer presents the title and the aim the aim of the
of the session. session and
become them
aware of the
session
outcomes.

1 min Students caps on To experience TTTs


student learning.
The trainer asks participants to play
student roles (Grade 9) for the next
portion of the session.

4 min Warm-up To get students TSs


The teacher shows the pictures of people engaged in the SsSs
doing some activities and asks students topic of the
to talk about the picture. lesson.
What do you see? What do you think? Is
there anything unusual? Do you know
anyone like that? How do you feel when
you look at these pictures?

Students share their thoughts with the


whole class.

The trainer asks participants to talk about


the following questions:
What will I do when I am old? Where will
I live? What will I have? What kind of
person will I be?
The trainer gives the model: when I am
old I will

Students share their thoughts in pairs and


then with the whole class.
249

8 min. Presenting a poem To help students SsSts Handout


identify how T -> Sts #1
The teacher gives the scrambled poems are used
sentences/lines of the poem to the with will/present
students. Students work in pairs and try time after when.
to match the sentences.
The teacher asks them to arrange the
sentences to make a poem and asks to
share the poem with the class.
The teacher introduces the poem/gives
students a poem on sheets of paper to
compare and rearrange the lines.
Students then peer-check and
one or two volunteers read the poem
aloud.

8 min. Practicing To use grammar SsSs Handout


in a real-life like T -> Sts #2
situation.
The teacher gives useful language to
students to make up their own sentences To encourage
about themselves. For example, when I students to
am old/ when I turn seventy/ when I practice
grow old I will definitely I probably grammar.
wont.

The teacher encourages students to be


creative and funny. She/he models one
example for them.

Students make up their own sentences


and stick them on the board

Students have a gallery walk and read the


sentences before sharing with the whole
class.
8 min. Writing a poem To encourage SsSs
students to use T -> Sts
The teacher asks students to make up grammar more
their own poem. naturally.

Students work and share the poem with To develop


their partners and then they read the student
poems aloud. imagination and
creativity
250

1 min. Teacher caps on! To look at the TT Ts


lesson from the
The trainer asks the participants to put teachers
the teacher hats back on for the rest of perspective.
the session.

9 min. Reflection To reflect on TTTs


their learning TsTT
The trainer asks the participants from different
questions about the session and perspectives.
participants contribute as much as they
can.

Questions are according to the


Experiential Learning Circle:

Feelings: How did you feel as students?

Description: Describe one specific


moment that caught your attention.
Imagine you were looking through the
lens of a camera. What happened?

Analysis: What helped and hindered you


while learning?

Generalization: What is one realization


you had during this session?

Action plan: How might you adapt or


change what we did today to better serve
your learners?

The trainer asks 2-3 participants to share


some of their thoughts and shares
her/his own experience.

The trainer gives participants additional


resources of grammar games.
251

4 min. Wrap-up Having listened Ts Ts Small


to their sheets of
The participants are asked to write at colleagues ideas, paper
least one benefit of games for teaching participants now
grammar on a small sheet of paper and have a gallery Sticky
to stick it on the board. walk and share tape
their most
important ideas
with each other.

References
Harmer, J., & Thornbury, S. (2011). How to teach grammar. Harlow: Pearson Longman.

Teaching grammar. (2017, April 26). Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y-


bib16PF20&feature=youtu.be
252

Handouts

Handout #1

The poem is adapted and shortened.

Poem

When I am old, I will wear purple

And a red hat that definitely wont go and probably wont suit me

And I will spent my pension on brandy and summer gloves and candles

And I will say I might have some money for designer clothes

When I get 70 I will sit down on the pavement when I feel tired

And I will press the alarm bells

When I grow old I will go in slippers in the rain

And pick the flowers in other peoples garden

And I will probably learn to spit

Poem

When I am old,--------------------------------------------------- I will wear purple

And a red hat that definitely wont go ----------------------and probably wont suit me

And I will spent my pension on brandy --------------------and summer gloves and candles

And I will say I might spend some money --------------on designer clothes

When I get 70 I will --------------------------------------------sit down on the pavement when I feel tired

And I will press-------------------------------------------------- the alarm bells

When I grow old I will go --------------------------------------in slippers in the rain

And pick the flowers --------------------------------------------in other peoples garden

And I will probably----------------------------------------------- learn to spit


253

Handout #2

When I am old

I probably will.

I probably wont.

I will definitely

I definitely wont

Ill

I might.

I might not.
254

Teaching Modal Verbs through Various Kinds of Activities


Khatuna Khvedelidze

Grammar exercises for modals can be dull and hard to find, but fear not! In this session, participants
will have the chance to explore communicative activities that will get students to practice modals in a
fun and interactive way.

Session Teaching Modal Verbs through Various Kinds of Activities


title

Time 60 min.

Session By the end of the session participants will have experienced different communicative
objectives activities to practice modal verbs in their lessons.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the activity Interaction Material

4 min. Lead-in To get Participants Trainer-


to know each other Participants
Trainer greets Participants and
introduces the topic of the session. To help Individual
Trainer asks each participant to share Participants feel work
her/his name, one thing she/he can do relaxed and
and one thing she/he cant do. engaged Pair work

(Optional: If the number of Participants To make the


is big, they can do this activity with a Participants aware
partner.) of the topic.
8 min. Trainer shares about her personal To activate prior Trainer-
experience of teaching grammar and knowledge and Participants
why teaching modals in a contextualize the
communicative way is important. topic.
Trainer also asks Participants to share
their experience. Trainer asks the
following question:

-Which of these approaches are you


and your students more comfortable
with: learning grammar through rules,
or practicing grammar through
classroom activities? Why?

8 min. Trainer tells Participants that in the To experience Pair work Handout 1
session they will experience a variety of practicing language
items in a
255

activities that can help students communicative Group


practice modals. context. work
Demonstration: Activity 1
Find someone who
Trainer gives Participants a Find
Someone who worksheet. They try to
find the person who fits the description
and write the persons name in the
grid. Participants can ask only one
question to each person. They can
write each participants name only
once. The winner is the person who
completes the grid first.
After finishing the activity, Trainer tells
Participants to discuss the following:
How did you feel while doing this
activity? What was the atmosphere
like?
8 min. Demonstration To experience Trainer-
Activity 2: Who might it be? practicing language Participants
Trainer shows Participants a blurred items in a
picture and asks them to guess who is communicative
on the side. Trainer gives them hints context.
and asks them Who might it be?
Trainer writes sample sentence
starters:
It could be
It might be
12 min. Demonstration (modals for giving To experience Trainer-
advice and criticizing someones past practicing language Participants
behavior) items in a
communicative
Activity 3: Andys Story context.
Trainer shows students pictures on a
slide and asks them to think about how
these pictures could be connected to
each other. Trainer lets Participants
guess what is happening.
After Participants guess that the man is
going to travel to Australia, they try to
give him advice as to what he should
or should not do before he leaves.
Each group gives advice.
256

After this, Trainer tells Participants that


Andy did not follow their advice. What
might have happened to him? Students
answer individually.
Participants work in groups. One group
writes what Andy should have done.
Another group writes what Andy
shouldnt have done.
15 min. Participants fill it out a reflection To generalize Think-Pair- Handout 3
worksheet individually and then share understanding. Share/TPS
their opinions with a partner. Whole
group discussion follows. To prompt a
discussion.
Questions:
-How did you feel as students? To review material
from the session.
-What steps did we use for this
activity?
-What grammar structure was used?
-What other grammar patterns could
you use for this activity?

-How would you adapt this activity for


your classes?
-How do these kinds of communicative
activities help students learn English?

5 min. About the Session: To reflect about Individual Blank


Trainer asks Participants to think about the session work pieces of
the following questions and write their paper
responses on a piece of paper: To evaluate the Whole class
One thing you learned from session for
this session relevance to their
One aspect of the session you context.
would change
One aspect of the session that
you enjoyed.

Trainer asks Participants to post their


responses on the wall. Participants are
asked to stand up and read others
responses.
257

Handouts
Handout #1

Find someone who


Find someone who can do what is described in the column on the right. Write the persons name below.

can speak more than two languages.

can bake a cake.

can do yoga.

can write poems.

can draw.

can play tennis.

can swim.

can knit.
258

Handout #2
Andys Story

(A) Give Andy some advice before travelling.

He should take a map. He shouldnt travel alone.

(B) Andy didnt follow your advice. Express your disapproval about his actions.

He should have taken a map. He shouldnt have travelled alone.


259

Handout #3

Reflection on the Activities

Activity # How did you What steps were Why use it? Other grammar
feel? used? patterns for this
activity
260

Communicative Grammar Activities for Teens


Veriko Michitashvili

Teenagers need to practice grammar through activities that are fun and engaging. They also need to
practice different grammar structures in a more communicative and dynamic way. Grammar without
communication has no true purpose. During this session, participants will learn how to use different
communicative activities to help guide students in practicing grammar structures.

Session Communicative grammar activities for teens


title

Time 60 min

Session By the end of this session participants will be able to use communicative grammar
objectives activities to teach their students to use the grammar structures appropriately in
meaningful situations.
Participants will also be able to analyze the importance of communicative grammar
activities to engage students in real-life communication.
Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
5 min Generating ideas To generate Individual PPT
ideas and find work Board
The trainer puts the following sentences out where Pair work
on the board: participants are Whole
Teaching grammar is in their group work
Teaching grammar isnt... understanding of
the topic
Participants are asked to think first
individually, then in pairs and finally
share with the whole group (TPS).

18 min Experiential activity To experience Individual Paper


the inductive work 2 pictures
The trainer demonstrates the inductive approach
(rule-discovery) approach of teaching Pair work
grammar. These are the steps:

1) The trainer talks about the topic Raise awareness


Changes in people over the years and by providing
shows two pictures for comparison to students with a
stimulate interest in the topic. reason for
2) The trainer provides a context to give learning
an opportunity to notice the new
grammatical structure (used to)
261

3) The trainer asks some clarification


check questions to ensure that the
meaning is clear.
4) The trainer asks the students to
formulate the rule on the board providing To provide an
help if needed. opportunity for
5) The trainer asks students to think back students to put
to when they were a child and write the grammar in use
differences between their life then and and relate it to a
now. real-life situation
6) Students role-play the following
situation: 2 old friends meeting after a
long time.

12 min Processing the experience To process the Pair work


experience and Whole
1) The trainer asks the participants to talk about the group
reconstruct the steps of the lesson and aims for each
talk about what they think the aim for step
each stage might be. Participants first
work in pairs and then share key
highlights in a whole group discussion.

2) In small groups, participants discuss


what they think might be some
advantages and disadvantages of using
the inductive approach. After working in
small groups, participants share their
main thoughts in a whole group
discussion.

15 min Application task To practice the Group work Flip chart


new approach or poster
In small groups, participants choose a paper
grammatical structure they teach Markers
frequently and use the inductive or
discovery approach to plan how to teach
it. On a poster, they write an outline for
the steps they would use to lead the
students to understanding the grammar
rules for their language point. After
completing this task, participants put
their poster up on the walls and everyone
walks around to see what steps other
groups came up with.
262

10 min Reflection To find out what Pair work


participants are Whole
Using the onion circle format, taking from the group share
participants answer the following workshop and
reflective questions: how they are
What are 2-3 key things you have planning to
learned in this session? incorporate in
How did you learn these things? their classes
What went well? what they have
What could have been done learned in this
differently? session
What are you going home with?
Would you apply this inductive
approach to your classes? Why?
Why not?

Wrap-up

Participants take turns sharing in the


whole group one thing that they have
learned from this session and that they
would like to try out in their own
teaching contexts.

References
Harmer, J., & Thornbury, S. (2011). How to teach grammar. Harlow: Pearson Longman.

Teaching grammar by examples. (2017, April 28). Retrieved from:


http://www.hltmag.co.uk/aug12/ex.htm

Teaching grammar inductively. (2017, April 28). Retrieved from:


https://englishagenda.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/files/attachments/teaching_grammar_inductiv

Teaching grammar inductively. (2017, April 28). Retrieved from:


http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/blogs/bc-seminars/teaching-grammar-inductively-catherine-walter

The discovery technique. (2017, April 28). Retrieved from:


http://www.onestopenglish.com/grammar/grammar-teaching/the-discovery-technique/
263

Handouts

Inductive approach for teaching grammar

In the inductive grammar lesson, we first give students input (examples) of how a grammar point works
and then ask them to figure out the rule based on the examples they have seen. In other words, in this
type of grammar lesson we attempt to teach our students about a grammar structure without directly
explaining the rule in the beginning of the lesson. It is very important to resist temptation to explain
the rule because the whole point of the inductive process is to discover something based on patterns
discerned through experience.
264

How do we create one?

The challenge for the teacher is to choose a topic that will naturally expose the students to repeated use
of the structures. For example, if the teacher wanted to expose the students to many examples of the
simple present tense, she/he might come up with a theme like The Habits of Highly Effective People.
The students could listen, read and discuss all the good habits a person possesses, and this would
expose them to the simple present tense.

Giving multiple examples is critical as it gives the students the opportunity to see the patterns. To draw
some attention to the grammatical structure, the teacher might use italics or boldface during the input
stage of the inductive lesson.

In the end, the teacher can ask the students to figure out the rule based on the discussion and all the
examples they have seen or heard during the course of the lesson, referring back to the class materials
as necessary.

In general, the inductive approach is seen as more engaging for students. Creating a good inductive
lesson requires careful planning and thinking.

Remember, the main characteristic of an inductive lesson is that first the teachers provides examples of
the grammar and then guides them in the discovery of the rule.
All grammar points shouldnt be taught inductively. / Some rules have a lot of exceptions.

Example of Teaching Should have done /Inductively/


Step 1:
Teacher introduces a character called Andy. Teacher draws a map of Australia, next to it a four-wheel
drive vehicle. Teacher elicits the ideas as how these pictures are connected.
For example: To do this kind of journey you should: take a map, take water, not travel alone, not travel
in the wet season.

Step2:
Teacher explains that Andy made no preparations. He didnt take a map. He didnt take water Teacher
asks students to imagine what happened.
Andy got lost
He got very thirsty

Step 3:
Teacher asks: What do you think of Andy?
Eliciting the answers like: He was stupid. He must take a map
Teacher models the sentence: He should have taken a map.

Step 4:
Teacher writes on the board:
265

He should have taken water.


He should not have travelled alone.

Step 5:
Student figure out the rule through the examples.

Step 6:
Teacher asks the students to role play the dialogue between the police and Andy, when the police finally
found Andy.
Police: You should have taken a map.
Andy: I know I should. I didnt think

Demo Lesson

1. Two pictures are shown for comparison


2. Students are provided with the context
3. Students are asked CCQs (concept checking questions)
4. Students formulate the rule
5. Personalization:

What are the differences between your life as a child and your present life?
Your life as a child...
______________________________________
______________________________________

Your present life...


______________________________________
______________________________________

6. Role play

Pairs of students are old friends meeting after a long time. They are supposed to communicate and note
the differences in each using their imagination or the role play clues.

7. Writing

Imagine that you have been asleep from 2016 till 2050. You have just woken up to be shocked about
everything around you. Compare your old and new lives and write your story using used to.

The Steps of the demo lesson

1. Eliciting
2. Providing students with examples
3. Asking CCQs
4. Formulating the rule
5. Personalization
6. Role-play
266

How to Teach Grammar Using Authentic Texts


Zurab Mushkudiani

When learning grammar, it is essential that the language is presented and practiced through
contextualized and realistic scenarios. During this workshop session, participants will experience and
reflect on a sample lesson in which the passive voice is taught using an authentic text.

Session How to teach grammar using authentic texts


title

Time 60 min

Session By the end of the session, participants will be able to experience and analyze an
objectives authentic text (an article) for teaching the passive voice structure.

Session outline

Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material


activity
8 min Lead-in To motivate and T-PS PPT
activate Individual
The trainer greets participants, schemata about work
introduces the topic of the session and the content of Pair work
asks them to introduce each other with the session
a warm-up activity:

Network
The class is divided into groups which
should not have more than 10 students
each. Each group receives a ball of
string. Whoever is speaking on the
topic chosen holds the ball of string.
When the speaker has finished he/she
gives the ball of string to the next
speaker, but holds on to the string. In
this way a web of string develops,
showing who talked.

Then, the trainer asks participants


individually to finish the sentence:

Teaching grammar through texts

Participants share their thoughts in


pairs and then with the whole group.
267

10 min Generating initial ideas To generate and Group Handout #1


elicit ideas work Ps-Ps
The trainer asks participants to discuss related to topic
the following questions:

What does teaching grammar through


texts mean to you? How do you
understand this?
What does it mean?
Why might you use this technique?
What are advantages and Handout #2
disadvantages of using texts?

After the discussion, the trainer


distributes handouts with advantages
and disadvantages for participants to
compare to their thoughts.

32 min Student hats on! To experience a Ps-Ps PPT


lesson from the Individual Handout #3
The trainer invites participants to put learners work
on their student hats and become X perspective Pair work
grade scholars. Small
group work
Demo lesson

The teacher shows a picture


and students guess what is
happening in it and then list the
words which might be in the
text.
The teacher distributes the
text. Students read the text
silently and try to answer the
questions on the PPT.
The teacher asks students to
read one more time to
complete a true or false
exercise. Students share their
answers in pair and then with
the whole class.
The teacher asks students to
turn the text over and then
writes two sentences on the
board. Students try to
remember which of these two
sentences were used in the
268

text. Then, the teacher elicits


from participants a description
of the difference in form
between the two sentences
identifying active and passive
voice structure. Next, the
teacher asks students to find
examples of passive voice
constructions, underline them
and share with partner. The
teacher walks around the room
trying to help them formulate
the structure of the passive
voice.
The teacher asks students if
they (or people they know)
have had a similar experience
to the one mentioned in the
text. Having shared their
stories in English they are
asked to write their story (or
one of their classmates stories)
and this is checked for
appropriate use of passive
structures. Students write their
own stories and they paste
these pieces of paper on the
wall. Gallery walk: participants
walk around and read the
stories and the best one would
be revealed.

10 min Reflection To reflect on the Pair work


session
The trainer asks participants to put
their teacher hats back on to reflect on
the demo lesson.

The trainer asks participants in pairs to


discuss the following questions:
How did you feel as students in
this lesson?
How did you learn the passive
voice?
Why did we do this?
What helped/hindered your
learning?
How would you adapt this?
269

Why might this approach be


good for teaching passive
voice?
How might you use authentic
texts to teach other grammar
structures?

The trainer asks 3-5 participants to


share some of their final thoughts
based on their previous discussion.

Wrap-up To provide Individual Session


feedback for the work evaluation
Participants are asked to fill out an trainer form
evaluation form for the session. (handout #4)

References

Authentic materials for teaching. (2017, April 27). Retrieved from:


http://www.fluentu.com/english/educator/blog/authentic-materials-for-teaching-english/

Carter, R., Hughes, R., & McCarthy, M. (2010). Exploring grammar in context: upper-intermediate and
advanced:. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Harmer, J., & Thornbury, S. (2011). How to teach grammar. Harlow: Pearson Longman.

Nettle, M., & Hopkins, D. (2003). Developing grammar in context:. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.

Reading matrix. (2017, April 27). Retrieved from:


http://www.readingmatrix.com/articles/berardo/article.pdf

The passive in English. (2017, April 27). Retrieved from:


http://www.onestopenglish.com/grammar/grammar-reference/verbs-and-tenses/the-passive-in-
english-tips-and-activities/152839.article

Using authentic materials. (2017, April 27). Retrieved from:


https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/using-authentic-materials
270

Handouts
Handout #1
What are some advantages and disadvantages of using authentic texts?

Advantages Disadvantages
271

Handout # 2
Advantages and disadvantages of using authentic texts

Advantages Disadvantages
They provide co-textual information,
allowing learners to deduce the meaning of The difficulty of the text, especially an
unfamiliar grammatical items from the co- authentic one, may mean that some of the
text. above advantages are lost.
If the texts are authentic they can show how The alternative - to use simplified texts -
the item is used in real communication. may give a misleading impression as to how
As well as grammar input, texts provide the language item is naturally used, again
vocabulary input, skills practice, and
defeating the purpose of using texts.
exposure to features of text organization.
Not all texts will be of equal interest to
Their use in the classroom is good
preparation for independent study. students.
If the texts come from the students Students who want quick answers to simple
themselves, they may be more engaging and questions may consider the use of texts to
their language features therefore more be the 'scenic route' to language awareness,
memorable. and would prefer a quicker, more direct
route instead.
272

Handout # 3
273

Handout #4
Session evaluation

Session Title: ___________________________ Date Attended: _______________

Please select the rating for each section based on the following criteria:
5=excellent 4=good 3=average 2=fair 1=poor

Please rate the trainer(s) on the following:


1. Knowledge of the subject matter. 5 4 3 2 1
2. Ability to explain and illustrate concepts. 5 4 3 2 1
3. Ability to answer questions completely. 5 4 3 2 1
Open-ended comments (use the back if you need more space):
4. What specifically did the trainer do well?
5. What recommendations do you have for the trainer to improve?
Please rate the content and structure of the training:
6. The usefulness of the information
received in training. 5 4 3 2 1
7. The structure of the training session(s). 5 4 3 2 1

8 The pace of the training session(s). 5 4 3 2 1

9. The convenience of the training schedule. 5 4 3 2 1

10. The usefulness of the training materials. 5 4 3 2 1

11. Was this training appropriate for your


level of experience? Yes No

If you said No to #9, please explain:

Open-ended comments (use the back if you need more space):


12. What did you most like about the training?

13. What can be improved with regards to the structure, format, and/or materials?
274

Vocabulary
275

Teaching Vocabulary to Young Learners


Maia Kemoklidze

Teaching vocabulary to young learners can be challenging. In this session, three effective techniques
to teach vocabulary are presented as well as ways in which these can be adapted for
teachers own contexts.

Session Teaching Vocabulary to Young Learners


title
Time 60 minutes
Session By the end of the session, participants will have experienced three activities to teach
objectives vocabulary to young learners.
Session outline
Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Materials
activity
10 min. Trainer announces the topic of the session To Trainer-Ps.
Teaching vocabulary to young learners and introduce
asks participants: the topic of
the session.
How many of you teach young
learners?
What are the challenges of teaching
young learners?
To meet the
Trainer elicits some challenges of teaching teachers
young learners. where they
are
Short attention span
Super active
Remember easily
Forget easily
Too talkative
Easily Distracted

10 min. Trainer tells Participants they will experience To Trainer-Ps.


three activities as students. Trainer tells experience
Participants they will discuss with teachers hat student
on at the end of each activity. learning

Trainer shows pictures. Participants repeat


three times. Trainer changes the pace.

Reflection questions:
What are three important points of
choral repetition?
How did you feel?
276

Do you think your students young


learners will feel the same? How do
you know?
If you were to use the same activity
with your students, would you change
anything? Why /Why not?

Trainer demonstrates how to check students


individually after choral repetition.
(This activity is done in the same way, as it
shown on the video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JhVVGZ8
yy9g).

10 min. Trainer plays music and Participants answer To Trainer-Ps. Track


the question Whats this? which is experience Laptop
accompanied by music. student Speakers
(Video that demonstrates jazz chants: learning.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KyDbsCX
4TTA&t=34s ).

Reflection questions:
What did we do?
How did you feel during this activity?
What is the aim of this activity? How
can it help your students?
(Note to trainer: This chant can be used for any
kind of vocabulary lists that use objects).

10 min. Trainer gives each Participant a Find someone To Handout 2


who chart and asks them to go around the experience
class and compete the chart. student
learning.
Reflection questions:
What did you do?
How did you feel as a student?
What was the aim of this activity?
How could it be done differently?
Can you use the same activity format
to practice other grammar structures?

20 min. Trainer elicits comments about choral To reflect Trainer-Ps. Reflection


repetition and talks about the importance of on their Handouts
it. learning.
Pair work
Trainer elicits comments about jazz chants and
explains main points of the jazz chants.
277

Group
Final Reflection: work
Trainer asks Participants to discuss the
following questions in pairs. They then share
as a whole class.

How important is it to teach


vocabulary to young leaners? Why?
From examples mentioned above
which of them would you use to
motivate your students?

References
Arntsen, T. (2017) How to Drill: Drilling Activities for the English Classroom. Retrieved from
http://busyteacher.org/3812-how-to-drill-drilling-activities-for-your-english.html

Craven, M. (2017) Jazz Chants. Retrieved from http://www.onestopenglish.com/skills/listening/jazz-


chants/

Introducing New Vocabulary to Young Learners. (2013, Jan 21) Oxford University Press [video] Retrieved
from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JhVVGZ8yy9g&t=5s
278

Handouts
Handout #1
279

Handout #2

FIND SOMEONE WHO LIKES.

Do you like..?
280

Making Vocabulary Memorable


Mariam Zakariashvili

Teaching vocabulary in a way that is memorable and engaging for students can be challenging. In this
session, a variety of activities to help make vocabulary learning more memorable for
students are provided.

Session Making Vocabulary Memorable


title
Time 60 min

Session Participants will experience three vocabulary learning strategies activities to


objectives make vocabulary learning more memorable.
Participants will discuss advantages and modifications to each activity.
Session outline
Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material
activity
Trainer greets participants and To introduce a Trainer-
4 min introduces the topic of the session topic Participants
making vocabulary memorable.
Trainer starts with brainstorming and
asks Participants what learning strategies
they use for their students to teach
vocabulary. (e.g. real objects, role plays,
graphic organizers, group/pair work,
presentations, discussion,
personalization, background knowledge,
research, project.)
Trainer shows a proverb: Tell me and I Ask Participants TPS (Think- PPT slides
will forget, show me and I might what they know Pair-Share) 2 and 3
3 min remember, involve me and I will about the topic;
understand. Presentation
Participants discuss the following
question: How do you see this proverb
related to vocabulary learning?
Trainer shows a diagram, which further
expands the meaning of the proverb.

5-8 min Trainer distributes handouts and asks To generate ideas TPS Handout
Participants to fill out the columns with 1
the activities and strategies they use in
teaching vocabulary. After 3 minutes,
they will share with their partner and
then, with the whole class. Trainer fills
281

the chart on the whiteboard with


Participants ideas.
5-8 min Trainer tells Participants that they will get To tell what Group work Cards;
back to these activities later after she comes next TPS PPT slide
introduces three activities she uses in her 4 and 5;
vocabulary classes. Handout
Trainer asks Participants to imagine they 3
are students and that the words they are
about to see in the cards are new to
them.
Trainer divides participants into two
groups and gives them word cards.
Groups should make as many sentences
about their travelling as they can, and
each sentence should contain two of the
new words.
At the end of the activity, Trainer asks
participants to think about what they did:
-Did you like the activity?
-What modifications for this activity
come to your mind?
5-8 min Trainer introduces another activity: the Presentation Modelling Cards;
game Taboo. Practice Group PPT slides
Trainer divides Participants in groups of work/pair 6 and 7;
three to play the game, and she work Handout
distributes the word cards. Before they 4
start the activity, Trainer asks for a
volunteer and together they model the
activity.
At the end of the activity, Trainer asks
participants:
-Did you like the activity?
-How did you feel?
-How would you modify this activity and
how?
5 min Trainer introduces an example of a Presentation; Trainer- PPT slides
Diamond or Diamante Poem. giving an example Participants 8 and 9;

5-8 min Trainer distributes diamante poem Practice Pair work Handout
handouts, and asks Participants to write a 2
poem about todays session in pairs.
Pairs share their poems with the whole
group.
Trainer shows list of activities and games Sharing her Trainer- PPT slide
5-7 min that could be used to make vocabulary experience; Participants 10
learning more memorable and Abstract
meaningful. Participants are asked to Conceptualization
282

compare that list with the activities


mentioned by them at the beginning.
Participants add activities if they are
missing any.
Trainer asks Participants their opinion of
previous activities and the column to
which they belong and why. Participants
are given time to think and then share
their ideas with a partner. Trainer elicits
answers from volunteers.
10 + min Trainer provides handouts for reflection Reflection Trainer Handout
stage using the 3-2-1 strategy: Participants 5
3 things they learned/liked about the TPS
session;
2 things they are going to try in their
teaching;
1 thing they will modify or change.

Trainer gives Participants time to write


their answers to each question. When
Participants are done, Trainer asks them
to share their notes with the group.

References
Moberly, C. (2017) Dynamite Diamante Poetry. Retrieved April 21, 2017 from
http://www.readwritethink.org

Pavicic, V. (2011, December 15) Vocabulary and Autonomy. Retrieved April 21, 2017 from
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk

https://pirhua.udep.edu.pe/bitstream/handle/123456789/1797/MAE_EDUC_091.pdf?sequence=1

https://yappicorp.com.ua/public/user_files/files/taboo-game.pdf
283

Handouts

Handout #1

Involve

Tell Show
284

Handout #2

Noun

Adjective Adjective

Gerund Gerund Gerund

Noun Noun Noun Noun

Gerund Gerund Gerund

Adjective Adjective

Noun
285

Handout #3

Guide Meadow Ravine

Narrow Adventure Used to

Remind
286

Handout #4

Taboo cards

penguin Furious Speech

Bird Angry Give


Fly Violent Speak
Animal Red Face Important
Black Hurt Audience
White Rage Nervous

foreigner leaf broom

Teacher Tree Sweep


Different Green Floor
Outside Fall Witch
Country Plant Wooden
Travel Page Dust
287

Handout #5

3-2-1
Write 3 things you learned/liked

1)

2)

3)
....
Write 2 things you are going to try out in your teaching

1)

2)

Write 1 thing you will modify or change.

1)

288

Lecture 5%
Reading 10%
Audio-visual 20%
Demonstration 30%
Discussion 50%
Practice by doing 75%
Teach others 90%
289

Teaching Vocabulary to High School Students (Polysemy Approach)


Tinatin Vardidze

There is more to vocabulary than knowing the meaning of words. Developing a strong vocabulary in
the Target Language requires going deeper and looking at how words are connected and how they
can change based on certain contexts. This session will explore Polysemy and activities that can help
teachers and learners explore this area of vocabulary.

Session Teaching Vocabulary to High School Students


title (Polysemy Approach)

Time 1 hour

Session Participants will be become familiar with the importance of familiarizing high
objectives school students with word polysemy.
Participants will explore materials and activities that can aid in teaching polysemy,
particularly literal and figurative meaning.
Session outline
Timing Procedure Aim of the Interaction Material
activity
2 min. Trainer introduces herself as well as the To set Whole PPT
goals and objectives of the session. expectations for group Slides 1-2
the session.

7 min. The trainer displays a sentence on the To have Small PPT slide
slide (PPT slide 3), and tells Participants participants groups 3
that this is the sentence that led her to realize the
come up with the idea for this workshop importance of
since this sentence is a real example from teaching word
her students. Trainer asks the meanings.
participants to list possible translations of
the sentence that their students might
come up with.

Discussion question:
Participants discuss in pairs:
-Why do you think your students will
have difficulty in getting the correct
translation of the sentence? (Participants
might say that students do not know the
various meanings of the word fire.)
-How often do you come across the
words with polysemous meanings?
-Do you usually avoid them or do you go
deep in explaining them?

Trainer elicits responses.


290

6 min. Each participant has a piece of paper, To lead-in to the Pairs Slips of
face down, on his/her table. Participants session through a Work paper
turn over the paper and follow trainers quick warm-up
instructions. Participants have a sentence activity. Whole class Handout
with a gap. Participants look at a PPT 1
slide with a word bank and complete the
their sentences with the appropriate PPT slides
word. 4-5
Ex: He ... the strangers with suspicion
EYED) (Handout 1).

Trainer elicits a few answers. If the first


sentence that a Participant reads
contains a word head the other person
in the group who has a sentence with the
same word has to read her/his sentence.
This will help them see that the same
word has different meanings.

(If time allows, there can be a small


discussion of the meanings of given
words).

2 min. Trainer refers to PPT (slide 6) and elicits To distinguish Whole Class PPT slide-
the definition for Word Polysemy and between 6
contrasts it with Homonymy based on Polysemy and
the example of bank. Homonymy.

3 min. Trainer shows the illustrations for the To set the tone Whole Class PPT
words given in the warm-up activity and for the rest of slides 7-
elicits possible answers from the the session. 14
participants.
To help
(1. Can you give me a hand? 2. The head Participants
of beer. 3. The mouth of a well. 4. The anticipate what
heart of a city. 5. The five of hearts. 6. will be talked
The eye of a needle. The eye of cheese. about for the rest
The eye of a potato. 7. The private eye.) of the session.

Reflection
Trainer asks Participants to discuss the
following:
-Did you like the activity? Why? Why not?
-Would your students be able to
participate successfully in this same
activity?
291

8 min. Participants receive a word (related to To set the tone Pair work Handout
part of body). They have to work in pairs for the rest of 2
to list as many definitions of the word as the session. Group work PPT 15-
possible. 17
(Handout 2) Some pairs get the same To help
word. Participants
After eliciting the number of definitions anticipate what
and a few example sentences, the trainer will be talked
displays the actual number of definitions about for the rest
of each word. Trainer tells participants of the session.
about how this source can help their
students look for the number of
definitions in a dictionary.

Discussion Questions:
Trainer asks Participants to discuss:
-How possible is it to teach all the
meanings to our students? What is the
solution? How can we teach them?
(Trainer brings up the idea that the
solution could lie in showing the real
connection between the core and the
derived meanings, how they are
connected, and that there are different
ways of connecting them the
resemblance of shape/function.
This leads to mini-lecture.)

7 min. Mini-lecture: To become Whole class PPT 18-


Trainer explains that she will present a aware of the 20
simple lesson on how polysemy can be challenges of
dealt based on 5 nouns describing body. teaching Handout
Trainer points out the following: polysemous 3
-It is not possible to make students words.
memorize all meanings of one word but Handout
should teach high frequency words and To analyse how 6
have our students practice at least one word meanings
word a week. are linked to the
-whenever we come across a word with core meaning.
different meaning we should not just give
a correct translation but should explain
that it is a polysemous word (meaning is
derived from a core meaning).

Trainer explains that in the session they


will go through some activities on the
word head to let participants realize
how polysemy can be dealt with.
292

Participants have a look at a lesson plan


on this word.

10 min. Trainer explains that Polysemy is a broad To realize the Small PPT
topic and that they will just cover difference groups Slides 21-
figurative and literal meanings of 5 words between 23
through this session. Figurative and
Trainer asks Participants about the Literal meanings. Handout
difference between the literal and 4
figurative meanings
Handout
Participants work in pairs to practice the 5
use of head with its figurative and
literal meanings handout 4
(If time allows, Participants can work on
Handout 5.)
For the lesson on Head, see Handout 6.

5 min. Participants work in pairs to come up To experience an Pair work PPT slide
with their own examples of words they activity with 24
have: one figurative meaning of the word figurative and
and one literal meaning. literal meanings.

8 min. Debrief: To summarize Group work PPT slide


Trainer asks Participants to reflect on the the session. 25
session by doing the following:
To describe what
-Recall the activities that were done. is helpful for
-Recall the material that was given. Participants.
-Discuss: What was helpful for me in this
session? What is something Im ready to
do in my classroom based on todays
session?

2 min. Exit Tickets Participants fill out exit To reflect on Individual Handout
tickets (Handout 6) session. 6

Extra Activity 1 - Participants work in small To practice Group work


Activities groups and play charades. One group polysemous
presents a figurative meaning of the word use.
target word head. Other Participants
have to guess the expression (e.g. the
head of the house), and then come up
with a sentence in which they would use
this word.
293

Activity 2 Trainer asks Participants to


write expressions /collocations on a piece
of paper. Trainer divides Participants into
small groups. Trainer collects the papers
and asks for a group representative to
take 3-4 pieces. Each group prepares and
acts out a dialogue in which they use
those expressions.

References
Makni, F. (2013) Teaching Polysemous Words To Arab Learners:A
Cognitive Linguistics Approach. PhD, University of the West of England.

Net. Lovetoknow, Corp. Retrieved from http://sentence.yourdictionary.com/net


294

Handouts
Handout #1
Complete the sentences using the words given on the slide.

She .. the two strangers with suspicion.


She has a sharp ..
He is the private .. of our boss.
She has a good .. for mathematics.
I'll .. the boat for the shore.
Cabbage .. quickly.
He is at the .. of the whole business.
The farmer has a thousand .. of cattle.
Nina combed her ..
I have another .. to feed.
The dog .. the toys.
He .. off to his mother.
He is not all ..He gets results.
They came out of the .. of the cave.
The of a trumpet is big.
The museum is in the .. of the city.
In your .., you know I'm an honest man.
I went home with a heavy ...
This book was written by various
On the one .., we can appeal for peace, or on the other, declare war.
The .. of a clock are dark brown.
The ring had been .. down from her grandmother.
Correct answers for Handout 1:
1. She eyed the two strangers with suspicion.
2. She has a sharp eye.
3. He is the private eye of our boss.
4. She has a good head for mathematics.
5. I'll head the boat for the shore.
6. Cabbage heads quickly.
7. He is at the head of the whole business.
8. The farmer has a thousand head of cattle.
9. Nina combed her head.
10. I have another mouth to feed.
11. The dog mouthed the toys.
12. He mouthed off to his mother.
13. He is not all mouth. He gets results
14. They came out of the mouth of the cave.
15. The mouth of a trumpet is big.
16. The museum is in the heart of the city.
17. In your heart, you know I'm an honest man.
18. I went home with a heavy heart.
19. This book was written by various hands.
20. On the one hand, we can appeal for peace, or on the other, declare war
21. The hands of a clock are dark brown.
22. The ring had been handed down from her grandmother.
295

Handout #2

HEAD

EYE

MOUTH

HEART

HAND
296

Handout #3
3.means of
14.one of e measurement
number,
6. Freedom
herd, group

15.unit of 2. intellect,
24.antlers animals mind
of a deer

10. a
person,
21.hairdo wise head
20. hair

4.
hangove
r
5.life

HEAD

18.projecting
point of a
coast 27.the
obverse of a
coin

26.form a 32.the 31.the


head forepart of forepart of
25. the top a bow a vessel
part of a
plant

7. position
or place of 11. 13. the part 16.upper
leadership summit or of a or higher
8. leader or
upper end weapon end
chief
9.leading
position as in
dancing 30.the source
22.foam at
of a river 17.opposite the top
12.First in stream of the foot
rank
23.cream
28.main
on standing
division of 19. milk
a subject, culminating
topic point
297

Handout #4

Discuss the sentences with your partner. Check F for Figurative meaning or L for Literal
meaning for the words in bold. You may check both letters.

Example sentences F L
Head
1. She lifted up her head and looked at him.
2. Tom made a quick calculation in his head.
3. Tom, Mary and John all shook their heads.
4. He's the head of the marketing department.
5. Father took his place at head of the table.
6. The cow gave birth to a calf with two heads.
7. I can't make heads or tails of what you said.
8. The dog was covered in mud from head to foot.
9. In our head office, we have two meeting rooms.
10. He likes to watch the birds fly above his head.
298

Handout #5
Work with a partner. Circle the best answer for the given sentences.

1 I can't make heads or tails of this assignment.


a. I dont know what assignment we have.
b. I dont understand the assignment.

2 The mayor walked at the head of the procession.


a. The mayor was in front of the procession.
b. The mayor was at the back of the procession.

3 Tom grabbed his guitar and headed for the door.


a. Tom hung the guitar on the door.
b. Tom went towards the door.

4 Tom looked at the price tag and shook his head.


a. Tom could buy the jacket.
b. Tom could not buy the jacket.

5 Tom shaved his head with a straight-edge razor.


a. Tom cut his head.
b. Tom cut his hair.

6 Tom Jackson will be the new head of the company.


a. Tom will be the manager of the company.
b. Tom will be new in the company.

7 He's not smart enough to add numbers in his head.


a. To make calculations.
b. To put heavy things on his head.

8 There are about 500 head of cattle on that ranch.


a. There are 500 cattle on the ranch.
b. There are 500 people to take care of cattle.

9 She found him sitting alone, his head in his hands.


a. He was sad.
b. He was happy.

10 As she walked the red carpet, her dress made a lot of heads turn.
a. Make people angry.
b. Draw attention.

(Key: 1 b, 2 a, 3 b, 4 b, 5 b, 6 a, 7 a, 8 a, 9 a, 10 b).
299

Handout #6

Exit Ticket
Tick the box that reflects your learning from the session.

Strongly Agree Disagree


Agree
1 I know what polysemy is.
2 I realized the importance of teaching word polysemy.

3 I will try out some activities from this session.

4 I prefer to not deal with polysemous words in my classroom.

5 I think I can use the lesson plans provided in the handouts.

6 I learned about a few techniques to deal with Polysemous words in


my classroom.

What is my confidence level about dealing with word polysemy?


300

Handout #7
Lesson Plan
Objective: Familiarizing students with the notions of literal and metaphorical meanings

Time 45 minutes

Definition: The upper or anterior division of the body


that contains the brain, the chief sense organs, and the
mouth.

1. Step 1: (Warm-up) Students individually write down a sentence containing the word HEAD.
(Some students might think of different meanings rather than a core meaning. This can help
lead into the next activity.)
Step 2: Teacher elicits answers.
2. Teacher writes up the word HEAD in the center of a board and asks students to work in pairs to
brainstorm the meanings of head.
How many meanings of Head can you think of?

head

3. After eliciting some examples students look the word up in the dictionary and write down main
meanings that are numbered. (add any arrows if needed).
How many meanings could you find?

4. Students work in pairs to give examples of different part of speech. (head v, head n)
Noun Verb
1.. 1.
2.. 2.
3.. 3.
301

5. Students go back to the dictionary to write down any meanings that have the resemblance to
the form of Head.
Resemblance to a Head Resemblance in Function
1 Ex: The head of a cabbage. The head of an office
2
3
4
5
6

6. Students try to divide the following sentences according the literal and figurative meanings of
Head.
Write L for Literal and F for Figurative for the meaning of the word head in each sentence.

1. She leaned her head on his shoulder.


2. Here was a round head, covered with petals.
3. He was head of the house - the one who made final decisions.
4. Gilman's head teacher, gave us directions.
5. His mother shook her head and said: No, Benjamin.
6. Soon, at the head of a very great army, he marched toward the city which had once been his
home.
7. He headed towards the mansion.
8. Two heads are better than one
9. He has a good head for figures.
10. The farmer sold twenty head of cattle.

7. Students work in small groups and play charades one group presents a figurative meaning of
the target word head. Other students have to guess the expression (e.g. the head of the house)
and then come up with a sentence in which they would use this word.

8. Ask students to write the expressions /collocations they remember on a piece of paper, collect
the papers and ask group representatives to take 3-4 pieces. Students prepare and act out a
dialogue in which they will have to use these expressions.

9. Homework: Look up the definitions for hand for the next lesson. Write them down in their
notebooks. This will serve as a Dictionary page.