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Industry 4.

0 and Cloud
Manufacturing: A Comparative
Yongkui Liu
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Auckland,
Auckland 1142, New Zealand;
School of Automation Science Information technologies with their strong penetration can provide effective solutions for
and Electrical Engineering, addressing the challenges faced by the manufacturing industry. Leveraging information
Beihang University, technologies to enhance the competitiveness of the manufacturing industry has become a
Beijing 100191, China prominent trend worldwide. In this context, two important concepts for manufacturing
e-mail: yliu496@aucklanduni.ac.nz Industry 4.0 and cloud manufacturinghave been proposed. Industry 4.0 refers to the
fourth industrial revolution, which is characterized by the widespread application of
Xun Xu1 cyber-physical systems (CPS) in the manufacturing environment. Cloud manufacturing is
a new service-oriented business paradigm based on the cloud concept and method. Since
Fellow ASME
their inception, there has been a great deal of attention from both academia and industry.
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
However, to date, they have largely been addressed in isolation. The fact is that, although
The University of Auckland,
being proposed from different perspectives and embracing different ideas, they each have
Auckland 1142, New Zealand
some key features that can benefit one another. In order to better understand these two
e-mail: xun.xu@auckland.ac.nz
concepts, there is a need to compare them and clarify their relationship. To this end, this
paper presents basic ideas of Industry 4.0 and cloud manufacturing, gives a brief over-
view of their current research, and provides a detailed comparative analysis of them
from different perspectives. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4034667]

1 Introduction created a brand new way for delivering computing resources [3].
The ingenious combination of cloud idea and method with manu-
Over the past more than 200 years, technologies have been
facturing has given rise to a disruptive manufacturing paradigm
playing a dominant role in increasing industrial productivity,
cloud manufacturing [4].
which was demonstrated by the previous three industrial revolu-
Industry 4.0 and cloud manufacturing constitute the two major
tions, i.e., mechanization (powered by steam engines in the
efforts of taking advantage of information technologies to pro-
1800s), mass production (powered by electricity and the assembly
mote the further development of the manufacturing industry in the
line in the early 1900s), and automation (powered by computers
manufacturing community. Since their inception, they have drawn
in the late 1900s) [1]. Nowadays, information and communication
enormous attention of people from both academia and industry.
technologyin particular, the Internet and embedded systems
Several hundreds of articles have been published (Fig. 1). Note
technologiesis undergoing rapid development, which has given
that the keywords for the retrieval of literature on Industry 4.0 are
rise to a number of novel technologies, such as cyber-physical
Industry 4.0 and Industrie 4.0, and the literature with any one
systems (CPS), the Internet of things (IoT), cloud computing, and
of the keywords in the titles, keywords, or abstracts was included.
big data analytics. The advent of these new technologies enables
According to their current rapid development trend, it can be envi-
the creation of a smart, networked world, in which things are
sioned that these two concepts have great potential to transform
endowed with a certain degree of intelligence, and moreover,
the manufacturing industry in the future. However, to date, they
being increasingly connected to each other. In the manufacturing
field, the widespread deployment of sensors and the extensive
application of software in industrial production bring together the
physical and virtual worlds, giving rise to CPS. Moreover, with
the help of the internet, a great variety of manufacturing things
and services can be connected to create the things and services
Internet, i.e., IoT and Internet of services (IoS). All these transfor-
mations mark the transition of current industrial production to the
fourth stageIndustry 4.0, which is characterized by smartness
and networking [1].
Apart from industrial revolution, there is another way for
describing the different development stages of industrial
productionadvanced manufacturing. Almost starting from the
same time as the third industrial revolution, various advanced
manufacturing models and technologies have been proposed [2].
However, there are some drawbacks with existing advanced man-
ufacturing models and technologies, which make them unable to
meet the increasing sharing and collaboration requirements of
manufacturing enterprises. In recent years, cloud computing has

Corresponding author.
Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication Fig. 1 Number of documents (including conference papers,
in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received articles, reviews, books, and book chapters) on Industry 4.0
August 17, 2016; final manuscript received September 1, 2016; published online and cloud manufacturing published during 20102016 (the data
October 6, 2016. Editor: Y. Lawrence Yao. were obtained from the Scopus database on Aug. 28, 2016)

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have largely been addressed in isolation. The fact is that, although Technologies of nine aspects that power the transformation of
being proposed from different perspectives and embracing differ- the current industrial production to that of Industry 4.0 have been
ent ideas, they each have some key features that can benefit one identified, which more or less have something to do with CPS [7]
another. In order for their better future development, there is a (Fig. 2). CPS provide a critical support to the vertical and horizon-
need to compare these two concepts and clarify their relationship. tal system integration. The combination of CPS and the industrial
To this end, this paper first presents basic ideas of Industry 4.0 IoT enables the creation of the IoT and IoS. CPS will surely bring
and cloud manufacturing, then gives a brief overview of their cur- about the cybersecurity issue. Moreover, the widespread applica-
rent research status, and finally conducts a detailed comparative tion of CPS means the generation of industrial big data, which
analysis of them from different perspectives. requires cloud technology and big data analytics for storage and
This paper is structured as follows: In Secs. 2 and 3, we give analysis. The virtual world of CPS consists of a great variety of
brief introductions to Industry 4.0 and cloud manufacturing, models of the production facilities, for which simulation can play
respectively. Their current research status is also presented an important role. Augment reality technology is required for
therein. Based on Secs. 2 and 3, Sec. 4 conducts a detailed com- operators to interact with CPS. Additive manufacturing and robots
parative analysis of the two concepts. Section 5 concludes the are essential parts of the CPS-based manufacturing systems of
paper followed by some discussions. Industry 4.0 [7].
Figure 3 shows the principle of Industry 4.0. Within a smart
2 Industry 4.0 factory, all the physical production elements in the physical world
have a cyber twin (i.e., model) in the virtual world. The physical
2.1 Definition, Concept, and Technologies. Reference [5] and virtual worlds as well as the physical assets and cyber twins
presented a definition of Industry 4.0: The term Industry 4.0 in them are seamlessly connected to achieve the global optimiza-
stands for the fourth industrial revolution, the next stage in the tion of production within a smart factory. Moreover, within a
organization and control of the entire value stream along the life- value network, multiple factories are horizontally integrated, i.e.,
cycle of a product. This cycle is based on increasingly individual- the physical assets and the cyber twins are, respectively, inte-
ized customer wishes and ranges from the idea, the order, devel- grated to enable optimized decision-making across the value net-
opment, production, and delivery to the end customer through to work. The integration through the value network will give rise to
recycling and related services. Fundamental here is the availabil- CPS platforms, within which things, services, data, and
ity of all relevant information in real-time through the networking people are connected over the Internet.
of all instances involved in value creation as well as the ability to
derive the best possible value stream from data at all times. Con-
necting people, objects and systems leads to the creation of 2.2 Current Research Status. Many research works on
dynamic, self-organized, cross-organizational, real-time opti- Industry 4.0 have been published (Fig. 1). In the following, we
mized value networks, which can be optimized according to a will give a brief overview of the current research, focusing on the
range of criteria such as costs, availability and consumption of critical issues, such as CPS, smart factory, big data and its ana-
resources. Hermann et al. defined Industry 4.0 as a collective lytics, service, and cloud, etc.
term for technologies and concepts of value chain organization.  CPS: Current research on CPS in the area of Industry 4.0
Within the modular structured smart factories of Industry 4.0, focuses on discussions of the concept, technologies, architec-
CPS monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the phys- ture, challenges, and emerging directions of CPS (or cyber-
ical world and make decentralized decisions. Over the IoT, CPS physical production systems (CPPS)) [810]. In particular,
communicate and cooperate with each other and humans in real- Wang et al. presented the latest status and advancement of
time. Via the IoS, both internal and cross-organizational services CPS in manufacturing [10]. Lee et al. proposed a unified
are offered and utilized by participants of the value chain [6]. five-level architecture as a guideline for implementation of
Both of the definitions above deem Industry 4.0 as the next stage CPS in Industry 4.0, including smart connection level, data-
of value chain organization and management. to-information conversion level, cyber level, cognition level,
Industry 4.0 is characterized by the integration along three and configuration level [11].
dimensions: vertical integration together with networked manu-  Smart factory: Radziwon et al. defined a smart factory as a
facturing systems, horizontal integration through value networks, manufacturing solution that provides such flexible and
and end-to-end digital integration of engineering across the value adaptive production processes that will solve problems aris-
chain of a products life-cycle. Smart factory is a core concept ing on a production facility with dynamic and rapidly chang-
component as well as a key feature of Industry 4.0, which is where ing boundary conditions in a world of increasing
the vertical integration takes place. Horizontal integration refers complexity [12]. That is, a smart factory should be a net-
to the integration of multiple smart factories through value net- work of adaptive and self-organized production units which
works, occurring both within a smart factory and across different allows production processes to be globally optimized and is
smart factories. Vertical and horizontal integration enables the able to be adaptive to unexpected changes. Shrouf et al. pre-
end-to-end integration across the entire value chain. Smart prod- sented reference architecture for IoT-based smart factories
uct is another critical concept component in Industry 4.0s concept [13]. Wang et al. constructed a general architecture of the
system. In a smart factory, products and machines communicate smart factory that incorporates industrial wireless networks,
with each other, cooperatively driving production. Smart products cloud, and fixed or mobile terminals with smart artifacts,
can refer to objects, devices, and machines that are equipped with such as machines, products, and explored the operational
sensors, controlled by software and connected to the Internet [5]. mechanism from the perspective of control engineering [14].
Industry 4.0 will give rise to novel CPS platforms geared toward Munera et al. discussed how to achieve control missions into
supporting collaborative industrial business processes and the a smart factory through distributed services [15]. Some
associated business networks. CPS platforms are where the spe- works discussed the issue of interfactory integration, such as
cific requirements for horizontal and vertical integration of CPS, horizontal integration in collaborative networks and end-to-
applications, and services arise in business processes (Fig. 2) [1]. end digital integration [16], and management of innovative
It should be noted that Industry 4.0 stands for the fourth industrial production networks of smart factories [17].
revolution, which necessitates the consideration of many other  Big data and its analytics: Big data and associated analytics
issues that may occur in the upcoming new era, including stand- play a significant role in optimizing production quality, sav-
ardization, safety and security, resource efficiency, new social ing energy, and improving equipment service in the context
infrastructure, work organization and work design, training, regu- of Industry 4.0 [7,18]. The collection and comprehensive
latory framework, etc. [1]. evaluation of data from many different sourcesproduction

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Fig. 2 Core concept map of Industry 4.0 and technologies that enable its implementation

Fig. 3 Principle of Industry 4.0

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equipment and systems as well as enterprise- and customer- demand manufacturing services via networks (e.g., the Internet)
management systemswill become standard to support real- and cloud manufacturing service platforms [4]. Subsequently,
time decision-making. However, the five versus of big data Xu defined cloud manufacturing as a model for enabling ubiqui-
(i.e., volume, variety, veracity, velocity, and value) pose tous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of
many challenges, such as new requirements of hardware and configurable manufacturing resources (e.g., manufacturing soft-
software for processing the data, the urgency of online detec- ware tools, manufacturing equipment, and manufacturing capabil-
tion/processing ability, and the necessity for interdisciplinary ities) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal
approaches [19]. Industry 4.0 is a new production paradigm management effort or service provider interaction [37].
of autonomous and decentralized control which involves a Figure 4 shows the core concepts and technologies of cloud
new level of data integration and data processing in industrial manufacturing. The core concepts of cloud manufacturing are
production. In the context of Industry 4.0, there are many closely related to its operational mode (Fig. 5). In the cloud manu-
explicit and implicit data-processing requirements regarding facturing mode, providers supply their manufacturing resources,
data that need to be processed (e.g., data model, data integra- which will be transformed into services and then pooled into the
tion, and data content) and the processing of the data (e.g., cloud manufacturing platform. In line with the market economy
decision processing, knowledge processing, and real-time theory, operators are introduced to manage the platform so that
processing) [20]. high-quality services can be guaranteed and provided. Customers
 Services and IoS: Industry 4.0 aims to achieve IoS so that can submit their requirements to the platform for requesting serv-
service vendor can offer their services over the Internet. In ices ranging from product design, manufacturing, testing, manage-
Industry 4.0, as more software and embedded intelligence ment, and all other stages of a product life-cycle.
are integrated in industrial products and systems, predictive The core of cloud manufacturing lies in the establishment of
technologies can further intertwine intelligent algorithms and the cloud manufacturing platform, which relies on many technolo-
lead to the transformation of manufacturing services, such as gies. A cloud manufacturing platform has a multilayer architec-
predicting product performance degradation, and autono- ture, including resource layer, virtual resource layer, global
mously managing and optimizing product service needs [18]. service layer, application layer, and interface layer [37], as shown
Apart from the product-related services, factories can go one in Fig. 5 (for the sake of brevity, layers such as security layer,
step further and offer special production technologies instead knowledge layer, and communication layer are not shown).
of just production types as services that can be used to manu- The implementation of different layers requires different tech-
facture products or compensate production capacities [6]. nologies. IoT, virtualization, and servitization technologies are
Industry 4.0 can use the cloud-based manufacturing for creat- needed to sense manufacturing resources and transform physical
ing, publishing, and sharing the services that represent manu- resources into virtual resources in the virtual resource layer. The
facturing processes [21]. core technologies for global service layer are cloud computing,
 Cloud: Cloud technologies can be widely used in Industry service-related technologies (including service-oriented technolo-
4.0 for increased data sharing across company boundaries, gies and service management-related technologies), and semantic
improved system performance (such as increased agility and Web technology. In the interface, it is the humanmachine inter-
flexibility), and reduced costs through bringing systems action technology that plays an important role. Certainly, the
online. As a consequence, the integration of cloud technolo- high-performance computing technology and advanced manufac-
gies with industrial CPS becomes increasingly important turing model and technology are also essential. Many other sup-
[22]. Many vendors have begun to offer cloud-based solu- porting technologies such as big data are also necessary for the
tions to manufacturing execution systems (MES). However, complete implementation of a cloud manufacturing platform [38].
factories are comprised of different subsystems, modules,
devices, and machines that operate with various communica-
tion protocols and interfaces. There is a need for a unified 3.2 Current Research Status. Since its inception, the con-
connection between the technological layer (in the context of cept of cloud manufacturing has attracted much attention of
Industry 4.0, the technological layer consists of CPS and smart researchers, and a large number of papers have been published
products) and the higher layer of the industrial hierarchical (Fig. 1). Existing research on cloud manufacturing mainly
model. Zolotova et al. proposed an industry IoT gateway for revolves around the discussion of the cloud manufacturing con-
connecting physical devices and higher layers and thus sup- cept itself, as well as the architecture and function implementa-
porting the communication with a cloud (such as MES services tions of a cloud manufacturing platform, including resources and
in the cloud) [23]. Sensing network and cloud computing tech- services issues, cloud manufacturing system operation, and other
nologies are also utilized to provide an advanced manufactur- relevant issues, such as security [3941]. In the following, we
ing solution to Industry 4.0 [24]. However, there are some focus on the fundamental issues with cloud manufacturing instead
problems with current enterprise resource planning (ERP) and of giving a complete review (for a complete picture of the
MES solution in supporting a shared cloud-based approach in research on cloud manufacturing, readers can refer to the review
distributed manufacturing [25]. papers [3941]).
 Other issues: Schuh et al. discussed the mechanisms contrib- Li et al. systematically introduced the concept of cloud manu-
uting to raising productivity in Industry 4.0 [26]. The other facturing in 2010 [4]. Afterward, many works devoted to clarify-
issues that have arose the interests of researchers include ing the concept, definition, connotation, and characteristics
augmented reality applications [27], knowledge [28], com- [4247]. The key characteristics of cloud manufacturing include
munication [29,30], agent technology [31], standardization the Internet of manufacturing resources (or Internet of manufac-
[32], energy [33], humanmachine interaction (HMI) [34], turing things) and ubiquitous sensing, virtual manufacturing
training and learning [35,36], etc. society and flexible manufacturing system on demand, service-
oriented manufacturing and whole life-cycle capability
provisioning, efficient collaboration and seamless integration,
3 Cloud Manufacturing knowledge-intensive manufacturing and collective innovation,
and toward future social manufacturing [45].
3.1 Definition, Concept, and Technologies. Li et al. coined In cloud manufacturing, manufacturing resources can be cate-
the term cloud manufacturing and defined it as a new net- gorized into physical manufacturing resources and manufacturing
worked manufacturing paradigm that organizes manufacturing capabilities [48,49]. Physical resources can be hard or soft.
resources over networks (manufacturing clouds) according to con- Manufacturing capabilities are intangible and dynamic resources
sumers needs and requirements to provide a variety of on- that represent an organizations capability of undertaking a

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specific task or operation with competence. In cloud manufactur- unimportant. Exploring the requirements of the cloud manufactur-
ing, all the manufacturing resources are virtualized and encapsu- ing factory and building it are important future research issues in
lated as manufacturing cloud services to achieve the Internet of the area of cloud manufacturing. In this aspect, the CPS-based
manufacturing services [50]. smart factory of Industry 4.0 can provide important reference.
Cloud manufacturing platforms can be built for small-medium Based on the analysis above, we can conclude that Industry 4.0 is
size enterprises (SMEs) or group enterprises [51,52] and can be a broader concept system than cloud manufacturing in terms of
integrated based on the federation mode [44]. As with cloud com- the issues involved and the completeness of the concept systems
puting, there are four deployment modes for cloud manufacturing, (Fig. 6).
i.e., private cloud, community cloud, public cloud, as well as their Industry 4.0s fundamental idea is to integrate manufacturing
conglomeration (i.e., hybrid cloud) [53]. systems of different smart factories along a value chain (or a value
network) in the form of CPS so that real-time data and informa-
tion across the entire value chain can be obtained, which enables
4 A Comparative Analysis real-time and accurate decision-making. Industry 4.0s CPS-based
This section presents a comparative analysis of Industry 4.0 and manufacturing systems have high flexibility, adaptiveness, real-
cloud manufacturing based on their concepts and current research time capability, and can achieve the transparency of production
status. processes. Industry 4.0 is therefore capable of producing increas-
Industry 4.0 is named after the industry revolution, while cloud ingly individualized products (of even batch size one) with higher
manufacturing follows from the advanced manufacturing models quality, lower costs, and high productivity, etc. (Fig. 6). Cloud
and technologies. Therefore, Industry 4.0 needs to be able to manufacturings fundamental idea is to connect and integrate
describe the landscape of the manufacturing industry in the manufacturing resources of different factories (or enterprises) into
upcoming era and present solutions to issues that need to be dealt the cloud so that large-scale resource sharing and collaboration
with (such as the resource and energy efficiency, urban produc- can be realized in the form of services and their composition (Fig.
tion, and demographic change). Industry 4.0s CPS-based manu- 6). Cloud manufacturings cloud-based resource sharing method
facturing systems are capable of providing effective means for can also bring enormous benefits and advantages to enterprises,
solving the problems. Cloud manufacturing is an advanced manu- such as financial flexibility, business agility, and instant access to
facturing business model that focuses on issues that are directly innovation [53]. Both Industry 4.0 and cloud manufacturing con-
related to manufacturing (i.e., resource sharing and collaboration verge to better meeting increasingly customers individualized
in the cloud) and pays less attention to issues like urban produc- requirements (Fig. 6). In fact, Industry 4.0 represents a highly dig-
tion and demographic change, etc. ital and networked manufacturing paradigm that satisfies enter-
In terms of concept system, Industry 4.0 encompasses both ver- prises digital manufacturing and collaboration requirements
tical integration and horizontal integration, but cloud manufactur- between them and business partners, while cloud manufacturing
ing concentrates on the integration in the cloud manufacturing can effectively satisfy the sharing and collaboration requirements
platform in the form of service composition (integration in the of enterprises in a convenient and agile way [54]. The technolo-
cloud corresponds to the horizontal integration concept in Industry gies shown in Figs. 2 and 4 are closely related to the core ideas of
4.0). At the factory end, cloud manufacturing is more concerned Industry 4.0 and cloud manufacturing. Overall, the technologies
with how to connect the manufacturing resources into the cloud for Industry 4.0 have something to do with CPS, while the tech-
manufacturing platform and pays less attention to the issue of nologies for cloud manufacturing are mainly for the implementa-
internal organization and operation (e.g., vertical integration) tion of a cloud manufacturing platform.
within a cloud manufacturing factory. But this does not mean that As far as the interfactory integration is concerned, Industry 4.0
the implementation of the cloud manufacturing factory is relies on CPS platforms, and cloud manufacturing relies on cloud

Fig. 4 Core concept map of cloud manufacturing and technologies that enable its

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Fig. 5 Principle of cloud manufacturing

Fig. 6 Comparison between concepts of Industry 4.0 and cloud manufacturing

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manufacturing platforms (Fig. 6). These two types of platforms fourth industrial revolution, and cloud manufacturing is a service
are different in the aim, core technologies, operational mode, and advanced manufacturing model. Industry 4.0 is a more compre-
platform architecture. hensive concept than cloud manufacturing as it encompasses both
vertical and horizontal integration, whereas cloud manufacturing
 Aim: Cloud manufacturing platforms aim to support full shar-
concentrates on the integration in the cloud. Their core ideas are
ing and efficient collaboration of social manufacturing
different, but they both aim to meet customers individualized
resources through centralized management and operation.
requirements through IoT, IoS, IoD, and IoP. We also compared
Cloud manufacturing platforms are open that allows enter-
the CPS platform and the cloud manufacturing platform from the
prises to freely join or exit. CPS platforms also aim to pro-
perspectives of aim, core technologies, operational mode and
vide support for collaborative industrial business processes
business model, and architecture.
and the associated business networks for all the aspects of
Industry 4.0 follows from the digital manufacturing concept
smart factories and smart product life-cycle [1].
and method. Digital manufacturing has been around for several
 Core technologies: For a CPS platform, it is certain that CPS
decades, and now with the help of the internet and other newly
and IoT are core technologies. Depending on business objec-
emerging technologies, it is evolving toward a networked version
tives of CPS platforms, other technologies may also be
with a higher level of digitization (i.e., CPS). At the same time,
needed. While for cloud manufacturing platforms, the core
servitization, cloudization, and worldwide collaboration of manu-
technologies include IoT, virtualization and servitization,
facturing businesses are also unstoppable trends nowadays. In the
cloud computing, service-related technologies, etc. (Figs. 4
future, how to achieve the seamless integration of these trends is
and 6).
an important research issue for the manufacturing industry.
 Operational mode and business model: The operational
Both Industry 4.0 and cloud manufacturing are evolutionary
mode of the CPS platform in Industry 4.0 is an open problem
concepts. In the future, Industry 4.0 can resort to the
and there is little discussion about it [1]. By contrast, the
manufacturing-as-a-service concept of cloud manufacturing and
operational mode of a cloud manufacturing platform has
its operational mode to achieve the larger scale business collabo-
been explicitly defined [4]. Nevertheless, there are some
ration, and cloud manufacturing may also need to borrow the con-
common issues to be solved regarding these two types of
cept of smart factory in Industry 4.0 for the building of cloud
platforms in terms of business model, such as dynamic pric-
manufacturing factories to facilitate resource perception and
ing, fair benefit sharing, broader regulatory requirements,
intellectual property and know-how protection, monitoring
Nowadays, we are entering an increasingly smart, networked
of business processes, legal issues, as well as safety and secu-
world. Industry 4.0 and cloud manufacturing enable the network-
rity issues.
ing of manufacturing things, services, data, and people over the
 Architecture: To date, there has been no specific discussion
internet in the manufacturing field, which constitutes part of the
with respect to the architecture of the CPS platform, whereas
smart, networked world. It can be envisioned that Industry 4.0 and
the cloud manufacturing platform adopts layered service-
cloud manufacturing will unleash the full potential of the manu-
oriented architecture, on which researchers have largely
facturing industry in the coming new era of industrial production.
reached a consensus [39].
The common parts between CPS platforms and cloud manufac-
turing platforms lie in the implementations of IoT, IoS, Internet of
devices (IoD), and Internet of platforms (IoP), (or the Internet of
users (IoU)) (Fig. 6) [1,38]. Moreover, service is an important This work was supported by the China Postdoctoral Science
concept for both Industry 4.0 and cloud manufacturing. There are Foundation under Grant Nos. 2012M520139 and 2013T60052 and
some differences in the meaning of services in these two concepts. the International Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship Program.
In Industry 4.0, services are closely related to CPS. The most fre-
quently mentioned service concept in Industry 4.0 is product- References
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