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DHCP, DNS and WINS

What is DNS?
DNS is a Domain Name System
It is a database system that translates a computer's fully qualified domain name into
an IP address.
DNS allows connecting to another networked computer or remote service by using its
user-friendly domain instead of IP address.
Reverse DNS (rDNS) translates an IP address into a domain name.

When computer requests an IP address, one of the three things happens

1. If the requested IP address is registered locally (i.e., it's within the organization's
network), will receive a response directly from one of the local name server.
In this case, there usually is little or no wait for a response.

2. If the requested IP address is not registered locally (i.e., outside your organization's
network), but someone within your organization has recently requested the same IP
address, then the local name server will retrieve the IP address from its cache.
Again, there should be little or no wait for a response.

3. If the requested IP address is not registered locally and we are the first person to
request information about this system, then the local name server will perform
searches which involve querying two or more other name servers at potentially very
remote locations. In these cases, it may continue to repeat the query until a response is
received, or may receive an error message.
These queries can take anywhere from a second or two up to a minute.

DNS (zones and their functionality)


Possible zones include:
Forward Lookup - is used to resolve FQDN to IP
Reverse lookup - is used to resolve IP to FQDN
Standard primary zone (primary zone) - A master copy of a forward or reverse
lookup zone.
Active Directory integrated zone - A copy of a standard primary or Active Directory
integrated zone. The IP address and computer name is stored in Active Directory and
replicated to all local domain controllers. DNS information is not replicated to domain
controllers outside the domain.
Standard secondary zone (secondary zone)

What is Nslookup?
Nslookup is a tool used to troubleshoot DNS related issues.

What is DHCP?
It is a dynamic host configuration protocol and is used to assign an IP address
dynamically to a Host
DHCP lease is obtained by using DORA process
Discover = Client sends request for IP.
Offer = DHCP server send and Offer with IP address.
Request = If client accepts the IP it sends a request to DHCP.
Ack = DHCP server sends ack for the same.

In DHCP we can reserve or exclude IPs. See below question.

What is differences between Reservation and exclusion in DHCP


Reservations are used when we want the same client (MAC address of the NIC) to
always get the same IP address, sort of like a static IP handed out from the DHCP
Server.
Exclusions are used when we want specific IPs not assigned to client by DHCP (we
create an Exclusion Range in DHCP)

What is WINS?
It is used to resolve NetBIOS Computer name to IP address.

We've installed a new Windows-based DHCP server, however, the users do not
seem to be getting DHCP leases off of it.
The server must be authorized first with the Active Directory.

How can you force the client to give up the DHCP lease if you have access to the
client PC?
Use Ipconfig /release

How can you recover a file encrypted using EFS?


Use the domain recovery agent.

What 3 types of domain controller does Exchange access?


Normal Domain Controller,
Global Catalog,
Configuration Domain Controller

What is DSRM? Can you login with a local account on a DC?


DSRM is Directory service restore mode is used to restore a DC authoritatively.
Used if an object is deleted or it can be used for general database maintenance activity
like Database defragmentation
We cannot login with local account on DC, can login only is DSRM mode