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A Franco-German MISSILE DEFENSE Have U.S.

Answer to the F-35 Stopping North Korea Soured on Widebodies?
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July 24-August 13, 2017 Contents Volume 179 Number 15


& S PA C E T E C H N O L O G Y
Winner 2017

Digital Extras Access exclusive The unprecedented rate of long-range missile testing by North Korea
online features from articles has added a new level of urgency to the Trump administrations review
accompanied by this icon. of U.S. missile defenses.

7 Feedback
8 Whos Where
9-10 First Take
11 Up Front
12 Going Concerns
13 Inside Business Aviation
14 Airline Intel
15 Washington Outlook
56 Classifed
57 Contact Us
57 Aerospace Calendar


16 France and Germany propose a 24 Low-cost, unmanned combat 28 Low-cost, long-haul carriers study
European answer to the F-35 and aircraft drive need for less cabin connectivity options to draw
look at other military cooperation expensive powerplants passengers and drive profts


18 Airlines are concerned Brexit could 30 NASA develops an airliner concept
mean regulatory chaos that could reduce noise by 90% and
for European air transport enable continued capacity growth

19 Norwegian Airs ambitious SPACE

expansion plans depend on 31 Small satellites are popular, but
overcoming multiple obstacles industry analysts warn that their
revenue potential is uncertain
21 U.S. legacy carriers delay widebody
orders, weighing Boeings New DEFENSE
Midsize Airplane and other options
32 MiG-35 steals spotlight at MAKS
air show near Moscow as Russian
aerospace pivots to next generation
24 Firefy returns, bolstered by new 26 Aquatic UAV technology developed 34 Austria aims to replace its
funding, to develop an upgraded for environmental sampling could Eurofghters by 2020 with
small-satellite launch vehicle be used for intelligence-gathering supersonic-capable aircraft

ON ThE COVER 35 Agricultural aircraft are taking

on the role of low-cost, long-
Loss of control and upset recovery remain a major concern in endurance strike platforms
general aviation and at airlines. Senior Editor for Avionics and
Safety John Croft reports on new symbology and techniques that
might help. Cover photo by Nathan Richards/Barron Associates.
37 Japan makes progress on its
Also in this issue: France and Germany plan Europes answer to the Future Fighter engine, which will
F-35 (page 16), a new urgency to missile defense (page 40) and U.S. be much larger than predecessor
legacy carriers hold back on widebody aircraft orders (page 21).
39 South Korea is close to deploying
Aviation Week publishes a digital edition every week. Read it at a ballistic missile featuring a
AviationWeek.com/awst and on our app. maneuverable reentry vehicle

AviationWeek.com/awst AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 3

50 Whats Next in
Global Aerospace
MISSILE DEFENSE 50 Electrics and new regulations
and Defense
40 North Koreas accelerated missile combine to open the way for a
testing adds urgency to tests and revitalization of general aviation
upgrades of U.S. interceptors

42 First ICBM target intercept by the 35

Ground-Based Midcourse Defense
system, illustrated step by step

44 CEO says acquisition of B/E
Aerospace will make Rockwell
Collins a leader in smart airplanes Mobile. Online.
Updated Daily.
30 For subscribers only. Get new
content daily and read the weekly
50 Sikorsky boosts marketing for its digital edition of Aviation Week &
versatile and rugged twin-engine
turboprop built by PZL Mielec Space Technology online.

53 Airbus plans to y its urban air DESKTOP/LAPTOP

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6 AviAtioN Week & SPAce techNology/July4-AuguSt 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

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Drone GenealoGy unmanned combat aerial vehicle. Both
In Predator to Stingray (July it and its rival, the Naval Aircraft Letters may be edited for length and clarity;
10-23, p. 39), acting Navy Secretary Factory TDN (the TDR being favored a verifiable address and daytime telephone
Sean Stackley said that the MQ-25 over the TDN for production) were number are required.
Stingray is the Navys frst carrier- the frst carrier-borne UAV programs
based unmanned program. However, for the Navy, not the Stingray.
this is incorrect. Jacob Katz are two distinct U-2 aircraft. The
It is a little-known fact that the NORFOlk, VIRGINIA original was for the CIA in the 1950s,
frst armed drones were fown of of but in the 1960s a larger version
U.S. Navy carriers in combat during Online, readers reacted to other designed to carry a much larger
World War II. Armed with a single aspects of the UAV overview feature, payloadwas developed for the U.S.
2,000-lb. bomb or an aerial torpedo, including: Air Force.
the Interstate TDR was controlled When viewed side by side, the dif-
mainly by a Grumman TBF Avenger. Crabble, who notes: ference between the two is obvious.
A camera mounted in the nose of Drones are mostly for persistent- So the managers cited in The U-2
the assault drone, as it was called, surveillance and intelligence- lives On (June 26-July 9, p. 24) are
allowed the operator to control the gathering missions, and they fulfll correct in a way.
aircraft in fight. those roles extremely well. Manned John Miller
The drone itself utilized a fairly aircraft are still the heavy hitters in GRANTS PASS, OReGON
simple steel-tube frame and molded- any signifcant confict.
wood skin design. This made little More F-35 rUMinationS
use of strategic materials, freeing up persmit queries: I read with interest the comments
resources for higher-priority aircraft. Who is the catapult ofcer in the that followed the letter F-35 Takes
Out of the 50 drones used opera- photo signaling to on an unmanned Center Stage (July 10-23, p. 7).
tionally, 31 were able to strike their drone? When it comes to maneuverability,
targets successfully, and there were based on watching numerous videos,
no losses among the pilots of the JDrouin responds: I believe that the F-35s performance
controlling aircraft. The drone operator (among oth- can, at best, be qualifed as good. I
Nevertheless, due to technical ers). Unmanned in the case of detected signs of sluggishness and
difculties (coupled with the success drones, does not mean no human even uncertainty in some control
of more conventional weaponry), the pilot is involved. responses.
TDR saw only two months of op- As to agility, the F-35 falls far short
erational use before the project was U-2 SqUareD of several competitive types, perhaps
canceled. However, the TDR is by Perhaps reader Merle Hanley most noticeably the Dassault Rafale.
far the ancestor to the modern-day (July 10-23, p. 7) did not realize there Regarding the classifcation of
the eurofghter Typhoon primarily
as an air combat aircraft, I believe
the manufacturers would argue this
PrecUrSor FroM the PaSt pointit is used regularly as a strike
I cant help but notice the similarity aircraft. I am equally certain Das-
between Chinas three-phase plan for reus- sault would disagree since they have
able lifting-body space launchers (July 10-23, proved its multirole capabilities.
p. 21) and the cover of Galaxy Science Fiction I once pointed out to a computer
Magazine, July 1955. Some old ideas are just engineer that my specialized but
too good to give up on. badly defective computer was, in its
H.M. Gold present state, nothing more than an
lANeSBOROUGH, MASSACHUSeTTS expensive tin can. The same could be
said of the F-35 if its pilots continue
to be rendered unconscious or inca-
pacitated by hypoxia.
If this had been an aircraft pro-
duced during the stress of a major
confict, any shortcomings might be
understandable. But the project was
launched in 1996 ,and the frst fight
took place in 2006. If a manufac-
turerespecially one that overshot
forecast costs on a monumental
scalecannot get its product right in
11 years, this should be a source for
Colin Throm/AW&ST
Richard Chandless

aviationWeek.com/awst AviAtiOn Week & SpAce technOlOgy/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 7

Whos Where To submit information for the
Whos Where column, send Word
or attached text files (no PDFs) and
photos to: whoswhere@aviationweek.com
For additional information on
companies and individuals listed in
this column, please refer to the
Edward Gray

he Aerospace Industries Associa- Adm. (lower half) Dale E. Aviation Week Intelligence Network
tion has hired David Silver as Horan as director, JSF Fleet at AviationWeek.com/awin For
vice president of civil aviation Integration, Washington, from information on ordering, telephone
to spearhead eforts to grow civil Carrier Strike Group 8 com- U.S.: +1 (866) 857-0148 or
aviation infrastructure investment, mander, Norfolk, Virginia; +1 (515) 237-3682 outside the U.S.
incorporate unmanned systems in Rear Adm. (lower half) Dan-
the national airspace and streamline iel L. Cheever as commander
FAA certifcation. Silver was Boeing of the Naval Aviation Warf- Mouldings has promoted
Commercial Airplanes director of en- ighting Development Center Kasey Harwick James Williamson to lead
gineering and regulatory afairs. from chief of staf, Naval Air manufacturing engineer/tool
Nordic Aviation Capital has named Force, U.S. Pacifc Fleet, San room output and design, Hugh
Brian Ruben Pedersen chief fnancial Diego. Henry to project engineer and
ofcer. He had been CFO at Maersk PPG has promoted Tim Gareth Harkness to quality
Global Shared Services. Behmlander to aerospace engineer.
Global Jet Capital has appointed general manager for the Duncan Aviation has named
Christopher H. Paul senior manag- Americas. He was aerospace Kasey Harwick (see photos)
ing director/general counsel and general manager for Europe, director of maintenance,
David Settergren director of sales for Middle East and Africa. Behm- David Coleman Battle Creek, Michigan; David
Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and lander succeeds Dave Morris, Coleman head of aircraft sales
Thailand. who has retired. and acquisitions, Wheel-
GE Aviation has hired John Mans- MRO provider Avocet Avia- ing, Illinois; Jason Burhoop
feld as chief digital ofcer to oversee tion has hired Edward Gray project manager, Lincoln,
development of its aviation digital (see photo) as general man- Nebraska; and Tifany Grifn
portfolio. Mansfeld was president, ager/chief of operations, roles director of interior modifca-
general manager and chief technology that will include development tion sales, also at Battle Creek.
ofcer of Hitachi Ltd. of an on-site school and an ap- Jason Burhoop
Heule Tool Corp. has pro-
The C&L Aviation Group has named prenticeship program. moted William Hargrove to
Tim Brecher as president of C&L The American Astronautical national sales manager from
Engine Solutions, which specializes in Society has named Jim Way applications engineer/national
servicing, maintaining and supporting executive director. He was accounts manager.
corporate and regional operators. director of marketing at Sight-
The U.S. Navy has assigned Rear line Media Group. Honors And ElEctions
Adm. Roy J. Kelley as Naval Air Greenwich AeroGroups Pro- Andre Borschberg (see
Force commander, U.S. Atlantic fessional Aircraft Accessories photo) has been elected to the
Fleet, Norfolk, Virginia, from direc- has appointed Mark Iddon Tifany Grifn board of Marenco Swisshelicop-
tor, JSF Fleet Integration, Wash- as vice president of sales and ter. Borschberg, a former Swiss
ington; Rear Adm. (lower half) marketing. He was executive Air Force pilot, was cofounder
William D. Byrne, Jr., as Carrier vice president of sales, mar- of the Solar Impulse project,
Strike Group 15 commander, San keting and product support for the frst round-the-world solar
Diego, from commander of Carrier Tronair Inc. fight.
Strike Group 11, Everett, Washington; James Buck, Aspen Avion- The Association for Un-
Rear Adm. (lower half) Gregory N. ics fight operations director, manned Vehicle Systems Interna-
Harris as Carrier Strike Group 11 will become regional sales tional has named John Cofey
commander from commander of the manager in addition to manag- Andre Borschberg to its board. He is executive
Naval Aviation Warfghting Develop- ing Aspens fight-test program. director of unmanned systems for
ment Center, Fallon, Nevada; Rear Aircraft interiors company IPC Cherokee Nation Technologies. c

8 AvIATIoN WEEK & SPACE TECHNoLoGy/JULy 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

First Take For the latest, go to AviationWeek.com

South korea is testing a ballistic

missile larger than the previously
revealed Hyunmu 2A and 2B and fea-
turing a maneuverable reentry vehicle
with high accuracy. The 800-km-range
(500-mi.) Hyunmu 2C was fight tested
in late June and is close to deployment
(page 39).
in search of the root cause of a spike
COMMERCIAL AVIATION in hypoxia-like incidents involving
student pilots, the U.S. Navy is looking
easyJet has obtained an air opera- ronment committee has voted to at the quality of the air provided to the
tors certifcate in Austria to deal keep international fights exempt from oxygen generation system by the T-45
with the UKs decision to leave the Eu- paying for emissions under the EUs Goshawk trainers Rolls-Royce Adour
ropean Union (EU). The new Vienna- Emissions Trading Scheme until the engine.
based airline, EasyJet Europe, will end of 2020, pending the creation of a
enable EasyJet to continue to operate worldwide scheme for ofsetting CO2 korea Aerospace Research institute
fights both across Europe and domes- emissions. has demonstrated the automatic
tically within European countries after takeof and landing of a tiltrotor un-
the UK has left the EU, the company DEFENSE
says (page 18).
France and germany plan to collabo-
Air canada Flight 759 overfew rate on a new combat aircraft as part
four aircraft on the taxiway paral- of a strengthened defense agreement
lel to Runway 28R at San Francisco between the countries. They have also
International Airport near midnight signed a letter of intent to develop a
on July 7. Canadas Transportation maritime patrol aircraft. Common
Safety Board estimates the Airbus road maps for both programs are to be
A320, lined up on the taxiway rather developed by 2018 (page 16).
than the runway, overfew the frst two Korea aerospace research institute

aircraft by 100 ft. The closest lateral Belgiums shortlist for its future manned aircraft system on a moving
distance was 29 ft. fghter has shrunk to three after the ship. The July 7 fight involved the
Swedish government withdrew Saabs 210-kg (450-lb.) TR-60 vertical-take-
American Airlines is ending its Gripen E from the tender. Swedish of-and-landing UAS being developed
codeshares with etihad Airways and defense materiel organization FMV with Korean Air.
Qatar Airways as a protest against says Brusselss need for extensive
what the U.S. carrier alleges to be gov- operational support would require a thailand will buy eight more korean
ernment subsidies of the Gulf carriers. Swedish foreign policy that does not Aerospace industries t-50 advanced
The last valid date of travel using the exist. jet trainers to supplement four ordered
codeshares will be March 24, 2018. two years ago and scheduled for deliv-
Airbus Defense and Space few a ery starting later this year.
Modeled on the data-driven com- stealthy unmanned aircraft on July
mercial Aircraft Safety team, the 18 at a test range in Overberg, South GENERAL AVIATION
industry-government Unmanned
Aircraft Safety Team has formed its chinese carmaker geely, the owner
frst three working groups, to tackle of volvo and lotus, has purchased fy-
loss of control, reduce injuries and im- ing-car developer Terrafugia, reports
prove the safety culture among drone the South China Morning Post. The deal
operators. could position Hangzhou-based Geely
to enter the embryonic urban air trans-
pariss charles de gaulle Airport port market.
has installed a counterdrone system
developed by airport operator Groupe Regulators in norway and the Uk
ADP and the DSNA Services subsid- airbus Defense anD space are to lift the restrictions placed on
iary of French civil aviation authority Africa. The Sagitta subscale demon- operators of Airbus AS332L2 and H225
DGAC. The Hologarde system com- strator was developed with German Super Puma helicopters after the loss
prises radar, radio-frequency detec- universities and institutes under a of a Norwegian helicopter last April.
tion and infrared cameras. national research project focusing on It will be up to operators and their
autonomous fight control and other customers to decide whether they re-
the european parliaments envi- advanced technologies. introduce the helicopters to service.

AviationWeek.com/awst AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 9

First Take

Systems Loral and DARPA that will

demonstrate robotic satellite servic-
ing in geostationary orbit and leave
a commercial capability in place.
The judge ruled U.S. National Space
Policy could not be used to stop the

Siberian aeronautical research in- SpaceX Dragon crew capsules will

stitute SibNIA ew the prototype of splash down in the ocean, not re
an all-composite, turboprop-powered thrusters to touch down on land as
derivative of the Antonov An-2 utility planned, says CEO Elon Musk, citing
biplane on July 10. SibNIA is working the safety qualication efort required.
to establish a public-private partner- He also expects to be able to rey a Its still a couple of
ship to produce the aircraft in the Falcon 9 booster within 24 hr., prob- years away, but it will
Novosibirsk region. ably by next year. happen. Im amazed at
Kaman delivered the rst K-Max RECOGNIZED how fast its going.
external-lift helicopter produced since JON BEATTY
2003 to Chinas Lectern Aviation on Frank Morring, Jr., who retired on
July 13. The aircraft is one of two to be June 30 after 28 years covering the Flight Safety Foundation President
spaceight industry for Aviation Week and CEO on the prospect of package
& Space Technology and Aerospace Daily, deliveries via drones.
has received the NASA Distinguished

Frank Morring, Jr. (left) and Bob Robert Heinlein, Gene Roddenberry,
Jacobs, NASA deputy associate Neil deGrasse Tyson, astronauts Har-
administrator for communications. rison Schmitt, Ilan Ramon and Chris
Hadeld, and several cosmonauts.
Public Service
Medal, the DIED
highest honor
operated by Guangdong Juxiang Gen- the agency Aviation journalist and communi-
eral Aviation, primarily for reghting. can bestow cator Clifton Clif Stroud III, who
Kaman plans to extend resumed K-Max on a non- was also an accomplished church or-
production at least until 2019. government ganist, died on July 12, age 60. Stroud
individual. edited Aviations Weeks former ATC
SPACE Morring joins a Market Report and worked for several
group of distin- other aviation publications as well as
Orbital ATK has failed in a lawsuit guished peers writing for the FAA on the NextGen
to block a program by rival Space that includes program.


The title Aviation Week was born in July 1947, when the maga-
zine Aviation resumed weekly publication 17 years after the
Great Depression had forced it to go monthly. An accompanying
letter to subscribers promised that Aviation Week would have
more technical content from the largest and more expert staff
in aviation publishing. All the news, mailed to you on Friday
of every week. The magazine continued to sell its front cover
to advertisersin this case Curtiss Wrighta practice that
would continue for another nine years. The title was expanded
to Aviation Week & Space Technology in 1960. In 2015, print fre-
quency was reduced to biweekly, and new articles and columns
were posted online every weekday to meet the demands of less
patient digital-age readers.

Our searchable online archive includes every issue of Aviation Week back to 1916: archive.aviationweek.com

10 AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

Up Front By Richard Aboulafa
Contributing columnist
Richard Aboulafa is
vice president of analysis
at Teal Group. He is
based in Washington.
with the Sino-Russian twin-aisle joint
venture: Russias idea of a joint venture
involves selling its intellectual property
at a high price, while the other side
contributes nothing more than cash.
Sure enough, while the new China-Rus-
sia Commercial Aircraft International
Corp. calls for the jet to be manufac-
tured in Shanghai, the research and
development center will be in Moscow.
Russias attitude is understandable:
Theres a big disparity between the two
countries in aerospace technology and
UAC manufacturing skills. But China might
be inclined to think of a joint venture
Game Changer? as something that involves joint fnan-
cial contributions, rather than merely
an intellectual property sale.
Chinese-Russian widebody jet project This pattern has played out before
in previous Russian joint ventures.
is not another Airbus in the making Right now, Russias ffth-generation
fghter aircraft joint venture with
India is falling apart. This is hardly

I n May, the Chinese and Russian governments announced a

joint venture to build a new, clean-sheet twin-aisle jetliner.
The twinjet will be intended to carry 280 passengers up to
surprising, since Russia is now
demanding $7 billion for its Sukhoi
fghter jet technology. Thats on top
of the money needed to actually build
7,500 nm, competing with Airbuss A350-900 and Boeings these aircraft in India.
787-9. Like those aircraft, the new C929, as it has been called, is The closest thing so far to a success-
expected to include composites for about 50% of its airframe. ful Russian aerospace joint venture
is Superjet International, which was
It is tempting to think of this new successful. Just 104 Il-86s and about created between Sukhoi (49%) and
concept as a game changer. After all, 30 Il-96s have been delivered since Leonardo-Alenia Aeronautica (51%).
Russia has deep aerospace engineering 1979. The Il-96, intended to rejuvenate While 100 or so Superjets have been
experience, and China is one of the two the family and let Russian industry delivered during the past fve years,
biggest commercial jetliner markets compete with Western jetmakers in the organization has lost hundreds
(with the U.S.). Barriers to entry in the the post-Soviet era, has been a notable of millions of dollars. In April 2017,
twin-aisle market are higher than for failure. Il-96 production still sputters Leonardo sold 41% of the joint venture
almost any other industry. Vladimir along at a very low level today, and to Sukhoi, leaving it with 10%. Sukhoi
Putins Russia is eager to restore the hopes of relaunching it with Pratt & paid 1.16 for the 41%.
countrys former aerospace glory, and Whitney engines and Rockwell Collins Assuming the new twin-aisle does
Chinas government wants to create a avionics died in the early 2000s. The overcome the hurdles associated with
national aircraft industry. Il-96 competed with and lost against Russian aviation joint ventures, a large
Also, only two countries have Airbuss A340 family, which was not and fundamental problem remains.
developed jetliners in this class on exactly the greatest triumph of jetliner Both parties involved are pursuing this
their own, the U.S. and the former technology either. projectand the commercial aero-
Soviet Union. European manufactur- Russias original idea for a twin- space industry in generalthrough
ers were able to join the club only by aisle joint venture with China, government-owned industries. They
pooling their resources under Airbus. reported in the Russian press in 2012, are following a government road map
A Sino-Russian Airbus sounds like a revolved around working together on and are not subject to private-sector
disruptive event. future developments of the Il-96. And discipline.
However, this is not another Airbus despite the Il-96s shortcomings, Rus- Government ministers are not known
in the making. The story of Russias sia expected to be paid for its intel- for understanding commercial market
sole twin-aisle family, and the history lectual property. In May 2012, Russias needs and opportunities, and airlines
of Russias previous aviation joint RT.com news service reported that are unlikely to be interested in buying
ventures, serve as a cautionary tale Moscow will provide the know-how jets from a state-owned company. While
for this project. and technology, while Beijing will be both countries could privatize their
Russias Ilyushin Il-86 and Il-96 twin- responsible for the cash. jetliner industries, neither appears to
aisle quadjet series were not terribly This speaks to the biggest problem be on a path to doing so. c

AviationWeek.com/awst AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 11

Going Concerns By Michael Bruno
Michael Bruno is
Senior Business Editor
Join the conversation at:

commentary ture Services (SIS)to commercial-

ize sophisticated satellite-servicing

Northern Highlights capabilities, including refueling.

MDA also announced an agree-
ment with communications satellite
giant SES for an initial life-extension
MDAs U.S. Access Plan and recent contract, with options for future exten-
maneuvers spotlight the real space race sions. SIS has awarded SSL a $228
million contract to design and build a
space-servicing vehicle. MDA said it
will fully meet the specifcations for
DARPAs RSGS program, which is de-
signed to inspect, repair and augment
geosynchronous satellites. Plans call
for the vehicle to include a refueling
payload to extend the life of satellites
that are low on propellant.
Interestingly, SIS will be majority-
owned by Finance Technology Lever-
age, a global investment company
headquartered in Silicon Valley, along
with other U.S. investors; SSL MDA
Holdings will maintain a minority own-
Digital globe ership. Full fnancing for the venture is

T hese are heady days for

MacDonald, Dettwiler and
Associates (MDA).
ed to burgeon in coming years and has
spurred major investments in the area
by companies such as Orbital. Provid-
expected to conclude this summer.
At the same time as the SIS ribbon-
cutting, MDA announced that John
ers see demand by satellite operators Celli will retire as SSL president after
Recently, the Vancouver-based aero- to better use existing space assets via a 36-year career there. Valley veteran
space and satellite provider revealed life extension, inspection and repair. Dario Zamarian has been appointed
its new U.S.-based satellite-servicing Moreover, satellite servicing could group president, while Paul Estey was
company, its launch customer, fresh allow partial assembly in orbit, either named executive vice president/chief
blood at the top of its Space Systems augmenting existing satellites, replac- operating ofcer, both efective July 17.
Loral (SSL) unit and other key ap- ing elements from modular satellites Altogether, the Canadian invasion
pointments, while reveling in a federal or constructing larger satellites freed appears to be on track, save for some
court victory bolstering that business. from the mass and size constraints of minor hiccups. On the same day as
And its expected $3.6 billion acquisi- launch, according to MDA. the district court decision, MDA and
tion of Westminster, Colorado-based Orbital noted that the court deci- DigitalGlobe said they withdrew and
commercial remote-imaging company sion, if it stands, returns the issue to refled their joint voluntary notice to
DigitalGlobe is icing on the cake. the executive branch and Congress for the U.S. Committee on Foreign Invest-
Canadians should be cheering en resolution. That is worth remembering, ment in the United States (CFIUS) to
masse. Collectively, these events may as those branches of government are provide additional time for the inter-
come to form the new face of outer courts of public opinion where America agency group to complete its consid-
space north of the border, eclips- First sentiments are gaining sway eration of the proposed merger. Upon
ing Canadarm (the Shuttle Remote lately. Interestingly, MDA increasingly acceptance of the refling, CFIUS will
Manipulator System) and astronaut- can make the same arguments. initiate a new 30-day review period.
crooner Chris Hadfeld. How so? MDA is becoming more The DigitalGlobe takeover is one of
But it may not sit well at Dulles, Vir- American. The most tangible example the frst CFIUS decisions under the
ginia-based Orbital ATK. Orbital also is came in February when it announced Trump administration, but no one
gearing up a satellite-servicing system the DigitalGlobe deal. The acquisi- seems worried because MDA clearly
(AW&ST June 12-25, p. 56). But it took tion is a key component of MDAs U.S. plans to incorporate the ultimate par-
it on the chin when a U.S. district court Access Plan, unveiled last October. At ent company in the U.S. by 2019.
allowed a program by SSL and the the time, MDA announced the creation MDA and DigitalGlobe believe that
Defense Advanced Research Projects of SSL MDA Holdings, a Delaware CFIUS will conclude its consideration
Agency (DARPA) to demonstrate corporation that serves as the operat- of the transaction with no unresolved
robotic satellite servicing in geostation- ing company for all MDA businesses, issues of national security, the
ary orbit under the Robotic Servicing including in the U.S. and Canada. companies said July 12, echoing what
of Geosynchronous Satellites. Then on June 28, MDA announced many fnancial analysts have told
On-orbit satellite servicing is expect- the new ventureSpace Infrastruc- investor clients in recent months. c

12 AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 aviationWeek.com/awst

Inside Business Aviation By William Garvey
William Garvey is Editor-in-Chief
of Business & Commercial Aviation
Join the conversation at:

parade comprising a B-1 Lancer, B-2

Spirit and B-52 Stratofortress. Mean-
while, a pair of B-29s, Fif and Doc,
several B-17s and an A-20 will round
out the Oshkosh bomber wing.
In salute to the Apollo program, nine
of the participating astronautsBuzz
Aldrin, Frank Borman, Walt Cunning-
ham, Joe Engle, Dick Gordon, Fred
Haise, Jim Lovell, Jack Schmitt and Al
Wordenwill attend, along with for-
mer Flight Director Gene Kranz. Why
commentAry at Oshkosh? Knapinskis response:
Maureen Spuhler Astronauts are airplane geeks, too.

Star-Spangled The commemorative fights are in

addition to the daily performances by
a collection of world-class aerobats

Showtime including Sean Tucker, Patty Wag-

staf, Gene Soucy and Mike Goulian.
The Red Bull Wingsuits will drop in,
How to eschew escorting fghters quickly; Dassault is donating a Falcon
8X to the aerial exhilaration; and the

I try to attend the Experimental Aircraft Associations (EAA)

annual AirVenture periodically, but this years extravaganza
(July 24-30) isnt on my travel schedule. So I went to the EAA
U.S. Navys Blue Angels will show their
colors on the fnal Friday and Saturday.
There is little debate that whats
known simply as Oshkosh has
website to see what Ill be missing. Holy cow! evolved into Americas unofcial na-
tional air show. Knapinski notes, quite
My frst visit to the show, held at communications advisor, this years rightly, This has become a gathering
Wittman Regional Airport in leafy, AirVenture will have a lot more going place for everyone in aviation.
sleepy Oshkosh, Wisconsin, was in on than the outings of a decade ago. To satisfy attendees looking for
the 1970s and left an indelible impres- Attendees and exhibitors share the something more than fying fash, EAA
sion. Id never encountered so many view that Its Oshkosh, so it needs to has slated daily forums and work-
airplanes and aviation enthusiasts in be bigger and badder than all the rest. shopsan astounding 1,500 of them,
one place at one time. How big and how bad? EAA es- actuallycovering a range of subjects
The feld, which is pretty much timates a half-million peoplehailing as broad as aerospace itself.
empty for 50 weeks of the year, was from countries across the globewill As youd expect of an organization
chockablock with thousands of aircraft pass through its gates during the eight- that celebrates building aircraft in
of all typeshomebuilts, biplanes, day gathering. Mind you, 5,000 are vol- home garages, there are a number of
vintage production models, factory- unteers who may have arrived weeks sessions in metalworking, fabric stitch-
built singles and twins old and new, in advance to paint picnic tables, ing, engine conversions and such. But
warbirds, aged transports, aerobats, mow the lawns, set out trash bins and what most intrigues me is the unex-
gyrocopters, the works. The grounds police the place. Airplanes10,000+ pected: There is a NASA panel entitled
were teeming with air-minded gawk- of themwill cover Wittmans infelds, The Journey to Mars Is Underway,
ers by the tens of thousands at any parking and ultralight areas and Lake as well as Mountain Flying in New
given hour. The sprawling avmart was Winnebago seaplane base, with the Zealand, Precision Ag With Drones
a riot of aviation junk and gems, the overfow crowding neighboring air- and Electric Aircraft. So Where Is
workshops delivered invaluable info ports in Fond du Lac and Appleton. My Flying Car? has as a counterpoint,
on motorized levitation, and the daily This is an anniversary year for Uber ElevateUrban Aerial Ride-
air shows left spectators agog. It was a aviation and aerospace events includ- share. Rescuing Sea Turtles by Air
stunning, delightful eye-opener. ing the Doolittle Raid (75th), forma- is something Ive never contemplated,
Air show season is upon us again, tion of the U.S. Air Force (70th) and while How To Avoid a Fighter Escort
and having recently attended the Paris Apollo 1 disaster (50th). To honor addresses one I have, thanks to the
Air Show as well as the European Busi- those involved, EAA hopes to launch a FAAs pesky Temporary Flight Restric-
ness Aviation Convention and Exhibi- formation of 16 B-25 Mitchell bombers tions.
tion in Geneva, I wondered if AirVen- from Wittman, the same number that All things considered, Knapinski
ture might have been gently eclipsed lifted of from the USS Hornet on April says, the show is just beyond cool.
over the ensuing decades. It has not. 18, 1942. During the course of the show, The perfect antidote for a hot week in
Says Dick Knapinski, EAAs senior those will be complemented in a fyby late July. c

AviationWeek.com/awst AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 13

Airline Intel By Jens Flottau
Jens Flottau is Managing
Editor for Civil Aviation
Join the conversation at:

commentary eral air service agreements elsewhere,

so this one should be no exception.

Protecting Innovators An important aspect of Brexit that

has often been overlooked is that it
afects the transatlantic market; there-
U.S.-EU open skies and the European common fore incumbent carriers should have at
least as much interest in resolving the
market are both remarkable successes issue as their competitors. The existing
EU/U.S. open-skies agreement needs
to be altered to refect the post-Brexit

T he commercial aviation industry is looking back at two

milestones that have defned its current shape: The Euro-
pean Unions common aviation market, created 25 years ago,
change, and the UK needs to negotiate
a new bilateral with the U.S.
The joint ventures created by
Lufthansa/United Airlines, Delta
treated the member states as one; the open-skies agreement Air Lines/Air France-
between the European

KLM and American
Union and the U.S. 10 years Airlines/British
Airways were based
ago replaced many bilateral on the assumption of
air service agreements, in- free market access for
cluding the famous Bermu- competing carriers. If
that is no longer the
da II deal, which severely case because parts
limited U.S. carriers access of the transatlantic
to Heathrow Airport. operation are now sub-
ject to some form of
These milestones have a few limitations, the ratio-
things in common. They have been a nale behind approving
huge success from the point of view of and pushes back on attempts to either those joint ventures disappears. And
consumers and those that wanted to try protect incumbents or prove a broader rightly so. Ironically, it is now in the
new business models. If the evidence of political pointor both. best interest of the big legacy carriers
this is weaker for transatlantic routes, it The big achievement of the EU to keep the transatlantic market open
is because we are only now beginning to common market over the past 25 to new competitors.
see new strategies emerge and prosper. years was that it created space for The success of new business mod-
Unfortunately, both achievements are new business models to thrive. In- els is not yet as clearly visible as that
also under immense threat. novators such as Ryanair, EasyJet and of the low-cost carriers, but change is
The industry should unite and fght their second-generation followers like underway. Norwegians daring expan-
back, including legacy airlines such Norwegian and Wizz Air were key to sion into a large Boeing 787 operation
as Air France-KLM, Lufthansa and the common markets success. Incum- across the Atlantic has shown what
the big three U.S. carriers that may bents Lufthansa, British Airways and could be possible.
believe they could beneft from rolling Air France would have changed noth- And others are following suit:
back the clock. They wont. ing and simply continued to operate International Airlines Group created
Conceptually, the threat is protec- their hubs in a cozy oligopoly. Level, the carrier that is launch-
tionism, as displayed in the rhetoric It is understandable on the one ing long-haul low-cost fying from
of the Trump administration, and hand why the EU wants Brexit to be Barcelona, Spain. Even Lufthansa,
demands by the big three U.S. carri- painful for the UK. It could serve as a not known for being innovative, is at
ers to go against foreign competitors cautionary tale that leaving the EU is the forefront of the development with
such as Norwegianand Brexit. With not a good idea. But there is a fne line its Eurowings ofspring. Norwegians
Brexit, a big piece of the transatlantic between making a point and hurting future success is dependent to a
market is removed from the protec- consumers and industry more than large extent on its ability to expand
tion of open skies, and a large section necessary. The EU and its member transatlantic fying from London-
of the common aviation market will states should propose a generous in- Gatwick. The temporary approval of
also disappear at the end of March terpretation of ownership-and-control Norwegian UKs license by the U.S.
2019, when the UK leaves the EU. It regulations, which is a major concern Transportation Department is a wel-
is crucially important that what will for EasyJet, Ryanair and carriers of come sign in difcult times. The silver
be out of reach in the future for both that ilk. lining of Brexit could be the reform
deals be regulated by a modern legal And as much as proving a point to of ownership and control limitations
framework that takes into account the the UK may be tempting, the Europe- and a strengthening of liberal air
changes the market has undergone an Commission has been driving lib- transport policies. c

14 AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 aviationWeek.com/awst

Washington Outlook Edited by Jen DiMascio
Jen DiMascio is Managing
Editor for Defense and Space
Join the conversation at:

CommentAry chorus calling on the White House to

withdraw its nomination of former

Down, Not Out Rep. Scott Garrett (R-N.J.) as the next

Export-Import Bank chairman. When
Garrett was nominated in April, AIA
was optimistic despite reports about
What will McCains illness mean for defense? his staunch opposition to the export
credit agency. Since then, we have

S en. John McCain (R-Ariz.) may be battling an aggressive

form of brain cancer, but even from his hospital bed he re-
mains a leading voice on defense issues.
grown increasingly troubled by the
absence of any indication that [Garrett]
has evolved his position on the bank
since 2015, when he openly argued that
That said, as he undergoes treat- Congress should take every opportunity
ment, his absence from the chamber to keep the Export-Import Bank out of
could afect the timing of passage of business.
the bill that tackles defense policy, AIAs opposition to Garrett follows
including securing additional funding the lead of the South Carolina Chamber
for the Pentagon, acquisition reforms of Commerce and the National Associa-
and assistance for Ukraine. Since the tion of Manufacturers, whose presi-
start of the year, McCain has prod- dent, Jay Timmons, lambasted Garrett
ded Congress and the White House in a Wall Street Journal op-ed. But even
to dedicate billions more to defense. if the White House were to withdraw
McCain and his House counterpart, its nomination of Garrett, the Ex-Im
Chip Somodevilla/Getty imaGeS
Rep. Mac Thornberry (R-Texas), Bank would still be hog-tied. The chief
drafted a highly prescriptive plan to the presidents desk and providing problem for customers such as Boeing
that would provide $640 billion for Ukraine the defensive lethal assistance and General Electric has been a dearth
defense in fscal 2018. While many it needs to defend itself. c of confrmed board members. With-
in Congress support McCains call out a quorum, the fve-member board
for higher defense spending, defense CAll for leAdership cannot approve deals of more than $10
analyst Byron Callan of Capital Alpha Trumps new National Space Council million. And temporary terms have ex-
Partners says few or none have the appears to have broad support from pired for two acting membersChair-
Vietnam prisoner of wars stature or space industry and former govern- man/President Charles Hall and Vice
reputation. Within the GOP, there ment ofcials. The question appears Chairman/First Vice President Scott
remains a divide between those who to be whether the council, to be led by Schloegel. Still, critics might note that
believe in higher defense spending Vice President Mike Pence and Scott even with a crippled Ex-Im, U.S. A&D
and U.S. global engagement and those Pace, the councils newly appointed companies exported $146 billion worth
who believe that debt, smaller govern- executive secretary, will have the di- of products last year, generating a trade
ment and focus on domestic issues rection it needs from the White House surplus of more than $90 billion. c
are more important, Callan says. to be successful.
And at a time when President Donald Pace points out that the Obama pACkAge deAl
Trump is increasing cooperation with administration lacked direction when House Republicans are combining
Russia, McCain has taken a hard it comes to space policy. Now he will spending bills into oneto fund the De-
stance against Russian encroachment have a hand in trying to reorient the fense Department, Energy and Water
in Ukraine, decrying that Russian- nations diverse space interests. Department, the Legislative Branch and
backed separatists in the Donetsk At an event hosted by the Space Veterans Afairsand forwarding the
region proclaimed an independent Policy Institute at George Washing- package to the House foor for a vote.
state called Little Russia. ton University, currently headed by The package does not include a
The ultimate responsibility for this Pace, U.S. Air Force Gen. (ret.) Robert spending bill that contained fund-
latest fagrant violation of Ukraines Kehler, the former commander of U.S. ing for NASA. Nor does it contain a
sovereignty lies squarely with Vladimir Strategic Command, said the space transportation package approved by
Putins Russia, upon whose leadership, council faces myriad issues includ- the House Appropriations Commit-
fnancing, troops and weapons the ing space exploration and whether tee July 17 to fund the FAA. That
separatists are entirely dependent, government or industry leadership fscal 2018 legislation would add $16.6
McCain said in a statement issued the should prevail. There is a real role billion$434 million above Trumps
evening before he underwent surgery for a national-level efort, he says. c request. In addition to funding, it
to remove a blood clot. He argues that contains provisions afecting main-
sanctions will not be enough to change exit the ex-im tenance, repair and overhaul shops;
Russian behavior: We must start by The Aerospace Industries Association manufacturers; pilots and other
sending a strong Russia sanctions bill (AIA) is adding its voice to a growing groups. c

AviationWeek.com/awst AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 15


Europe Awakens
France and Germany propose to all, Alonso said. There is no place to do two or three
diferent systems in Europe. . . . The time is right for us to
a European answer to the F-35 decide to build.
Now it seems that Alonsos plea has been answered, and
Tony Osborne RAF Fairford, England the possibility of a German order for the F-35mooted after
Berlin was reportedly given classied briengs on the U.S.

he leaders of France and Germany have ghterlooks increasingly unlikely.
declared an ambition to build a European But so does British involvement in such a program, despite
the UK having been a preferred partner for European combat
answer to the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. aircraft development for decades. The result of Britains June
French President Emmanuel Macron and Ger- 2016 vote to exit the European Union has made the future
man Chancellor Angela Merkel are working to of European defense cooperation with the UK less certain.
However, BAE Systems ofcials are more optimistic, indi-
mend European defense relations and bolster cating that they have access to technologies and capabilities
their defense industrial base, which has been the new system might need.
eroded by overly aggressive budget reductions. I am convinced that we, the UK and BAE Systems, will,
one way or the other, have an involvement, said Chris Board-
The two countries want to strengthen their defense rela- man, the managing director of BAEs military aircraft busi-
tionship via a permanent structured cooperation, which ness, at the Royal International Air Tattoo (RIAT) July 14.
will strengthen coherence, continuity, coordination and col- Europe has now recognized what the rest of the world is
laboration between European States, ofcials say. doing, added Boardman, pointing out that nations across
And going beyond ghters, the two leaders also proposed the world are investing in next-generation ghter aircraft. I
development of a new maritime patrol aircraft platform and a dont feel threatened by it. . . . I want to see how it matures.
ground-based indirect re system, and they have reiterated a BAE is already heavily involved in development of the F-35
need to develop a European intelligence-gathering unmanned and its supply chain and is sending engineers to Turkey to as-
air system as they met in Paris for the Franco-German Min- sist in development of a Turkish indigenous ghter called TF-X.
isterial Council on July 13. One European industry executive at RIAT questioned what
The announcement for the ghter has certainly surprised additional capabilities BAE would be able to bring beyond
industry ofcials, who sensed political movement but had no those that Airbus and Dassault could provide.
idea it would surface so quickly. Asked whether a Franco-German program could harm
Airbus, which will likely work on any resulting program
from the German side, welcomed the move, adding that
strengthening the Franco-German axis will help to safeguard
critically needed European defense capabilities in the future.
Dassault would probably support the project in France.
Now the two countries want to dene a road map to the
ghter by mid-2018, but there is no clue how far the time
line extends into the future. Germany would likely want an
aircraft that would replace both the Panavia Tornado and the
Euroghter Typhoon, while France would use the resulting
platform to replace its Dassault Mirages and Rafales, possibly
including those operated by its navy.
The plan has its origins in Germanys NextGen Weapon
System (NextGenWS) studies, which were detailed by Berlin
in early 2016. It called for concrete European collaboration,
to progress a manned or unmanned ghter platform.
Documents at the time noted that a national single-hand-
ed development for weapon systems of this complexity no
longer seems possible.
Airbus was contracted to begin studies later that year with
two teams working on concept denition and specications
making extensive use of simulation. Spain has also become
involved in the NextGenWS to see if the joint platform could
meet its own future combat air system requirements to re-
place its navys McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18 Hornets and AV-8
Then, in June, Airbuss head of military aircraft, Fernando
Alonso, urged France to join the discussion. It is clearly in
our European interest to dene one single system available

16 AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

the future of the Anglo-French unmanned combat air vehicle developed platform, for which the industrial base there has
demonstrator program, Boardman said that industry on both been lobbying hard.
sides of the English Channel is working to bring the program In a study published by NATOs Joint Air Power Compe-
to the next stage of commitment. He added, Nothing I see tence Center (JAPCC) in June 2016, senior ofcers said that
is stopping the pace of that discussion. NATO countries needed to identify a common aircraft re-
Macron and Merkels announcement was obliquely aimed placement for the Lockheed P-3 Orion-series that remains
at Washington as well, taking place as President Donald in service with several nations. JAPCC says many of these
Trump touched down in Paris on July 13 for the Bastille Day aircraft will need replacing around 2025.
celebrations the next day. More efcient European coopera- The study contends there has been a dramatic fall in the
tion could lead to defense equipment that could better com- number of maritime patrol aircraft since the end of the Cold
pete with American products, with research and develop- War, with around 120 such platforms chopped from national
ment supported not only by the national governments but inventories. Some nations did away with the capability en-
also the newly launched European Defense Fund for research tirely, including the Netherlands. Italy, with its new Leonardo
and development. ATR 72-based aircraft, retains the ability to surveil the seas
Macron has called for a deep revolution in how the pro- but is no longer equipped for anti-submarine warfare.
grams might be structured, hinting that he recognizes the Germany is operating a eet of former Dutch P-3 Orions,
mistakes of past multinational programs. The Typhoon has while France is operating the Dassault Atlantique 2, currently
struggled to achieve exports in part because of the high costs undergoing feasibility studies on upgrading the platform to
associated with its four-nation construct and having assem- keep it operational until 2030. Greece is reentering the mari-
bly lines in the partner countries. time patrol mission with upgrades to its elderly eet of P-3s,
Today there are too many European standards and quali- while Turkey will soon take delivery of a much-delayed eet
cations, and sometimes there is competition among Euro- of anti-submarine warfare-capable ATR 72 Meltem IIIs.
peans internationally, Macron said. A communique from the Franco-German Ministerial
In addition to the ghter, the two countries are signatories Council says that a common road map for the platform will
to a letter of intent signed in Brussels on June 29 to develop be developed in 2018.
a new multimission and maritime patrol aircraft capability The JAPCC report says several nations had been waiting
along with Greece, Italy, Spain and Turkey. to see what Britain would do to rebuild its maritime patrol
Although discussions are at an early stage, it is clear the capability after retiring the Nimrod. The UK ended up select-
nations are looking for one of two outcomes. One would be a ing the Boeing P-8 Poseidon, a platform the report says is
joint acquisition program, similar to the Multinational Multi- beyond the nancial means of many countries.
Role Tanker Transport Fleet launched by the Netherlands Although the Cold War is not returning, the Bear is awak-
and Luxembourg and recently signed on to by Germany and ening from hibernation, and NATO cannot aford to function
Norway, but operated and run by NATO. Or perhaps, and with a future capability shortfall against a growing submarine
the more likely of the two, is an entirely new European- presence, the report states. c

Germanys plan for a new ghter was originally proposed as a Panavia

Tornado replacement, but the partnership with France could result in
an aircraft that also replaces the Euroghter and Frances Rafale.


AviationWeek.com/awst AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 17


Painful Divorce there would likely be a very high price

to pay: The UK would have to remain
a member of the European Common
Aviation Area and continue to accept
Airlines are concerned that Brexit could mean all of the EU aviation regulations such
as passenger rights, European Court of
regulatory chaos for European air transport Justice rulings for the sector and the
European Aviation Safety Agency as
Jens Flottau Frankfurt the aviation safety regulator. However,
getting out from under EU regulation

lthough completion of Brexit is 20 months away, airlines was a key goal of Brexit supporters.
and regulators are hard-pressed to resolve myriad legal IAG is in a particularly tricky posi-
tion. The group is based in Spain, but
questions raised by the UKs decision to leave the Euro- its largest subsidiary, British Airways,
pean Union. Some industry ofcials predict chaos is inevitable operates from London. IAG holds
unless there is a quick resolution. only 49.9% of the British Airways vot-
ing rights (but 99.65% of the nominal
If we dont have a clear legal frame- August 2018 to ensure sufcient time share capital in BA) for the purposes
work by September 2018, we will not for it to be ratied by the remaining 27 of implementing the British Airways
be flying to the UK, Ryanair CEO member states. nationality structure, according to
Michael OLeary told members of OLeary is pessimistic that a deal the IAG 2016 annual report. A nominal
the European Parliament. It will be can be accomplished so quickly: To majority (50.1%) of the voting rights
a huge mess. Given the state of nego- find an open skies agreement in 12 are held by a British trust that has a
tiations over the UKs vote to leave the months is an impossibility, he avers. say in core decisions such as appoint-
European Union, there is a real pros- Other industry observers note that ing chief executives. IAG needs a new
pect that there are no ights between September 2018 will be too late, and EU/UK deal that allows it to own a
the UK and Europe from March 2019 that March 2018 is even more unre- British airline with all of its current
for some months, he warns. alistic. There has to be some bridge trafc rights intact. It also needs the
On March 29, British Prime Min- solution, says Marius Boewe, a lawyer U.S. to agree to a new U.S./UK deal
ister Theresa May ofcially declared specializing in aviation regulation at that continues to accept the trust
the countrys intention to exit the EU. Herbert Smith Freehills, a UK-based structure of British Airways. As a fur-
The UK will lose its status as an EU law rm. ther complication, IAG is 20% owned
member state by the end of March Willie Walsh, chief executive of by Qatar Airways. The IAG struc-
2019, given that terms of the conditions International Airlines Group (IAG), ture will not survive a hard Brexit,
must be concluded within two years. is clear about his targets: A compre- Ryanairs OLeary cautions.
OLeary urged parliament members hensive air services agreement simi- Others, including Ryanair, are in no
to tackle negotiations afecting the air lar to, but more open than the EU/U.S. easier position. Deducting the shares
transport portion of the exit with alac- open skies agreement, which main- owned by UK investors, Ryanair cur-
rity, noting that such complex matters tains all the freedoms of the air and rently has less than 50% European
do not have the luxury of time and need includes provisions that would allow ownership, which would not allow it to
immediate resolution. Ryanair (and airlines to be fully owned by nationals continue ying intra-European routes.
other carriers) will be making route of both parties. Ryanair may force some UK investors
decisions for summer 2019 beginning That is a very big ask. The EU will to sell shares and buy them back to en-
in September or October 2018 at the play extremely tough, says Boewe. sure majority EU ownership, OLeary
latest; therefore, a new EU/UK avia- While the UK could in theory expect hints.
tion agreement must be negotiated by to retain the access that Walsh wants, Walsh does not share OLearys pes-

London Gatwick Airport is by far

EasyJets largest base.

18 AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

simism. I dont agree with his projec- But the company says the holding in theory, be counted as belonging to
tions that the UK will no longer be structure, while based and listed in both the EU27 and British portion of
connected, because it is in everybodys London, will continue to be European. the share capital, since Cyprus is an
interest [to retain air service]. But we Therefore, EasyJet has to orchestrate EU member.
do need certainty sooner rather than a yet-to-be-dened change in its share- EasyJet as a whole currently op-
later. He also stresses that the IAG holder structure that ensures another erates 266 aircraft; 25 are based in
structures remain valid and that the 4% of its share capital will become Geneva and belong to EasyJet Swit-
company continues to comply with all European-owned. zerland. Another 100 are based in six
rules and regulations. Herbert Smith Freehills Boewe says future EU27 countries. These, along
EasyJet is already reshaping its the new EasyJet structure could very with 4,000 employees, will be placed
corporate structure and setting up a well work out ne, and the initiatives under the roof of EasyJet Europe. No
new air operator certicate (AOC) to indicate that the airline is far advanced jobs will shift from the UK to Austria,
deal with the fallout of Brexit. Europes in preparing for Brexit. the company has stated.
second-largest low-fare airline earlier Whether EasyJet Airline Co., the fu- Transatlantic joint ventures are
this year applied to Austrian aviation ture British airline, will be 100% owned also at risk. Approvals hinge on an
regulator Austro Control for an a AOC by the holding company depends on open transatlantic market, which ends
and says the process is now well ad- the future aviation agreement as well in March 2019, says Sean Kennedy,
vanced and the airline therefore as British regulations regarding airline Airlines for America (A4A) senior vice
hopes to receive the AOC and license ownership. EasyJet could be forced to president of global government af-
in the near future. The new airline, set up an independent trust that for- fairs. London-Heathrow routes repre-
EasyJet Europe, will be based in Vi- mally owns 51% of the British airline sent eight of the top 10 transatlantic
enna. The structure will enable Easy- to ensure its UK status. That would markets for U.S. airlines and 53% of
Jet to continue to operate ights both be the favored structure of Bernstein U.S.-originating Heathrow trafc con-
across Europe and domestically within Research analyst Daniel Roeska, who nects to what will be the reconstituted
European countries after the UK has would like to see all of the afected air- European Union. Therefore, Kennedy
left the EU, the company states. This lines establish shields to protect na- stresses, a liberal EU/UK agreement is
would be the case regardless of the tional structures in the UK and the EU. needed as much as a new UK/U.S. deal.
outcome of talks on a future EU-UK However, in EasyJet Airline Co.s Observers believe that the three
aviation agreement. case that may not be necessary, de- joint ventures routes between conti-
EasyJet plc, the holding company, pending on how the Haji-Ioannou stake nental Europe and the U.S. could still
currently owns 100% of EasyJet Air- is categorized. EasyJet founder Stelios retain antitrust immunity post-Brexit.
line Co. Ltd., which operates services Haji-Ioannou and his family have dual But given U.S. carriers reliance on
within and from England and Wales, Cypriot/British citizenship. If the UK Heathrow, that would make relatively
and 49% of EasyJet Switzerland SA. and the EU agree, that stake could, little diference. c
The remaining 51% is owned by Swiss
EasyJet Europe, the new Austrian
AOC, will be 100% owned by EasyJet
plc, but the future ownership structure
of the British airline is not yet clear.
Northern Exposure
EasyJet plc has around 27.5% UK
ownership, not counting the 33.72%
Norwegian has ambitious expansion plans,
held by the founding Haji-Ioannou
family. Its current EU27-ownership
but multiple obstacles remain
(the shares owned by nationals of the Madhu Unnikrishnan Oslo
future EU of 27 countries) is at 47%.

orwegian Air Shuttles plans to knit the world with low-cost long-haul ser-
vice received another boost earlier in July when the carrier took delivery
of its rst Boeing 737 MAX aircraft, which it plans to operate from Europe
to the Northeastern U.S. andas CEO Bjorn Kjos predictseventually to New
Delhi. In addition, the company is taking advantage of aviation liberalization by
setting up subsidiaries in Ireland, the UK and Argentina.
But Norwegians ambitious plans do not have clear runways. Political forces
beyond the companys control could crimp its expansion, particularly in two key
markets: the U.S. and Northeast AsiaChina, Japan and South Korea.
Norwegian is facing headwinds in the latter market due to the issue of Russian
overight. Russia is not a signatory to the 1945 International Air Services Transit
Agreement (IASTA), which allows reciprocal overight of countries in the pact.
Instead, Russia charges royalties to carriers that want to y over its vast Siberian
territory. These royalties amount to hundreds of millions of dollars a yearmost
of which goes to Russian carrier Aerootbut are a necessary cost of doing busi-
ness, particularly for European airlines seeking to serve Northeast Asia.
The problem for Norwegian is that these overight rights are negotiated by

AviationWeek.com/awst AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 19


Norwegian plans to use its Boeing 737-8

aircraft for transatlantic ights and possibly to
connect Stockholm with destinations in Asia.

governments, not by individual airlines, and many of the guments, he says. Are unions suggesting that labor laws


agreements negotiated by countries where the carrier op- in the UK and Ireland are worse than those in the U.S. and
erates were hammered out before Norwegian began long- Norway? That is just not true.
haul service. For example, Denmark, Norway and Sweden We are a European carrier, in compliance with all labor
have agreements with Russia that cover SAS Scandinavian laws and with the open-skies agreement, and we are de-
Airlines, while those negotiated by the UK cover British Air- nitely not subsidized. I simply cannot understand how they
ways and other incumbent carriers such as Virgin Atlantic can say there are ags of convenience in Europe.
Airways. Labors arguments are being pushed forward by the three
Norwegian serves Bangkok from Copenhagen, Oslo and largest U.S. legacy carriersAmerican Airlines, Delta Air
Stockholm, and plans to launch London-Singapore service Lines and United Airlines, Kjos says. It is getting fairly ex-
this autumn. But to reach points in China, Japan and South pensive to y domestic in the U.S. now, he explains. They
Korea, it needs Russian overight rights. want to protect those high fares across the Atlantic as well,
The company is working with the governments of the and we ofer fares that are too low, and they hate competition.
Scandinavian countries and the UK to negotiate overight I cannot understand where this ag-of-convenience ar-
rights with Russia. Overying the Siberian corridor is nec- gument comes in, he continues. We are not set up, like ship-
essary for us to expand and the lack of these rights is limiting ping, in some country with low taxes to evade paying taxes
our Asian expansion, Kjos says. or labor; we are operating from advanced European states.
Norwegian has not announced any rm plans to serve The carrier operates its transatlantic ights with crews
China, Japan or South Korea, but Kjos says these countries based in the U.S. or Europe, Kjos says.
are in the companys sights. He had no time frame for when Indeed, Norwegians supporters argue the company is tak-
negotiations will be completed, but notes: We are having ing full advantage of the liberalization aforded by the open
very positive discussions with the Russians and are inter- skies agreement. It allows European carriers to y from any
ested in possibly serving Moscow, as well. point in the EUincluding countries, such as Norway, that
On the other side of the Atlantic, problems for Norwe- are not part of the bloc but have signed the agreementto
gian have been playing out for longer, but still remain an any city in the U.S. The company set up NUK as a hedge
impediment to its expansion. The companys Irish subsidiary, against Britains decision to leave the EU, or Brexit, which
Norwegian Air International (NAI), won the right to serve could complicate matters if the UK and EU cannot negotiate
the U.S. in the waning days of the Obama administration, a new air services agreement before 2019. NUK will be a
after more than two years of erce opposition from unions. standalone operation ying in and out of London, because I
They alleged that NAI was established in Ireland to skirt am not sure a UK operator will be allowed to y in and out
Norways strict labor laws and therefore violated Article 17 of other European states after Brexit, says Kjos.
bis of the U.S.-EU open-skies agreement, which covers labor But the competition has not stood still. The open-skies
provisions. agreement created a vacuum for U.S.-bound ights at Lon-
Unions and other groups have renewed their complaints, dons Gatwick Airport, from which many carriers decamped
alleging that Norwegian UK (NUK), which was just granted in favor of Heathrow Airport. Access there had been re-
temporary permission to y to the U.S. by the Transporta- stricted by the bilateral agreements that the open-skies deal
tion Department, operates under the same model. The latest superseded. International Airlines Group (IAG), the parent
shot red in this battle came last month, when Rep. Frank company of British Airways, has responded with new ights
LoBiondo (R-N.J.) added an amendment to the FAA reau- to U.S. destinations from Gatwick, including Fort Lauder-
thorization bill that would change the U.S. Transportation dale, Florida, and Oakland, California. These are routes that
Departments permitting process, targeting in particular Norwegian operates but British Airways has not served,
what unions call ag-of-convenience carriers. This is the according to Craig Jenks, founder of industry consultancy
label they have applied to NAI and NUK, which y with Irish Airline/Aircraft Projects Inc.
and British air operators certicates, respectively. They ar- IAG also has launched Level, a new low-cost, long-haul
gue that the U.S. airline business could sufer the same fate carrier. Level will operate ights to the U.S. and Buenos Ai-
as the maritime industry, which was brought to its knees in res, Argentina, from Barcelona, Spain, which Jenks believes
the middle of the 20th century when shipping lines began is IAGs response to Norwegians low-cost, long-haul ights
registering vessels in countries with lower taxes and less- from that city. This is propelled by IAGs determination not
stringent labor provisions than the U.S. to cede ground, he says.
Kjos scofed at this notion. I cant understand labors ar- It remains to be seen if British Airways will respond with

20 AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

routes to Singapore and Buenos Aires from Gatwick, to One quirk of Norwegians structure is that all of its aircraft
match Norwegians fights, he says. are owned by a wholly owned leasing subsidiary, Arctic Avia-
But Buenos Aires also is a focus of Norwegians expansion, tion Asset (AAA). This lessor converted 30 of its 100 Airbus
and not merely for connecting Argentina with Europe. The A320neo orders to the A321neo LRs that Norwegian plans
company could secure the necessary government approv- to operate, with 70 of the A320neos to be leased to other
als for a planned Argentinan subsidiary by the end of the airlines by AAA. As Norwegian replaces its 737-800s with
month, Kjos says. MAX aircraft, the older 737s will go back to AAA to be leased
The new airline, Norwegian Argentina, would serve the to other airlines, says Kjos.
domestic market and connect Argentina with Europe and This rapid expansion comes at a cost. Norwegian in June
eventually operate from Argentina to other South Ameri- reported yields were down 6% from the same month in 2016,
can countries. We are setting up an Argentine company although trafc was up 19% on 20% more capacity. Yields
and are getting an Argentine [air operators certifcate], for the full-year 2016 fell 5%, and unit revenues were down
Kjos says. We are in the process of recruiting for a base in 3%. In the frst quarter of this year, the company lost $181
Buenos Aires. million, which it attributed to higher fuel costs, increased
In order to operate routes within Argentina, Norwegian competition and the strength of the Norwegian kroner. In
needs to secure what Kjos calls concessions from the gov- the second quarter, the company reported a proft of $121
ernment. Kjos expects these approvals by the end of July, at million, but a loss of $50 million for the frst half of the year.
which point the carrier would set up its subsidiary and staf Yields for the frst half of 2017 declined by 9%, compared
its base in Buenos Aires. with the frst half of 2016.
Argentina is very underserved and has no LCCs in its Against the backdrop of these fnancial results, Frode
markets, Kjos notes. Fares are very high, and there are 45 Foss, the companys chief fnancial ofcer, announced he
million people in the country, so we think it has incredible was leaving the company after 15 years in the position. Tore
potential as a tourist market. Initial routes would be from Ostby, currently vice president for investor relations, is suc-
Buenos Aires to Europe, either to London or a city in Scandi- ceeding him on an interim basis. The news of Fosss depar-
navia. He did not detail possible internal Argentinen routes. ture sent Norwegians stock plunging 8% in a single day, and
All of this expansion requires more aircraft, and Norwe- it still has not recovered fully.
gian has a large orderbook with both Boeing and Airbus. The Despite this, Kjos remains optimistic about the carriers
company has 114 Boeing 737-800s in its feet, two 737-8swith expansion plans. Norwegian recently announced several
four more of these 737 MAX airliners entering the feet by the new U.S. destinations including Austin, Texas, and he says
end of Julyand 14 787-9s. It has orders for 106 additional the company is exploring using its new MAX aircraft in
MAX aircraft and 42 more 787-9s. In addition, Norwegian has Asia. The MAX can fy between Stockholm and Delhi,
ordered 30 Airbus A321neo LRsits frst Airbus aircraft he says. From Stockholm, with our feet, we can cover
which are expected to begin joining the feet in 2019. most of Asia. c

Unknown Territory A350-900s also has undergone sev-

eral iterations and has actually grown
to 35 A350-1000s. However, the airline
The three big U.S. legacy carriers deferred deliveries of four A350-1000s
from 2018 to 2019, again raising more
are holding back on widebody orders uncertainty about its large A350 com-
Jens Flottau Frankfurt The 787 also is afected by these de-
velopments. Delta canceled an order

elta Air Lines took delivery of of orders from the big three Gulf car- for 18 of them last December, after
its frst A350-900 on July 13, an riersEmirates, Etihad Airways and having deferred deliveries until 2020
event celebrated by Airbus as a Qatar Airwaysas well as Lufthansa. and later. The order had been placed
major milestone for the program. After The three U.S. carriers have ordered by Northwest Airlines, which merged
all, the aircraft was the frst A350 de- a total of 82 A350s, but when these air- with Delta in 2008.
livered to a North American customer. craft will actually arrive is not clear. There are multiple reasons for the
But while Delta now is slowly starting to Delta ordered 25 -900s and is under- slow sales of large widebody aircraft
renew its widebody feet, this delivery stood to be taking 15 of them within the in the U.S.market-driven, strategic,
cannot hide the fact that the U.S. mar- next two years or so. However, it also sometimes even personal. But if ana-
ket has been troubling for three of the deferred deliveries for 10 more, from lysts and experts observing these de-
latest widebody programsthe A350 2019-20 to 2021-24. American has an velopments are right, neither Airbus
and Boeing 787, as well as the 777X. order for 22 A350s, placed initially by nor Boeing can hope for the situation
The facts are sobering. None of the its predecessor US Airways in 2005. to change soon.
three legacy U.S. carriersAmerican The frst aircraft was supposed to have In recent years, U.S. carriers have
Airlines, Delta and United Airlines arrived three years ago according to focused on turning around the do-
arguably the only U.S.-based candi- the original plan, but several defer- mestic market to achieve higher proft
dateshave placed orders for the rals have pushed first delivery back margins through capacity discipline
777X, a program launched on the basis to 2020. Uniteds 2009 order for 25 and other changes. That exercise has

AviationWeek.com/awst AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 21


been very successful, based on the of the widebodies currently offered, at least 23 years old and many of them
mega-mergers that created four large or could be the proposed Boeing New close to or beyond 30 years. No margin
groups controlling around 80% of Midsize Airplane (NMA). As sketched for replacement would be left.
the trafc. The transatlantic market, out, the new Boeing aircraft would So far, with a combined 91 rm or-
in spite of growth in Asia, is still the have the range to y most transatlan- ders from two airlines for the 787 and
mainstay of U.S. carriers long-haul op- tic missions and would ofer more ex- 82 from three airlines for the A350, nei-
erations and is in the process of funda- ibility than the Airbus A321LR, whose ther of the programs can claim great
mental change, as U.S. airlines are not range is limited to around 4,000 nm. success in the U.S. market, not to men-
nearly as much in control of that situ- The NMA also could have a major ad- tion the total absence of orders for the
ation as they are on domestic routes. vantage from an airline strategy point 777X. In spite of the Delta cancellation,
Beyond the emergence of low-fare of view vis-a-vis larger aircraft: If the the 787 may be a little more protected
carriers such as Norwegian Air Shut- lower end of the market is going to be from deferrals than the A350 because
tle, Level, WOW Air and Eurowings in dominated by the Norwegians of the it is slightly smaller and therefore pres-
a big way, there is also the slow-but- industry and the large legacy carri- ents less of an additional risk for 757
steady growth of narrowbody ights ers cannot compete on price because and 767 replacements should airlines
into secondary markets that is eating of their much higher costs, they likely choose neither to wait for the NMA
into the backyards of major hubs. The will have to focus on the premium end nor opt for the A321LR or A330neo,
North Atlantic market will change of the market. This, in turn, will proba- which Airbus is heavily promoting for
quite dramatically over the next 5-10 bly lead them to order smaller aircraft the transatlantic market as well.
years, predicts Kiran Rao, executive with fewer seats that have to be lled Kevin Michaels, managing director
vice president of product strategy at at steep discounts. of the AeroDynamic Consultancy, be-
Airbus Commercial Aircraft. The While Airbuss Rao concedes he does lieves Boeing will continue to have a

Delta took delivery of its rst

A350-900 earlier in July.

[North American] market is also con- feel some interest in the NMA from U.S. tough time at Delta. Delta is Airbus-

cerned about transpacic routes as a carriers, he believes they may not be friendly right now, he remarks, a view
lot of Chinese airlines are coming in able to wait that long. The big mainline supported not only by the A350 order
and Singapore Airlines is relaunching carriers will have to replace large eets but also by the airlines support as a
nonstop U.S. ights. Transpacic will of Boeing 757s and 767s over the next launch customer of the A330neo. Also,
also change, but it will change in a dif- several years, many of which are used Boeings complaint against the Bom-
ferent way. on transatlantic routes. With Boeing bardier C Series sales to U.S. custom-
Short- and medium-haul ying has targeting entry into service of the NMA ers did not go down well in Atlanta.
already become a commodity, says around 2025, waiting for the new type But if I were Airbus, Id be most
George Hamlin, president of Hamlin would be a big risk, Rao says, simply worried about the United order,
Transportation Consulting. We begin because airlines could not cope with Michaels argues. That order was orig-
to see the same across the Atlantic. a potential delay of the type that the inally placed in 2010, just before the
So as low-cost and narrowbody opera- industry has seen in many recent de- merger with Continental. Since then,
tors gain a bigger share of the transat- velopment programs. many Boeing-friendly ex-Continental
lantic market, incumbents are cautious Rao may have a point. Of Uniteds 79 Airlines executives have taken on key
about adding new capacity and are still Boeing 757s, 72 are 15 or more years roles at United. It could play out to a
in the process of guring out what will old. All of its 52 767s exceed 15 years similar situation as the Delta-North-
be the right future aircraft. With the of service, as do 72 of 79 777s. At Delta, west merger, where Delta inherited
current low fuel prices, airlines also do almost all of the 129 757s are more than the 787 order and then deferred them
not feel a need to replace their existing 15 years old, as are all 84 767s. Ameri- for a while, until just recently cancel-
eets as soon. cans entire in-service eet of 51 757s ing them. Rao, of course, insists that
When the fleet changes come, the exceeds 15 years, as do 23 of its 31 767s. we are not talking about canceling
replacement aircraft may not be any By 2025, all of these aircraft would be orders. c

22 AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst


Introducing the 737 MAX 10. The newest addition to the 737 MAX family offers the lowest per-seat cost in the
single-aisle segment. Setting new standards in seat costs and efciency, the 737 MAX is now the most protable
family in any airlines eet. Its time to take a closer look. Think more. Think MAX.


Rocket Resurrection
New investment revives small-sat launcher
developer with bigger rocket plan
Guy Norris Atlanta

hen promising U.S. space attempts to raise additional financ-
startup rocket company Fire- ing fell through, the companys assets
fy shut down late last year in were acquired in March 2017 by EOS
the face of severe fnancial problems it Launcher, which was renamed Firefy
seemed a salutary reminder of the risks Aerospace. The company is wholly
facing the many newcomers chasing the owned by Noosphere Ventures, the founder and CEO of Noosphere.
small-satellite market. strategic venture arm of Noosphere Speaking at the American Institute
Now, just a few months later, the Global, a private technology group of Aeronautics and Astronautics Power
surprise rebirth of a newly capitalized with interests in space technology, en- and Energy forum here, Markusic says
Firefy is reinforcing investor and in- terprise software, consumer internet the revitalized company is rebuilding
dustry faith in the growing potential of and advertising technology. quickly after last years collapse, which
the dedicated small-sat launch business Im happy to report that Firefly led to the laying of of the entire work-
as order books continue to build. The Aerospace is fully funded, says Fire- force. We had about 200 folks at Firefy
vehicle developer is not only fully fund- fly founder and CEO Tom Markusic. before and we are rebuilding again to
ed, but is also reshaping its course to A high-net-worth individual is fund- about 100. In the past couple of months
develop a larger, more capable version ing this project, and I dont have to we have hired about 65 people and we
of the companys original Alpha rocket. worry about raising money anymore. are aggressively hiring again.
Renamed Firefly Aerospace, the We have all of our facilities and all In the meantime, Markusic acknowl-
former Firefly Space Systems was of our technology in place. We have edges the impact of the shutdown and
poised to begin full-scale tests of its a team of about 65 people in place the subsequent decision to upgrade the
Alpha vehicles pressure-fed FRE-2 today, setting up rocket engine Alpha design has had an inevitable ef-
aerospike rocket engine when fund- tests in Texas. The wealthy backer fect on the development schedule: At
ing issues intruded in late 2016. After is thought to be Maxim Polyakov, the end of the day, we are supposed to

Price of Power labs Grey Wolf low-cost cruise missile prototype program.
Kratoss LCASD prototype, now ofcially designated as the
XQ-58A Valkyrie, is a 29-ft.-span unmanned aircraft capable
Low-cost unmanned combat of Mach 0.85 and up to 4,700-nm range to accompany manned
strike aircraft. The aircraft is planned to fy in early 2018.
aircraft demand cheaper engines LCASD is not expendable but is intended to be afordable
enough to be sacrifced in combat. Attritable loyal wingmen
Graham Warwick Atlanta can improve manned-fghter survivability by overwhelming
enemy air defenses. But engines need to be designed for

dvances in propulsion have historically led progress low-cost manufacturing, fewer parts, and a life measured in
in aviation, but unmanned aircraft have turned this hundreds of hours.
rule of thumb on its head. Most larger UAVs use ma- With AFRLs unit cost goal of $3 million for an initial 100
ture engines adapted to their specifc requirements, such as vehicles, and $2 million for higher quantities, the engine
increased endurance and power generation. has become a cost driver, says Joe Valenzuela, Kratos se-
Reasons include the need to minimize risk by focusing tech- nior business development executive for tactical unmanned
nology development resources on the airframe and electronics aircraft systems (UAS).
and adapting an of-the-the-shelf engine. Cost is another major We have moved the price down for everything but the
factor, as bigger UAVs are not built in large quantities. engine, which is now the driver for cost, he told the Ameri-
Now engine manufacturers are being called on to develop can Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Propulsion &
inexpensive, limited-life engines to power a new generation Space conference in Atlanta on July 10. The engine is 40%
of low-cost unmanned combat aircraft and cruise missiles. of the price of LCASD, he says. The price pressure is even
Eforts to drive down the cost of these systems are being greater on the Grey Wolf tactical cruise missile, with a target
hampered by the price tags for available engines. unit cost around $200,000 where a typical missile engine can
Leading the call for a new class of engine is Kratos De- cost upward of $100,000, Valenzuela says.
fenses unmanned systems division, which is building the The XQ-58A is powered by an off-the-shelf Williams
Low-Cost Attritable Strike Demonstrator (LCASD) for FJ33-5 turbofan, in production as a business-jet engine.
the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratorys (AFRL) Loyal We do not have an engine developed for this, so we use a
Wingman concept. The company is also bidding for the commercial engine, says Valenzuela. But it has a 3,500-hr.

24 AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

Much of the work already conducted at high pressure before being heated
by Firefy on the propulsion system, to increase its specifc volume using
such as this full-mission duty cycle waste heat from the combustors.
combustor test, will be incorporated The vehicle uses conventional tech-
into the updated Alpha. nology where we can, says Markusic.
We are developing the propulsion
fedengines. In addition, he adds that system and testing full-scale, 6-ft-dia.
the revised confguration may not fea- LOX and kerosene tanks under high
ture the aerospike frst-stage engines pressure. For some of the mechanisms
which were a design hallmark of the of the vehicle, such as the separation
initial Alpha. Thats not 100% decided rings, we are buying of the shelf. In
though yet, he adds. overall terms, the revamped Firefy is
Renamed the Reaver after charac- ready for full-scale development and
ters from the science fction television production, he adds.
launch in the second quarter of 2018, series Firefy, the main propulsion We have everything in place. We
but I think we are about a year behind system for Alpha will still be based have a 20,000-ft.2 engineering facil-
schedule on that. However, it will actu- on much of the development work ity in Cedar Park, Texas, and we have
ally be a much more capable vehicle. already underway for the existing about 50,000 ft.2 of brand-new manu-
The initial Alpha rocket was a Fal- liquid oxygen (LOX)/RP-1 two-stage facturing product facilities for building
con 1-class vehicle designed to deliver design, says Markusic. Together with composite and metallic components in-
200-kg payloads to a 500-km sun-syn- the upper-stage unit, powered by the house. We also have 200 acres of test
chronous orbit. The revised Alpha will newly renamed Lightning engine, the facilities including a 150,000-lb.-thrust
have a signifcantly larger payload, but current confguration is now 82 ft. tall horizontal engine test stand, and we
for the moment Markusic says only that and is a simpler, more conventional are in the process of constructing a
we will be releasing details of that with configuration. It no longer features comparable thrust level stand for ver-
our new user guide, which should be the helium tanks of the initial Alpha tical testing. c
within the next month. design, which were used to pressure-
Speaking to Aviation Week on the feed the propellant from composite
conference sidelines, he adds that the tanks into the pintle injector of the Check 6 Guy Norris and Graham
upgraded performance is sufciently aerospike. The helium system was an Warwick discuss the thrusts of this
significant to require a change to added complexity to the original de- years AIAA Propulsion & Energy
pump-fedas opposed to pressure- sign, as it required cryogenic storage conference: AviationWeek.com/podcast

time between overhauls versus our 200-300-hr. fight time. ested in the XQ-58A as an expeditionary unmanned aircraft.
Engines designed for reliability and long life on manned Valenzuela characterizes the vehicle as a hybrid between a
vehicles are far more expensive than powerplants for ex- UAV and a missile. The aircraft can be stored, predeployed
pendable cruise missiles or attritable unmanned combat at a forward location and pulled from storage to perform
aircraft designed for a handful of missions. multiple missions.
We need engines that are inexpensive. That requires a The idea is there is no depot-level maintenance. If its no
change in paradigm, he says. Instead of an engine that runs longer good enough to fy, you dispose of it, he says. Kratos
forever, we are willing to accept failures. An engine that can entered the attritable-aircraft market after acquiring aerial-
last 50 hr., enough for fve missions, is good enough if its at target maker CEI, and its targets average six fights before
the right price. being lost. We are already making attritable aircraft with
Low-cost, short-life engines will require a new business our target drones, he says. c
model for manufacturers, Valenzuela says, as
there will be no maintenance, repair and over-
haul revenue with which to recoup investment
in development. Instead they face the challenge
of cutting costs enough to make money produc-
ing hundreds of engines a year, he says.
Kratos is building one LCASD for AFRL and
two more aircraft on company funds, one for
fight test and one for ground test with an option
for fight. Valenzuela says the company is talk-
ing to other potential customers and expects to
build more aircraft.
U.S. Special Operations Command is inter-

Kratoss XQ-58A low-cost unmanned com-

bat aircraft demonstrator is powered by an
of-the-shelf business-jet turbofan.

AviationWeek.com/awst AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 25


Do the Locomotion itself using a jet of water in a process

called aerial locomotion. Somewhat
emulating this capability, the Aqua-
Nature-inspired UAV can operate underwater as well MAVs hollow fuselage flls with water
when it frst submerges.
Tony Osborne London To return to the air, AquaMAV uses a
carbon dioxide (CO2)-powered thruster

n unmanned air vehicle with the While most of the lift is provided by to expel the water in its fuselage via a
ability to operate in the water as the elliptical wing, control is provided specially designed shape-memory al-
well it does in the air is under by a V-tail with dual elevons for roll, loy valve. This pushes the aircraft out
development at a British university. pitch and yaw. of the water, at which point the wings
The Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle, or As it dives in, the AquaMAVs main redeploy.
AquaMAV has been designed by a team wings fold back 90 deg., rather like a Currently the CO 2 must be re-
at Imperial College in London to fy to a seabirds as it enters the water. charged after each fight, which limits
body of water, dive in and propel itself
under the surface before emerging to As it enters the water, AquaMAV
resume its normal wing-borne fight. folds back its wings to keep them
Primarily meant for environmental from damage on impact. They
sampling work, the technologies with- spring open again after launch.
in AquaMAV could lead to a submarine
launch-and-recover unmanned device
for intelligence-gathering applications.
AquaMAVs potential has already
been noted; the project has received
funding from the UKs Engineering
and Physical Sciences Research Coun-
cil and, more recently, from the Defense
Science and Technology Laboratory.

RobeRt Siddall/impeRial College, london photoS

A robots function is derived from
its mobility, says Rob Siddall, lead au-
thor and Imperial College postgradu-
ate whose doctoral thesis inspired
AquaMAVs development.
There are systems that operate in
the air, and those that operate in the
water, but few that do both well. . . . We
wanted to move in both mediums better
than other systems, says Siddall.
Some companies have developed
quadcopters that operate well in the
air and then land on the water and use One of the initial challenges was to it to only one water launch per fight.
ballast tanks to sink, allowing them ensure the propeller that pulls the However, the team is looking at ways
to operate under the surface. But AquaMAV through the air could it could be recharged, perhaps through
analysis by Siddalls team suggests also provide propulsion underwater. reactive chemicals such as an acety-
that quadcopters However, a propeller lene explosionalthough this method
are very inefficient that spins too fast poses potential regulatory issues and
in liquid because in the water simply could inadvertently contaminate the
their propulsion sys- cavitates and is inef- water samples being collected.
temsdesigned for use in the fcient, so the team studied an Special coatings are being consid-
airlimit them to traveling short dis- epicyclic gearing system using a series ered so the system can enter and exit
tances. Also, they have difculty pro- of opposed one-way bearings that are water tainted by oil or other pollutants
pelling out of choppy waters. engaged when the AquaMAV enters that alter the waters surface tension.
Because of its more efcient shape All the elements of AquaMAVs ca-
and propulsion method, the AquaMAV
With its lightweight, simple design, pabilities have been tested in isolation,
can travel greater distances underwa-
AquaMAV has been devised to dive so far. Later this year, a series of dem-
ter and can enter and leave the surface
into the water like a seabird. onstration fights are planned, taking
in higher sea states than other systems. the water. Engaging the gearbox re- the system through the full envelope
Weighing in at just under 200 grams duces the power needed underwater of aerial and subsurface operation.
(0.4 lb.) with a wingspan of 60 cm, the by a factor of fve, but increases the The frst prototype was remotely con-
AquaMAV needs to be lightweight thrust by a factor of two, says Siddall. trolled, but the next round of proto-
and small so it can enter the water As for launching out of water, the types will feature a more autonomous
at speed without damaging its deli- team studied oceanic fying squid, flight control system developed by
cate wings and control mechanism. a species that impulsively propels Delft University in the Netherlands. c

26 AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

A unique and innovatve design, our distnguishing mark.

The latest generaton of a legendary aircraf.

The Avant EVO rewrites the rules of efciency and elegance.

An unmatchable combinaton of style,

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ConneCted AerospACe

Low-Cost Connections ger you go without comms, the more

uncomfortable it makes people feel,
says David Bruner, vice president,
The rise in low-cost, long-haul operators is global sales and marketing for Pana-
sonic Avionics.
prompting questions on the best approach to IFE Were certainly seeing trends to-
ward more of an expectation that
Helen Massy-Beresford Paris you stay connected all the time, says
Casey Goelzer, regional director of

uropean airlines are fghting for channeled through infight broadband product marketing at Boeing Com-
profitability in a crowded and to customers own devicesa lighter mercial Airplanes.
competitive market. And low- and cheaper solution for cost-con- The growth of low-cost, long-haul
cost, long-haula business model that scious operators that can still drive carriers, driven by a generation of
brings with it questions about how in- ancillary revenues, whether through aircraft such as the Airbus A350 and
fight connectivity can both appeal to passengers paying for the connectivity Boeing 787, which enable them to by-
passengers and drive ancillary reve- itself, entertainment options, or buying pass big network hubs, is driving that
nueis emerging as one way forward. extras such as onboard refreshments. rethink, Bruner says. People might as-
Although low-cost, long-haul opera- Low-cost long-haul carriers build sume only a full-service carrier would
torsand their infight entertainment their revenue on ancillaries and ser- ofer onboard connectivity, but Norwe-
(IFE) optionsare more established vice, so of course to generate revenue gian has broken that idea. Norwegian
does it for freeit is

an economical service
if you want entertain-
ment, he adds.
That presents chal-
lenges and opportu-
nities for hardware
providers such as
Panasonic, whether
that means keeping
costs down or ofering
a way to diferentiate
levels of service and
price points. There
is pressure on us to
deliver lower-cost so-
lutions. Part of what
weve done is to ofer
airlines a way to con-
trol what they deliver
to customers. They
want to ofer diferent
products to different
people, Bruner says.
Two major Euro-
pean airline groups
IAGs low-cost carrier, Level, launched last June and is ofering internet connectivity for are in the early stages
about $10 for basic service. of their own long-haul,
low-cost operations.
elsewhere in the world, Europe has they need to propose services, says Air France plans to launch its Boost
lagged a bit. But with Norwegian Air Florent Petteni, aircraft interiors project by year-end, and will reveal
shaking up the transatlantic market marketing manager at Airbus. Decid- details of onboard services later, a
with a furry of new routesmost re- ing how to use that connectivity is the spokesman says. The new carrier will
cently from Scotland to the U.S.and big question, Petteni says. The busi- focus on innovation and modernity in
its plans for UK-South America ser- ness model on connectivity is not very a bid to attract younger travelers. Al-
vices next year, European carriers are stable right now. though keeping operating costs low is
rethinking their approach to entertain- Norwegian itself ofers free Wi-Fi on a goal, Boost will not be marketed as a
ment and connectivity oferings. With most European routes and plans to of- low-cost airline.
decreasing costs for greater access to fer it on long-haul routes, although no Meanwhile, International Airlines
high-speed broadband, this is now an dates have been confrmed, according Groups (IAG) low-cost carrier (LCC),
afordable add-on. to a spokesman. Level, took its inaugural flight from
Carriers are weighing the pros and Even people who want low-cost Barcelona, Spain, to Los Angeles June 1.
cons of seatback screens or IFE services fights want to be connected. The lon- Level offers internet connectivity

28 AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

Panasonics Bruner believes airlines
are also increasingly seeing the ben-
efts of the connectivity they ofer pas-
sengers beyond the cabinand here
low-cost operators will have lessons to

Honeywells JetWave system

(pictured being installed) uses
Inmarsats GX Aviation Ka-band
service (inset) to provide infight
teach their legacy counterparts. The
company now holds orders to install
their system on twice as many aircraft
as currently use it, Bruner says.
For a while, offering passenger
Wi-Fi is exciting, but then it becomes
more about what you are doing to
make the crew and the aircraft more
efcientthat is where we are going
to see the new battleground. LCCs
Honeywell AerospAce And InmArsAt
may not be the frst adopters [of con-
a seatback IFE system], says Kristin nectivity] but they may be the most
Slyker, vice president for connected efcient at knowing how to get a re-
aircraft at Honeywell Aerospace. turn on investment. They will start to
Honeywell aims to have more than shake up the business and improve
from 8.99 ($10.15) and IFE choices, 1,200 aircraft equipped with the Jet- how connectivity is used, Bruner
including 66 movies, 117 TV programs Wave satellite communications sys- predicts. c
and 69 audio albums, a total of more tem, which makes use of Inmarsats GX
than 230 hr. of entertainment via in- Aviation Ka-band service, by year-end,
dividual touchscreen monitors, with up from about 500.
both IFE and connectivity provided Outside Europe, a well-established
by Panasonic. As an introductory per- low-cost, long-haul carrier, AirAsia X
quisite celebrating its launch, all pas- provides passengers with the Xcite
sengers will have free access to the Tab, preloaded with high-definition
content, an IAG spokeswoman said. movies, TV series, music, games and
Jay Sorensen, president for product, magazines. For premium economy pas-
partnership and marketing practice at sengers, the tablet is included in the
airline consultancy IdeaWorksCompa- ticket price; economy passengers can
ny, believes all carriers will eventually rent it for a few dollars per fight.
adopt a model that relies on passengers Equipping economy-class with
personal devices, with the exception of seatback IFE is simply too expensive
premium cabins, where screen size will in the long run, Sorensen says. There
continue to be an important feature. is the capital cost of equipment, the
Younger generations of consumers weight/fuel penalty of fying the equip-
are certainly moving toward bringing ment, and the ongoing maintenance
their own content with them, and this expense. All the while, the revenue
will only increase as technology plac- potential of these systems has never
es more options in a personal device been a big proft-makeroftentimes,
than the installed equipment on a jet, airlines work to mitigate the losses.
Sorensen says. Boeings Goelzer also sees a growing
Assuming the U.S. electronics ban trend toward using passenger-owned
is a transitory bump in the road, that devices. Its a very efective way to de-
trend should continue. liver IFE contentit is less expensive
Honeywell Aerospaces JetWave and lighter-weight [toward] the airlines
hardwarewhich will be fitted onto fuel bill. Particularly for an LCC opera-
Norwegians Boeing 737 MAX air- tion, thats a very good development.
craftenables passengers to bring on Sorensen adds: The one area where
devices. It can be a low-cost solution airlines will continue to have an advan-
providing connectivity for customers, tage is internet and data accessthe
and it makes for a different weight consumer cant replace that capability
situation for airlines [compared with on their own.

AviationWeek.com/awst AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 29

AeronAuticAl engineering

Quiet Progress seat HWB confguration that emerged

achieved a cumulative 40.4-EPNdB
reduction below Stage 4, just shy of
Already potentially the quietest confguration the 42-dB goal. This compares with a
reduction of 22.1 dB possible with an
for a future airliner, the hybrid wing body advanced tube-and-wing aircraft of
equivalent size, NASA says.
could be even quieter The exploratory study to identify
Graham Warwick Washington technologies that could push noise re-
duction toward the 52-dB goal by 2035
was led by Russ Thomas, a senior re-
search engineer at NASA Langley Re-
search Center. Results were presented
at the American Institute of Aeronau-
tics and Astronautics Aviation 2017
conference in Denver in June.

Comparison with HWB-2016

(top) highlights the changes to
the HWB-FT-2017 (bottom),
including podded gear, vertical-
tail root extensions and elliptical,
scarfed nozzles with chevrons.
Several of the technologies involve
the geared-turbofan engines. Included
are an acoustic liner that extends to
the lip of the inlet to help absorb fan
noise with a shorter, lighter and lower-
drag nacelle. A liner is also added to
the core nozzle plug to absorb low-
frequency combustor noise.

f the environmental challenges For NASA, far term is an aircraft Over-the-rotor acoustic treatment
facing commercial aviation, entering development in 2035, and the is integrated into the rub-strip area of
noise is perhaps the tough- study has identifed technologies that the fan casing. The upper bifurcator,
est. Public opposition to building or could reduce the HWBs noise by then which divides the bypass duct into left
expanding airports is already a con- by a cumulative 50.9 EPNdB below and right halves, is thickened slightly
straint on capacity and, long term, todays Stage 4 limits. This would cut to increase the liner area. Aft duct and
could curtail the growth of air trans- the area exposed to sound levels louder bifurcator liners are also designed to
port. than 85 dB by 94.4% relative to a Boe- shift fan noise directivity and increase
To prioritize its investment in tech- ing 777-like aircraft. shielding efectiveness. A liner is ap-
nology development, NASA has set Such a dramatic reduction in the plied to the centerbody elevon to ab-
aggressive environmental goals for area exposed to elevated noise could sorb fan and core noise, and acoustic
the medium and far term, including enable continued growth in airport treatment is used to reduce difraction
containing noise within the airport capacity, but it requires noise genera- of propulsion noise around the center-
boundaries. Its research indicates the tion and propagation to be addressed body trailing edge.
targets can be met only with unconven- across the aircraft, from engines and The updated design, which NASA
tional aircraft confgurations. landing gear to the high-lift system and labels the HWB-FT-2017, also incorpo-
So far, the blended wing bodyor, propulsion-airframe integration. rates chevrons on the fan and core noz-
as NASA calls it, the hybrid wing Of the confgurations studied dur- zles. These reduce noise by increasing
body (HWB)has shown the most ing NASAs six-year Environmentally mixing of the exhaust with ambient
promise, but it still falls short of meet- Responsible Aviation (ERA) program, air. Chevrons are used on the Boeing
ing the noise goals. Now further study completed in 2015, the HWB emerged 787s General Electric GEnx engines,
suggests technologies exist that can as the quietest. Analysis showed the but were not incorporated on the ear-
bring HWB noise tantalizingly close single biggest diferentiator was pro- lier HWB design.
to NASAs far-term target. pulsion-airframe aeroacoustic inter- A major part of the HWBs noise re-
The new study indicates that signif- actions, which were most favorable duction comes from airframe shield-
cant redesign of the landing gear and on the HWB where the engines are ing of fan and jet noise. On the HWB-
high-lift systems could add to the sub- mounted above a broad centerbody. FT-2017, this is further optimized. An
stantial noise reduction possible from ERA was aimed at developing tech- elliptical fan nozzle is used to reduce
advanced ultra-high-bypass engines nologies to meet NASAs midterm the distance between the nozzle crown
and noise-shielding aircraft confgu- environmental goals for aircraft en- and airframe surface to increase
rations. tering development in 2025. The 301- shielding efectiveness. The fan nozzle

30 AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst


is also negatively scarfedlonger on

the bottomwhich has the effect of
increasing the shadow region below
Fortune Hunters
the airframe. The roots of the vertical Small satellites are in vogue, but realizing
tails are extended to enhance shielding
at sideline angles. profts from them could prove elusive
But the biggest contributors to the
noise reduction from the earlier HWB- Jen DiMascio Washington
2016 to the updated HWB-FT-2017

involve the landing gear and high-lift he potential fortunes to be made panies] or 10 times [for the military],
system. All of the confgurations stud- from small satelliteswith large Caceres said recently at the Center
ied during the ERA program used feets of low-Earth-orbit (LEO) for Strategic and International Stud-
leading-edge Krueger faps for high lift communications satellites and big- ies. You have to be really skeptical of
to enable drag-reducing laminar fow. data analysis culled from remote- them, he adds.
These unfold from under the wing to sensing constellationsremain highly An increasing demand for data from
protect the leading edges from insect uncertain, caution satellite industry Earth-observation imagery is drawing
and other contamination during take- analysts. other companies to a market for small-
off and landing, but the deployment Alongside those developments, a er satellitesfor commercial, govern-
mechanism and cove area, or cavity furry of investments in small launch ment or military use. New companies
behind the extended faps, are sources vehicles is equally precarious. are cropping up to provide sensors of all
of noise. The satellite business remains domi- kinds, synthetic aperture radar, radio
In the HWB-2016 design, the flap nated by markets built around end us- occultation and hyperspectral imagery.
brackets were normal to the wing ers, in particular satellite television. In The growth in emerging remote-
leading-edge, creating a strong cross- all, satellite revenues generated $260.5 sensing companies is particularly
fow and noise. On the HWB-FT-2017, billion in 2016, the U.S.-based Satellite tantalizing because they are creating
the brackets are realigned with the Industry Association (SIA) reports. In a new market. They are going to be
freestream flow to reduce both the comparison, just $13.9 billion is gener- selling complex analytic tools in en-
level and directivity of the noise that ated by actually making the satellites, tirely new customer sets with entirely
is generated. and the launch industry brought in new products, says Clarissa Chris-
A cove fller is a fexible surface that only $5.5 billion last year. tensen, founder and CEO of Bryce
deploys as the flap extends, to fill in But small satellitesthose under Space and Technology, adding that
the cavity and smooth the airfow. In 600 kg (1,320 lb.)continue to be on the market will be similar to satellite
2016, Boeing and Embraer fight-tested the radar for disrupting the satellite television in that it uses space while
a cove fller for conventional leading- manufacturing business, says Char- adding value. Its an integrated busi-
edge slats on their E170 EcoDemon- ity Weeden, senior director of policy ness model, she notes.
strator and showed a noise reduction at SIA. There are cubesats being An upsurge in mergers and acqui-
of about 10 dB, says Thomas. launched by the dozens. There are also sitions that occurred in 2016 will con-
Landing gear, meanwhile, is the trends to customized small satellites, tinue this year as companies look for
highest source of noise on approach that are expected to continue into 2017. new ways to tap into data from space,
and a barrier to further reductions in Earth-observation satellitesmany Weeden says.
system-level aircraft noise. The HWB of which are cubesatsrepresented Last month, Italys Telespazio an-
ofers a way forward because, with its 51% of the 126 launched in 2016. It is a nounced it had signed an agreement
engines mounted atop the airframe, dynamic segment of the marketgrow- with U.S.-based Orbital Insight to form
the gear can be shortened signifcantly ing by 11% since 2015. And low-latency a joint venture called e-GEOS to pro-
compared to aircraft with engines un- small-satellite constellations planned vide new products and services for
der the wing. for the future of broadband internet emergency management, agriculture,
The HWB-2016 used a partial services are still in the planning stages. environmental monitoring and safety,
main-gear fairing to reduce noise. Curbing the enthusiasm is experi- using satellite data.
The HWB-FT-2017 goes further, as it ence with past boom-and-bust cycles Other traditional companies are ad-
uses podded gear that leaves only the particularly in the communications justing to the changing marketplace by
wheels exposed when deployed, similar market. Marco Caceres, senior analyst creating more customizable small or
to the sponson-mounted gear on mili- and director of space studies for the midsize satellites.
tary airlifters. Pod gear reduces noise Teal Group, says he has been waiting Lockheed Martin is investing mil-
generation and also refection by the for the satellite and launch vehicle lions to adapt its midsize LM 300 sat-
underside of the aircraft. markets to take of for 20 years. The ellite bus, weighing 300-1,000 kg, for
Thomas and his co-authors say their first-generation systems went bank- all commercial and government mis-
road-map study shows there are well- rupt, as cost projections were vastly sions. The LM 300, which has fown for
founded noise-reduction technologies underestimated. more than a decade, will be equipped
with the potential to enable the HWB When I hear NASA, the U.S. mili- to handle communications and sensing
concept to meet NASAs far-term tary or any company talk about the and to be fexible between orbits.
goal. But they caution that individual cost of the satellite or launch vehicle The real innovation from Lockheed
technologies may not directly apply to or constellation, I automatically mul- would be to commoditize volume pro-
other unconventional confgurations. c tiply that by fve [for commercial com- duction of all reusable pieces of the

AviationWeek.com/awst AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 31


satellite and then allow fnd a spot on an aford-

the customer to tailor cer- able launch vehicle can
tain elements as needed, be frustratingly difcult.
says Rick Ambrose, ex- To meet that demand,
ecutive vice president of more than 30 space
Lockheed Martins Space launch companies are
Systems. The goal is to be developing an array of
able to offer a savings of launch capabilities. Vir-
20-30% and delivery times gin Galactic is offering
inside of two years. In ad- a 400-kg satellite a $10
dition, clients that have million ride to LEO on
had a satellite in space for Launcher One. Rocket
many years may want to Lab and Vector Space
change its use over time. Systems are developing
Meeting client specifi- rockets that would tar-
cations is not just driving get smaller satellites of
satellite design; it is also
a big part of the nascent Avio is developing a
launch vehicle market. In dispenser for its
the last year, a number of Vega C rocket that
small-satellite launches can carry 20-30
were delayed. Trying to small satellites.
which since the end of the Cold War
Changing of the Guard has played second fddle to rival Suk-
hoi and its successful Su-30 Flanker
fghter family under Russias consoli-
MiG-35 takes the spotlight at Moscows dated United Aircraft Corp. (UAC).
MiG Aircraft Corp. CEO Ilya
last MAKS show to be staged at Zhukosky Tarasenko expects serial production
of the MiG-35 to begin in 2019 at the
James Drew and Maxim Pyadushkin Zhukovsky, Moscow Sokol plant in Nizhny Novgorod, where
manufacture of MiG-29M2s for Egypt

wo dogfghting Sukhoi T-50 ffth- eration lightweight multirole fghter is due to end by 2020. The MiG-35, in
generation fighters dominated under its new armaments program fight-testing since January, is a deriva-
the aerial display at the MAKS beginning in 2018. tive of the MiG-29 Fulcrum.
Air Show here on July 18-23, but the The confirmation by Deputy De- The aircraft has two Klimov RD-
spotlight was on the MiG-35 with news fense Minister Yuriy Borisov is a 33MK engines with full-authority
that Russia will buy the 4+++-gen- boost for the Mikoyan design bureau, digital control, 12% more thrust and a
4,000-hr. life. The MiG-35 is planned to
be equipped with a Kret Zhuk X-band
The Russian Air Force will purchase MiG-35 active, electronically scanned array
multirole fghters beginning in 2018. radar and a new targeting pod.
Although not a low-observable air-
craft like the T-50, the fghter incorpo-
rates radar-deflecting materials and
inhibitors as well as electronic counter-
measures, Tarasenko says. The MiG-35
also has a counter stealth L-band radar
in the leading-edge root extensions.
The fghters are to be purchased un-
der Moscows 2018-25 state armaments
plan, which is expected to be approved
in September. Military officials have
told Russian media that 24 MiG-35s,
enough for two squadrons, would be
procured initially to replace MiG-29s.
The armaments plan, which report-
edly has been cut to under $290 billion
from the initial $927 billion request, is
expected to focus on procuring new
JAmes Drew/Aw&sT PhoTos

32 AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

less than 200 kg for a slightly greater Air Force Col. Steve Butow, the mili- nitrogen tetroxide as the oxidant and
price per kilogram. tary lead for the Pentagons Defense unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine as
In the near term, there is an op- Innovation Unit Experimental effort the fuel. Both are propelled by pres-
portunity for small launchers simply to seed promising new technologies in surized helium gas and a cold gaseous
because fights are difcult to fnd, says the commercial sector. You can put a nitrogen system for attitude control.
Christensen. But she notes that wheth- lot up, but they need to be in the right It enables us to make orbital deploy-
er the investment interest in small place, he says. ments in the course of two months,
launch vehicles will create a new mar- Italys Avio is one of many existing says Avio CEO Giulio Ranzo. We will
ket depends on two factors: One: the companies preparing to meet that have an unmatched ofering in terms
ability of the supply-side entitiesthe challenge. It has launched two initia- of fexibility to deliver many diferent
companies building small launchers tives: One is a mini-launcher to carry objects in many diferent places.
to achieve the price targets they have dedicated payloads of about 250 kg. Ultimately, the rush to produce
identifed; larger is easier in terms of The other is the Small Spacecraft launchers for any kind of niche will be
cost per kilogram. Two, it depends on Mission Service, a dispenser that difficult both technically and from a
the fnancial success of the very-small- can stack 20-30 spacecraft ranging business perspective. But it is best to
satellite constellations. in weight from 1 kg to 300 kg for a keep in mind, says Richard DalBello,
Theyve got to prove themselves, launch and then deliver them to dif- vice president of business develop-
she adds. There are some apparent ferent orbital planes. ment and government afairs at Virgin
success stories. But nobody has said The dispenser will ride on Vega Cs Galactic, that business is inherently
yet, Were positive on investment. upper-stage AVUM Avionics Module, risky. This is how markets are sup-
The success of small satellites will scheduled to launch in 2019. It uses a posed to work, he says. Not everyone
be highly dependent on launch, says liquid bipropellant system fueled by will be successful. c

A turboprop engine for the Il-112V tion standards, with

light transport will fy on the Russian certification
Il-76LL testbed. planned for 2018 fol-
lowed by European
systems rather than modernizing ex- approval in 2019.
isting platforms. Included is the frst The MC-21 itself
purchase of production T-50s, with did not make an ap-
deliveries beginning after 2018, says pearance at the show,
Borisov. which was the 13th
The T-50 is undergoing state test- MAKS and the last
ing by the Russian Air Force, and two to be hosted by LII at
more prototypes are slated to join Zhukovskys storied
the trials this year. These aircraft are Ramenskoye Airport.
powered by the Su-35s Saturn AL-41 The biennial show will
engine. The new Item 30 powerplant move to Kubinka air-
developed by United Engine Corp. base, 90 min. west of
(UEC) is expected to fy in the T-50 by ments did not match, forcing reissue of Moscow, for 2019 and beyond.
year-end, he says. all documentation in electronic format While fghters dominated the news,
Another benefciary of the new ar- and a remanufacture of parts that had Zhukovskys last MAKS was scheduled
maments plan is Russian Helicopters been made using paper drawings. to witness the frst fight of the T-500
Mi-38 medium transport, which frst The Il-112Vs 3,500-shp Klimov TV7- all-composite agricultural aircraft
few in 2003 but has struggled to fnd 117ST turboprop appeared at MAKS, from Ramenskoye on June 23. The
customers. Beginning with two of the mounted under the wing of one of two T-500 has been developed from the
30-passenger helicopters in 2019, pro- Gromov Flight Research Institute (LII) MV-500 crop duster by Rostec com-
curement is planned to total 15 through Il-76LL fying testbeds on static display. pany ORPETechnologiya.
2020, says Borisov. The TV7-117 was originally developed The show debuted the Yakovlev
The plan is also expected to include for the abandoned Il-114 regional airlin- Yak-152 diesel-engine primary trainer
procurement of Ilyushin Il-112V light er, and a campaign of 50-60 test fights under development by UAC to replace
transports to begin replacing the air of the upgraded engine is planned to the Russian Air Forces aging Yak-52s.
forces aging Antonov An-26s. The pro- begin in about three months. Russian Helicopters displayed the
totype is in fnal assembly at VASO in The second Il-76LL on display is Mi-8AMTSh-VA Arctic helicopter; its
Voronezh, but frst fight has been de- being used to test the Aviadvigatel subsidiary, VR-Technologies, unveiled
layed again, slipping about six months PD-14 turbofan for Russias MC-21 a concept model of the fve-passenger
to the frst half of 2018. narrowbody airliner, which is now VRT500 light helicopter. c
According to UAC President Yury in flight-testing at UAC subsidiary
Slyusar, the reason for the latest de- Irkut, powered by Pratt & Whitney Gallery See more of the aircraft on
lay is design documentation. A com- PW1400G geared turbofans. UEC says display at this years MAKS Air Show:
bination of paper and electronic docu- 12 engines have been built to produc- AviationWeek.com/MAKS-Gallery

AviationWeek.com/awst AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 33


Early Retirement government cut the order to 15, resulting in fraught negotia-
tions with what was then EADS.
Then in February 2017, Vienna fled a criminal complaint
Austrian air defense overhaul nixes against Airbus Group and Eurofghter GmbH, claiming it had
been deceived by the two companies into buying the aircraft.
Eurofghters and Saab 105s It also questioned the OEMs true ability to deliver, and [the]
true specifcations of the Eurofghter interceptor planes.
Tony Osborne London Austria is demanding restitution from the companies for
the value of the 15 Eurofghters purchased, plus the diference

t is a matter of concern for an aircraft manufacturer when between the operating cost of the Eurofghter incurred to date
one of the richest countries in the world declares its fght- and the hypothetical operating cost of an alternative aircraft,
er is too expensive for it to operate. But then Austria is a minus the current value.
something of a special case. Critics generally agree that the So far, the actual operating cost to date adds up to
landlocked neutral state probably never really needed the 15 1.1 billion, the Austrian defense ministry said in February.
Eurofghter Typhoons it ordered in 2003. Defense Minister Hans Peter Doskozil says that if Austrians
In Austrian hands, the advanced multirole fghter, origi- want to continue to maintain their neutrality, a new feet of
nally designed to tackle the latest Russian threats, has been fghters is essential, and the country needs to bring the esca-
relegated to an interceptor role, with many of its advanced lating costs of the Eurofghter under control and minimize
electronic warfare systems removed. the enormous cost risks associated with it.
The Austrian jets do not even carry radar-guided beyond-
visual-range air-to-air missiles, just short-range infrared-guid-
ed IRIS-T weapons, and rarely leave the countrys airspace.
Now Vienna is planning to cut the Eurofighters career
short, aiming to phase italong with its elderly Saab 105
jet trainersout by 2020, in favor of a feet of 18 supersonic-

Austrias Eurofghters have no electronic warfare sys-

tems and carry only short-range air-to-air missiles.

capable aircraft of a single type to meet the countrys airspace

protection needs.
The country had planned to keep the Eurofghter in service
until the 2040s. The Austrian defense ministry claims that
replacing both aircraft is cheaper than simply replacing the
trainer and upgrading the Eurofghter.
It is possible that the Eurofghters could live on, if Vienna
was willing to purchase several two-seat versions, and retroft Geoff Lee/eurofiGhter Gmbh
the electronic warfare equipment and the ability to use radar- The Austrian Air Force says it has evaluated 19 potential
guided missiles, but this seems unlikely. air defense systems. However, its Active Airspace Surveil-
Brigadier Karl Gruber, commander of the Austrian Air lance studies concluded that a single feet of supersonic fght-
Force, says that continuing operations with the existing Aus- ers was the way forward. The studies state that the aircraft
trian Eurofghter feet would involve cost risks that are dif- need to be equipped with an advanced self-defense system
fcult to quantify at present. and guided missiles with all-weather capabilities, suggest-
Vienna describes the aircraft as having inferior equip- ing Austria will invest in radar-guided beyond-visual-range
ment to other fghters on the market, and keeping them in weapons.
service for another 30 years would likely cost the Austrian The debate on Austrian airspace surveillance has been
taxpayer 4.4-5.1 billion ($5-5.8 billion). dominated for years by the budgetary burdens associated
Much of the uncertainty surrounds the future of the with the operation of the Eurofghter, says Doskozil. The
Tranche 1 versions of the fghter that Austria operates. Al- new concept for the active monitoring of our airspace is
though many of the Eurofghter partner nations are now plan- both cheaper and more militarily efective than the continu-
ning to keep their Tranche 1s in service longer, there will be no ation of the status quo. It will save taxpayers money and
single upgrade approach for the aircraft as there is with the enable us to monitor Austrias airspace both by day and
more modern Tranche 2/3 aircraft. Instead, the Eurofghter night, he adds.
partners are taking a national approach to upgrades. Spain The plan appears to end hopes of a new Typhoon trainer
and the UK have already gone down this route, with the Span- contract that both the UK and Italy were chasing, with the
ish Air Force developing its own in-house. BAE Systems Hawk and the Leonardo M346, respectively.
Fighter jet acquisition is generally unpopular in Austriaas The study states, however, that a new turboprop trainer to
it is in much of Europeand the countrys experience with replace the Pilatus PC-7 will be needed to support training
the Eurofghter has not been a happy one. for the new fghter.
It introduced the type in 2007 for air defense and air polic- To meet its needs, Austria could acquire secondhand F-16s
ing duties, replacing a feet of Saab J35 Drakens. Vienna had or the Saab JAS-39C/D Gripen, already in service with the
originally planned to buy 18 aircraft, but the procurement Czech Republic. Saab has identifed Austria as a potential
became highly politicized. In 2006, a newly elected coalition customer for the Gripen for several years. c

34 AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst


Battle of the Ag-Planes

Low-cost crop dusters and reghting aircraft
take on ISR and border surveillance missions
Tony Osborne London and Jen DiMascio Washington

Agricultural aircraft have made their own impact in platforms kitted out with surveillance systems and a
counterinsurgency operations over the years. In Colombia wide range of precision-guided weaponry. Platform in-
and Central America, the crop sprayers have been used tegrators are touting the diference in cost compared with
for just that, directly targeting drug crops with chemicals. other light ghters and business-jet derivatives as they
Increasingly, agricultural aircraft such as the Air target customers in Africa, Eastern Europe, the Middle
Tractor AT-802, Thrush 710P and Thrush 510G are East and elsewhere for border security, light strike and
taking on a greater role as low-cost, long-endurance surveillance missions.

AIR TRACTOR AT-802U located on the inner wing hardpoints. L3 TECHNOLOGIES LONGSWORD
Air Tractor, which builds the AT-802 Ammunition for guns mounted there L3s Longsword uses the AT-802 plat-
firefighting platform, already pro- is fed from a magazine mounted in form but has maximized it for extend-
duces its own in-house intelligence, the nose, just forward of the cockpit. ed range and payload. To increase the
surveillance and reconnaissance The company has also studied devel- range, L3 converted the agricultural
(ISR) strike platform, and the com- opment of a steerable 30-mm cannon aircrafts bays for carrying pesticides
pany has displayed the aircraft at a for tment on the centerline. or re retardants into self-healing fuel
number of international air shows. One key selling point is that the AT- tanks.
But solid sales remain elusive. Mar- 802 is combat-proven in counterdrug As an ISR platform, the aircraft can
keted as the Aerial Escort Aircraft, operations run by the U.S. State De- y for as long as 10 hr. at up to 22,500
Air Tractor did ofer the aircraft to partment. The departments Air Wing ft. In that capacity, the Longsword car-
Lebanon in 2015. aircraft have taken 200 bullet strikes, ries the L3 Wescam MX-15D high-def-
Air Tractor says the AT-802U pro- yet the eet has maintained a 100% inition electro-optical infrared sensor,
vides 6-8 wing hardpoints for weap- safety record with no loss of life or an L3 ForceX Widow MMS mission
ons, as well as three fuselage hard- injury, according to the companys software system, the Thales Scorpion
points; dedicated gun stations are literature. helmet-mounted display and a full-mo-

L3s Longsword has plenty of wing space to

cover precision munitions, with 11 hardpoints
that can carry guns, guided and unguided
bombs as well as rockets and missiles.

AviationWeek.com/awst AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 35


The Iomax Archangel can

carry GBU-Paveway II 250-
lb. laser-guided bombs, Hell-
fre missiles and Raytheon
Talon laser-guided rockets.
Aviation Week reported that
when test pilot Joe Edwards
flew the Pratt & Whitney
Canada PT6A-67F-powered
Archangel, the pilots cockpit
was moved forward 48 in. to
improve visibility over the nose,
while the mission operators po-
sition occupies the real estate
where the pilot would have sat.
(AW&ST April 17-30, p. 40),
Inside, the aircraft is
equipped with a CMC avionics
IOMAX suite that in the front cockpit
tion video display. It can defend itself cide to extend the deal, or Kenya could features three multifunction displays
with an armored cockpit, the AN/AAR- search for another aircraft. and a centrally ftted head-up display.
47 infrared warning receiver and an Patrick Penland, L3 vice president The rear cockpit contains two multi-
AN/ALE-47 electronic warfare coun- for transport programs, is adamant function displays and a single 17-in.
termeasures dispenser system. that the air force did not select the large-area display that feeds the im-
If frepower is needed, the aircraft Longsword. The Kenyans chose the age from the electro-optical camera.
can be outfitted as a bomb truck, AT-802 Longsword. That was based Other design features include a fve-
carrying Hellfire missiles, Gatling on having come to Waco, Texas, where blade propeller that helps reduce the
guns, Mk. 82 bombs and M260 rocket L3s platform integration ofce is based, noise of the aircraft when operating at
launchers on up to 11 hardpoints. Even Penland says. Their deputy chief of air altitudes of around 15,000 ft.
with a full load of weapons, it can oper- force came and saw the ISR confgura- Iomax has already carried out an
ate for longer than 6 hr., company of- tion. extensive program of weapons integra-
fcials say, adding that other light fght- tion work for both the AT-802 and the
ers may fy faster or higher, but they IOMAX ARCHANGEL Archangel. Weapons regularly ftted
do not carry more payload or stay on Perhaps the biggest success story has to the UAE aircraft include Roketsan
station as long. Think of this more like been development of the Iomax Arch- Cirit lightweight missilesreportedly
an Apache with very long legs, says angel in association with the United highly effective against moving tar-
Joseph Siniscalchi, an L3 senior vice Arab Emirates (UAE). The Archan- getsthe GBU-58 Paveway II 250-lb.
president for business development. gels success in Yemen and, on a less laser-guided bomb and the Hellfire
In January, the U.S. State Depart- high-profile scale, in Libya has cer- missile. The aircraft have also recent-
ment approved the potential sale of as tainly increased public and industry ly been upgraded to use the Raytheon
many as 14 of the aircraft to Kenya, but perception of the agricultural aircraft Talon laser-guided rocket.
the transaction has been challenged. as an alternative platform to the nu- The original batch of AT-802-de-
The late Ron Howard, as CEO of Io- merous trainers turned light-attack rived BPAs have now largely been re-
max, had argued that its counterinsur- turboprops that have sold well in Afri- placed with Archangels; the AT-802s
gency aircraft, Archangel, was unfairly ca, Latin America and the Asia-Pacifc have been handed to other regional
overlooked by the African nation. In an region. air forcesat least six were gifted
interview not long before his untimely North Carolina-based Iomaxs as- to Jordan, while 12 are now with the
death, Howard suggested that Kenya sociation with the UAE began in 2009 Egyptian Air Force. Iomax told Avia-
was being sold an uncertifed and still- when the Middle Eastern nation opt- tion Week in February that negotia-
developmental platform. ed for a Border Patrol Aircraft (BPA) tions were underway to sell a further
The Longsword is certifed for the based on the standard Air Tractor 12 Archangels to the UAE to allow for
ISR mission, and L3 is working with AT-802 crop sprayer. Iomax delivered the formation of a second squadron.
the U.S. Air Force Seek Eagle ofce to a podded electro-optical camera and The company is also working on devel-
certify some weapons. Kenya has also added hardpoints to the wings in ex- opment of a Block 2 version featuring a
asked L3 for weather radar and com- pectation of the ftment of weapons. In number of avionics, performance and
munications systems, but Siniscalchi 2011, a further 14 were ordered. weapon upgrades. The installation of a
says the country would have to cover However, to realize the full potential lightweight Martin-Baker ejection seat
the cost of certifying the add-ons. of the aircraft, in 2012 Iomax changed has also been discussed.
For now, Kenya has asked to extend suppliers to Thrush, because Air Trac-
its letter of agreement through mid- tor was at the time unwilling to make LASA T-BIRD
September, Siniscalchi says. At that the structural modifcations to the air- Bulgarias Light Armed Surveillance
point, the two governments could de- craft that Iomax needed. Aircraft (LASA) Engineerings T-Bird

36 AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

The Bulgarian com-
pany Light Armed
Surveillance Aircraft
Engineering has
already sold its T-Bird
aircraft, based on the
Thrush 510G,
in Africa.
made its unannounced
debut at the recent
Paris Air Show. As the
only non-U.S. company
now offering a light-
attack capability on an
agricultural aircraft,
it seems the company LASA

has enjoyed some limited success. Its pany is using the Thrush 510G airframe The wing structure has been modi-
prototype T-Bird is already in opera- that is powered by the General Elec- fed for three hardpoints, and so far the
tion in Africa, apparently working for tric H80 turboprop. Underneath the company has carried out integration of
a private contractor on ISR duties, ac- fuselage is an Airborne Technologies Russian-made weapons only. At Paris,
cording to company executives. of Austria-developed pod that carries the aircraft carried pairs of distinctive
The T-Bird is being touted as being both an electro-optical camera and a UB16/32 and UB16/57 Russian-made
a unique combination of a high-pay- data link for data transfer. The cockpit unguided rocket launchers and a pair
load light aircraft with an advanced has been modifed with night-vision- of UPK23/250 gun pods.
Western technology ISR suite, and goggle-compatible digital instrumen- LASA says the aircraft costs several
a proven, powerful ex-Warsaw Pact tation provided by Aspen Avionics and times less to operate than other sur-
counterinsurgency package. Getac-made rugged tablets that allow veillance platforms such as a Beech-
LASA has developed the T-Bird in the rear crewman to use the electro-op- craft King Air or derivatives, and tens
a way that skirts U.S. International tical camera. Ballistic protection for the of times less compared to specialist
Trafc in Arms Regulations. The com- engine and cockpit has also been ftted. strike aircraft and helicopters. c

Tripling Thrust the XF5-1. IHI built the core and per-
formed functional testing on it before
delivery to ATLA on June 28. Testing
Japan makes progress on a Future Fighter engine at the ATLA will begin in July to verify
its performance, says the agency. A
far larger than its predecessor full demonstrator engine is to be com-
pleted by the end of June 2018, it adds,
Bradley Perrett Beijing confirming and refining a schedule
published in 2015.

he airframe for Japans proposed XF9-1, says the defense ministrys Ac- The agencys predecessor, the
indigenous fighter is for now quisition, Technology and Logistics Technical Research and Development
only a concept, but the engine is Agency (ATLA), naming the engine for Institute, said in 2010 that it wanted
turning into actual hardware. Govern- the frst time. Maximum thrust with to pursue this program as part of a
ment defense engineers are this month afterburning, previously stated as 15 technology-acquisition efort for a pos-
beginning testing the core of the ad- metric tons (33,000 lb.), is now said to sible indigenous combat aircraft, what
vanced turbofan for the proposed be above that level, but the exact fgure is now an option for the Future Fighter
2030s fghter. has not been disclosed. Maximum dry program that would replace the Mit-
Lockheed Martin, meanwhile, has thrust will be more than 11 metric tons. subishi Heavy Industries (MHI) F-2
responded to Tokyos request for infor- Considering how few countries have in the 2030s. The airframe design has
mation on alternatives for its Future the technology to build advanced and been studied extensively but will not
Fighter. The company says it has of- powerful aeroengines, this is a notably be built unless and until the govern-
fered no specifc type, though the F-35 ambitious program. Japan has previ- ment goes ahead with full-scale devel-
Lightning, already on order for the ously developed no combat aircraft en- opment of the fghter.
Japanese Air Self-Defense Force, must gine bigger than the XF5-1 demonstra- IHI says it was contracted in 2010 to
be a prospective candidate, probably in tor, which generates less than a third study components for the engine and in
modifed form. of the XF9-1s thrust. 2013 to build the core, which comprises
The indigenous fighter would be Japans aerospace propulsion spe- the high-pressure compressor, combus-
much bigger than the F-35, with a twin cialist, IHI Corp., is the main con- tor and high-pressure turbine. The core
engine installation. The turbofan is the tractor for the engine program and was preceded by a compressor and

AviationWeek.com/awst AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 37


combustor, each tested independently. 1980s, the Pratt & Whitney F119 had tion of an unmodifed fghter type.
The complete demonstrator XF9-1 will a temperature at the combustor exit, MHI is assembling most of the 42
be built under a 2015 contract. just upstream from the high-pressure F-35As that Japan is buying. It could
It will have a diameter at the inlet of turbine, of about 1,600C. The same be expected to undertake any neces-
about 1 m (39 in.), compared with the companys F135 engine, ftted to the sary development, fabrication and as-
1.2-m maximum diameter of the Gener- Lockheed Martin F-35, operates at sembly of the airframe for an updated,
al Electric F110. A drawing of the XF9-1 about 2,000C. specifically Japanese version, which
suggests that the case downstream of Japan is due to decide between the would presumably be called the F-35J.
the inlet is only a little wider than the indigenous fghter and the alternatives The Lightning in its current form is
inlet, if at all, though accessories will in fscal 2018. Since the government rather distant from the ideal of Japa-
add to width and depth, as usual. The will presumably frst want to see the nese defense ministry engineers for
length of the XF9-1 will be about 4.8 results of testing of the complete dem- a 2030s fghter. Their concept for an
m. The core is about 1.5 m long. The onstrator engine, a decision late in the all-new aircraft includes internal car-
quoted thrust levels are for the static, fscal year is likely. riage of six long-range air-to-air mis-
sea level condition. Lockheed Martin has proposed an siles, such as MBDA Meteors, and two
If published material is taken at improved version of the F-35, says of short range. Looking for great range
face value, the design has lost a previ- the Nikkei, a reliable and endurance, they have produced
ously intended feature, three rows of concept designs for a fighter larger
fixed and variable inlet guide vanes than the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor
that would have acted together as and much larger than the F-35.
a radar blocker, impeding
radio-frequency The XF9-1 demonstrator is due
energy on to be complete by the end of June
ry Britain is integrating the Meteor on
e Min the F-35, but the U.S. fghter will carry
se no more than four such weapons inter-
nally, and then with no room for short-
range air-to-air missiles. Lockheed
Martin could conceivably improve the
newspaper. But the F-35s range and endurance with ex-
company says it has not gone ternal tanks, perhaps conformal and
as far as suggesting any particular at some cost to stealth. It could also
model. It submitted a draft response ft the lightest Lightning version, the
to a ministry request for information F-35A, with the bigger and more volu-
at the end of June which did not pro- minous wing of the F-35C, the variant
its way to and from the compressor. A vide any specific offering of aircraft designed for catapult launch and ar-
2011 illustration showed that feature, type, a spokesman for Lockheed rested recovery at sea.
but more recent pictures, including the Martin says. The Japanese ministry Japanese avionics would also be pos-
latest, depict a conventional single row of defense continues to define their sible for an F-35J. As a case in point,
of inlet guide vanes. The usual type of requirements for the F-2 replacement Israel will at least load its own software
radar blocker, which Japan has worked and discussions between U.S. and Jap- on its version, the F-35I.
on, is not part of the engine but rather anese government ofces are ongoing. In June 2016, the Japanese defense
is installed in the inlet duct upstream Nonetheless, an upgraded F-35 is an ministry sought information from air-
from it. obvious possibility for Future Fighter. craft manufacturers about three pos-
Other key features from the early The manufacturer would be keen for sibilities for the fghter program: creat-
design of the engine remain: a three- Japan to pay for improvements that ing a new type, modifying an existing
stage low-pressure compressor, six would support extended production, one or importing.
stages in the high-pressure compres- while commonality with Japans The possibility of international joint
sor and single-stage high- and low- F-35As would cut the countrys oper- development has since emerged as a
pressure turbines. Those features, and ating costs. Most important, starting variation of the first option. Britain
the counter-rotation of the low- and with the current design should greatly and Japan agreed in March to look
high-pressure spools, match the con- reduce the expense of development. at the possibility of jointly creating a
fguration of the Pratt & Whitney F119 Indeed, the Nikkei says that adapt- fighter for the 2030s; BAE Systems
of the Lockheed Martin F-22. ing an existing design is the cheapest would be the obvious partner for MHI,
A 3D vectoring exhaust nozzle, di- of three options for the Future Fighter, while Rolls-Royce would work with
recting thrust up or down as well as to the others being developing an aircraft IHI. Swedens ambassador to Tokyo
one side or the other, is planned. independently and doing so with an- says Japan should consider Saab, too.
Average temperature at the turbine other country. It cites no sources The F-2 was a modification of an
inlet will be 1,800C (3,300F), ATLA and notably fails to mention an even existing type, the Lockheed Martin
says, repeating an earlier figure. At cheaper possibility that the govern- F-16. The U.S. company supported the
least early in development, in the ment has been considering: importa- development efort. c

38 AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

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ffn, fn f f ffkfy mfnfff ff bff f fffmff wff ff f mff
ff ff bffffff mfff Tf fn wf ff gf ff f ffbfy ffwffg
mfnfy Agnfy ff Dfn Dvff ny fff Pffng II ff ff
ffmn (ADD) ffbfbfy f mf ff fn fff An ffffffff mff ff f
f vfffmn ff fff f, ffgf Hynm 2C ny vffff f nf
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f f
fff fgn Efffn fff, fmf Tf ff ffynfmff ffn f f
fbfy ffm Rff f ff mmb bf ff Hynm 2C mff f fffffff
ff f ffm Sfvf Unffn, ff bn n ffm ff fn Hynm 2A fn 2B,

ff ff Sff Kff bfmbff wff f fff wfbffk fn f ffffng

mn mfff ffgfm ADD fn g fn ffff gf fff fff
Hfnwff ffv fff vfff f mfff Hynm 1 f f mfff bffffff mff
bffffff mfff ff f ffmffny ff ff bf fn f Nfk Hff f
bgn mfkfng ff xff (AW&ST ffffffff wfffn Tf wfffn ff
Jn 20fJfy 3, 2016, f 34) f Hynm 3 f f ff mff
In fnff fgn ff mfnff gffnf ff Hynm f fmfm fff
fn Hynm 2C, f mfff fn Hynmff c

AviationWeek.com/awst AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 39


New Urgency
How will
respond to
North Koreas
missile threat?

James Drew Washington

he unprecedented rate of long-range missile testing by Hitting a bullet with a bullet: The


North Korea has added a new level of urgency to the Trump Capability Enhancement-II Block 1
Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle tested
administrations review of U.S. missile defenses. on May 30 is to be the nal version
Missile defense advocates are no lon- rence fails. The MDA requests $150 of Raytheons EKV hit-to-kill inter-
ger comfortable relying on a few dozen million in scal 2018 for six additional ceptor series until the new Rede-
silo-based interceptors in Alaska and interceptors and two more silos at Fort signed Kill Vehicle arrives in 2022.
California to thwart potential attacks Greely, Alaska, but still needs approval
on the mainland. They are now appeal- and funding from Congress. Some U.S.
ing to the government to pump billions lawmakers have called for 14-28 spare pability Enhancement-II Block 1 EKV.
of dollars into strengthening todays interceptors. Ellison and Karako say this variant
homeland and regional defenses, while is an improvement over the version
investing in future technology for multi- KILL VEHICLE CHASM elded in 2004, but as the number of
object kill vehicles, laser-carrying un- The reliability of kill vehicles has been missiles capable of reaching the U.S.
manned aircraft, defenses against hy- an ongoing sore point for the MDA; increases over the next decade, kill
personic weapons and an overlapping six of eight failed GMD tests since vehicles must become more reliable,
web of missile-tracking satellites. There 1999 were attributed to malfunctions cheaper and small enough to deploy
are even discussions about putting la- or separation failure of the Raytheon in clusters.
sers and interceptors in space, akin to Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV). The MDAs fiscal 2018 program,
then-President Ronald Reagans 1983 But efforts to correct the issue ap- however, delays testing and fielding
Strategic Defense Initiative. peared to pay of May 30 with the rst of the EKVs replacement, the Rede-
Nearer term, advocates say sev- successful U.S. end-to-end ICBM inter- signed Kill Vehicle (RKV), until 2022,
eral lines of efort are crucial for the cept test using Raytheons latest Ca- a two-year deferment. It brings for-
U.S. Missile Defense Agency (MDA):
increasing the reliability and size of
the Ground-based Midcourse Defense
North Koreas New Missiles
(GMD) systems interceptor eet; im-
proving the quality, manufacturability Bukkeukseong-1 Hwasong-10 (Musudan)
and number of kill vehicles atop those
interceptors; adding sensors; and (KN-11) SLBM IRBM
adapting the system to meet hyper- LAUNCHER: Sinpo-
sonic weapon threats.
class submarine mobile launcher
The Missile Defense Advocacy Al-
liances Riki Ellison and Center for ROCKET: Single- ROCKET: Single-
Strategic and International Studies stage, solid stage, liquid
Thomas Karako want to see an im- propellant propellant
provement in the overall capability, SUCCESSFUL
reliability and capacity of the 44-mis-
sile Ground-Based Interceptor (GBI)
May 2015 June 2016
eet and the procurement of additional
spares to hedge against any potential RANGE: 1,000+ km RANGE: 3,000+ km
North Korean missile raid, if deter-

40 AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

ward deployment of the Multi-Object Factory in Tucson. Boeing attaches typing their MOKV concepts. Karako
Kill Vehicle (MOKV) to 2025 from the the missile-hunting payload to the GBI says the government could move more
2029-30 time frame. interceptor. quickly toward MOKV but should not
Karako applauds acceleration of the David Dutcher, Boeings director jump to multithreat intercept capa-
MOKV, which will enable a single inter- of the GBI and RKV programs, says bility without rst nishing the RKV.
ceptor to carry several hit-to-kill pay- his team has stood up a capability to The path to MOKV is through RKV,
loads instead of one EKV or RKV. But produce more interceptors, if needed. he says. MOKV requires more of a leap
he worries about the consequences of The company is also working on the [in technology]; RKV is an evolution.
delaying the RKV, since the production next-generation MOKV. The MDA believes the MOKV could
line and supply chain for the EKV is The MDA says the two-year delay revolutionize the missile defense ar-
winding down. for the RKV allows more time for sys- chitecture by multiplying the number
The RKV is engineered to be more tems engineering, parts and materials of warheads each interceptor can de-
reliable and less expensive than the cur- screening and hardware qualication, stroy. Today, the Pentagon would launch
rent-generation EKV, which was rushed while reducing overlap between devel- two or more multimillion-dollar GBIs
into service during the George W. Bush opment and production. The addition- against a single incoming warhead.
administration. The number of manu- al time reduces program concurrency Instead of a unitary kill vehicle, its a
facturing steps will be reduced by 70%. and will support meeting the programs swarm of them, Karako says.
Raytheon delivers the final eight primary goalachieving high levels of The agency could also develop a
CE-II EKVs this year, at which point reliability, the agency says. smaller MOKV payload for Raytheons
production will end, and the company But without some overlap, Raytheon new 21-in. SM-3 Block 2A, an Aegis
will focus solely on future product de- would have to lay of much of its skilled exoatmospheric interceptor designed
velopment until the RKV enters pro- kill vehicle production workforce until to intercept medium- to intercontinen-
duction at the turn of the decade. the RKV is approved for production. tal-range missiles. The missile has failed
Buying more interceptors and kill ve- Despite the schedule change, Ray- in one of two intercept tests, possibly
hicles as spares could negate this issue. theon says it is condent of meeting all delaying low-rate production.
The dirty little secret is: There RKV testing and elding requirements,
are no operational and testing spares. if funded and resourced properly. HYPERSONIC IMPERATIVE
None, Karako says. Every time MDA Bruce Jurcevich, Lockheeds director Russian and Chinese development
conducts another test, theyll need to of advanced interceptor systems, says of hypersonic cruise missiles, glide
pull one out of the ground from Fort the RKV has been the MDAs No. 1 prior- weapons and maneuverable reentry
Greely. Theyre not going to replace ity for improving kill vehicle reliability vehicles could soon render Western
it because theres nothing to replace and reducing manufacturing complex- antiballistic missile defenses obsolete.
it with. Forty-four interceptors will go ity and unit cost. The previous system These weapons either skim along the
down to 40, a 10% reduction, and thats had producibility issues, he says. upper atmosphere at high speed or
before the delay of RKV became public. The RKV will introduce on-demand maneuver in unpredictable ways to
Raytheon manufactures the EKVs in communications so kill vehicles can outplay traditional missile shields.
Tucson, Arizona, where it has capacity send and receive target updates, dis- Congress directed the MDA to ad-
to build more CE-II kill vehicles. crimination data and hit assessments dress this challenge and develop plans
Boeing is the prime contractor for during spaceflight. This is an initial and programs to counter hypersonic
the RKV, with Lockheed and Raytheon step toward collaborative intercepts threats due to enter service in the
as major suppliers. Raytheon has 50% against one or more targets. next few years.
of the workshare and is responsible Boeing, Lockheed and Raytheon have The agencys answer is a series of
for integration, assembly and testing received contracts worth $50-60 million demonstrations involving radars,
of the future kill vehicle at its Space each to begin developing and proto- high-altitude drones and a space lay-

Bukkeukseong-2 Hwasong-12 IRBM Hwasong-14 (KN-14/

(KN-15) MRBM KN-08 Mod 2) ICBM
LAUNCHER: Road-mobile launcher
LAUNCHER: Road-mobile, LAUNCHER: Road-mobile
tracked transporter- ROCKET: Single-stage, transporter-erector
erector launcher liquid propellant launcher
ROCKET: Cold- ROCKET: Two-stage
launch, two-stage, SUCCESSFUL liquid propellant
solid propellant FLIGHT TEST: SUCCESSFUL
FLIGHT TEST: July 2017
February 2017 RANGE: 3,000+ km RANGE: 5,500+ km
RANGE: 1,000+ km

Sources: Pentagon 2017 Ballistic & Cruise Missile Threat Report, CSIS, Missile Defense Advocacy Alliance

AviationWeek.com/awst AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 41

Missile Defense

er as well as new weapon concepts,

it told Congress in June.
First GMD Intercept of an
For detection, the MDA is evaluating
new electro-optical/infrared and laser Test Designation: Flight Test Ground-Based
rangefnding sensors in space and on
high-flying drones. Because of their Interceptor (FTG)-15
speed, hypersonic missiles have strong
heat signatures, which makes detec-
tion easier from certain vantage points.
Directed-energy weapons on drones or 1 ICBM Target Launch from
in space could knock out targets from
above at the speed of light but probably
Kwajalein Atoll North Korean-style
not from below, due to a plasma layer. ICBM target launches from Kwajalein
In 2015, the agency even expressed Atoll, Marshall Islands, headed toward
interest in adapting high-speed con- California, over 5,000 mi. away.
ventional interceptors such as the
Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense
system and SM-6 to knock out hyper-
sonic threats. The MDA is also assess-
ing the utility of high-speed projectiles,
such as Mach 3-capable hypervelocity
powder guns and electromagnetic rail
guns that fre rounds at six times the 2 Terrestrial Tracking and
speed of sound.
Many industry analysts see space as Discrimination Radars Space-
the ultimate high ground for sensing based infrared sensors detect the
and intercept of hypersonic threats. ICBMs fery launch and cue tracking
The MDA says it is establishing a and discrimination radars on land and
three-phase limited contingency ca- at sea in the Pacifc. The information is
pability for real-time hypersonic mis-
relayed to the central launch command
sile warning across the majority of
the threat profle. This includes a mix and fre control center in the U.S., which
of overhead persistent infrared sen- prepares a response based on trajectory
sorsairborne and space-bornebut and expected impact point of the threat.
also terrestrial sensors.
The agency has been maturing ste-
reoscopic tracking and range-fnding of 3 GBI Launch from
ballistic and hypersonic threats using
two customized General Atomics Aero- Vandenberg AFB, California
nautical Systems MQ-9 Reaper UAVs Three-stage Confguration 2 Ground-
with chin-mounted Raytheon Multi- Based Interceptor armed with the
spectral Targeting System (MTS-C) newest Capability Enhancement CE-II
turrets. The MDA is also exploring
ground-based MTS-C sensor sites. Block 1 Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle
For the space layer, the agency wants launch from a production-like test silo at
many small, inexpensive satellites and Vandenberg AFB.
hosted payloads instead of billion-dol-
lar behemoths, and its budget includes
funding for an overhead miniature sen-
sor experiment. A $21 million contract
for space sensor concept development
4 Kill Vehicle Target
is due to be awarded this year. Discrimination The kill vehicles
Kingston Reif of the Arms Control onboard seeker uses advanced
Association cautions that establishing
algorithms to distinguish the deadly
even a limited defense against hyper-
sonic weapons would be wildly expen- warhead (in red square) from
sive and cost-prohibitive. The better an- potential decoys (in white squares),
swer might be to prevent the capability countermeasures and space debris as it
from coming out of the bag in the frst aligns for intercept using its divert and
place, through arms control.
We can see the point where Russia, attitude control system.
the U.S. and China are all felding these
systems, he says. c Missile Defense Agency Photos

42 AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

ICBM TTarget
Missile Defense Integration and
Operations Center GMD Fire Control

Hawaiian Islands 4 3
Terrestrial Tracking and
Discrimination Radars 5 Vandenberg Air Force Base

2 6

Wake Island


5 Kill Vehicle Terminal 6 Kill Vehicle-Target

Phase The nal image of the Collision Exoatmospheric
target reentry vehicle before Kill Vehicle and target reentry
impact. If this had not been a test, vehicle impact in a ery
it probably would have contained collision, as seen through an
an armed nuclear warhead. infrared sensor. In a real-life
scenario, multiple interceptors
would be red against a single
warhead in case the rst shot

AviationWeek.com/awst AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 43


Rockwell distribution to make the dumb

products you acquired from B/E

Rockwell Collinss $8.6 billion acquisition of B/E Aerospace has boosted the companys
We can see where we will be leading
in the next generation of smart cabin
technology. Weve got all the parts. We
just need to write the applications,
whether it is ofoading maintenance
sales and workforce by 50% and expanded its expertise in cockpit avionics, communi- information or providing the flight
cations, simulation and training, and information management into aircraft interior crew valuable information that helps
products such as seats, lighting, galleys, lavatory systems and oxygen systems. Rockwell them serve the passengers. Weve got
Collins also is a major supplier on defense platforms such as the Lockheed Martin F-35 a synergy team working [to dene]
ghter, Boeing KC-46 tanker and Embraer KC-390 airlifter. Chairman, President and those product oferings.
CEO Kelly Ortberg sat down with Aviation Week Editor-in-Chief Joe Anselmo at the
recent Paris Air Show for a wide-ranging discussion. How do Safrans planned acqui-
sition of Zodiac Aerospace and
Kelly Ortberg (center) has made employee your purchase of B/E change the
engagement a key priority. The job site Glass- supplier landscape?
door gave him an employee approval rating of
89%, well above the average of 67%. I dont know that it really changes a
lot. Legacy Rockwell Collins and leg-
acy Safran dont compete much. We
have always competed with Zodiac,
so its just a dynamic. Theyre heftier,
and were heftier. Heft has some val-
ue, but you still have to ofer the best
value to the customer to be selected.

Boeing is launching a new after-

market business with a goal of
generating $50 billion in annual
sales. Does that worry you?
Im not worried. I think it presents
some opportunities for us to be a
value-added partner. Theoretically,
ROCKWELL COLLINS we could deliver aircraft maintenance
How does the acquisition of B/E geted $160 million of cost synergies data through our information systems
remake Rockwell Collins? per year. I have challenged the team on the airplane. And then they could
to get that to $200 million. monetize that datapredictive analyt-
ics, maintenance applications where
Ortberg: It makes us a bigger, more di- What is the defense share of your they have knowledge of the aircrafts
verse company. Interiors get retrotted business now? performance that we dont have.
several times in the life of an airplane.
We do not see that in avionics. So it Its right around 30%, down from Boeing CEO Dennis Muilenburg
gives us the ability to pivot a little bit about 45% before we did the acqui- recently told us he is preparing
to the aftermarket when we see soft sition of B/E. But defense is still a for a hypercompetitive environ-
patches in OEM production rates. We major component of our company. ment.
are a trusted source to the airlines and The growth is good, and the market
OEMs. If we are going to grow, we have recovery is here. About 70% of our I think its hyper competitive right
to have a bigger portfolio. defense business is based on U.S. now. There are going to be more play-
Defense Department spending, and ers with the [Bombardier] C Series
Some Wall Street analysts were clearly that environment is improv- and the Chinese coming to market,
less than kind about the B/E deal. ing. We have had four consecutive but Airbus and Boeing are pretty
quarters of growth greater than 5% competitive themselves. That flows
I think the acquisition probably sur- in our defense portfolio, and I think down to us. We have to continue to
prised some of them. We ended up youre going to see sustained levels be a value-added, low-cost supplier
with over 98% shareholder approval of growth both in the defense budget or we are not going to have positions
for the deal. Since the close [in April] and in our business. on their next-generation aircraft. So
I feel like some of the revenue synergy we continue to focus on size, weight,
opportunities might come in faster Is the plan to use your capa- power and cost reduction across our
than I anticipated. We originally tar- bilities in areas such as wireless product portfolio.

44 AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

So what technologies are going What is your assessment of the will keep the program very viable,
to reshape Rockwell Collins? momentum? and well see a lot more international
[sales] opportunities.
Information technology: I think we I think its going too slow, but Im also
are in the early phases of the con- encouraged. We are making great Is Rockwell Collins on any of the
nected airplane. There are a lot of progress. Were in the middle of the T-X trainer teams?
applications that have not yet even ADS-B (automatic dependent surveil-
been thought about. All the systems lance-broadcast) mandate. All new No comment. Thats a program of
on the airplane are now sitting on an airplanes are being delivered with interest to us. But we are the tail on
Ethernet network, whereas before this functionality. But it is important the dog on those kinds of programs.
they tended to be hard-wired and in- that the route structures and ground Well wait and see what the OEMs do.
dependent, so that even if you had a systems [utilize ADS-B] in concert, so There are a few programs that sort
radio link you couldnt get the infor- that the airlines [and business avia- of shape the industry. Thats probably
mation out of the boxes. tion operators] get a return on invest- one of them.
Now everything is sitting on a net- ment for that equipment.
work, so you can move information Youre in your ffth year as CEO.
back and forth and access it. Enhanc- Rockwell Collins has developed How has the company changed
ing the visual realm is [another] one a new pilot helmet for the F-35. under your leadership?
of our key growth areas. Its fusing How is that going?
databasesnew sensors with much We are a different company than
lower cost and higher performance Weve introduced the new light- we were, no question. We have been

Rockwell Collins Head-up displays Fly by wire Aircraft sensors/antennas Deicing systems

B/E Aerospace Head-down displays Autopilot Actuator solutions Lighting

Integrated avionics systems Flight tracking solutions
Communication, navigation Flight deck connectivity
and surveillance systems
Oxygen systems
Pilot controls
The acquisition
of B/E aerospace CABIN
Broadband connectivity Galley systems
greatly expands
Wireless routers Lavatories
Rockwell Collinss Food and beverage Interior monuments
Moving maps Water and waste solutions preparation and
commercial air- storage equipment
and structures
craft oferings. Premium seating Cabin and specialty lighting Power conversion
Interior reconguration
Economy seating Oxygen systems and certication services
Crew rest Source: Rockwell Collins

with the real world, and [also] creating weight helmet, which helped lower working a lot on employee engage-
a virtual world so you can see what weight restrictions to allow [for] ment. Weve tried to make the culture
you cant see. lighter pilots. There were also some much more open and inclusive and
changes in the ejection seat capabil- break down some of the stovepipes,
What are your thoughts on pro- ity. The performance of the new hel- the fear of speaking up, and make
posals to privatize the U.S. air met is really good, and were support- people more comfortable sharing
trafc control system? President ing Lockheed Martin now with the their ideas. Weve been getting more
Donald Trump and Rep. Bill Shus- ramp-up. We are in the early phases diverse globally. We have different
ter (R-Pa.) are arguing that you of that program, so there is a long cultures in meetings, and we have got
need privatization to speed up runway ahead. to have an environment where every-
modernization of the system. body is providing input.
It seems like the F-35 program Some of that is addressing simple
We are not taking a position on priva- has turned the corner. things, like the formality of the dress
tization. The important thing is that code and getting rid of reserved park-
we dont drop the ball on the next- It really has. The helmet is a good ing spots. That created a hierarchy of,
gen modernization that is underway. example. It is the frst time we have Im in a meeting with Kelly, so I cant
The argument is that the budget en- done things like this. As much as you talk. Weve tried to break that down.
vironment makes it very difficult to plan, there are discoveries. Thats I do skip level meetings all the
make strategic progress, and priva- why we do test programs. But I think time, everywhere I go, where I skip
tizing would allow that to be more weve whittled down the problems, over diferent levels of management
streamlined. That very well could be improved the product and driven the all the way down to entry-level folks.
the case. We just want to make sure cost down. Lockheed has done a great Sometimes information gets fltered,
that if we do privatize, we dont lose job at the airplane level, too. As long and that gives me a good way to keep
momentum. as we can keep doing that, I think we my fnger on the pulse. c

AviationWeek.com/awst AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 45


Divine Guidance
Testing upset recovery cues in a Learjet 25B
knowledge deciencies in recovering.
At Niagara Falls the morning of
April 3, I met Nathan Richards, the
principal investigator on the DAGUR
project and a senior research scien-
tist with Barron. DAGUR provides vi-
John Croft Niagara Falls, New York sual recovery-guidance cues that pop
up on a pilots primary ight display

reliminary results from a NASA-funded engineering when triggered by certain conditions,
evaluation show pop-up guidance cues on the primary including when the aircraft is out of
ight display could help pilots avoid losing control of their normal flight envelope bounds or is
doing something the pilot is not com-
aircraft. I was one of ve pilots selected to evaluate the software manding. The Niagara Falls ight tests
package, called Damage Adaptive Guidance for Piloted Upset would reveal the diference in recover-
Recovery (DAGUR), during a recent ight-test campaign. ing an errant aircraft with and without
the special guidance, at least for the
DAGUR is one of many loss-of-con- upset recovery guidancegiving pilots fairly small sample group of ve pilots.
trol (LOC) preventives and initiatives special cues that provide clear and The basic idea is to show the pilot
under development or already de- unambiguous directions on how to the recommended inceptorwheel/
ployed after a string of LOC accidents y the aircraft out of the anomalous throttle/rudder pedalpositions that
in 2009, most notably the Continental condition. DAGUR, developed by Vir- will efect a safe recovery, says Rich-
Connection/Colgan Air Flight 3407 ginia-based Barron Associates under ards. The pilot is shown both the rec-
crash in Clarence Center, New York. contract to NASAs Langley Research ommended positions and the current
Based on the captains erroneous in- Center, was designed with the CAST positions and is tasked with following
puts, the Bombardier Q400 was own goal in mind. the recommendations. Its just like
into a deep stall from which it did not My flight test took place in early playing Pac-Man on the screen. In
recover. The crash killed all 49 passen- April using Calspans variable-stabil- theory, guidance like this would have
gers and crew on board and one man ity Learjet 25B from Niagara Falls In- given the captain of Colgan 3407 the
in the house it destroyed. ternational Airport, only 20 mi. from cues needed to return the aircraft to
Following Colgan, dozens of safety Clarence Center. a stable condition after he entered a
upgrades in the U.S. were proposed To be accepted into the test pro- deep stall at relatively low altitude.
and implemented, including a rule that gram, I had to provide a summary of Richards has compiled the flight
requires first officers to have an Air my ight hours, a ight crew authori- data from all five pilots into a final
Transport Pilot certicate (normally zation signed by my supervisor and report that was recently submitted to
requiring 1,500 hr. of ight time) and a DAGUR consent form detailing the NASA and will be the topic of a pre-
for all pilots to have recurring upgrad- risks involved (minimal). The form sentation he will give at the American
ed simulator training that includes full also discussed the feedback I would Institute of Aeronautics and Astronau-
stalls and upset recoveries. Other up- be asked to provide the researchers: tics Science and Technology Forum in
grades are forthcoming, including vol- an evaluation of my perceived per- January 2018.
untary implementation by industry of formance after each maneuver and In the spring of 2016, Barron tested
multiple Airplane State Awareness an overall evaluation at the end of DAGUR with 10 Air Transport Pilot-
initiatives launched by the Commer- the test. The postmaneuver perfor- licensed pilots in a xed-based simu-
cial Airline Safety Team (CAST) in re- mance rating, dened in a one-page lator at the companys Charlottesville,
sponse to the LOC problem, the cause ow diagram, results in a 1-10 gure, Virginia, headquarters. The simulator
of the deadliest airline crashes. with 1 meaning excellent perfor- used a transport-class model devel-
One of the CAST initiatives involves mance and 10 meaning major skill/ oped by NASAs Langley Research

Calspans variable-stability Learjet 25B was the ight-test aircraft for a

NASA-funded upset recovery guidance study in April.

46 AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

Barron associates
Recovery guidance includes a
pitch-and-roll cue (left and right
magenta wings), a yaw or rudder
cue (below the wings) and power
cues on the left side (to put the
green in the red).
Center to emulate the heavy control
feel and performance of a 150,000-lb.
large twin-engine transport similar to
the Boeing 737 or 757. The pilots were
given a slate of 14 random scenarios
using a mix of visual and instrument
flight conditions. Each scenario was
run twiceonce with guidance; once
withoutbut not sequentially and with
no prior warning to the pilot as to what
scenarios he or she was about to expe- recover, the pilot uses the control yoke recovering at the frst sign of a prob-
rience. Scenarios included low-altitude and rudders to move the blue cues for lem and 2) being given step-by-step
wake vortex, high-altitude stalls with pitch and roll into the magenta targets instructions by the safety pilot in the
several different flap settings, nose- and the throttles to move the green left seat. In addition to my self-rating
high and nose-low upsets, rudder and power marker into the red power cue. for each maneuver, Richards was also
aileron hard-overs and runaway trim. In order to simplify certification on interested in how I perceived the speed
The real benefit of the guidance potential new products, Barron built of the recovery guidance: too fast, too
is the initial reaction, says Richards, DAGUR as an advisory only tool, slow or just right.
to get the aircraft back to a safe state meaning that pilots can use or ignore Barron hired Systems Technology,
where you can let your mind catch up the information. Inc. to develop the dynamic models of
to whats going on. Rather than the standard upset pilot behavior over a wide spectrum of
The simulation results were posi- recovery sequence that pilots are gen- pilot types for the cues. I found that
tiveoverall, recoveries with DAGUR erally taughtreduce angle of attack the guidance was set properly for my
were better than recoveries without (AOA), adjust power, roll wings level control responses during the evalua-
paving the way for the live fight-test and adjust pitchDAGUR determines tion fight.
demonstration in April with the Cal- its recovery guidance by simultane- My portable primary fight display,
span Learjet 25B. My fight included ously prioritizing AOA, bank angle, mounted on top of the instrument
11 randomly selected scenarios all airspeed and sideslip, each with a dif- panel, was easy to see, although in
fown with a view-limiting headgear ferent weighting. For fy-by-wire air- some cases the bottom of the screen
to simulate fying in instrument condi- craft, the recovery guidance could be was blocked by the control yoke when
tions. Each maneuver started at 15,000 built directly into the fight software it was pressed fully forward based on
ft. and 250 kt. in a military operations for automatic recoveries. my seat height. Following the guidance
area over Lake Ontario, with all 22 ma- Richards says DAGUR does not take was easy once I fgured out which sym-
neuvers taking approximately 90 min. into account terrain and obstacles in bol represented the current state and
to complete. its recovery guidance, largely to sim- which represented the desired state, a
Evaluation pilots are seated in the plify certifcation of the software. We critical understanding for recoveries.
co-pilot seat in the Learjet, which has didnt want to carry a database of I believe the polarity would be more
fy-by-wire controls and can emulate buildings and terrain, he says. He is, straightforward for pilots used to fy-
a variety of aircraft, in this case a however, contemplating whether a re- ing with fight director symbology in
transport-class aircraft similar to covery at lower altitude could demand glass cockpit displays, whereas my
but not the same as the Langley mod- higher G loads given the immediacy of piston-powered aircraft has traditional
el. The aircraft has built-in safety trips the required response. DAGUR limits steam gauges.
that return control to the safety pilot control inputs based on the maneuver- Brian Ernisse, vice president of
in the left seat (with traditional con- ing load factors of +2.8 and 0.25g. aerospace operations at Calspan and
trols) when maneuvers exceed certain The frst order of business at Cal- a former U.S. Air Force developmental
G loads or sideslip angles. There were span before flying was to sit in the test pilot for the F-22 and F-16, was the
no pitch or roll limits, although the right seat of the Learjet 25B and fy safety pilot for the fight. There were
safety pilot would generally intervene a series of recoveries in ground-sim- broken clouds over Lake Ontario, not
when the bank angle exceeded 90 deg. ulation mode. In the left seat for this ideal for the planned maneuvers at
With the recovery guidance, what a portion was Ryan McMahon, Calspans 15,000 ft., but we launched with the
pilot sees on the primary fight display director of programs, who along with intent of fying as many scenarios as
are magenta desired state cues for Richards talked me through several possible. Ultimately, we were able to fy
the control yoke (pitch-and-roll con- recoveries, including a nose-low case all 22 cases (11 with guidance, 11 with-
trol) and rudders in the middle of the in which I kept my eyes closed until out), but in at least one case Ernisse
display (see image) and a red power told to recover. Two other entry types had to ofer maneuver advice before
cue on the left side of the screen. To would be used: 1) actively fying and the guidance popped up due to the

AviationWeek.com/awst AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 47


clouds above our altitude. sue for many of the evaluation pilots as attached to having the DAGUR guid-
In practically all cases, my recover- well, largely due to their overcontrol- ance, although this could have been
ies were far superior using DAGURs ling of the aircraft. For other scenarios, partially due to my unfamiliarity with
upset guidance, particularly for a wake including icing on the wing, DAGUR the Learjet fight deck and handling.
turbulence for which my unaided re- guidance was critical, as I had no Overall, Richards says the data
covery attempt tripped the Learjets awareness of the aircrafts decreasing shows that DAGUR boosted the pro-
G limits. With DAGUR, the recovery controllability as the simulated ice load fciency of any given pilot in any given
was quick and smooth. Richards says increased. Similar to synthetic vision scenario. In a lot of scenarios, it re-
wake turbulence recoveries were an is- or a head-up display, I quickly became duced overcontrolling, and there were

Autothrottle forces. We are looking to do a twin next, without mention-

ing what platform, says Askarpour. The amazing thing
about our autothrottle is that it is designed for retroft.

Add-On New engines will probably have a Fadec, but there are a
huge number of PT6s out in the feld that are non-Fadec.
This is a very good solution for all of those.
Witnessing a bolt-on pilot I rode in the right seat as Smedberg few N271SS in the
left seat on April 28 on a short fight from Wilmington,
workload reliever frsthand Delaware, to Trenton, New Jersey, and back. IS&S is based
in nearby Exton, Pennsylvania. In the back was Markus
John Croft Wilmington, Delaware Knopf, IS&Ss vice president for product development.
N271SS is a 17-year-old PC-12 equipped with IS&Ss Next-

hen Innovative Solutions and Support (IS&S) Gen cockpit, an upgrade certifed by the FAA in early April.
chief pilot Eric Smedberg lined up on Runway 32 The launch customer for both the NextGen cockpit and the
at New Castle Airport here in late April in the A/T is Brian Cleary, president of the Pilatus Owners and
companys PC-12 test aircraft on a demonstration fight for Pilots Association.
Aviation Week, he initiated takeof with the push of a but- Before takeof, Knopf and Smedberg explained the op-
ton. The throttle moved to full power on its own. eration of the system. Pilots activate the A/T by pushing
The Houdini momentthe turboprop singles Pratt & a master on/of switch in the center quadrant, forward of
Whitney PT6 engine does not have a full authority digital
engine controller (Fadec) normally required for an auto-
mated throttlecame courtesy of IS&Ss newly FAA-cer-
tifed autothrottle (A/T) system. The bolt-on aftermarket
upgrade can be installed into a companion IS&S PC-12
NextGen fight deck in as little as 30 min., says the company.
Rather than a Fadec, the IS&S A/T uses the computing
power in the fight deck displays to generate position com-
mands to an actuator mechanism under the console that
moves the throttle while the system software monitors a
variety of engine and aircraft limits. IS&S is marketing
the upgrade as a pilot workload reliever that prevents the
engine from exceeding over- and undertorque and turbine
temperature limits and keeps the aircraft from fying too
slow or too fast.
Along with the approximately 900 PC-12s that can be
upgraded with IS&Ss NextGen cockpit (the pre-NG mod-
els), the company says its new A/T can also be retroftted
to more than 13,000 PT-6-powered aircraft on 25 difer-
ent aircraft models. Computing power for non-IS&S fight
decks would come from an IS&S-built integrated standby
IS&S President Shahram Askarpour says his company
is interested next in ftting the system to a twin-engine
aircraft. For a twin, the A/T could add the safety beneft of
limiting power at low airspeeds in a failed engine scenario,
to avoid a loss of control from the yaw and roll efects of the
operating engine overcoming the fight control countering
IS&S chief pilot Eric Smedberg (left) demonstrates to
AW&STs John Croft the industrys frst aftermarket
autothrottle for a non-Fadec PT6-powered turboprop.
John Croft/AW&St

48 AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

far less oscillations back and forth, he symbology; but you get a 22-year- for pilots learning upset recovery
says. The data shows that it augments old Airbus pilot, and theyre psyched skills. Richards says Barron is also
a pilots upset recovery performance. about any guidance you can provide. building a scaled-down version of
That is not to say that every pilot Richards says one airframer is inter- DAGUR on a tablet that could be used
will want the guidance advice. We ested in potentially pursuing DAGUR by light-aircraft pilots. c
work with a lot of pilots, Richards for its aircraft. Calspan, which pro-
says of his work at Barron. We see vides upset recovery training, would Video John Croft fies in the Calspan
50-year-old ex-fghter pilots, and they like to keep DAGUR on the variable- Learjet 25B to test DAGUR:
want nothing to do with augmented stability Learjet as training wheels AviationWeek.com/DAGUR-tests

the throttles. There is a disconnect on the right side of the In the background, six diferent controllers are process-
throttle lever and a takeof/go-around (TOGA) button on ing data for the A/T system, including airspeed, torque
the left side of the throttle lever. The pilot selects torque and the various overlimit protections, says Knopf. With
or airspeed mode using an A/T tab on the right side of the the active system, the pilot can avoid having to manage
primary fight display (PFD), dialing in the torque or speed the tricky process of how fast to bring in the power. If
set points using knobs at the top of the displays. The A/T you bring the throttle up incorrectly, it will very quickly
controls to those parameters. Knopf explains that takeof, overtemperature and overtorque due to the turbine kicking
climb and cruise are usually fown in torque mode with in, says Askarpour. Its a lot of fnagling. Bring the throttle
descents, approaches and landings fown in speed mode. upwaitbring it up some more.
Overriding the throttle clutch mechanism takes approxi- The A/T has its own alerting functions. You get PFD
mately 10 lb. of forcewhich I found to be very easy to annunciations that tell you when you approach thresh-
doand sets of an audible beeping sound. oldstemperature, torque and othersin red, says Knopf.
Based on manually entered information about our fight, And if it cannot recover you in 5 sec. from those overlimit
the IS&S fight control computer calculated a maximum conditions, it will disconnect the autothrottle and give you
takeof torque of 43.4 psi. After receiving takeof clearance an audible tone.
from the tower, Smedberg lined up on Runway 32, pushed Smedberg says the PC-12s engine also has a built-in
the TOGA button and activated the A/T in the torque mode torque limiter, but the A/T provides another level of protec-
via the PFD. The throttle advanced smoothly, taking ap- tion in case that limiter fails. He also points out that unlike
proximately 7-10 sec. to reach full power. a Fadec engine, the throttle cannot be shoved forward to
let the electronics take care of the power scheduling; the
throttle remains directly connected to the engine.
Climbing to 2,000 ft., Smedberg switched the A/T to
speed mode and set it for 180 kt., providing a bufer for the
200-kt. maximum speed allowed below the Philadelphia
Class B airspace. I found the A/T would generally control
airspeeds to 10 kt. of target. Knopf says the overshoot
could be somewhat higher in turbulence. During a required
navigation performance approach to Runway 24 at Tren-
ton, Smedberg had the speed control set to 155 kt., and
there was a fap overspeed caution as the speed neared
163 kt., the fap limit. The A/T reduced power in response.
On the missed approach, Smedberg clicked the TOGA
button and the A/T transitioned to torque mode, advancing
full power for the climb out. During the climb to 2,700 ft.,
Smedberg switched over to speed mode, an entry that im-
mediately caused a red fashing Torque Protect caution
on the upper left side of the PFD. The A/T immediately
reduced power in response. Knopf explained that the com-
manded speed was set too high.
Overall, the A/T is a positive addition to this fight deck,
allowing pilots, many of whom are owner-operators, to bet-
ter focus on communications, navigation and surveillance
functions in high-pressure situations, while knowing the air-
craft and engine limitations are being met. A key element
in keeping the fights safe will be for the pilots to become
profcient with the A/T and its operating modes. c

Video John Croft samples the IS&S aftermarket autothrottle

on a demonstration fight in the companys Pilatus PC-12 out of
Wilmington: AviationWeek.com/Innovative-autothrottle

AviationWeek.com/awst AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 49


Electric Avenues to cut induced drag and gain 10-15% in

aerodynamic efciency; placing small
electric motors strategically on the air-
New rules and renewed innovation are key to craft to eliminate the need for aps and
high-lift devices, allowing engineers to
kick-starting general aviation optimize the airframe design for cruise;
and putting slow-turning propellers up
John Croft Washington front because electric motors can gen-
erate high torque at slow speeds.

he convergence of four factors based. However, with the new Part Hotbeds of activity for electric pro-
electric engine technology, pow- 23 set to go live at the end of August, pulsion include GAMAs Electric Pro-
erful lithium-chemistry batteries, Bowles says the industry will now be pulsion and Innovation Committee
automatic control systems and exible able to actually design and innovate (EPIC), which is managed by Bowles
new regulationsis opening new de- and put the cool stuf in the eld. and in January published two stan-
grees of freedom in aircraft design, not The new Part 23 certication rules, dards that industry can use to measure
the least of which are the propulsion which govern airworthiness standards hybrid and electric propulsion perfor-
systems for general aviation aircraft. for normal, utility, acrobatic and com- mance. One standard covers fixed-
The action could be the key to revi- muter category (19 passengers or wing aircraft in typical missions; the
talizing the general aviation industry, fewer and a maximum takeof weight other encompasses vertical-takeoff-
which, based on pilot population, has of 19,000 lb. or less), include alternate and-landing missions.
been slipping in popularity since the types of propulsion (electric was not Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Uni-
early 1980s. Getting young people in included in legacy rules), and airfram- versitys (ERAU) Hybrid Consortium
and getting them interested requires a ers can use consensus standards to is another key innovation center. It is
technology injection, says Greg Bowles, show compliance. The eld is plowed involved in a project to produce a nine-
vice president for global innovation and and ready to be planted, says Bowles. passenger hybrid turboprop by 2025
policy with the General Aviation Manu- Ideas that may bear fruit under the and a large hybrid-electric jet by 2035.
facturers Association (GAMA). It also new rules include using an electric Members of the Hybrid Consortium,
requires an acknowledgement that for boost for takeof so that the fossil-fuel- led by ERAUs Eagle Flight Research
various reasons, weve been frozen in burning engine in a hybrid can be de- Center and Argonne National Labora-
time. Bowles says the primary reason signed for the lower power needs of tory, include Airbus, Boeing, GE Avia-
was that regulationsthe FAAs Part 23 the cruise portion of a flight; putting tion, Hartzell, Rolls-Royce, Textron,
certication rules, specicallywere medium-size electric motors with pro- and Cape Air airline, although partici-
prescriptive rather than performance- pellers on wingtips instead of winglets pation is open to all entities who share

Curious Stepchild W
hen Sikorsky bought the
Polish aerospace struc-
tures company PZL Mielec
Marketing Sikorskys little-known M28 in 2007, the main focus was to produce
helicopter structures and the S70i
John Croft Fort Worth International Black Hawk helicop-
ter. Included with the purchase was
an odd t for a helicopter manufac-

Long a specialty aircraft for mili-

taries including the U.S. Air Force,
Sikorsky is reintroducing its PZL-
built M28 as a solution for niche
passenger operations as well.


50 AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

Unusual designs will accompany the entry of elec-
tric and hybrid engines into general aviation, as seen
in this artists concept of a possible nine-passenger
aircraft by the Hybrid Consortium.

the common goal. EPIC is looking at Bowles. Right now, the answer is yes ment systems. A third stage will in-

all types of electric and hybrid congu- and nowere at the breakeven point. volve nishing the detailed design of
rations, as well as automation, says However, next year it will be a yes the prototype engine as well as build-
Bowles. He notes that the consortium since were improving batteries by 3% ing and testing the engine.
is doing a deep dive into the hybrid elec- per year, he says. Pat Anderson, director of the Eagle
tric turboprop angles. The Hybrid Consortium has been Flight Research Center and founder of
Given the pace of battery energy studying series and parallel hybrid the consortium, says the researchers
density advancementlithium-chem- turboprop designs. In series, a turbine have come up with hybrid turboprop
istry batteries have been improving engine charges the batteries that drive designs that result in 9% lower direct
about 3% every yearall-electric air- the propeller; in parallel, both the en- operating costs compared to fossil fuels.
craft will be doable in the near term for gine and the batteries drive the prop. The conuence of new technologies,
smaller-scale vehicles with relatively The idea is to avoid deep aeronautical research and regulatory advancements
short range. But for a larger business changes to an airframe, and to devel- is going to change what future airplanes
aviation-sized aircraft in the nine-pas- op a clean-sheet 600-shp serial hybrid will look like, predicts Anderson.
senger size, hybrid power (a combina- turboprop engine with battery packs Bowles refers to that conuence as
tion of fossil fuel and electric in series as the power source. The conceptual degrees of freedom in a design. Ive
or parallel drivetrains) is necessary design of clean-sheet airframes and been in aerospace for 20 years and
and has only recently become viable. propulsion systems is complete, and havent seen this level of innovation. Its
Were now on the brink of whether the group is now designing the motor, degrees of freedomthings designers
hybrid electric makes sense, says battery packs and battery manage- could not have considered before. c

turer: PZLs xed-wing M28, a rugged twin-engine turbo- On a scale from 1-10, I expected interest in this region
prop. Sikorskys new owner, Lockheed Martin, has only now to be a 10, says Schierholz. It was a 15. He says there has
begun to market it in earnest in the regions where it may been at least one request for proposal submitted from po-
sell the best. tential military, government or civilian customers in each
PZL began producing the latest generation of the M28 in country visited, some for multiple aircraft. The split between
Mielec, Poland, in 1993 and since the Sikorsky purchase has commercial and military applications is 50/50, he says. The
been delivering about 10 aircraft per year. Customers include two most likely procurementsSchierholz would not say
the governments of Indonesia, Jordan, Poland, Venezuela, which countries are involvedhave been pushed into 2018
Vietnam, the U.S. and several commercial operators. for budgetary reasons, he says. The others dont have ap-
People come to our chalet, they see printed material and proved budgets yet, but are enthusiastic and seeking money
pictures of the M28, says Adam Schierholz, Sikorskys busi- to procure the aircraft. Schierholz predicts 2018 will be a
ness development regional executive for Latin America, of big year for the M28.
recent military shows in South America. They expect to see Sikorsky says a major selling point for Latin America
Black Hawks and S-92s and S-76s. When they see the M28, and the Caribbean is the utility of the cabin, which can be
they are surprised and interested. ordered in eight diferent versions: A 19-passenger airline
Schierholz tackled the information vacuum by getting conguration with 2-1 seating and an underbelly luggage pod
company approval for an M28 Latin American tour. One- a cargo version a combination passenger/cargo (combi) a VIP
and-a-half years in the making, the tour launched in March a medevac conguration for six litters and seven passenger
and nished in May after visiting seven Caribbean and Latin seats a search-and-rescue version a 17-seat paratrooper drop
American countries, including Trinidad and Tobago, Argen- version and an 18-passenger utility cabin. The cargo congu-
tina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Mexico. A PZL crew ew ration has an option for a hand-cranked cargo hoist capable
the aircraft to North America from Poland in late February, of lifting 1,540 lb. Sikorsky is considering a reghting ver-
with marketing stops in several U.S. cities, including Dallas- sion of the M28 based on a request from Chile, a country the
Fort Worth, where Aviation Week interviewed the team and aircraft did not visit on the tour.
took a short demonstration ight. In all, the Polish-registered The most common use is the combi version, says
aircraft (SP-DGW) made 50 ights and hosted 676 visitors Ingmar Wyczalek, PZLs regional sales manager for North and
during the tour, according to Lockheed Martin. South America. Its very versatile for unprepared strips in re-

AviationWeek.com/awst AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 51


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wfs Bzf, hf my fw f, pssff d mfdfvf ms- Video John Croft takes a demonstration ight showing of the
ss ff ffks bdf ps fs Thf Bzf- M28s features and capabilities: AviationWeek.com/M28-demo

52 AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

Ambitious Spark craft is the need to keep the CityAirbus
cabin attitude as close to horizontal as
possible in all phases of fight. Cousin
Work accelerates on Airbus plan for on-demand said Airbus has several ideas being pat-
ented that could solve this challenge.
air transport over congested cities Another key element of consider-
ation is how the UAM system will work
Tony Osborne London in a city. Airbus is weighing how it will
be involved in the UAM business, as a

irbus has set itself a goal of goals for a demonstrator. Even when manufacturer of the air vehicles only
having a serialized production the technology doesnt exist today, we or as an Uber-like operator.
urban air mobility (UAM) sys- use that mechanism to force the de- Studies for such an operation in Lon-
tem ready for testing in a major city velopment of technology faster than it don examined the use of 160 air vehicles
as early as 2023. would otherwise happen. to serve 10 pickup locations around
The company is investing in two Preliminary design review for the London, including one at Heathrow
UAM research programs: CityAirbus, AlphaDemonstrator took place on Airport and another at London City
being developed in Europe by Airbus July 4, and the company is investing in Airport. Cousin said CityAirbus could
Helicopters under the groups Chief the creation of an iron bird test rig that transfer passengers from one airport
Technology Ofce (CTO), and the Va-
hana, being developed by the companys Airbus sees the CityAirbus
Silicon Valley ofshoot, A3. Airbus says and other UAM concepts
it has proved there is a willingness to operating in megacities
pay for such a service through its proj- across the world.
ects including Project Ponton and later
Voom, an on-demand helicopter fight
service operating in Sao Paulo.
There is a high willingness to pay,
Mark Cousin, head of flight demon-
strators for Airbus CTO, said at the
Royal Aeronautical Society in London
in early July. When you consider the
time a journey takes in the air com-
pared to on the ground, the air journey
is sometimes cheaper than the ground
Data collected from the Ponton and Airbus

Voom programs suggest that passen- is expected to be ready by year-end. A to the other in less than 20 min., com-
gers are willing to pay $8-18 per seat 1/7th-scale model of the aircraft confg- pared to 1 hr. 15 min. by road or public
per minute for a speedier journey. uration has already fown, and full-scale transport at non-peak times. Airlines
Motivated by these early fndings, propulsion arms have been tested in a are interested in the concept, accord-
Cousin said work is now rapidly pro- whirl tower in Germany. ing to Cousin, as it could provide a more
gressing on the first prototype of a What results from the CityAirbus is convenient means of shuttling their pre-
CityAirbus craft. The so-called Alpha- likely to be a 2-4-seat air vehicle with mium passengers to the airport.
Demonstrator will be a 2.2-metric-ton a range of 60 km (37 mi.) and a cruis- At this years Geneva Motor Show in
unmanned aircraft powered by eight ing speed of around 120 kph (75 mph). March, the company unveiled its modu-
fxed-pitch ducted propellers driven Key challenges for Airbus will involve lar Pop-Up concept featuring modular
by electric motors to prove the archi- safety and the environmental foot- air and ground components to carry a
tecture, modularity and scalability of print, particularly in terms of noise. passenger pod. Pop-Up has also gar-
the principle. The AlphaDemonstra- Cousin believes it will be possible to nered interest from companies explor-
tor, which will be smaller than Airbuss achieve noise reductions in hover of ing possibly transporting the passenger
H120 turbine helicopter, is expected to around 10-12 db. Low operating costs pods by train and even hyperloop for
fy by the end of 2018. will also be a targetAirbus is aiming longer-distance journeys.
The BetaDemonstrator is planned to for the cost of operation to be 25% that But questions remain about the
follow; it will be manned by a test pilot of a twin-engine helicopter. speed of development of battery ener-
and is due to fy in 2019. A prototype of The winner [in the UAM industry] gy densities that will allow the aircraft
a serial production air vehicle, or Gam- will be the manufacturer that designs to operate over the ranges and at the
maDemonstrator, could be ready by the the most efficient system in terms of speeds required, as well as the time re-
end of 2022 or early 2023. power usage because, in the end, ev- quired to charge the batteries.
We are . . . trying to drive the de- eryone will have access to the same Slow battery-charging speeds could
velopment of technology with demon- battery technology, Cousin said. The make modular systems such as Pop-Up
strators rather than through the classic highest-performing product will be the more attractive options, as ground and
TRL [technology readiness level] pro- one using the least power. air vehicle elements could be stocked
cess, Cousin said. We set aggressive One major consideration for the air- and recharged to be used as needed. c

AviationWeek.com/awst AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 53


Arctic Aviation Asset leases

Boeing 737-800s to its parent,
Norwegian Air Shuttle.


Leasing Disruptors
Building third-party business will be key for LCC-owned lessors
Adrian Schofeld Auckland and Hong Kong and Helen Massy-Beresford Paris

ow-cost carriers (LCC) have al- ment company, set up to manage the The founding of AAA as a standalone
ready caused seismic shifts in airlines own feet rather than as a les- business came in 2013, after Norwegian
the global airline industry, and sor. However, as the carriers aircraft placed a bumper order of 222 aircraft,
now they are aiming to further boost orders and ambitions have grown, the mainly consisting of Boeing MAX and
their infuence by growing into the air- mission of its subsidiary has evolved. Airbus NEO narrowbodies. This made
craft leasing arena. As an LCC, we have to keep our it a logical step to split out the carriers
While some LCC-owned leasing units costs low, AAA CEO Tore Jenssen asset management activities into a
have become well-established, they are says. To this end, Norwegian believes it separate business.
still just beginning to make inroads with is important to have a fairly young feet Today AAA manages 129 airplanes,
third-party customers. The ability of when it comes to fuel burn, efciency of which it owns 77. The remainder of
these lessors to transition beyond the and maintenance, he says. In contrast, its feet are leased from other lessors
airlines within their parent groups will other airlines might have a strategy of such as AerCap and placed into the
determine how much they can shake up buying aircraft at the end of their life Norwegian group, across its diferent
the narrowbody leasing market. instead, he notes. operating certifcates in Ireland, Nor-
Three of the major LCC players in the Since Norwegian placed its frst or- way and the UK. All of Norwegians
leasing sector are AirAsia, Lion Air and der for new aircraft in 2007, the carrier aircraft are managed by AAA.
Norwegian Air Shuttle. While airlines has said it is not planning to operate AAA has moved on from its origins
establishing leasing units is not a new the aircraft until end-of-life, Jenssen as purely a vehicle for finding new
phenomenon, the entry of the LCCs is says. At some point in the future they homes for aircraft considered too old
a recent twist. These carriers are using were going to trade [these] assets. to be flown cost-efficiently. However,
their lease operations to manage their There would be two ways of doing the scale of its third-party leasing of
deliveries and fnancing, dispose of re- that: leasing them out or selling them, new aircraft remains small. Only three
tired aircraft and as a potential relief depending on the market. We have A320neos have been placed with an-
valve if delivery rates outstrip demand. always known there would be a lot of other operator, Hong Kong Express.
Norwegians Arctic Aviation Asset airplanes that would be handed back to Nine more will be allocated to the Hong
(AAA) bills itself as an asset manage- the market from Norwegian, he says. Kong carrier this year and next. All of

54 AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY/JULY 24-AUGUST 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

the NEOs due for delivery through 2018 tions regarding a sale. AirAsia expects that has formed its own leasing unit,
have been placed, but AAA is looking to AAC to be worth about $1 billion. Transportation Partners, which was
lease out more of the type as they arrive AAC has primarily been used as a established in Singapore in 2011. The
starting in 2019. vehicle to lease aircraft to AirAsias unit leases aircraft to Lion Group car-
I think having an asset manage- overseas franchises. The lessor had 63 riers, as well as to third-party airlines.
ment arm for the airline provides fex- aircraft on its books at the end of 2016, It has previously placed aircraft with
ibility, says Jenssen. We have a fairly according to AllianceDBS Research. carriers in Brazil and China.
long-term view on what Norwegian as The total comprised 57 aircraft allo- Transportation Partners has 63 air-
an airline needs, what is going in there, cated to AirAsia afliates, four to the craft on its books, comprising narrow-
what is coming back and what we need parent Malaysian operation and two to body jets and turboprops. In a recent
to place elsewhere. non-AirAsia carriers. report, Fitch Ratings noted the lessor
Jenssen sees the logic in other car- AllianceDBS notes that more than has a relatively young and liquid com-
riers establishing asset management 40 additional AirAsia aircraft are mercial aircraft portfolio [and] cash
arms, particularly those with large or- likely to be transferred from AirAsia flow generation supported by solid
derbooks that will be looking to replace to AAC and leased back to AirAsia. A lease yields. However, a number of
and phase out older aircraft. Depend- significant share of AirAsias order- risk factors were also identifed.
ing on the volume, on the orderbook and book is also designated for the lessor. According to Fitch, there is some
on a lot of other things, it could make AAC declined to be interviewed for risk due to common ownership with
sense to have such an asset arm, says this story, but Chief Financial Ofcer Lion Air, which is also Transportation
Jenssen. He notes that many legacy car- Simon Perkins talked about the units Partners major customer. Such a dy-
riers have subleased aircraft through ambitions during a recent Interna- namic is not uncommon with airline-
their alliances but says, Norwegian is tional Society of Transport Aircraft owned lessors, but Transportation
a standalone; we have no alliance and Trading conference in Hong Kong. Partners still has relatively weak cor-
we depend on ourselves, so we have to Perkins says AAC intends to diversi- porate governance, says Fitch.
handle this externally. fy from its current activities into a fully The lessor will beneft from the rise
Airlines setting up leasing units
could become a growing trend, Jenssen
says. The airline industry will require The AirAsia Group has transferred many of its aircraft
more leased aircraft in the future, and to its leasing subsidiary, Asia Aviation Capital.
at the same time there are many air-
lines that have placed very large pur-
chase orders, so maybe well see this

The AirAsia Group has transferred

many of its aircraft to its leasing
subsidiary Asia Aviation Capital.
more and more, he says. Whether as
a standalone asset arm or joint venture
with other lessors, there are very dif-
ferent ways of structuring this.
AAA is always scanning the market
for interesting assets but has no im-
mediate purchase plans, Jenssen says, Airbus
noting that availability in OEM order
books is limited for the next few years. fedged global lessor. This indicates a in popularity of its ATR 72 turboprops
AAAs focus will instead be on placing greater focus on third-party custom- and also from deliveries of widely
the frst of the aircraft that were deliv- ers. He acknowledges that AAC cant utilized current and next-generation
ered to Norwegian in 2009, which are be [like GE Capital Aviation Services] narrowbody aircraft from Airbus and
now due to be turned around for sale due to its smaller portfolio. However, Boeing, says Fitch. The ratings agency
or lease elsewhere. the unit can make its [size] an advan- notes management is seeking to spread
AirAsia is another airline that has tage rather than a disadvantage, and its customer base through the place-
set up a leasing unit: It launched Asia can be reactive and responsive to op- ment of its orderbook deliveries with
Aviation Capital (AAC) in 2014, basing it portunities. third-party airlines.
in Labuan, Malaysia. The leasing opera- AAC will likely remain based in Asia However, Fitch believes there is exe-
tion is now at a signifcant crossroads, post-sale, as this region is where the cution risk with the ability of Transpor-
as AirAsia is attempting to put together most growth is expected. Even as it tation Partners to successfully diversify
a deal to sell AAC to outside interests. diversifies its leasing activities, AAC away its from its afliate airlines. It also
The parent company set an offer will probably continue to stay focused must contend with the competitive-
deadline of March 31 but has not re- on narrowbody aircraft, says Perkins. ness of the overall aircraft leasing en-
vealed bidders for AAC. AirAsia Group The widebody leasing sector is consid- vironment, which could pressure lease
CEO Tony Fernandes said in late May ered more risky. pricing, and ultimately earnings in the
that the parent was in fnal negotia- Lion Air is another Asian LCC giant medium term, the agency notes. c

AviationWeek.com/awst AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 55

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Peril Ahead for UK Aerospace

I s the UK in danger of becoming an aerospace island unto itself? A

year after its citizens voted to pull the nation out of the European
Union, questions about its aerospace future continue to grow.
There clearly is a business case for closer de-
fense cooperation between France and Germany.
New military programs are crucial to rebuild-
The latest cause for concern in London is a surprise proposal ing the defense business of Airbusa predomi-
by French President Emmanuel Macron and German Chancellor nantly Franco-German companyafter its pro-
Angela Merkel to jointly develop a new combat aircraft as Eu-

ropes answer to the F-35 (see page 16). Should the plan proceed
to co-develop a ffth-generation fghter, as well as maritime patrol
aircraft and other military platforms, UK industry could fnd it-
self left out in the cold.
A lot is at stake as the nation braces to formally exit the EU in
Proposed Franco-German
collaboration is an infection point

in Europes defense landscape.
March 2019. The UK boasts the worlds second-largest aerospace
sector after the U.S., directly supporting 130,000 jobs and gen-
erating more than $40 billion annually in sales, mostly through posed merger with the UKs BAE Systems was
exports. Wings for all Airbus aircraft and Bombardiers C Series scuttled. Politically speaking, the tie-up provides
are produced in the UK. But British aerospace companies are a high-profle sense of European solidarity now
heavily dependent on their ability to trade freely in Europe with- that the UK and U.S., in Merkels view, have be-
out tarifs and to draw skilled workers from across the continent. come less reliable allies because of Brexit and
While it remains to be seen whether the ambitions of Macron a Trump administration that at times has been
and Merkel will come to fruition, their proposal signals an in- critical of the NATO alliance.
fection point in Europes defense landscape. Ever since Charles Unless the UK takes charge of its aerospace
de Gaulle withdrew France from NATOs military structure in destiny, it could fnd itself on the sidelines in
1966, the UK and Germany have been close partners. They col- Europe. While even closer cooperation with the
laborated with Italy to develop the Panavia Tornado. Later, when U.S. is certainly an option, it is not a cure-all.
Frances Dassault refused to share the lead role on a new fghter, UK leaders need to wake upfastand fgure
the outcome was the UK/German/Italian/Spanish Eurofghter and out how to keep their enviable aerospace sector
the French-only Rafale. from going the way of the British Empire. c

Where Is Trump ence, exploration and human spacefight, many Americans believe
wrongly, we thinkthat their nation is in retreat.
Headed on Space? As John Logsdon, the space historian and founder of George
Washington Universitys Space Policy Institute, wrote in Sky &

P resident Donald Trumps reestablishment of

a National Space Council is an encouraging
sign that the administration recognizes the im-
Telescope magazine: There is a pressing need for coherence in
managing the increasingly complex U.S. space enterprise. With
NASA hoping to resume human travel to distant destinations, with
portance of space technology to U.S. commerce, national security dependent on space capabilities, with the space
securityand to its national spirit. environment increasingly congested, competitive and contested,
This is a critical time for the U.S. in space. In the and with a multifaceted U.S. private space sector emerging, coor-
commercial realm, no nation is more dependent on dination becomes imperative.
So, two cheers for recreating the space council! We withhold the
third cheer because the proof is in the pudding. Dating to 1958,

Two cheers for restarting

the space council. Now who
for NASA administrator?
space councils have typically been chaired by the vice president
(Vice President Mike Pence will chair this one) and have included
cabinet secretaries and other senior administration ofcials. The
panels have ranged from very efectivenotably under President
George H.W. Bush, where there was an aggressive stafto feck-
less. Two presidents, Richard Nixon and Bill Clinton, scrapped
their space councils entirely. We are optimistic that the Trump ad-
space technology than the U.S. Communications, ministration will recognize the usefulness of a space council.
banking, environmental management, agriculture Still, there is another pressing matter that desperately needs
and myriad other activities are more efcient and attention: NASA does not have a permanent leader. It takes time
efective because of space applications. This im- for a new administration to fll thousands of positions. But NASA
portance grows daily. On the military and intel- needs a strong hand now. The agency is one in which Americans
ligence side, there are heightened worries about take great pride. This is not just another political appointment.
missile threats and how to protect space assets The Trump administration must make fnding a NASA adminis-
and deter adversaries. Meanwhile, in space sci- trator a high priority. c

58 AviAtion Week & SpAce technology/JUly 24-AUgUSt 13, 2017 AviationWeek.com/awst

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