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Diagnostic Report

Elaboration dun schma rgional


damnagement et de dveloppement
durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Serge YAZIGI
Ricardo KHOURY
Rana ZBEIDY
Roula HAIDAR
Alexandre CLUCHIER
Paolo VARESE
Rachad GHANEM
Jean STEPHAN
Carole ATALLAH
Nathalie MEDAWAR
Nathalie ANTOUN
Votre partenaire
la GFA Consulting Group GmbH est

Christian Rake
Chef dquipe de lassistance technique

Projet dAppui au Dveloppement Local dans le Nord du Liban


(ADELNORD)

Diagnostic Report :
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et de
dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Serge YAZIGI
Ricardo KHOURY
Rana ZBEIDY
Roula HAIDAR
Alexandre CLUCHIER
Paolo VARESE
Rachad GHANEM
Jean STEPHAN
Carole ATALLAH
Nathalie MEDAWAR
Nathalie ANTOUN

April 2014
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of figures, graphs, maps, tables and pictures
Abbreviations and acronyms
Units and conversion factors

0 INTRODUCTION 1

1 SECTOR 1: INFRASTRUCTURE 3
1.1 Importance of infrastructure for the study area 3
1.2 Transport infrastructures 3
1.3 Energy infrastructures 8
1.3.1 Renewable energies 10
1.4 Water and wastewater management infrastructures 14
1.4.1 Water infrastructures 14
1.4.2 Wastewater infrastructures 17
1.5 Communications infrastructures 19
1.6 Solid waste infrastructure 20

2 SECTOR 2: EDUCATION 23
2.1 Public and private schools 23
2.1.1 Schools 23
2.1.2 Enrolment and dropout 25
2.1.3 Illiteracy rates 27
2.2 Vocational, technical and training institutions 27
2.3 Higher learning institutions 28
2.3.1 Proportion of students 28
2.3.2 Distribution of students 29

3 SECTOR 3: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, ADMINISTRATIVE


STRUCTURE, AND GOVERNANCE 31
3.1 Socio-demographic characteristics 31
3.2 Vulnerable groups and poverty 32
3.3 Relationships between villages and regions 36
3.4 The dynamics between villages 36
3.5 Migration and immigration 37
3.6 Syrian refugees 38
3.7 Administrative framework 38

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3.8 Civil societies and active organizations 39

4 SECTOR 4: HEALTH 42
4.1 General health conditions 42
4.2 Healthcare facilities 43
4.2.1 Hospitals 43
4.2.2 Other healthcare related facilities 45
4.3 Insurance coverage 47

5 SECTOR 5: CULTURE, LEISURE AND TOURISM 49


5.1 Importance of culture, leisure and tourism for the study area 49
5.1.1 Culture and leisure 49
5.1.2 Tourism and ecotourism 50
5.2 Landscape assets in the study area 51
5.3 Heritage assets in the study area 55
5.4 Tourism-related services in the study area 62

6 SECTOR 6: AGRICULTURE 66
6.1 Prevailing agricultural activities in Akkar 66
6.2 Major cropping prevailing patterns 69
6.3 Agro-industries 76
6.4 Cooperatives and farmers groups 77
6.5 Public institutions and development projects 78
6.6 Problems and priority objectives 79
6.6.1 Problems 79
6.6.2 Priority objectives 81

7 SECTOR 7: INDUSTRY, TRADE AND SERVICES 83


7.1 General 83
7.2 Public administration and the Lebanese army 84
7.3 Trade and commercesectors (formal and informal) 85
7.4 Light industry and local crafts and mid to heavy industry 89
7.5 Banking and services 91
7.6 Construction sector 94
7.7 Problems faced by the study area 94
7.8 Priority development objectives for the study area 96

8 SECTOR 8: URBAN PLANNING 98


8.1 Legal framework of the SSRDP 98
8.2 Major land use orientations for Akkar 98
8.2.1 Identification of the study area 98
8.2.2 The study area in the National Physical Master Plan 99

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8.2.3 Major land orientations for the study area 101


8.3 Urbanization tendencies in the study area 106
8.4 Relevant sustainable development projects for Akkar 110
8.4.1 Integrated Management of East Mediterranean
Coastlines project 110
8.4.2 The Preliminary Master Plan for Upper Akkar/Hermel
Region 111

9 SECTOR 9: ENVIRONMENT 113


9.1 Geology 113
9.1.1 Jurassic 113
9.1.2 Cretaceous 113
9.1.3 Tertiary and Quaternary 113
9.2 Soils 116
9.3 Natural risks and vulnerabilities 119
9.3.1 Landslides 119
9.3.2 Flooding 120
9.3.3 Desertification 122
9.3.4 Seismic activity 124
9.4 Water resources 130
9.4.1 Surface water 130
9.4.2 Groundwater 135
9.4.3 Water quality 142
9.5 Quarrying 145
9.6 Biodiversity and natural ecosystems 148
9.6.1 Protected areas 148
9.6.2 Biodiversity 161

10 SWOT ANALYSIS 229

11 FIRST PROPOSAL OF OBJECTIVES FOR THE REGION OF


AKKAR 246

APPENDIX 1: BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES 248

APPENDIX 2: TABLES 264

APPENDIX3: MAPS 308

APPENDIX 4: PICTURES 312

APPENDIX 5: SURVEYS 316

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TABLE OF FIGURES, GRAPHS, MAPS, TABLES AND


PICTURES
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: The National Winds Atlas of Lebanon; wind speed at 80m above
ground level .................................................................................................. 12
Figure 2: Large historical earthquakes along the Dead Sea transform fault
(2150 BC - AD 1837)................................................................................... 125
Figure 3: Instrumented earthquake events in and around Lebanon between
1903 and 1197 with a magnitude greater than 3. ........................................ 126
Figure 4: Instrumentedearthquake events in and around Lebanon between
1998 and 2009 with a magnitude greater than 2, retrieved from the EMSC
Euro-Med bulletin. ....................................................................................... 126
Figure 5: Seismic hazard map of the Middle East and Lebanon (USGS)..... 127
Figure 6: Contourmap of peak ground acceleration (PGA) with a 10%
probability of exceedances in 50 years........................................................ 128
Figure 7: Qammouaa and surroundings classes of net recharge and
vulnerability maps ....................................................................................... 136
Figure 8: Geothermal sources in Lebanon .................................................. 141

LIST OF GRAPHS
Graph 1: Students distribution by school type............................................... 23
Graph 2: School enrolment rates................................................................... 25
Graph 3: Students distribution by location of educational facilities................. 26
Graph 4: Population size and demographic growth in Akkar ......................... 31
Graph 5: Akkar resident population by age group (2010) .............................. 32
Graph 6: Registered and eligible Akkar families in the MoSA program .......... 34
Graph 7: Confessional distribution of migrants in 1921 ................................. 36
Graph 8: Handicap cases in five clusters in Akkar ......................................... 46
Graph 9: Insurance Plan Coverage in Akkar ................................................. 47
Graph 10: Distribution of GlobeMed adherents by age group ........................ 48
Graph 11: Distribution of Akkar Citizens Enrolled in NSSF by Age Group ..... 48
Graph 12: Geographical origins of tourists in Lebanon (April 2013) ............... 62
Graph 13: Distribution of arable lands by mohafaza (%) ............................... 68
Graph 14: Distribution of holders by mohafaza (%) ....................................... 68
Graph 15: Distribution of loans and micro-credits through banks by beneficiary
in Akkar (2012).............................................................................................. 93
Graph 16: Concentrations of nitrate and nitritein sampled location .............. 145
Graph 17: Lebanons birds species on IUCN red list category .................... 184
Graph 18: Population trends for AUHUD region mammal species (IUCN) for
the 50 species evaluated by IUCN .............................................................. 200

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Graph 19: Types of threat affecting the AUHUD region mammal species ... 205
Graph 20: Extent of electricity coverage in each village of the study area ... 317
Graph 21: Percentage of villages connected to the water network .............. 318
Graph 22: Percentage of villages connected to wastewater treatment plant 318
Graph 23: Percentage of villages connected to the sewage grid ................. 318
Graph 24: Percentage of villages connected to the landline network ........... 319
Graph 25: Percentage of villages covered by the GSM network .................. 320
Graph 26: Percentage of villages covered by the Internet network .............. 321
Graph 27: Percentage of village providing a waste collection service .......... 322
Graph 28: Percentage of municipalities providing a dumping facility ........... 322

LIST OF MAPS
Map 1: Infrastructures in the study area .......................................................... 7
Map 2: Existing power infrastructures in the study area and potential areas for
wind power plants ......................................................................................... 13
Map 3: Intermediate schools in the study area .............................................. 24
Map 4: Secondary schools in the study area ................................................. 25
Map 5: Poverty clusters in Akkar ................................................................... 33
Map 6: Distribution of NGOs in the study area .............................................. 41
Map 7: Hospitals and medical laboratories in the study area ......................... 44
Map 8: Geographical distribution of dispensaries in the study area ............... 46
Map 9: Location of landscape assets in the study area ................................. 52
Map 10: Location of national and heritage assets in the study area .............. 58
Map 11: Location of hotels, restaurants, museum, and the LMT route in the
study area ..................................................................................................... 65
Map 12: Agricultural homogenous zones of Akkar ........................................ 82
Map 13: Location of the study area national/ regional scales ........................ 99
Map 14: Administrative divisions of Akkar, its "relay-villages", and the available
DGUP zoning .............................................................................................. 103
Map 15: Comparison between the NPMPLT recommendations and the DGUP
zoning ......................................................................................................... 104
Map 16: NSCR 2013 land use map ............................................................. 105
Map 17: Linear expansion along the main axes and evolution between 2003 and
2013 ............................................................................................................ 107
Map 18: Urban sprawl and creation of an urban continuum Minyara-Halba
between 2003 and 2013 .............................................................................. 108
Map 19: Scattered sprawl that appeared between 2003 and 2013on agricultural
and wooded lands ....................................................................................... 109
Map 20: Geological formations of the study area ........................................ 114
Map 21: Study area soil map....................................................................... 117
Map 22: Erosion Risk Map of the Study Area .............................................. 120

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Map 23: Flooding risks in thestudy area .......................................................... 122


Map 24: Seismic risk in the study area ........................................................ 129
Map 25: Major rivers map............................................................................ 131
Map 26: Rivers watershed map (numbered) .................................................... 132
Map 27: Springs and wells map .................................................................. 140
Map 28: Licensed and active quarries ......................................................... 146
Map 29: Risk assessment of quarries in Lebanon on natural resources ...... 147
Map 30: Urban sprawl and creation of an urban continuum around the city of Sir
ed Donniye .................................................................................................. 155
Map 31: Schematicdelineation of the Natural Park in the NPMPLT ............. 156
Map 32: The major biogeographic eco-zones of the study area .................. 162
Map 33: Lebanons Important Bird Areas IBA.............................................. 186
Map 34: Forest hot-spots in the AUHUD region .......................................... 212
Map 35: Cedar corridor (dark green color) in North-Lebanon ...................... 224
Map 36: Main ecological corridors in the AUHUD region ............................. 226
Map 37: Distribution of the registered Syrian refugees in Akkar (January 2014)
.................................................................................................................... 308
Map 38: Distribution of the industrial facilities in the study area ................... 309
Map 39: Distribution of the small-medium enterprises in the study area ...... 310
Map 40: NCRS 2003 land use map ............................................................. 311
Map 41: Localities connected to the electricity network in the study area .... 316
Map 42: Localities connected to the water network in the study area .......... 317
Map 43: Localities connected to the landline telephone network in the study area
.................................................................................................................... 319
Map 44: Localities covered by the GSM network in the study area.............. 320
Map 45: Localities covered by the Internet network in the study area .......... 321

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: List of the main wastewater treatment plants implemented in Akkar
through external and local funding ................................................................ 18
Table 2: Number of students in Akkar ........................................................... 23
Table 3: Technical schools and enrolled students in Akkar ........................... 28
Table 4: Distribution of students from Akkar by specialty in the Lebanese
Universitys branch of Tripoli for the academic year 2011- 2012.................... 29
Table 5: Poverty clusters in Akkar ................................................................. 33
Table 6: Number of Akkar families beneficiaries from the MoSA poverty
national program ........................................................................................... 34
Table 7: Detailed description of chosen natural sites in the study area.......... 51
Table 8: Detailed description of chosen heritage sites in the study area........ 58
Table 9: Detailed list of accommodations in the study area ........................... 63
Table 10: Cultivated cereals in Akkar (total and major crops) ........................ 69

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Table 11: Cultivated forage crops in Akkar (total and major crops)................ 69
Table 12: Cultivated vegetables in Akkar (total and major crops) .................. 70
Table 13: Cultivated pome and stone fFruits in Akkar (total and major crops) 72
Table 14: Cultivated citrus trees in Akkar (total and major crops) .................. 73
Table 15: Aquaculture in Akkar ..................................................................... 75
Table 16: Other cultivated agriculture subsectors in Akkar ............................ 76
Table 17: Distribution of workers in Akkar by professions, according to
average wage and sex .................................................................................. 84
Table 18: Establishments in Akkar and the North, by activity (number and
percent)......................................................................................................... 85
Table 19: Middle Eastern air cargo airports ranked by volume in tons 000,
2011 unless specified.................................................................................... 88
Table 20: Types of light industries ................................................................. 90
Table 21: Distribution of industrial establishments by adherence to
professional associations and by industrial activities ..................................... 90
Table 22: Distribution of loans and micro-credits through banks by beneficiary
in Akkar in 2012 ............................................................................................ 92
Table23: Evolution of land use in Akkar between 2003 and 2013................ 106
Table 24: IMAC recommendations for its study area ................................... 110
Table 25: Environmental zones established by the SPNL Master Plan for its
study area ................................................................................................... 111
Table 26: Stratigraphy of the study area...................................................... 115
Table 27: Major soil types present in the study area.................................... 118
Table 28: Desertification risks (as % of total land) ....................................... 122
Table 29: Lengths and flows of major rivers within the study area ............... 131
Table 30: Hydrostratigraphy of the study area ............................................. 136
Table 31: Ten major springs within the study area ...................................... 139
Table 32: Mean salinity, nutrients, bacteria and heavy metals in the Kabir
Basin (2001-2002)....................................................................................... 143
Table 33: Quality parameters for selected rivers in the dry season ............. 144
Table 34: List of available decisions for protected areas in the study area .. 150
Table 35: Additional criteria for the delineation of the Natural Park area ..... 159
Table 36: Forest communities in the AUHUD region ................................... 170
Table 37: Taxa identified in the study area by Sattout (2007) and IPA work 176
Table 38: Potentially interesting species for conservation in Akkar riverine and
coastal zones .............................................................................................. 178
Table 39: Upper Mountains of Akkar-Donniyeh IBA characteristics .......... 185
Table 40: Upper Mountains of Akkar-Donniyeh IBA important species ..... 186
Table 41: AUHUD region bird threats .......................................................... 196
Table 42: AUHUD region recommendations for threatened birds ................ 198
Table 43: AUHUD region threatened mammal group requirements ............. 205

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Table 44: Adopteddefinitions at the base of forest typology......................... 207


Table 45: Framework for the AUHUD region ............................................... 208
Table 46: Forestry biodiversity hot-spots in the AUHUD region ................... 210
Table 47: Most important minor tree species found in the AUHUD region ... 213
Table 48: Proposed pastoral typology for the AUHUD region ...................... 217
Table 49: SWOT analysis for sector 1 ......................................................... 229
Table 50: SWOT analysis for sector 2, 3 and 4 ........................................... 231
Table 51: SWOT analysis for sector 5 ......................................................... 233
Table 52: SWOT analysis for sector 6 ......................................................... 235
Table 53: SWOT analysis for sector 7 ......................................................... 237
Table 54: SWOT analysis for sector 8 ......................................................... 239
Table 55: SWOT analysis for sector 9 - Environment .................................. 242
Table 56: SWOT analysis for sector 9 - Natural Park .................................. 244
Table 57: First proposal of objectives for the region of Akkar ...................... 246
Table 58: Projects implemented in the study area from 2004 to 2009 ......... 264
Table 59: Estimated costs of urgent electrical installations in Akkar ............ 264
Table 60: List of planned wastewater treatment plants in Akkar and status of
completion .................................................................................................. 264
Table 61: Additional wastewater studies and plans awaiting implementation
from the CDR and the MoEW ...................................................................... 265
Table 62: Solid waste and construction/destruction dumps in Akkar ........... 265
Table 63: Small-scale solid waste treatment facilities implemented through
grant funding from donor agencies .............................................................. 266
Table 64: Recommendations of the 2013 National Master Plan for solid waste
management for the region of Akkar ........................................................... 267
Table 65: Characteristics of Akkars main clusters ...................................... 267
Table 66: Number of new and total municipalities in Akkar (2002-2013) ..... 268
Table 67: Federations of Municipalities in Akkar ......................................... 269
Table 68: Distribution of Akkar citizens enrolled in NSSF by activity and
gender......................................................................................................... 269
Table 69: Distribution of Akkar citizens enrolled in NSSF by village ............ 271
Table 70: Projects implemented in the study area from 2004 to 2009 ......... 279
Table 71: National heritage sites classified by decree in the Official Journal 279
Table 72: NPMPLT recommended regulations for construction, quarries and
industrial sites in and around distinguished sites ......................................... 281
Table 73: Survey of the available arts and crafts, restaurants, and
accommodations in the study area .............................................................. 282
Table 74: Projects implemented in the study area from 2005 to 2012 ......... 283
Table 75: Localities included within the study area ...................................... 284
Table 76: NPMPLT main land use recommendations for Akkar................... 290

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Table 77: NPMPLT recommended regulations for construction, quarries and


industrial establishments in Urban, Rural, Agricultural and Natural areas.... 292
Table 78: NPMPLT recommended regulations for construction, quarries and
industrial sites, and infrastructures in natural hazards prone areas ............. 294
Table 79: Detailed comparison and conformity analysis between the DGUP
zoning maps and the NPMPLT recommendations ...................................... 295
Table 80: Quarries located by remote sensing carried out in 2006 .............. 299
Table 81: List of ratified international conventions by the Lebanese
government related to biodiversity and ecosystems .................................... 300
Table 82: Comprehensive list of classified Protected Areas in Lebanon ...... 301
Table 83: Survey of the infrastructure services in the study area................. 323
Table 84: Survey of the landscape and heritage assets in the study area ... 344

LIST OF PICTURES
Picture 1: Natural and heritage sites along the Qobaiyat Tarsheaa section of
the Lebanon Mountain Trail in the study area................................................ 53
Picture 2: Natural sites along the Tasheaa Qmamine section of the Lebanon
Mountain Trail in the study area .................................................................... 53
Picture 3: Natural sites along the Qmamine Kfar Bebnine section of the
Lebanon Mountain Trail in the study area ..................................................... 53
Picture 4: Al-Jord Ecotourism project ............................................................ 53
Picture 5: Aakar al-Aatiqa: Akkars fortress ................................................... 55
Picture 6: Aarqa: the archaeological Tell, conservation of stratigraphy and
excavations ................................................................................................... 56
Picture 7: Akroum: Panorama towards Syria (left) and remains of the Roman
Temples (right) .............................................................................................. 57
Picture 8: Monjez: remains of Al-Feliz Citadel ............................................... 57
Picture 9: Sfireh: Roman Temples (left) and panorama towards the coast and
Akkar plain (right) .......................................................................................... 58
Picture 10: Flooding events in Akkar ........................................................... 121
Picture 11: Baredhydropower plants (Moussa and Rawda) ......................... 133
Picture 12: Lakes in the study area ............................................................. 133
Picture 13: Cheikh Zennad wetland ............................................................. 134
Picture 14: Active quarry sites in Hermel ..................................................... 147
Picture 15: The coastline near the estuary of Arqa River ............................. 163
Picture 16: El Baredriverine communities in the low valley and in the plain of
Akkar........................................................................................................... 165
Picture 17: Rhus coriaria invasive shrubs (left) and Calicotome villosa,
Sarcopoterium spinosum and Cistus spp communities (right) in abandoned
agricultural and degraded wooded land landscapes .................................... 167

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Picture 18: Littoral and mountain grasslands: an important resource for


agriculture ................................................................................................... 168
Picture 19: Snow-patch sites and dry grasslands in Hermel mountain slopes
.................................................................................................................... 168
Picture 20: Sesleria anatolica pioneer grasslands on limestone rocky slopes
and Hordeum bulbosum-Astragalus gummifer communities on basalt soils 169
Picture 21: Cliffs and screes near Nabaa el Soukkar Mountain and rocky
habitats near Qammouaa ............................................................................ 170
Picture 22: Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) Stands and Plane Tree
(Platanus orientalis) Riverine Forest ........................................................... 171
Picture 23: Pinus brutia and Cedrus libani stands ....................................... 171
Picture 24: Cilician Fir (Abies cilicica) and Turkish Oak Forest (Quercus cerris)
.................................................................................................................... 172
Picture 25: Olive grove and little mountain fields with traditional cultivation . 173
Picture 26: Lebanese Marjolaine (Origanum libanoticum), Common Plant of
Open Habitats and Jimson Weed (Datura stramonium), Synanthropic
Poisonous Plant .......................................................................................... 178
Picture 27: Paperwhite (Narcissus tazetta subsp. syriacus) and Autumn
Daffodil (Sternbergia clusiana) .................................................................... 179
Picture 28: Blepharopsis mendica Larvae ................................................... 180
Picture 29: False Apollo (Archon apollinus) ................................................. 180
Picture 30: Syrian Spadefoot Toad (Pelobates syriacus) ............................. 181
Picture 31: Southern Banded Newt (Omatotriton vittatus) ........................... 181
Picture 32: Fraas lizard (Parvilacerta fraasi) ............................................... 181
Picture 33: Lebanese viper (Montivipera bornmuelleri) ................................ 182
Picture 34: Terrestrial tortoise (Testudo terrestris)....................................... 182
Picture 35: Crowned dwarf snake (Eirenis coronelloides) ............................ 183
Picture 36: Lessonas Agama (Trapelus lessonae)...................................... 183
Picture 37: Syrian Ash (Fraxinus syriaca) and Wild Service-Tree (Sorbus
torminalis) ................................................................................................... 213
Picture 38: Charcoal production at forest edges and reserve trees kept in
Palestinian oak stands ................................................................................ 215
Picture 39: Pastured areas and agricultural lands: useful fire breaks spaces
.................................................................................................................... 215
Picture 40: Thinning, pruning and shrub cutting reduce fire risk in Brutian Pine
stands ......................................................................................................... 216
Picture 41: Two common species with different grazing value: Viscous Globe-
thistle (Echinops viscosus) and Bulbous Barley (Hordeum bulbosum) ........ 220
Picture 42: Sheep and goats graze different land units ............................... 220
Picture 43: Two different ways of wooded land grazing: indiscriminate grazing
(left) and biomass control in a fire prevention strip (right) ............................ 221

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Picture 44: Goats appreciate shady places in the summer at medium altitude;
horses appreciate non stony and flat sites .................................................. 222
Picture 45: Aakar al-Aatiqa: Al swissa old mill ............................................. 312
Picture 46: Amayer: Qalaat El-Burj: Citadel, basalt and limestone remains . 312
Picture 47: Beino: Church ruins (left), old mill (center), old patriarch (right) . 312
Picture 48: Beit Ayoub: Al Omor old mill ...................................................... 313
Picture 49: Chadra: Old mill ........................................................................ 313
Picture 50: Cheikh Zennad: Necropolis: entrance of the Tomb (left) and
Sarcophagi (center and right) ...................................................................... 313
Picture 51: Khreibet El-Jindi: Citadel ........................................................... 314
Picture 52: Machha: Hamidiyeh school (left) and watermill (right) ............... 314
Picture 53: Majdel: Borj Tybo: Citadel remains ............................................ 314
Picture 54: Mishmish: Old mill (left), old mill on the rivers banks (center), old
mill from the Ottoman era (right).................................................................. 315
Picture 55: Monjez-Beit Jaalouk: Roman Temple ........................................ 315
Picture 56: Qlayaat: Citadel......................................................................... 315

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Abbreviations and Acronyms

ACSAD Arab Center for Studies of Arid & Dry Zones


ADELNORD Project Appui au dveloppement local du Nord Liban
ADL Agent de dveloppement local
AEC Arc En Ciel (Lebanese non-governmental organisation)
AUB American University Beirut
BDL Banque du Liban
CAS Central Administration for Statistics
CBO Community Based Organization
CDR Council for Development and Reconstruction
CERD Center for Educational Research and Development
CGLU/BTVL Cits et Gouvernements Locaux Unis/Bureau Technique
des Villes Libanaises
CoM Council of Ministers
DGA Directorate General of Antiquities
DGCA Directorate General of Civil Aviation
DGHER Directorate General of Hydraulic and Electric Resources
EC Commission Europenne
ECRD Educational Center for Research and Development
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EIB European Investment Bank
ELARD Earth Link & Advanced Resources Development s.a.r.l.
ESFD Economic and Social Fund for Development
EU European Union
FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UnitedNations
FFS Farmer Field School
FISTA First Step Together Association
GAP Good Agricultural Practices
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GFA GFA Consulting Group G.m.b.H.
GIZ Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (Germany)
GNFF Georges N. Frem Foundation
IDB Islamic Development Bank
IDEA Indicateur de Durabilit des Exploitations Agricoles
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMAC Integrated Management of East Mediterranean Coastlines

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IMC International Medical Corps


IPM Integrated Pest Management and Integrated Production
Management
IWRM Integrated Water Resource Management
JB Jihad Al-Binah (NGO for local development)
LARI Lebanon Agricultural Research Institute
LBLI Lebanon Business Linkages Initiative
LCD Lebanese Cooperative for Development
LDP Local Development Plan
LU Lebanese University
M&E Monitoring and Evaluation
MFI Micro-Finance Institution
MoA Ministry of Agriculture
MoC Ministry of Culture
MoE Ministry of Environment
MoEHE Ministry of Education and Higher Education
MoET Ministry of Economy and Trade
MoEW Ministry of Energy and Water
MoF Ministry of Finance
MoIM Ministry of Interior and Municipalities
MoPH Ministry of Public Health
MoPWT Ministry of Public Works and Transport
MoSA Ministry of Social Affairs
MoT Ministry of Tourism
NCRS National Council for Scientific Research of Lebanon
NGO Non-Governmental Organisation
NLWE North Lebanon Water Establishment
NP Natural Park
NPMPLT National Physical Master Plan of the Lebanese Territory
NSSF National Social Security Fund
NWSS National Water Sector Strategy
OFID OPEC Fund for International Development
PAs Protected Areas
PCM Project Cycle Management
PHC Primary healthcare centers
PID Participatory Innovation Development
RWA Regional Water Authority
SISPAM Stable Institutional Structure for Protected Areas
Management
SMAP Short and Medium-term Priority Environmental Action
Program
SMEs Small and Medium Enterprises

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SSRDP Strategic Sustainable Regional Development Plan


TOR Terms of Reference
TOT Training of Trainers
UNDP United Nations Development Program
UNEP United Nations Environment Program
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UOB University of Balamand
USAID US Agency for International Development
WCMC World Conservation Monitoring Centre
WDPA World Database on Protected Areas
WE Water Establishment
WHO World Health Organization

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Units and conversion factors


C degree centigrade
cm centimetre
DUNUM Lebanese area measurement (1 dunum = 1.000 m2)
ETo reference evapotranspiration in mm
Euro
h hour
ha hectare
j jour/day
kg kilogramme
km kilometre
km2 square kilometre
KV/A Kilo Volt / Ampere
LL Lebanese Pound / Livres libanaises
l/s liter per second
m meter
m2 square meter
m3 cubic meter
mg/L milligram per liter
Mm3 million cubic meters
m3/s cubic meter per second
average
mm millimetre
MW Mega Watt
N number of order
No. number / quantity
ql quintal
qx quintals
s second
Sq.km Square kilometres
Sqm Square meters
T temperature in C
USD United States Dollar

1 km2 = 100 hectares


1 m3 = 1.000 litres
1 mm = 10 m3 per ha precipitation
1 = ~1.900 LL
1 Mio = 106 = Million

The dot is used as thousand separator; comma is used as decimal separator.

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0 INTRODUCTION

The Appui au Dveloppement Local dans le Nord du Liban (ADELNORD)


project has three main components : 1) Agricultural infrastructure, 2)
Community development, and 3) Environment. The Environment component
targets the regulatory framework for the sustainable management of natural
resources. Its areas of intervention cover:
The legal framework for protected areas;
Forest management plans and forest fire protection; and
Sustainable land use planning.

Sustainable land use planning is tackled through the development of a Strategic


Sustainable Regional Development Plan (SSRDP) for the district of Akkar,
including the areas of Upper Hermel and Upper Donniyeh that are relevant to
the future natural park to be created. The development of the SSRDP was
assigned to the Consortium GFA-ELARD and is the subject of this Diagnostic
Report.

The legal framework for this mission lies in the following texts:
Decree n2366 of June 20th, 2009 that approved the National Physical
Master Plan for the Lebanese Territory (NPMPLT) as a strategic
development plan for Lebanon. All public authorities are obliged to
comply with this plan;
Decree-Law n69-83 of 1983 on Urban Development that refers to
master plans and urban development plans. However, these documents
are not comparable to integrated territorial development strategies
insofar as the legislation was passed at a time when the notion of
sustainable development had not yet been introduced. This Decree-Law
refers to three levels of planning:
o National: The National Territorial Development Plan (article 4);
o Local Master Plans (article 7); and
o Local Detailed Urban Plans (article 8).
Both Master Plans and Detailed Urban Plans can be produced for one
locality or a group of localities.
Decree n8213 of 2012 that introduces the concept of Strategic
Environmental Assessment (SEA) and specifies its application and
procedure.

A Strategic Environmental Assessment of the SSRDP is being conducted in


parallel to the Plan in conformity with Decree n8213/2012 and both
components are interrelated.

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This Diagnostic Report constitutes the second report relating to the SSRDP
Mission and aims at identifying the competitive advantages of the region that
represents the best basis for its socio-economic development. It also identifies
the ongoing mechanisms and trends as well as the ongoing projects and
initiatives in the region and evaluates their effects. The resources that could be
mobilized to serve the regional development, in the public sector as well as in
the private sector, are also identified. In sum, this Diagnostic Report constitutes
a dynamic diagnostic that will ultimately lead, in the next phase of the SSRDP
Mission, to the identification of 1) the Vision for the regions future and 2) the
types of actions that should be implemented.

The present Report was prepared through data collection from and/or interviews
with ministries, local administrations, local organizations, and key local
stakeholders and is divided into eleven sections. The first nine sections cover
the nine sectors of development incumbent to any strategic planning:
Infrastructure; Education; Social development, Administration and Governance;
Health; Culture, Leisure and Tourism; Agriculture; Industry, Banking and Trade;
Urban Planning; and finally Environment and the Natural Park of Akkar. The
tenth section underlines the regions Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and
Threats (SWOT) identified in the nine sectors of development previously
mentioned. Finally, and following a sound methodology resulting from the
previously established SWOTs, the eleventh sectiondetermines the objectives
to pursue in the various sectors of development in order to achieve the SSRDPs
Mission.

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1 SECTOR 1: INFRASTRUCTURE

1.1 Importance of infrastructure for the


study area

Infrastructure represents the main sector to be enhanced in Akkar. In fact, the


term infrastructure refers to the specific services and facilities indispensable to
sustain, or improve an economy and a society: roads, bridges, airport, ports,
water supply and sewers networks, electrical grids, telecommunication
networks, and solid waste management. Technically, infrastructure facilitates
the production and distribution of goods and services and allows access to basic
social services such as schools and hospitals. Inevitably, the condition of a
country or regions infrastructure represents an important factor for judging their
development.

Akkar being one of the most disadvantaged regions of the country, only a strong
skeleton or infrastructure network will trigger efficiently its development and
facilitate the improvement of the other sectors. A survey was thus initiated by
the team of experts in order to evaluate the state of the infrastructures in Akkari
villages for each of the five sub-sectors: Transport, Energy, Water,
Communications, and Solid Waste Management. It is important to note that
since not all the villages have been surveyed yet, the survey will have to be
updated gradually. At the end of the survey process, an accurate image of the
extent of the Infrastructure coverage in the study area will be obtained. The
results of this survey are available in Table 83.

Overall, it was highlighted that the Akkari municipalities strongly lack budget to
carry on infrastructure projects within their boundaries.

1.2 Transport infrastructures

The enhancement of the transport infrastructure in Akkar concerns its internal


infrastructure as well as its connectivity with the surrounding areas (refer to Map
1). Hence, the NPMPLT (Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) - IAURIF, 2005)
suggests the implementation of a railway going through the study area from
Tripoli to Syria, which would contribute to the revival of its economy. This
proposed railway is currently under negotiation with backers for funding. It is
also worth noting that the region of Wadi Khaled disposes of an old train station,
on the road to Homs.

Moreover, the NPMPLT suggests that the extension of the North Highway (the
highway that connects Beirut and Tripoli) towards the northern border and
tangent to Halba would improve access and considerably reduce travel time

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between Tripoli and Akkar, and Tripoli and Hermel. This extension was
identified as a priority project for the first phase of the NPMPLTs
implementation.

The NPMPLT further proposes that the transformation of the Halba-Qobaiyat


connection into a high speed road (typically a 2x2 road), would ease the access
from Tripoli towards Akkar, Wadi Khaled, and Hermel. Along with the extension
mentioned previously, time distance between Tripoli and Hermel should be
reduced to around 60 minutes.

The NPMPLT also specifies that the rehabilitation of the Ren Moawad airport,
which has been closed for several years now, would reactivate a free zone of
over 45 hectares, thus taking the surplus of Beirut RHIA and allowing the transit
of one million passengers and of 200.000 tons of freight per year. However, the
NPMPLT recommends a conservative and rational approach: the traffic in
Beirut RHIA should reach a satisfactory level of 7 to 8 million passengers per
year before going into other civil airport projects in the country. In 2013, Beirut
RHIA registered 6.264.368 passengers (Daily Star, 2014-01-28). The NPMPLT
also underlines that, considering the relatively low (compared to other regional
airports) Beirut RHIA annual traffic of 78.000 tons (in 2010, refer to Table 19),
the free zone and freight airport project of Ren Moawad has limited chance of
increasing the demand for transport (Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) -
IAURIF, 2005).

Despite the current uncertainty of the project, and considering that the
passengers and freight figures are increasing, putting back into service this
airport would constitute for the economy of the North a considerable
opportunity that should be assessed for the long term. In fact, according to
studies (Hamdan, 2012-08-31), the reopening of this airport would create more
than 5.000 employment opportunities. It would also boost the agriculture and
industrial sectors by generating additional exchanges and merchandises
exportations (i.e.: fresh crops such as figs, cherries, small berries that currently
cannot be exported due to transportation constraints). Furthermore, it would
significantly increase the touristic potential of the region: with public transport
networks mainly focused in Beirut and its surroundings, the implementation of
an additional hub in the North of the country would decentralize tourism and
trigger the socio-economic dynamism of the area (Hamdan, 2012-08-31).

On January 23rd, 2012, the Directorate General of Civil Aviation assessed Ren
Moawad airport as being currently invalid for civil/international air traffic for the
following reasons:
Roads in bad condition;
Outdated infrastructures;

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Small and narrow airport apron;


Old main building unsuitable for use as an airport terminal;
Old control tower unsuitable for use;
Airport and control tower equipments unavailable or unsuitable for use;
Insufficient car parking spots.

The DGCA estimated a cost of USD 200 million for its rehabilitation, for at least
4 years of work.

Nonetheless, the reopening of Ren Moawad airport faces several challenges


that need to be assessed beforehand in order to mitigate their negative impact
on the airports direct environment. In fact, the airport is located next to a
potential protected area in Cheikh Zennad that constitutes an Important Bird
Area (two migrating bird flyways) and an important RAMSAR site (wetland of
international importance) (IWB, Sprenger, A Rocha report, 2003) and (ICZM
Policy Note, 2009)). Moreover, and beyond the environmental concern, birds
constitute a danger for airplanes which should avoid migratory routes in order
to prevent engine damages and collisions (bird strikes).

Hence, and to conclude the possible rehabilitation of Ren Moawad Airport, it


is evident that there is an arbritrage to be done after performing an economic
analysis. Other alternatives can be considered and options can be provided
where decision makers will make choices.

In addition to the above mentioned projects, the CDR also identified the
following main transport infrastructures for the region of Akkar:
The Arab Highway, connecting Tripoli and the Syrian border and parallel
to the coastline;
The Beit Ayoub Fnaydek road for which the outline has recently been
agreed upon.

In 2011, Mada Association1 (Hallak, 2011) proposed, mainly for touristic


purposes, a bicycle route map covering 41 km. As of today, in the study area,
while some villages remain quite isolated and only reachable through
agricultural paths, most of the towns are accessible by road. However, facing a
lack of maintenance from the MoPWT and scarce municipal financial resources,
the roads are often narrow, in bad shape, with unfinished sidewalks, and show
a lack of public safety signage2 (CRI, 2010). Moreover, the villages/towns are

1 In partnership with USAID, the International Resources Group (IRg), and Relief International
2 Except for some convex dome mirrors implemented by Relief International

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not well enough interconnected and considerable time travel is experienced


between one village and the neighboring one. Public transportation is also
unavailable and/or inefficient.

In October 2012, the Cabinet of Lebanon allocated USD100 million to the city
of Tripoli to fund 24 development projects in the fields of infrastructure, social
development, public health, education, and civil development, all part of Tripolis
2020 vision to enhance economic growth and sustainable development. Nader
Ghazal, president of Tripoli Municipality announced that these projects include,
among others, the expansion of the economic free zone of Tripolis port3. This
action is intended to boost not only the economic role of the capital of North
Lebanon but also that of its surrounding regions, and more specifically of Akkar.
Indeed, this plan would allow Tripoli to benefit from the free trade agreements
between Lebanon on the one hand and Syria, Jordan and Turkey on the other4
and would directly benefit Akkar in terms of job opportunities and poverty
alleviation. It is also worth noting that the localites of Aarida, Cheikh Zennad,
Hay el Bahr and Abdeh dispose of fishermen ports.

3http://www.businessnews.com.lb/cms/Story/StoryDetails.aspx?ItemID=2194on 2013-09-05
4http://business.jo/lebanon-free-economic-zone-aims-to-boost-tripoli/on 2013-09-05

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Map 1: Infrastructures in the study area

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1.3 Energy infrastructures

In Lebanon, electricity is supplied through Electricit du Liban (EDL), an


autonomous state owned entity under the jurisdiction of the MoEW. Electric
energy is produced from hydroelectric plants (located in Nahr Brahim, Litani and
Nahr el-Bared, constitute up to 4,5% of the total production) and thermal power
plants (located in Zouk, Jieh, Hraycheh, Deir Ammar, Zehrani, Sour, and
Baalbek, constitute up to 88% of the total production) or purchased from Syria
and Egypt through regional interconnections (this constitutes up to 7,5% of the
total energy production) (MoEW, 2010).

Regarding the energy infrastructures in the study area, the first phase of the
NPMPLTs implementation identifies the following priorities:
Redefine the investment program of the electrical sector in the North by
focusing on the Deir Aamar (caza of Minnieh-Donnieh) power plant and
enhancing the transmission system.Thus, last year, the area of Beit
Mellat witnessed an enhancement through the creation of a 66 KV
substation along with a T-connection and about six underground
Medium Tension power lines feeding major water pumps in the area.
Moreover, on April 13th, 2013, the MoEW signed a 472 million US dollars
contract with the Greek society J&P Avax (Cyprus) for the construction
of the new power plant of Deir Aamar that would allow the production of
450 MW (S, 2013-04-13). The CDR is also launching a study aimed at
assessing possible sites for implementing 1.500 MW of power
generation in Lebanon under PPP schemes.
Give absolute priority to the transmission of gas to the Deir Aamar
plant.
o In fact, starting at Deir Aamar, the Lebanese government chose
the liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a viable option for powering
all of Lebanons power plants.
Launch an experimental program for wind power generation in Akkar. In
fact, priority should be given to the experimentation at a large scale of
the use of suitable alternative energy sources (Dar Al-Handasah (Shair
& Partners) - IAURIF, 2005). In fact, the government Policy Statement
implemented plants generating up to 60 MW of wind power most of
which in the windy areas of Akkar.

Moreover, the development of the electrical power sector in the study area has
been planned according to the following agenda:
2005: installation of gas conveyers to Deir Aamar and construction of a
new power plant, with an eventual capacity of 1,500 MW, and the
installation of 500 MW in the first phase;
2010: building the second phase of the new plant in Deir Aamar;

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It is worth noting that, although the Deir Aamar power plant will provide
electricity for the whole country, and not specifically for Akkar, its role is
important for the present study since it will generate considerable job
opportunities and contribute to poverty alleviation in the study area and its
surroundings.

As of today, EDL provides electrical power to the study area, covering most of
residential and commercial units (refer to Graph 205) ( (CRI, 2010)6 and (Peillen
& Denno, 2009)7). However, just as in the rest of the country, the study area
witnesses frequent power outages and weak supply8 (CRI, 2010), mainly due
to (SHAAMS, 2013):
Uncollected electrical consumption bills;
High non-technical losses;
No planned maintenance of the substation assets;
Transformer assets getting over their average life expectancy (20
years);
Severe overloading problems on the Beirut area networks;
No financial independency within the Directorate to ensure good
functionality.

The trend in Lebanons energy sector is towards foreign investment and


partnerships with the private sector to develop and supplement the supply of
national institutions (SHAAMS, 2013). Hence, at the household level in
particular, there is a strong reliance on private generators. This particularly
affects Akkari families who rely heavily on the agricultural sector (electrical
power is in fact necessary to process, refrigerate and preserve the perishable
goods) and strongly increases their financial burden.

As for street lighting, most of the villages lack street lights; maintenance on
existing street lamps is infrequent (CRI, 2010).

In the mid-fifties, the Lebanese Government invested near the region of Ayoun
al-Samak (Minnieh-Donnieh) in the creation of an electric power station coupled

5 The villages that havent been surveyed yet go under the N/A (not available) category.
6 The (CRI, 2010) report assessed the Union of Shafat-Akkar and specified that the electrical grid
covers all of the residential and commercial units of the Union.
7
The (Peillen & Denno, 2009) study assessed the villages of Akkar el-Aatiqa, Fnaydek, Mishmish,
and Qobaiyat and specified that between 90 and 98% of the houses in these villages were
connected to the electrical grid. On the contrary, the Qammouaa region is not connected to
that grid.
8 The supply provided by EdL to the whole region is equivalent to 66 KV/A (as opposed to the

domestic 220 KV/A)

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with an artificial lake9. However, this station originally designed to produce up


to 35MW actually do not exceeds the 7MW. Several funds and governmental
financial allocations were specifically granted to Akkar in recent years but, in
most cases, these funds were used to implement projects in other Lebanese
regions. A recent study carried out by the MoEW assessing the condition of the
electricity network in the region estimated the urgent installations cost (refer to
Table 59 for a detailed list of these installations) at 7,704,000,000 LBP
(5,136,000 USD).

1.3.1 Renewable energies

In 2008, the MoEW stated that by 2020 a total of 12% of electric and thermal
supply in Lebanon will originate from renewable energies (MoEW, 2010). Two
initiatives are in particular targeting the adoption of renewable energy in
Lebanon: the CEDRO ("Country Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Demonstration Project for the Recovery of Lebanon") project started in 2007
was supported with funding of 9.76 million USD from the Spanish government
and the UNDP and the NEEREA ("National Energy Efficiency and Renewable
Energy Support Action" program) an achievement of the Lebanese Center for
Energy Conservation (LCEC) implemented by the government (SHAAMS,
2013). The Lebanese NEEAP (National Energy Efficiency Action Plan) (2011-
2015), developed by the LCEC, has identified five main renewable energy
technologies: wind, hydro, solar thermal, solar power, and bioenergy. Other,
less important sources include geothermal, wave energy and others (SHAAMS,
2013). The NEEAP was adopted by the MoEW on December 21st, 2010 and
approved by the CoM on November 10th, 2011.

Solar energy
The NEEAP is constituted of 14 national initiatives where the 7th initiative aims
to promote the generation of electricity through the execution of Photovoltaic
and Concentrated Solar Power farms (100 to 200 MW of installed capacity)
(SHAAMS, 2013).

Regarding the solar water heating market in particular, the Lebanese Center
for Energy Conservation (LCEC) recently launched a new initiative entitled
developing the solar water heaters market in Lebanon. This UNDP-managed
project aims at accelerating the market development of solar water heating in
Lebanon with an objective to facilitate the installation of 190.000 m 2 of new
installed collector area over the period 2009-2014, an annual sale of 50.000 m2
reached by the year 2014, and most importantly lay the foundation for an

9 The dimensions of this lake reach 1.200 meters in length and between 120 and 300 meters in
width.

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expected continuing growth to reach the set target of 1.050.000 m 2 of total


installed solar water heaters capacity by 2020. In terms of energy savings, this
has been estimated to correspond to over 1.000.000 MWh of avoided new fossil
fuel power capacity by using solar instead of electricity for water heating, and
estimated cumulative greenhouse gas reduction potential of over 3 million tons
of CO2 by the end of 2020 (LCEC, 2010, p. 12). In Akkar, some families have
been able to install solar panels in the last years but their number is not
significant compared to the whole study area (Peillen & Denno, 2009)10.

Hydropower
Two hydropower plants are located in the study area: Bared 1 and Bared 2.

Wind power
In 2008, the Lebanese government set a policy to provide a minimum of 60-
100MW to be powered by wind by the private sector by 2013. It was during that
same year that a qualified technical team elaborated a study on the movements
of air and wind currents in Lebanon and established that the most relevant areas
to implement wind farms are particularly concentrated in the plain of Akkar.
Following these studies, the private company Hawa Akkar S.A.L. was founded
on November 12th, 2010 and immediately started to sign contracts with several
Akkari municipalities and landowners, thus allowing Hawa Akkar to conduct site
studies and to install the equipment necessary to measure winds speed and
quality. These contracts also ensure that the concerned municipalities will
secure any employment opportunities resulting from this project to their
inhabitants.

In 2011, the MoEW published the National Wind Atlas of Lebanon (MoEW;
CEDRO, 2011) confirming that Lebanon was suited for wind-generated power,
with several areas particularly enjoying favorable conditions Akkar (Akkar
plain and east Akkar), the southeast (on the slopes of Mount Hermon, from
Chebaa to Rashaya) and the Mount Lebanon range (from Qornet el Sawda to
approximately Sannine) (Figure 1).

10 According to (Peillen & Denno, 2009), 30 houses in Qobaiyat have solar panels for water
heating.

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Figure 1: The National Winds Atlas of Lebanon; wind speed at 80m above ground level

In 2012, Hawa Akkar finally announced the launching of its Wind Farm project
aiming at meeting the regions energy demands at very low and constant prices.
In fact, its general manager, Albert Khoury, confirmed that Hawa Akkar would
provide energy to around 60.000 houses, with a production capacity of 60MW,
thus strengthening the regions economy and tourism sectors.

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Map 2: Existing power infrastructures in the study area and potential areas for wind power plants

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1.4 Water and wastewater management


infrastructures

1.4.1 Water infrastructures

The region of Akkar presents numerous springs, huge underground lakes (i.e.
in the Joumeh area), and several rivers (the main four being Nahr el Kabir el
Janoubi, Nahr el Bared, Nahr Arqa, and Nahr Ostwan). It also possesses two
main groundwater aquifers: the shallow Quaternary (mainly in the plain) and the
deeper Cenomanian Turonian which outcrops in the eastern parts. However,
despite having rich water resources, the region is still not adequately exploiting
and properly managing them to meet the needs of its residents, especially
during the summer periods.

There is no published study about the quantities of water resources in Akkar;


however, an assessment of the surface and groundwater resources in Lebanon
is currently being conducted by the MoEW and the results are expected to be
published soon. According to the MoIM and the MoPH, the population in Akkar
was estimated to be 448.490 in 2012; therefore the yearly demand for domestic
use alone is 29 Mm3 of water11. If irrigation, industrial needs, wasted water
quantities in the networks, population growth since 2012, and the influx of Syrian
refugees to the area are accounted for, the current yearly total water
consumption is increasing significantly.

Akkar ranks last in Lebanon in terms of residential connections and accessibility


to public water supply (Graph 2112), with only 53,8% of houses connected
compared to a national average of 85,5%. Of those who are not connected to
the public supply network, 32,9% households depend on either artesian wells
or private water networks, while the remaining are not connected to any kind of
network or well. This represents the highest percentage in Lebanon.

The water supply-related problems faced in Akkar include, but are not limited
to:
Lack of integrated water resources management;
Absence of water networks in many regions;
Some networks date back to the 1960s and need rehabilitation;
Disparities among the regions in terms of water distribution;
Absence of water meters;

11 Based on a per capita water consumption of 180 L/day


12 The villages that havent been surveyed yet go under the N/A (not available) category.

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Dependence on groundwater and absence of surface water-oriented


solutions (i.e.: rainwater harvesting);
Population growth combined with inadequate infrastructure;
Continuous digging of illegal artesian wells;
Proliferation of private water networks;
Excessive use of water resources for irrigation;
Shortage of power supply;
Lack of water sources: networks were executed without ensuring water
availability in some instances; and.
Land expropriation procedures and obstacles in the implementation of
new projects.

In addition to water supply-related issues, water resources are polluted by


anthropogenic activities: raw sewage discharge, farming and industrial wastes
disposal (olive mills, dead cattle, slaughterhouse wastes, etc.), and extensive
chemicals use in the agricultural sector13. Another issue to highlight is seawater
intrusion and salinization of coastal aquifers from excessive pumping of
groundwater in coastal areas14.

Law 337 of 2001 combined the Lebanese water authorities into four Water
Establishments WE (Beirut & Mount Lebanon, North Lebanon, Bekaa, and
South Lebanon), or self-managed bodies responsible for designing,
constructing, operating and maintaining water and wastewater networks, in
addition to controlling water quality and collecting fees from serviced
households. Thus, the NLWE was created to take over the works of 8 Regional
Water Authorities (RWA) - among which the Akkar, Qobaiyat and Donniyeh
former RWA - and 64 local committees. When the merger occurred in 2002,
some committees/villages did not agree to deliver their responsibilities to the
new public institution, and either continued to manage their water, or conveyed
the responsibilities and works to their respective Municipalities. Examples of
such villages are Qobaiyat, Andqet, and Bazbina.

Since its establishment, the NLWE has faced technical, administrative and
financial constraints rendering it unable to perform the tasks bestowed upon it
by the law. All WEs are also facing similar constraints managing irrigation,
potable water and sewerage systems. Therefore, management of irrigation and
sewerage systems are still in the hands of the DGHER, Irrigation Boards, the

13An example of such pollution would be Nahr El Ostwan that used to be famous for its fishes
which have been recently seen floating dead around its discharge point into the sea.
14 It is however worth noting that, according to IMAC project reports, the coastal water of Akkar is

still clean, as opposed to most of the Lebanese coastal strip.

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Local Committees, etc. and there are no immediate plans to shift these
responsibilities to the WEs. Currently, the NLWE is only responsible for potable
water management, including existing assets and ongoing projects. Even with
the reduction of responsibilities, the NLWE is still facing problems related to:
The shortage of funds;
Understaffing (the NLWE employs only 25% of the number of staff
allocated in Decree 1493 of 2005) and the lack of technical know-how;
The lack of involvement of the WE in different phases of new projects
(design, execution, commissioning); and,
The need for capacity building and training on the operation of new
projects.

The perspectives of the NPMPLT concerning water resources in Akkar include


the preservation of natural sites and resources, highlighting in particular:
The mountain peaks, generally above 1.900 meters, which are fragile
and important for the quality of water resources; and
The valley beds and slopes, mainly constituted of river beds and rich
vegetation, which also play a major role in the conservation of water
resources quality.

The NPMPLT also emphasizes on the protection and sustainable development


of water resources through the reinforcement of the green and blue grid
developed in the plan and the implementation of the MoEW schemes related to
dams, lakes, and irrigation schemes. Another recommendation related to water
resources management and urban planning is the setting of a legal framework
for the protection and conservation of the coastal zone and water streams.

Commissioned by the MoEW, BTD developed in 1996 a General Layout for the
management and supply of potable water in the region of Akkar15, including
wells, reservoirs, pumping stations, chlorination stations, and transmission
lines. The Government and several international funding agencies (IDB, Saudi
Fund, EIB, and OFID) already funded/executed the potable water network-
related works mentioned in the General Layout in the first 6 zones. According
the MoEW, funds have been recently allocated for the execution of the works in
zone 7. Even though most of the civil works have been executed, some sections
of the network are not operational due to expropriation problems and water
"ownership" conflicts whereby some villages believe that they have the

15 The BTD Plan divided Akkar into 7 hydraulic zones: 1) Qobayat: 73 villages; 2) Beit Mellat 1:
16 villages; 3) Beit Mellat 2: 18 villages; 4) Ain Yaacoub: 13 villages; 5) Al Jord: 18 villages;
6) Akkar el-Aatiqa: 5 villages; and 7) Sahel: 56 villages.

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exclusive right to use and manage water resources present within their
cadastral boundaries.

Even though the MoEW has developed two Decennial Strategic Plans for the
water sector (2000-2010 and 2010-2020), the sector has only been managed
through decisions, decrees, laws and regulations and this, until the approval of
the MoEW National Water Sector Strategy (NWSS) by the CoM in March 2012.
In addition to potable water, the NWSS for the area includes (these are also
mentioned in the NPMPLT):
Three dams: Qarqaf (low priority), Noura Al Tahta (high priority) and
Bared area (Akkar- Minieh Donniyeh- high priority);
Three lakes: Qamouaa, Qatlabe and Kouashra (all three medium
priority);
Irrigation water reservoir in Akkar el-Aatiqa;
New irrigation systems in Noura Tahta and Bared area;
Minor irrigation canals in Bazbina, Souaisseh, and Kfarnoun; and
Cleaning of riverbeds.

The only project that has been implemented until now is the lake in Kouashra.
The collected rainwater was used for irrigation purposes; the lake was recently
emptied and is undergoing expansion and rehabilitation works. The rest of the
planned projects are currently on hold for security reasons.

1.4.2 Wastewater infrastructures

The NPMPLT acknowledges that the lack of wastewater management in the


study area is threatening the quality of water and soil, as well as public health.
The plan emphasizes the importance of executing wastewater treatment plants
listed on the CDR wastewater General Layout for the area and states that the
priorities should be directed towards the regions of highest groundwater
resources vulnerability.

Wastewater management infrastructures are very limited in Akkar. The majority


of households (64,3% in Akkar versus 37,2% in Lebanon (Mouchref A. , 2012))
still depend on sewage pits and septic tanks, most of which are not properly
designed, with sewage seeping into the ground (refer to Graph 2216).

Moreover, only 24,8% of households in Akkar are connected to a public


wastewater network versus a national connection rate of 60,2%, placing the

16 The villages that havent been surveyed yet go under the N/A (not available) category.

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caza as second to last in terms of residential connections to the public sewage


networks (refer to Graph 23).

However, villages that have a wastewater network either: have primitive


canalizations; have badly engineered networks leading to contamination of the
potable water network; have an old network that needs maintenance; have
incomplete networks; only have primary treatment (pre-settling basins); lack a
wastewater treatment plant; or have a non-functional wastewater treatment
plant. A small number of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were
implemented during the last decade with external and local funding17 (refer to
Table 1).
Table 1: List of the main wastewater treatment plants implemented in Akkar through external and
local funding

WWTP Type of
Status Remark
Location WWTP

Serves 5-10% of the population and


discharges treated effluent into the Nahr el
Aakkar
Sludge plant Activated Ostwan. The rest of the households
El- Aatiqa
dispose of their sewage in uncontrolled
ways.
Even though the village received funds
from the UNDP to improve their system
Primary Need
and install a WWTP, the MoEW did not
Bqarzla sedimentation maintenance
approve the project given that Bkarzla will
basins and upgrade
be served by the Abdeh WWTP, currently
in its tendering phase
Anaerobic
Charbila Serves 150 households
digestion plant

Not functional
Anaerobic and needs Designed to provide only primary
Hmair
digestion plant maintenance treatment
and upgrade
Treats the wastewater of both Qobaiyat
and Aandqet. Treated effluents are either
used for irrigation or discharged in a
Extended Properly nearby stream. 40% of Qobaiyat and 65%
Qobaiyat
aeration plant functioning of Aandqet are linked to the plant, while
households not yet served by the network
use septic tanks from which wastewater is
collected and transported to the WWTP;

17 Funding from institutions such as USAID and the Issam Fares Foundation

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In most cases, untreated sewage finds its way to surface water bodies (mainly
the Nahr el Ostwan), valleys, irrigation canals, and roadside rainwater canals.
In addition, industrial and commercial effluents are equally disposed of in the
sewage network or roadside rainwater canals; these mainly include liquid waste
generated from olive mills, slaughterhouses, fish market, dry cleaners, and
vehicles repair and maintenance workshops. Consequently, a major problem in
this water-rich area is the contamination of soil, water resources, agricultural
crops, and water networks with untreated and uncontrolled wastewater disposal
adversely impacting living conditions, public health (e.g., typhoid and other
diseases affecting children), crops quality, and the natural environment.

One of the most vulnerable regions in Akkar is Joumeh, located atop a large
reservoir providing potable water to more than 100 villages. Recently, some of
its municipalities started executing their own projects rather than wait for the
implementation of the Governments wastewater treatment projects. Treatment
units were bought and related sewage networks are currently being built. These
municipalities include Beino-Qboula, Jebrayel, and Rahbe. These municipalities
used their financial shares from the Joumeh Federation of Municipalities fund to
finance the treatment units.

Similarly, in Upper Hermel and Donniyeh, wastewater is directly or indirectly


discharged into the environment, leading to widespread contamination. A
treatment plant has been constructed in Markebta Donniyeh, but is not
functioning properly and thus raw sewage is being discharged into Nahr al
Bared.

The wastewater General Layout prepared by the MoEW and that is under
execution with the CDR includes one main station and 6 smaller units in Akkar
which, when implemented and functional, will cover 85% of the total area of
Akkar (refer to Table 60 for detailed information about these plants). Additional
studies and plans have also been prepared for the area but they are still awaiting
implementation from the CDR and the MoEW (refer to Table 61 for details on
these studies).

1.5 Communications infrastructures

While landline communications infrastructures and GSM coverage are available


in most of the towns of the study area (refer to Graph 24 and Graph 2518) ( (CRI,
2010) and (Peillen & Denno, 2009), Lebanon is still not well equipped with
adequate services, either for the digital communication through the internet of
for television communication via cable or satellite (refer to Graph 26). More

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specifically in Akkar, landline communications still rely on wireless microwave


antennas and thus limit the bandwidth and compromise the use of high speed
Internet. This calls for the expansion of the DSL program launched by the
government to employ large bandwidth for proper high speed communication
through the Internet.

Many cities and villages of the study area do not possess the least of office
equipment, photocopier, fax or computer, whether connected or not to the
internet (Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) - IAURIF, 2005). The quality of
mobile telephone communications needs improvement through the adequate
addition of remote telephone relays and microwave antennas in order to cover
every inch of the area with the required quality of telephone signals. In fact, the
NPMPLT advises Lebanon to improve its technological means and the rapidity
of access and diffusion of information (Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) -
IAURIF, 2005).

1.6 Solid waste infrastructure

Management of solid waste (SW) includes: collection, disposal and treatment.


According to the Lebanese Law no. 444 and its implementation Decree no. 8003,
collection is among the responsibilities of the Municipality while the Government
should be responsible for treatment. The Integrated Solid Waste Management
Decree, enacted in April 2012, emphasizes the necessity of managing all aspects
of SW from its source to its final disposal with minimal environmental and socio-
economic adverse impacts through developing and implementing national
strategies and management plans. A committee appointed by the MoE and
constituted of representatives of both the public and private sectors, should be
responsible for developing such strategies and management plans.

However, the lack of funds, weak technical know-how, and absence of properly
operated sanitary landfills or solid waste treatment plants (SWTPs) in the peripheral
parts of the country namely the North have led most Municipalities to pay only
minimal attention to solid waste management (SWM), leading to inefficient
practices and widespread environmental problems. This, added to political
constraints and the Not In My Backyard syndrome, have led to the proliferation of
uncontrolled dumpsites in various sites, river valleys, and seafronts where waste is
in the best cases either open burned or covered with soil. Due to the quasi-absence
of waste segregation and sorting, these uncontrolled dumpsites receive several
kinds of waste, such as:
Municipal solid waste (most important);
Debris, construction leftovers;
Agricultural waste, including pesticides;

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Industrial waste, including chemical waste;


Healthcare waste19, including infectious waste.

The NPMPLT (Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) - IAURIF, 2005)


recommends the establishment and implementation of complete municipal solid
waste (MSW) sorting, recycling, and treatment plants. Furthermore, it urges
unions of municipalities to seek the administrative and technical support from
MoE and MoIM at the Governorate level in order to select landfill sites and
locations for sorting and composting facilities. It also emphasizes the execution
of the projects listed on the CDR program, including the rehabilitation of
uncontrolled dumpsites based on priority as per the MoEs Master Plan for the
closure and rehabilitation of uncontrolled dumps (2011).

Waste management infrastructure is very limited and quasi inexistent in Akkar


and the average per-capita MSW generation rates is 0,85kg/day (SOER, 2010).
According to the MoIM and the MoPH, the population in Akkar was estimated
to be 448,490 in 2012, thus generating an average of 381 tons of MSW per day.
Since 2012, these figures have considerably increased as a result of population
increase but also the influx of Syrian refugees to the area.

While municipalities provide good waste collection services (refer to Graph 27)
usually through a private contractor the problem lies in the final disposal,
mainly consisting of open dumping and burning in selected dump sites (mainly
the Srar open dump), or in valleys, river streams, or old quarries sites.

A combination of various studies prepared by UNIDO, UNEP, SMAP, and the


MoE indicate that 31% of municipalities in Akkar have their own dumps while
the rest disposes, through a contractor, in the Srar dump (refer to Graph 28). All
municipalities of Minieh-Donniyeh also dispose of their waste in uncontrolled
dumps.

A total of 30 open municipal waste dumps and 9 construction and demolition


(C&D) waste dumps (refer to Table 62 for a detailed list of these dumps), are
scattered throughout Akkar. Most of them are operational, and some receive
both municipal and C&D waste. Among the top 20 MSW dumps in Lebanon
requiring closure and rehabilitation, three are found in Akkar:
Srar with a volume of 150.000 m3;

19The implementation of Decree 13389/2004 regarding the management of healthcare waste and
Decree 8471/2012 on environmental compliance of establishments should be enforced to
reduce the volume of industrial and healthcare waste disposed of in open dumps.

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Fnaydek with a volume of 60.000 m3; and


Birkayel with a volume of 70.200 m3.

The situation is much worse when it comes to healthcare, industrial and


agricultural waste management. Waste products such as oil from machinery,
blood from slaughterhouses, batteries and other hazardous materials are being
dumped into the environment.

Several small-scale solid waste treatment facilities were implemented in the


area, through grant funding from donor agencies. They are listed in Table 63.

In 2006, a national Municipal Solid Waste Master Plan was prepared and
recognized four service areas, one of which being North Lebanon and Akkar.
However, as none of the proposed treatment plants and landfills were built, this
Master Plan achieved very little in the period 2006-2010 and thus led to an
amendment issued through the Council of Ministers (CoM) Decision 55 (dated
1/9/2010). This Decision advocated Waste-To-Energy (WTE) technologies in
large cities, and renewed the Governments commitment to the 2006 Master
Plan in the rest of the country while also exploring the feasibility of WTE
systems.

In 2013, the CoM, through Decision 52 (dated 1/9/2013), assigned a ministerial


committee for the preparation of a new National Master Plan for Solid Waste
Management. This committee includes representatives from the MoE, CDR,
and MoIM. The 2013 Master Plan is based on the implementation of WTE
systems in large cities and on the adoption of the sanitary landfill sites proposed
in the 2006 Master Plan for the rest of the country. Furthermore, this new Master
Plan stipulates that MSW collection and transportation to treatment facilities
should fall under the technical and financial responsibility of municipalities20.
The 2013 Master Plan recommendations for the region of Akkar are listed in
Table 64.

20 The municipalities can subcontract a waste service provider according to a standard tender
template to be developed by the ministerial committee. Moreover, treatment would be under
the responsibility of the Central Government (Masouliyya markaziyah) and would be funded
by the Government (Al-mwazana al-aama lel dawleh).

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2 SECTOR 2: EDUCATION

2.1 Public and private schools

2.1.1 Schools

According to the ECRD, Akkar is the governorate that has the highest number
of schools. There are 274 schools in Akkar distributed as follow:
159 public schools (including 25 secondary schools) in 118 villages
83 private schools (including 35 secondary) in 45 villages
32 free private schools in 22 villages

As per the ECRD School Guide for Public Education (2011-2012), the reported
total number of students in Akkar was 67.959; mainly enrolled at the primary
level, as detailed in Table 2.

Table 2: Number of students in Akkar

Type Kindergarten Cycles 1 and 2 Cycle 3 Secondary Total

Public 4.448 19.587 9.089 5.745 38.452

Private 5.252 13.754 7.618 1.878 28.502

Free Private 125 864 - - 1.005

Total 9.825 34.205 16.707 7.623 67.959

Source: Educational Center for Research and Development (2011-2012)

In addition to the above, there


are six UNRWA schools in
Bared Palestinian Camp.
Regarding the Minieh-Donniyeh
villages that are part of the
study area, they have 32
schools: 28 public schools
including five secondary; and
four private intermediate
schools (including three free
schools). When comparing
students distribution between
public, private, and free private Graph 1: Students distribution by school type
schools in 2008 (Mouchref,

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2008) and 2012 (ECRD, 2012), as shown in Graph 1, a clear decrease in free
private schools is noted to the benefit of both public and private schools.

This can be explained, on one hand, by the corrupted structure and lack
ofquality in some free private schools resulting in a shift to private for those
who can afford it and public schools. On the other hand, it can be explained
by the increase in the number of private schools.

Map 3: Intermediate schools in the study area

As per local authorities and inhabitants, public schools in Akkar are


disadvantaged, neglected and often rented and in bad conditions (cracked
walls, humidity, absence of lighting and heating, etc.). Akkar schools also suffer
from the absence of playgrounds, reception halls, auditoriums, science
laboratories, properly equipped computer centers, and modern teaching
methodologies. Another problem faced by the educational sector is the inability
of the MoF to pay the accumulated salaries of contracted teachers (Khalil et al,
2011).

Moreover, according to local development plans (LDPs) of the ADELNORD


project, schools in Akkar suffer from weakness in foreign languages teaching,
and a high reliance on contracted teachers teaching subjects different from their
field of specialization. This information was further confirmed by attendees of

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the Inception Workshop of the SSRDP for Akkar held on April 6th, 2013 in Halba.
French is the main language taught in schools in Akkar; private schools usually
offer English education but not all public schools do. As per the MoEHE, three
public schools with English as a second language are planned to be created in
Wadi Khaled, Halba and Berkayel.

Map 4: Secondary schools in the study area

2.1.2 Enrolment and dropout

Out of the 33% Lebanese households


that do not have access to education,
63.7% are in Akkar (Khalil et al, 2011).
Rates of enrolment in schools in Akkar
are lower than those of Lebanon as
shown in Graph 2 (MoSA/UNPF (1996),
Population and Housing Survey cited in
Mouchref, 2008).

Findings shown in Graph 2 are also


confirmed by a study conducted by
Graph 2: School enrolment rates
MADA in 2008 which revealed that
Akkar exhibits low enrolment rates at most educational levels, particularly at the

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secondary and university levels, where it has scored the lowest in Lebanon
(Mouchref, 2008).

Students in Akkar tend to join schools near their households, as shown in Graph
3: 86% of students in the mentioned clusters are enrolled in schools within their
clusters.

Even though parents have an increasingly low confidence in public schools due
to the absence of interaction with them, many families cannot afford sending
their children to better schools within or outside Akkar.

Graph 3: Students distribution by location of educational facilities


Source: (CDR/ESFD-GFA-ELARD, 2011-2012)

School dropout rates in Akkar reach 25% before the 9th grade, and almost 56%
for the age group 14-18. Moreover, 47% of students in Akkar do not complete
their secondary education (Khalil et al, 2011). Dropping out of school is due to
several factors and their combination as well such as: lack of educational
quality, lack of sufficient awareness among parents, absence of social
guidance, bad relationships with teachers, and mainly financial problems. In
addition, dropping out usually occurs after several failures. For instance,
according to LDPs of the ADELNORD Project, Fneideq, Beit Younes, and
Western Wadi Khaled clusters have high levels of school dropouts due to weak
children follow up at school and homes, financial difficulties, and parents
inclination towards pushing their children to work at an early age in order to
contribute to household income generation.

Besides, students do not have the support, incentives and extracurricular


activities needed to encourage them to continue their education (absence of
summer schools, lack of incentives such as awards for high achievers, absence
of university scholarships, etc.).

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Akkar also has the highest rate of schooling delay, with 14,1% of the students
aged 15-19 still enrolled at the primary level, versus 3,5% in Lebanon
(Mouchref, 2008). Rates of grade repetition are very high, especially in the 4th
grade, with 33,3% in Akkar versus 9,3% in Lebanon (Mouchref, 2008). The ratio
of failing students in Akkars public schools is 82% (Khalil et al, 2011).

The financial situation of parents plays an important role in access to education.


Even in public schools, parents must pay a yearly fee of roughly 100.000 LBP
per student, on top of other expenses such as books and uniforms. With low
income levels and a high average number of children per household, schooling
expenses can quickly become unbearable. The burden of transportation costs
is also high on parents, especially for secondary and university level students.

2.1.3 Illiteracy rates

Illiteracy rates in Akkar have always been higher than the national average. In
2000, a study conducted by the MoSA estimated it at 30,5%: 37,8% among
females and 23,1% among males.

Illiteracy rates increase with age. For age groups below 21, illiteracy is due to
the fact that a large number of children in Akkar do not have access to
education: those with special educational needs, working children and school
dropouts without any occupation.

Illiteracy rates in Akkar vary as well between villages. The highest rate is
recorded in Wadi Khaled (World Vision, 2010) which has been identified by the
CDR as one of the poverty pockets in Akkar with an estimated illiteracy rate of
35%, sharply increasing among older generations (CDR, 2007).

2.2 Vocational, technical and training


institutions

Data gathered from the ECRD for the academic year 2004-2005 and from the
General Directorate of Vocational and Technical Education for the academic
year 2011-2012 revealed that during a period of seven years, the number of
technical schools increased by 31% and the number of students increased by
33% (Table 3).

However, the number of students varies significantly between private and public
schools and higher increase rates are recorded in the public sector. This can be
due to the increase in the number and geographical coverage of public schools

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and the fact that students and families opt for less expensive substitutes, mainly
public ones.

Table 3: Technical schools and enrolled students in Akkar

Technical schools 2004-2005 2011-2012


Number of public schools 7 13
Number of private schools 15 19
Number of students in public schools 1.453 3.246
Number of students in private schools 2.652 2.944
Total number of schools 22 32
Total number of students 4.105 6.190
Source: ECRD 2004-2005 and General Directorate of Vocational and Technical Education
data

These schools only offer a limited variety of specializations, thus driving Akkari
students to seek schools outside the region. It is worth noting that the technical
school of Abdeh is the only one which offers agricultural courses in Akkar,
despite the importance of this sector in the area (ILO, 2010). Yet, a substantial
increase is noted for registered students between 2008-2009 and 2011-2012.
Unfortunately, dropping out rates in second and third year remain high.

2.3 Higher learning institutions

2.3.1 Proportion of students

The proportion of adults with higher education is lower in Akkar than in other
Lebanese regions due to many reasons such as: the absence of universities
until 2011 (opening of the UOB in 2011 and the LIU in 2013), the lack of financial
resources, and the nature of economic activities offered or chosen by Akkari
youth (Army, agriculture, construction workers, restoration, small jobs, etc.).
Due to transportation expenses, travel time and distances, many students do
not pursue higher education (Ibrahim, 2011); 3% of students of Akkar are
enrolled in universities when compared to 9,4% in Lebanon (MoSA/UNPF
(1996), Population and Housing Survey cited in Mouchref, 2008).

For example, 66,7% of the students in the cluster of Akkar el Aatiqa-Daoura and
40% of the students in Fneideq continue through college, according to LDPs of
the ADELNORD Project, while the percentage of university students in Wadi
Khaled is less than 10% (MoPH, 2007). Furthermore, findings concerning the
villages of Akroum, Mashta Hassan, and Mashta Hammoud suggest that the

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number of females joining university is also noticeably higher than the number
of males (MoPH, 2007).

The number of university students in the Sahel is very modest due to poor
economic conditions, high illiteracy rates, and the economic dependence on
agriculture, an activity requiring manual labor (CDR, 2007).

2.3.2 Distribution of students

University students of Akkar are mainly enrolled in public institutions and


distributed among the branches of the Lebanese University (LU). Data from the
Central Office of the LU reveal that 4.757 students from Akkar were registered
at the LU Tripoli campus for the year 2011-2012 (Table 4).

The nearest LU branch being in Tripoli, Akkari students face difficulties and
financial constraints in transportation and in accommodations. Furthermore,
classes held at the Tripoli campus are frequently canceled due to the security
problems in the region.

In addition, first year classes for science majors of the LU are offered in the
premises of Halbas public highschool.

Table 4: Distribution of students from Akkar by specialty in the Lebanese Universitys branch of Tripoli
for the academic year 2011- 2012
Health Social
Medicine Engineering Sciences Law Literature
Studies Studies
No. of
61 171 198 1.403 433 238 2.253
students
% of
total 1% 3% 3,5% 25% 8% 4,2% 40%
students
Source: Central Office of the Lebanese University, 2011- 2012 Data.

In 2008-2009, the UOB inaugurated the Issam Fares Institute of Technology,


the first higher education facility in Akkar. The Institute will gradually comprise
30 specializations for technical sciences: 27 will be based at the headquarters
in Beino, and the remaining three agriculture, marine sciences and civil
aviation will be based in Cheikh Zennad, next to the Ren Moawad Air Base.
As a first step, the enrolled Akkar students (around 200) attended courses in
the Koura campus until the Beino campus was officially opened in 2011-2012.

In this context, and according to the proceedings of a conference on the


Development of Akkar ( )held in 2011, a land plot of more than
60.000 sqmhas been recently granted by the MoA to the MoEHE within the LARI

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premises in Abdeh and this, in order to build a branch of the LU in Akkar


(Ibrahim, 2011). Preliminary college specializations proposed to meet the needs
of Akkars market consisting of the following: Agriculture, Veterinary Medicine,
Education, and Sciences.

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3 SECTOR 3: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT,


ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE, AND
GOVERNANCE

3.1 Socio-demographic characteristics

In 2010, Akkars resident population reached 249.642 according to the MoPH


numbers, thus representing 6,3% of the Lebanese population, while Tripoli
accounted for 6,74% and Beirut 9,55%. Compared to the registered population
for the same year in Akkar (MoIM), 57,6% of Akkari actually live in Akkar. In
fact, migration and immigration are common features, like in any other
Lebanese rural area.

Additionally, and in comparison to other governorates such as South Lebanon,


Nabatiyeh and the Bekaa, the population of North Lebanon increased between
1996 and 2004 (Mouchref, 2008). Moreover, according to data gathered from
the registration offices, Akkar witnessed a demographic growth of 7,4%
between 2007 and 2012 and reached a registered population of 448.584 in
2012. In terms of registered population, Qobayat office (55 villages) showed a
demographic growth of 11,9%, Halba office (82 villages) of 6,4% and Abdeh
office (35 villages) of 5,7% (Graph 4). Accordingly, the total official number of
villages is 172. However, different numbers can be found depending on the
sources. This is mainly due to the following points:
Lack of land cadastral limits
New clusters of houses that are considered as small villages (like Bajaa,
mrah, Elsen)
The absence of updated formal numbers

Graph 4: Population size and demographic growth in Akkar

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As for population density, it ranges between 248 (Mouchref, 2008) and 320
persons/sq.km (Nehme, 2000), thus ranking fifth in Lebanon in terms of
population density after the districts of Beirut, Baabda, and Tripoli.

The population of Akkar can be characterized as being a young population


having the highest percentage of residents below the age of 15, the lowest
percentage of population in the age bracket of 15-64 and a percentage of elderly
lower than the national level: 5,4% compared to 6,9% (MoSA/UNFPA(1996),
Population and Housing Survey cited in Mouchref, 2008). This character is also
confirmed by the MoPH 2010 statistics presented in Graph 5 hereunder.

The average number of family members in Akkar was estimated at 5,6 in 2000
(Nehme, 2000) then at 6,1 in 2010 compared to an average of 4,8 for Lebanon
(ILO, 2010). Moreover, Akkar shows the highest number of children per family,
an average of 4 children, versus 2,6 for Lebanon, increasing to more than 8 in
some areas such as Fneideq, Bebnine and Sahel Akkar (ILO, 2010).

Graph 5: Akkar resident population by age group (2010)

3.2 Vulnerable groups and poverty

Akkar has always been classified as the most deprived and poorest area in
Lebanon. In 1998, it accounted for 12,5% of the total number of deprived
individuals in the country. More recent studies presenting data from 2004 and
2005 showed that Akkar had the highest share of poor households in Lebanon
(MoSA/UNDP (2007), Progress in the Living Conditions in Lebanon between
1995 and 2004 cited in Mouchref, 2008) with average poverty rates of 63%
(UNDP, 2008) and reaching much higher rates in some regions such as the
Sahel where 85% of the population are considered poor, of which 50% are
classified as very poor (World Vision, 2010). Within the framework of the CDR

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2002-2008 Community Development Project funded by the World Bank, a


socio-economic study was conducted in 2005 and identified seven (7) poverty
clusters in Akkar; these clusters are shown in Map 5 and detailed in Table 5.

Table 5: Poverty clusters in Akkar

No. of
Cluster Villages within the Cluster
Villages
Arida Sheikh Zennad Hissa Tel Bahri Massoudiyeh
Sahel 9
Tal Hmaira Knaisseh Semmaqieh Qlaiyaat
Sfinet Qayteh Bzal Qarqaf Wadi Jamous Jdeidet
Qayteh 5
Qayteh
Upper Qayteh 4 Hrar Qarneh Beit Ayoub Qrayat

Fneideq 1
Kouachra Ain Zeit Ain Tenta Kherbet Daoud Majdel
Middle Dreib 6
Kherbet Char
Kalkha Amayer Hisheh Rajam Issa Rajam Khalaf
Wadi Khaled 7
Rajam Hussein Knaisseh

Middle Qayteh 3 Danbo Mbarkiyeh Bajaa


Source: CDR, 2005

Map 5: Poverty clusters in Akkar

Source: CDR, 2005

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In 2011, the MoSA launched a 5-year National Program to Support the Poorest
Families, better known as the National Poverty Targeting Program. In the
North, 78% of families who applied were found eligible, out of which 39% were
from Akkar. More specifically, 81,8% of the applicants in Akkar were approved
(2.797 approved out of 3.418). The registration occurred through the MoSA local
development centers as shown in Graph 6 and Table 6. The village names
mentioned in the figure refer to the location of MoSA development centers which
serve more than one village. Consequently, the number of families served
through Rahbe MoSA center, for example, do not only represent families from
Rahbe, they cover families served by this focal center. The highest number is
registered in Halba since this center serves a broad populated surrounding, with
inflowing families from different villages. Rahbe and Qobayat show the lowest,
while Dinbo and Michmich regroup substantial percentages of poor families.

Graph 6: Registered and eligible Akkar families in the MoSA program

Table 6: Number of Akkar families beneficiaries from the MoSA poverty national program

Caza MoSA Center No. of beneficiaries


Rahbe 223

Qobayat 292

Mishmish 1.090

Halba 1.048

Hissa 890
Akkar
Bebnin 670

Wadi Khaled 965

Denbo 547

Bireh 506

Total 6.231

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According to the CAS, average individual income in Akkar is the lowest in


Lebanon with 73% of individuals living on a monthly income below USD107,
compared to a national average of 38,9%, and 22,7% living on a monthly
income less than USD40, compared to a national average of 6,3% (World
Vision, 2010).

Residents of Akkar receive money from different sources other than their direct
income: 26% from relatives abroad, 13% from pension funds and 4% from
charitable organizations (World Vision, 2010). The general trend of retail trade
in Akkar is to borrow from small shops and pay either at the beginning of each
month if they are employees, or at any other time if they are working in
agriculture or having any other seasonal income.

In addition, the dependency ratio21 in Akkar is the highest in Lebanon: 86,6%


compared to 43,7% (MoSA/UNPF (1996), Population and Housing Survey cited
in Mouchref, 2008). Moreover, North Lebanon registered the highest
percentage of working children, according to the Multiple Indicator Cluster
Survey implemented in Lebanon in 2009 by ILO. 3,5% of children in Akkar work,
compared to 1,9% at the national level. This percentage is the highest for boys
between 12-14 years

Based on interviews with local economic stakeholders, the situation in Akkar


was further aggravated after the July 2006 events which caused a decrease in
income, work opportunities, productivity, and sales in addition to transportation
difficulties and job losses.

Unemployment is another problem to be added to the list of difficulties faced by


the Akkari population. The weak use of local competencies, low level of
womens participation in economic activities and the lack of work opportunities
have increased the rate of unemployment in Akkar, leading to limited
opportunities for social development. Insufficient orientation of students towards
specialties based on market demand further complicates the problem. This
situation is currently exacerbated by the influx of Syrian refugees representing
a cheaper workforce.

21The dependency ration is an age-population ratio of those typically not in the labor force (the
dependent part i.e. under 15 and above 65 years old) and those typically in the labor force
(the productive part i.e. between 15 and 65 years-old). It is used to measure the pressure on
productive population.

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3.3 Relationships between villages and


regions

Akkars geographic position, its human, natural and economic resources, and
its historical heritage all shape its dynamic position and relationship with its
surroundings. Northern Akkar (especially Sahel, Wadi Khaled and Akroum) has
always been linked to the Syrian cities and the border villages to which Akkari
inhabitants used to go for shopping and healthcare. In parallel, trade and
smuggling represented the main economic activities of the region. The Syrian
border represented the main door to agricultural export to Arab countries,
especially to Iraq. On the other hand, on the Lebanese side, the nearest large
city to Akkar is Tripoli, a city which also represents the major destination for all
public and private services, economic market, and higher education for the
Akkari population. Thus, according to local stakeholders, an unstable situation
in any of these surroundings automatically has a major impact on Akkar and its
population.

Akkar can be characterized as a hierarchical social structure. This matter


prevails not only between family members but also between village members.
Power and decision making are still in mens hands and are monopolized by
religious, social and political authorities. However, a considerable shift is
witnessed in favor of elected mayors and Municipal candidates who are
increasingly involved in dispute arbitration and conflict resolution. Nonetheless,
municipalities are facing challenges in Akkar and are not always successful; 8
municipalities were dissolved in 2011, an indicator of deep social, political and
familial divisions and conflicts in some villages.

3.4 The dynamics


between villages
Akkar can be divided into clusters which
encompass focal localities attracting all
surrounding villages in terms of
economic, educational, health and other
needed services. These focal localities
have pharmacies, high schools, a
dispensary and private clinics, along with
small shops and small enterprises,
offering all kinds of goods and services.
Table 65 shows Akkar main clusters,
their geographic position, focal localities Graph 7: Confessional distribution of migrants
in 1921

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and main activities according to the Northern Akkar Socio-Economic


Assessment (ILO, 2010).

Akkars population is mixed (Graph 7), consisting primarily of Sunni Muslims


with a minority of Alawites and Christians (Maronites and Greek Orthodox) and
very few Shiites (Mouchref, 2008). Yet, religious racism appears to be almost
inexistent, according to interviews with local stakeholders, and some villages
have a mixed population (Tal Abbas Gharbeh, Ain Yaacoub, Bazbina, etc.).

Conflicts between neighboring Akkar villages have always existed over water
distribution, land ownership and cadastral limits. Lately, some conflicts occurred
during the elections, mainly municipal ones, based on family representation,
individual interests, and politics.

In 2008, the sectarian clashes and divisions in the country exploded in Halba
and the Caza witnessed, for the first time since the civil war, a violent armed
dispute which resulted in the death of 11 persons.

3.5 Migration and immigration


Three main migration movements began in Akkar since 1909, under the
Ottoman period (Zakhour, 2000):
1. During the Ottoman rule, towards South and North America mainly
Christian men escaping military enrollment and taxes
2. Under the French occupation, towards America and Africa
3. After the Lebanese independence, with a widened destination towards
Australia, Europe and Arab countries.

According to the 1921 census, migrants accounted for nearly one third of the
population back then. An assessment of recent migration and immigration
shows that the villages which have the highest rate of migration and immigration
are the most open ones where change is easily accepted and triggered.

Moreover, skilled educated migrants and immigrants generate more money and
send it back home, improving the life conditions of families. Also, their
immersion in different environments, communities and urban areas encourage
development and positive changes. However, not all migrants have successful
shifts in their lives. In fact, Akkari unskilled workforce and their families live in
poorer conditions than those they experienced in their native villages, even if
their access to work and services is higher.

So, generally migration has positive impact on Akkar, but can also hide social
tragedies and unsuccessful experiences.

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3.6 Syrian refugees


As mentioned earlier, there is a strong relationship (trade, healthcare, family
ties, etc.) between Akkar border villages and Syria; thus, the security and
political situation in Syria is affecting the stability in Akkar.

At the beginning of the Syrian crisis, refugees resorted to families they knew in
Akkar and were very welcomed. However, problems started to occur when the
number of refugees increased. According to UNHCRs last update as of 31
January 2014, 154.893 registered Syrian refugees are present in North
Lebanon, among which 61% (94.829) are located in Akkar. The highest
percentage of Syrian refugees is in Amayer (1.,683) and the coastal villages as
shown in the UNHCR map of distribution of registered Syrian refugees at the
cadastral level in North Lebanon and in Akkar specifically (Map 36).

The increasing influx of Syrian refugees in Akkar is aggravating the problems


already faced by the Caza:
Demographic stress;
Increased pressure on the poor existing infrastructure: wastewater, solid
waste, electricity, water supply, etc.;
Bad housing conditions increase in housing density and in the number
of tented settlements;
Economic situation: refugees receive financial aids while host families
do not, increased dependency ratio, exacerbation of the unemployment
crisis since refugees represent a cheaper workforce;
Health and hygiene problems: incidence of new diseases, high rates and
alarming trends of water-borne diseases, and pressure on the already
insufficient healthcare facilities;
Presence of armed militants and the shift of clashes into the Lebanese
territory.

3.7 Administrative framework

Akkar suffers from administrative centralization more than other Governorates


as a result of the higher needs and deprivation it is enduring. In addition, social
and administrative service centres and public departments are nearly all
concentrated in the centre of the Caza, Halba (30 km from Tripoli, the
Governorate centre, and 112 km from Beirut) at the expense of other towns.
However, Qobayat and Abdeh represent two other concentrations for some
administrative offices and service centres.
The creation of municipalities in the villages has triggered a new dynamic and
a shift in power and authority of tribal and familial to elected members. It has

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the potential of an empowering structure for the development and improvement


of life conditions. The first municipality in Akkar was created in Halba in 1909
(Zakhour, 2000).

Between 2002 and 2013, 69 new municipalities were established, increasing


the total number of municipalities in Akkar to 131 (Table 66). In 2012 and 2013,
most of the newly established municipalities were in the Sahel and in Wadi
Khaled.

As for the unions of municipalities, the Union of Joumeh established in 2002


and regrouping 16 municipalities was followed by the Union of Shafat and of
Higher Dreib. Currently, Akkar regroups seven unions and two other unions are
expected to be formed in the next few months in Wadi Khaled and Arqa areas
(Table 67).

The main challenges faced by municipalities and unions relate to the following:
The low level of education and administrative skills of elected members
The gap between villages needs and available municipal resources
The absence of qualified and technical employees
The relatively inexperienced municipalities due to their recent
establishment
The loss of projects, competencies, and continuum between
successively elected councils.
Political conflicts and their negative effect on municipal efficiency

3.8 Civil societies and active


organizations

Given the unsatisfied basic needs in Akkar, local intellectual leaders, political
parties, cooperatives, and organizations have played a major role in local
development since the 18th century. Many roads, schools, healthcare centers,
and other public places witness the work of civil societies, namely in Akkar El
Atika, Bazbina, and Bzal. The existence of religious missions in some villages
goes back to the 18th and 19th centuries; in addition to their religious and
educational role, they used to deliver charity services, addressing the poor,
widows and orphans. The Lebanese Red Cross was the first civil national
association to open in Halba in the sixties, followed by the establishment of the
MoSA centers in focus villages; these centers mainly provided health and social
services and vaccination campaigns.

In the eighties, national NGOs (such as Mouvement Social, Caritas, Secours


Populaire, etc.) initiated local development centers, differentiating the social

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approach to Akkar problems. Education, cultural activities addressed to youth


and children, volunteer camps, vocational training, small infrastructure and
agriculture projects with local participation appeared to be the new trend of work
while investments and project funding were still scarce.

In the beginning of 2000, a new kind of institutions appeared: politicians opened


social institutions and branches in Akkar procuring funding and investing in
social and development services (Fares, Safadi, Moawad, Hariri, etc.).
Moreover, during the same period, NGOs, addressing people with special
needs such as Arc En Ciel and Fista, established local centers in the area.
However, international and national social investments were still minimal in
Akkar in comparison to other parts of Lebanon, and the problems and needs of
the region were still unsatisfied. This situation shifted drastically after 2007-2008
and following the Nahr El Bared war. In fact, by this time Akkar gained the
attention of international and national donors and of NGOs, who found partners
in newly established municipalities.

In 2012, with the Syrian crisis and the increasing numbers of Syrian refugees,
many other international NGOs, organizations and embassies opened centers
and offices in Akkar, thus raising the number of active groups to 104 NGOs and
CBOs, 40 International NGOs, and 20 International organizations and
embassies.

The geographic distribution of social organizations in Akkar has also changed


gradually. After the concentration of those organizations in Joumeh, Miniara,
Halba and Qobayat for years, they entered Middle Dreib and Qayteh in the late
90s, and then spread in the Sahel and Wadi Khaled lately with the increasing
number of Syrian refugees in these border villages. Another explanation to this
shy and gradual expansion is the previously difficult political context in those
two clusters during the presence of the Syrian army and its authority back then,
according to NGOs working in the region. Error! Reference source not found.
gives an indication of the geographical distribution of NGOs in the study area.

Yet, corruption, bureaucracy, and mismanagement impeded the funding and


social investment benefit to Akkar and its people through the achievement of
tangible projects. Also and unfortunately, a minor part of the relatively big
budgets actually reached the people. This is highly stressed on by local active
civil society members.

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Map 6: Distribution of NGOs in the study area

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4 SECTOR 4: HEALTH

4.1 General health conditions

A series of serious concerns affect the general health of citizens of Akkar, to


name a few:
Housing conditions: small, overcrowded residences with more than six
persons per room, little or no sunlight, and high levels of humidity;
Bad road infrastructure and absence of public transportation combined
with remoteness of some areas and poor living conditions, making it
difficult to reach healthcare centers;
Drinking water pollution, mainly due to the absence of wastewater
treatment;
Air pollution from incineration of household and agricultural waste and
heating methods during the winter season;
Poverty and financial problems.

Health indicators in Akkar show a lower incidence of chronic diseases (5,6%)


than the national average (11,6%) due to the young age structure of the
population: a large percentage of children and a relatively low share of elderly
(MoSA/UNDP, 2000). According to ADELNORD Project Cluster Profiles, the
most prevailing chronic diseases are: diabetes, blood pressure, cardiovascular
problems, asthma, neurological complications, and cancer, while health
practitioners in Akkar emphasized on the escalating cancer and drug problems.

The situation is reversed when it comes to the health of mothers and children.
Akkar exhibits the lowest rates of pre- and post-natal care in Lebanon, and the
highest rate (9%) of traditional birth attendants, despite the fact that traditional
birth is illegal in the country (Mouchref, 2008). Moreover, a study carried out
jointly by the MoPH and WHO in 2009 on complicated deliveries in Lebanon
revealed that the maternal death rate in the North is much higher than the
national average (16,1 versus 10,7), and the main causes of mortality were
bleeding and asepsis (MoPH/WHO/USJ, 2012).

Drinking water pollution is revealed in the assessment of outbreaks of diseases


primarily caused by contaminated water. Statistics of the MoPH between 1995
and 2000 reported a sharp increase in the number of cases of typhoid fever,
hepatitis A and dysentery in North Lebanon contrary to other Governorates.
In Bebnine alone, there are around 200 cases of typhoid annually (Mouchref,
2008).

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Furthermore, the July 2006 war and Nahr El-Bared unfortunate events affected
the general health conditions of Akkari citizens. Following these two events, the
number of people suffering from physical (temporary and permanent
disabilities) and psychological problems increased. Moreover, since July 2006,
an increase in psychological or health problems among students was reported
(Mouchref, 2008).

4.2 Healthcare facilities

Despite the presence of healthcare facilities (hospitals, dispensaries, private


clinics, pharmacies, ambulances) and health professionals (doctors, nurses,
and laboratory specialists), Akkar still suffers from healthcare services of low
quality due to:
Uneven geographical distribution of healthcare infrastructure;
Low specialization and inadequate medical equipment;
Insufficient pharmacies and medicines to meet demand;
Low level of first aid knowledge and awareness;
Absence of properly equipped medical laboratories;
Limited number of properly equipped ambulances.

4.2.1 Hospitals

Akkar has a total of four operational hospitals providing services for around
285,000 inhabitants; three of them are private and only one is governmental
(Error! Reference source not found.).

Even though hospitals are providing much better services over the past years
and obtained Canadian accreditations for rural hospitals, they are still
insufficient to serve the large population, underequipped, lacking emergency
services, and concentrated only in two locations (three in Halba and one in
Qobayat) which makes them difficult to access in the absence of proper road
infrastructure and an adequate number of operational and equipped
ambulances. Moreover, hospitals in Akkar offer a limited number of
specializations and the residents of Akkar are forced to seek better hospitals
outside the region, such as in Tripoli or Beirut, incurring the extra expenses that
go with such a costly decision. A public hospital is located in the village of Sir in
the Minieh-Donniyeh part of the study area.

As per the MoPH 2010 statistics, 70% of Akkari patients visit private hospitals
and 62% visit hospitals outside the Caza (MoPH/WHO/USJ, 2012).

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Despite the establishment of relief and medical units for Syrian refugees, such
as the Arc En Ciel relief unit in Wadi Khaled, the situation in Syria has
aggravated the healthcare services status in Akkar since the population has
increased, refugees are living in unsanitary condition, and injured Syrians are
being transferred to Akkars hospitals. In addition, Lebanese patients cannot
seek medical care in Syria as they used to, specifically in Homs hospital, as a
result of the situation. Also, the cost of other alternatives, such as going to Tripoli
or Beirut for specialized treatments, is much higher.

The closure of Al-Razi Hospital in Halba has further contributed to the shortage
in the number of hospital beds in the region. However, two new hospitals are
currently under construction: one in Hrar and the other in Borj El Arab. In
addition, a private hospital for the Secours Populaire is in its final licensing
stage and will be constructed in Halba, and a governmental hospital might be
constructed in Machta Hammoud.These facilities will help alleviate the
difficulties related to the geographical concentration of the current hospitals.

Map 7: Hospitals and medical laboratories in the study area

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4.2.2 Other healthcare related facilities

According to the MoPHs 2009 statistics, Akkar has 10 licensed medical


laboratories (Error! Reference source not found.) and 87 pharmacies.
According to the MoPH office in Halba, 52 dispensaries are found in the region,
only 17 of which in 33 locations are public (some of them serve wide areas like
Wadi Khaled or Sahel Akkar); however, the number of dispensaries currently
operational in the study area is much higher and new ones are being
established in areas where Syrian refugees are concentrated; three new
dispensaries have been recently established in Wadi Khaled. Map 7 below gives
an indicative overview of the geographical distribution of dispensaries showing
that the study area is well covered. Nevertheless, dispensaries and healthcare
centers do not meet basic requirements for offering healthcare services in terms
of buildings, insufficient staff, medical equipment, availability of medicines, and
limited working hours. According to the Caza Doctor, Dr. Chedid, Akkar Primary
Healthcare Centers are not effective, except for three private ones in Bebnine,
Akkar El Atiqa and Wadi Khaled.

Regarding emergency services, two Red Cross Emergency Medical Service


centers are located in Akkar, one in Halba and the other in Qobayat. Moreover,
the villages of the Minieh-Donniyeh caza included in the study area have one
medical laboratory and three dispensaries.

Concerning vaccination campaigns, the MoPH has the area covered through
vaccination campaigns in collaboration with healthcare centers, schools, and
even municipalities. For example, in 2010, 94% of Akkari children were covered
by the National Immunization for Polio (MoPH/WHO/USJ, 2012).

As a result of the shortage in healthcare services, the MoPH has launched a


National Strategy for Primary Healthcare, whereby contractual agreements
were made with a network of 130 primary healthcare centers (PHC) all over
Lebanon, most of them belonging to NGOs, for the provision at affordable
prices and without discrimination of immunization, essential drugs, cardiology,
pediatrics, reproductive health and oral health, as well as an important role in
school health, health education, nutrition, environmental health and water
control. Municipalities were then brought as a third partner in the agreement. In
2010, 8 PHC were established in Akkar, 6 of which belong to NGOs and 2 to
municipalities (MoPH/WHO/USJ, 2012). Currently, there are 16 PHCs in the
region, among which three are not operational. According to Akkars
Coordinator of PHCs, Mrs. Assad, the number of PHCs is considered low for
the region and a broader geographical coverage is needed.

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Map 8: Geographical distribution of dispensaries in the study area

In addition to the 16 PHCs and in response to maternal and child health


problems in Akkar, the MoPH collaborated with a national NGO (Al Makassed)
and implemented a pilot initiative in
Wadi Khaled, a remote area in Akkar
where 400 deliveries are expected
on a yearly basis. The project
consisted of providing certain Deaf-Muteness
26% Mental
maternal and health services at the Retardation
PHC level, such as 37%
education/awareness, antenatal and
Blindness
postnatal care, vaccination, free 6%
essential drugs, and normal
deliveries while directing cesarean Partial Paralysis
18% Paralysis
sections and high risk cases towards 13%
a hospital under the oversight of the
NGO (Ammar, 2003). A total of
15.000 pregnancies were followed Graph 8: Handicap cases in five clusters in Akkar
up over a period of 2 years (2008-
2009), with no maternal deaths observed in that period of time

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(MoPH/WHO/USJ, 2012). After its success, the same initiative will be


reproduced in other similarly underprivileged regions.

An assessment of handicap occurrence in five Akkari clusters (Beit Younes,


Fneideq, Hrar, Eastern and Western Wadi Khaled) showed the presence of 818
handicap distributed as shown in Graph 8 (CDR/ GFA-ELARD, 2012). An
alarming increase in abnormal births has been raised by several health
practitioners in Akkar.

Three specialized NGOs working with the disabled are located in Akkar: Arc En
Ciel (AEC), First Step Together Association (FISTA), and Akkar Center for
Healthcare and Social Development ( ).

AEC established a Rehabilitation Centre in Halba in 1996 and offers


physiotherapy, hydrotherapy, neurological, orthopedic, speech, and
psychomotor therapy services.

FISTA, located in Miniara, operates a Special Education Program focusing on


5-15 year-old children with disabilities such as cognitive impairments,
communication disorders, psychomotor difficulties, attention deficit disorders,
hyperactivity, behavioral and psycho-social problems.

Moreover, many international NGOs working in Akkar are providing mental


health care services; the majority of them were established after the Syrian crisis
focusing on refugees, but also providing services to the host population, while
some were already present in the region. For instance, International Medical
Corps (IMC) has been operating in Akkar since 2006 in various fields including
mental health and psychosocial education.

4.3 Insurance
coverage

Only 34% of the population in Akkar


is covered by health insurance plans,
the majority consisting of public
employees and army personnel. The
other 66% consisting of the poorest
population lack any form of health
insurance, while the national
average is 58% (Mouchref, 2008). Graph 9: Insurance Plan Coverage in Akkar
The agricultural workforce is not covered by any health insurance program
either.

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Out of the 34% covered by an insurance plan, 25,8% are covered by the public
sector insurance plan, mainly through the Army and the Cooperative of Civil
Servants; 7,1% are covered through the NSSF and only 0,7% have private
insurance (Mouchref, 2008) (Graph 9).

According to GlobeMed, a private company offering health care benefits


management solutions, there are 120 in force adherents in Akkar equally
divided between males and females. Graph 10 below shows that the age
distribution of GlobeMed adherents is much lower for persons above 61 years.

Graph 10: Distribution of GlobeMed adherents by age group

According to NSSF, 24.482 citizens in Akkar are covered by social security out
of which 68% are males and 32% are females. Graph 11 shows that persons
aged between 20 and 40 constitute the main portion of Akkar citizens covered
by NSSF.

Graph 11: Distribution of Akkar Citizens Enrolled in NSSF by Age Group

The detailed distribution of Akkar citizens enrolled in NSSF by gender,


occupation, and village is presented in Table 68 and Table 69.

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5 SECTOR 5: CULTURE, LEISURE AND


TOURISM

5.1 Importance of culture, leisure and


tourism for the study area

5.1.1 Culture and leisure

Both culture and leisure constitute elements inherent to the development of


societies. While culture incites communities to appreciate their heritage, respect
diversity and develop cultural and creative skills, leisure supports sport
development and encourages communities to embrace active lifestyles and
stay healthy.

Two reports ( (Mouchref A. , The Voice of Akkari Youth: Calling for a Better
Tomorrow, 2012) and (CRI, 2010)) addressing the situation of the district of
Akkar have established that:
There is a lack of entertainment and sports facilities and activities
(apart from adventurous outdoor activities such as hiking,
trekkingetc.); the available options for leisure are the Internet
cafs, playing cards, smoking water pipe and hanging out on the
streets (Mouchref A. , The Voice of Akkari Youth: Calling for a Better
Tomorrow, 2012);
There are 33 Associations and Clubs in the study area (13 in Halba,
10 in Minyara, 10 in Bkarzala), 3 public libraries, one IT center
(Halba), and a total absence of any kind of youth associations and
organizations (CRI, 2010)

In its report addressing the Akkari youth (Mouchref A. , The Voice of Akkari
Youth: Calling for a Better Tomorrow, 2012), MADA Association also underlined
the correlation between the lack of cultural and leisure activities and the
resulting negative impact on the Akkari youth22.

Implementing, financing, and promoting cultural and leisure opportunities and


activities in the study area are essential to the development of a healthy,
independent and respectful community.

22 This reports cites boredom, increase in smoking, risk of lapse into bad behavior, psychological
problems and depression, use of alcohol and drugs, and suicide as the main consequences
of the lack of cultural and leisure activities (Mouchref A. , The Voice of Akkari Youth: Calling
for a Better Tomorrow, 2012).

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5.1.2 Tourism and ecotourism

Tourism is considered as an activity essential to the life of nations because of


its direct effects on the social, cultural, educational, and economic sectors of
national societies and on their international relations. (UNWTO, 1995). More
specifically for Lebanon, tourism is an important, if not vital, sector of its
economy23: it accounts for around 10% of the Lebanese GDP24.Thanks to its
exceptional natural sites and remarkable geomorphology, Lebanon has
benefited in recent years from the fast growth of ecotourism. In 1990, The
International Ecotourism Society (TIES) defined ecotourism as a form of
"Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and
improves the well-being of local people" (TIES, 2012). The benefits of
ecotourism are multiple:
Minimize environmental impact;
Build environmental and cultural awareness and respect;
Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts;
Provide direct financial benefits for conservation;
Provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people;
Raise sensitivity to host countries political, environmental, and
social climate.

The study area, the administrative district of Akkar, including the forests of
Upper Hermel and Upper Donniyeh relevant to the future natural park to be
created, presents several important touristic sites (exceptional natural sites,
heritage, archaeology) constituting its identity and influencing its quality of life.
If exploited and managed in a sustainable way, these sites could promote
sustainable travel, advocate for conservation, trigger communities uniting, and
represent a considerable source of income for the inhabitants of one of the most
disadvantaged areas of the country25 (CDR/GFA/ELARD, 2013).

23 In fact, the Lebanese economy is service-oriented, with banking and tourism as its main growth
sectors. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/le.html on 2013-05-
13
24http://www.economist.com/blogs/pomegranate/2013/01/lebanon%E2%80%99s-tourists on
2013-05-13
25 The caza of Akkar is one of the poorest in Lebanon with a poverty indicator of 52.5%

(CDR/GFA/ELARD, 2013).

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5.2 Landscape assets in the study area

With its natural coastline dunes, its large agricultural plains, its numerous caves
and springs, the three main rivers of Nahr el Bared, Nahr el Ostwan, and Nahr
el Kabir el Janoubi, the picturesque villages of Halba and Qobaiyat, the high
valley of Nahr el Bared, the protected natural sites and forests of Bezbina,
Qammouaa, Karm Chbat, Wadi Jhanam and Sfineh26, the area of the future
natural park, and the private ecotourism site of Al-Jord, among others, the study
area possesses major landscape assets (refer to Table 84 for a survey of the
landscape assets in the study area). The three following natural sites can be
cited as examples of landscape assets:

Table 7: Detailed description of chosen natural sites in the study area

Locality Natural site


Qammouaa (protected natural site and forests) (Picture 1)
Qammouaa is an important protected natural area, rich in different forest types,
various exceptional landscapes and water resources. In winter the snow-
Akkar el covered peaks are particularly arresting and adequate for free skiing. Jabal
Aatiqa Qammouaa is a good place for picnicking, hiking and photography. About half
way across the flat-topped mountain there is a hill where three standing
structures can be seen, possibly the ruins of an old monastery. These past two
years, the Qammouaa region has witnessed intense deforestation.
Al Jord ecotourism project (Picture 4)
Located on a site of 150km2 at an average altitude of 2100m, several activities
can be carried on in Al Jord ecotourism project: hiking, cycling, walking with
donkeys, and paragliding. Depending on the hour of the hike, hikers will be
welcomed by local families. Today the site is capable of accommodating fifty
people. The site of Al Jord houses ancient junipers and cedars. Its landscape
Hermel is very diverse with mountains that change color throughout the day. Only 7%
of the forests that existed in the region remains. A full reforestation of the region
will require at least 20 years. The Al Jord project advocates finding alternatives
to logging, to develop reasoned agriculture and complete it with revenues
produced by low impact tourism. The site is equipped with a sustainable water
treatment facility that allows the reuse of water in agriculture. Al Jord project
sorts, recycles, and resells most of its solid wastes.
Wadi Jhanam (protected forests) (Picture 2 and Picture 3)
Characterized by the green spaces around it, Wadi Jhanam is an area rich in
flora where pines, oaks, Cilicia firs and junipers coexist. With its several small
Qmamine
caves, the region is also rich in water: in fact, Qmamine springs provide water
to five neighboring villages. Thanks to its breathtaking scenery, Wadi Jhanam
is a good place for picnicking, hiking and photography.

26 Sites protected by Decisions from the MoE, based on the law on natural sceneries and sites of
1939, Decree 9501 dated November 7, 1996 and Article 12 of Law 667 dated December 29, 1997
(natural sites of Qammouaa and Karm Chbat); and Sites protected by Decisions from the MoA
prior to 1996 law based on Law 558, dated July 24, 1996 (coniferous woods and forests of
Bezbina, Qammouaa, Karm Chbat, Wadi Jhanam and Sfineh).

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Map 9: Location of landscape assets in the study area27

The area is also considered a natural haven for local birds and a shelter for
migratory birds and is also home to a variety of vegetation, especially medicinal
and aromatic herbs traditionally collected by women for use in cooking,
cosmetics and for traditional medication (refer to Sector 9 for a more detailed
study on the available biodiversity and ecosystems).

27 For Error! Reference source not found., Map 10, and Error! Reference source not found.,
please note that 1) not all the villages have been surveyed yet; 2) this map will have to be
updated gradually as the villages/localities are surveyed; 3) at the end of the survey process,
this map will give an accurate image of the extent of the cultural assets/leisure facilities
coverage in the study area.

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Picture 1: Natural and heritage sites along the Qobaiyat Tarsheaa section of the Lebanon Mountain
Trail in the study area
Source: www.lebanontrail.org

Picture 2: Natural sites along the Tasheaa Qmamine section of the Lebanon Mountain Trail in the
study area

Picture 3: Natural sites along the Qmamine Kfar Bebnine section of the Lebanon Mountain Trail in
the study area

Picture 4: Al-Jord Ecotourism project


Source: www.aljord.org

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To preserve this natural wealth28, the NPMPLT recommends the


implementation of strict rules on construction heights, materials, construction
development, since bad construction wrongly implemented or located can
deteriorate a whole landscape (Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) - IAURIF,
2005).

Furthermore, quarry activities should be avoided to preserve the integrity of


landscapes.

Also, municipalities should promote their region through valorization actions:


plantations, organization of site visits, advertisement billboards, etc. (Dar Al-
Handasah (Shair & Partners) - IAURIF, 2005), and implement and enforce
regulations aiming at preserving the picturesque character of their villages.

Moreover, the valuable natural sites should be protected through the


implementation of legal instruments, the identification of a restricted perimeter
including the natural site itself and the valorization of the site in a larger
perimeter thus banning all nearby construction, especially industrial
establishments, high-tension electricity pylons and all polluting activities. The
NPMPLT suggests that the access to these sites must be executed with natural
material like sand or stone, to avoid damaging the natural set up (Dar Al-
Handasah (Shair & Partners) - IAURIF, 2005). Besides, the competent
authorities should decree adapted rules of construction and management []
in order to preserve the scenery and reduce negative impacts of expected
constructions, installations and facilities that may, if introduced, obstruct vision
of these sites (Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) - IAURIF, 2005).

Finally, with its natural dunes, Akkars maritime faade represents one of
Lebanons last sections of the natural coast still undisturbed by human activities
and intervention (Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) - IAURIF, 2005). Thus,
the NPMPLT encourages the promotion of this natural shoreline of high
ecological and landscape value not only for tourist development, but also for
the quality of life in coastal cities (Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) - IAURIF,
2005); such promotion should be carried out through EIA studies and under the
monitoring of the MoE and other relevant authorities.

28 Especially threatened by excessive quarrying, over-grazing, cultivation, hunting, deforestation,


groundwater table pollution, and the encroachment of construction projects into wooded areas

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5.3 Heritage assets in the study area

With its numerous religious places of worship, its citadels, its old bridges, its
historical buildings and structures, its various monuments, and the various
national heritage sites of the Tell in Aarqa (Picture 6), the Akkar Fortress in
Akkar el Aatiqa (Picture 5), the Roman Temples in Akroum and Sfireh (Picture
9), and the Roman Temple and Crusader Remains in Monjez (Picture 8), the
study area possesses a rich heritage (refer to Map 10), either archaeological or
recent, that can play an essential role in the tourist economy and in contributing
to the history and identity of the study area in particular but also of the country
in a broader context (refer to Table 84 for a survey of the heritage assets in the
study area).

Picture 5: Aakar al-Aatiqa: Akkars fortress


Source: Carole Atallah

Source: Forteresses dOrient http://www.orient-latin.com

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Lion frieze, signature of the Sultan Babars

Picture 6: Aarqa: the archaeological Tell, conservation of stratigraphy and excavations


Source: Forteresses dOrient http://www.orient-latin.com

Medieval wall

Medieval cistern

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Source: Carole Atallah

Picture 7: Akroum: Panorama towards Syria (left) and remains of the Roman Temples (right)
Source: Carole Atallah (left) ; www.ikamalebanon.com (right)

Picture 8: Monjez: remains of Al-Feliz Citadel


Source: Forteresses dOrient http://www.orient-latin.com

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Picture 9: Sfireh: Roman Temples (left) and panorama towards the coast and Akkar plain (right)
Source: Carole Atallah

Map 10: Location of national and heritage assets in the study area

The ten following national sites can be cited as examples of heritage assets:

Table 8: Detailed description of chosen heritage sites in the study area

Locality National heritage site


Archaeological Tell
Aarqa is an archaeological site that goes back to the Neolithic Period. The ancient
town of Aarqa played an important role in the area's history, and its name appears
Aarqa many times in the Bible, in Egyptian texts of the second millennium B.C., and in
Assyrian texts of the 1st millennium B.C. In Roman times, it was called Caesarea
of Lebanon and the Roman Emperor Alexander Severus (222-235 A.D.) was born
there. In 1108, the Crusaders took control of the strategic castle from the Banu

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Locality National heritage site


Ammar, but the Mamluke Sultan Baibars captured it in 1266. Archaeological
surveys and excavations begun in the 1970's, along with surveys in its
surroundings, and have revealed since then numerous important structures
representing almost every occupation level of the site from the Early Bronze Age
to the Mamluke period. Most of the roman remains are not located on the Tell, but
in the plain surrounding the Tell, and where revealed by accidental discoveries.
The Tell and its surrounding land are the property of the Directorate General of
Antiquities (DGA). Recent works (in 2010 unpublished) have uncovered a tomb
located in Hakour (facing the Tell to the South). The DGA has recently proposed a
project to establish a Museum in Tell Aarqa and to rehabilitate the Tell by the same.
However, the required budget of 772.000 USD, has not yet been allocated to the
DGA.
Akkars Fortress
Probably built in the late 10th century A.D. by Mouhriz Ibn Akkar, the fortress was
taken by the Crusaders in the 12th century and re-conquered in 1271 by the
Mamluke Sultan Babars. Although the fortress is in ruins, two courts separated by
Akkar el
a sort of ditch and surrounded by five rectangular towers are recognizable. The
Aatiqa
higher court contains a vaulted cistern. The main tower at the southern end, which
is still in fairly good condition, is decorated with a frieze of lions carved during
restoration work carried out by Sultan Babars. From here, there is also a splendid
view of the surrounding area.
Three Roman Temples
Akroum is the name of a mountain with many villages on its slopes, one of which
is also called Akroum. Almost all of these villages contain remnants from the
antiquity. Ancient tombs made of stone slabs or carved into cliffs can be seen, as
well as the remains of churches. In and around Akroum village itself, you will find
a Roman temple, a large Byzantine church dedicated to Mar Shamshoum al-
Jabbar (Saint Samson the Strong) and numerous cisterns. Two interesting parallel
structures can be seen at a place called Jabal al-Hussein. The most preserved is
a temple on the north of the site whose cellar is divided by a large arch. During the
Byzantine era, this west-facing monument was transformed into a church. Nearby
are the ruins of another temple, larger in size, but with only enough elements
Akroum
remaining to identify its basic plan. Fragments of cornices, Corinthian capitals and
huge millstones are scattered in and around the structure. In the little valley known
as Wadi as-Saba, or Valley of the Lion, are two steles that appear to go back to
Neo-Babylonian times. The first represents a figure wearing a tiara. Facing right,
he is being attacked by a lion standing on its rear legs. The hunter, probably royal,
is seizing the lion by the neck with his left hand while his right hand holds a dagger.
Sixty meters above the stele of the lion, at a place known as "Shir as-Sanam" or
Cliff of the Statue, is another rock-carved stele in the shape of a cone. The bas-
relief shows a king facing right, holding an unidentified object in his right hand and
a scepter in his left. Above the king, who wears a tiara, are the symbols of divinity:
the seven-pointed stars of Ishtar and the crescent moon of sin.
Qalaat el-Borj
At 600m above sea level, overlooking Nahr el-Kabir, Qalaat el-Borj shows
remnants of a castle and a village centre located on the hillside south of the castle.
Amayer The castle consisted of a dungeon flanked with quadrangular corner towers. A
surrounding wall included, mainly in the south, housings clustered around a chapel,
of which the apse is still visible among the ruins. In the chapel, the use of limestone
is embellished in some places with basalt. For lack of thorough researches, it is

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Locality National heritage site


likely that this site corresponds to the castle of Mlechin or Lacum of the
Crusaders, whose existence is limited to the Middle Ages. However, it is not clear
if the first builders were Arabs and if the Mamlukes continued to occupy it.
Necropolis
The Necropolis of Sheikh Zenad is located some 150m from the village itself. The
excavation of the Necropolis started in 1924. It revealed some 26 rock-cut tombs.
Cheikh
The artifacts that were found in the sarcophagi are now exhibited in the National
Zennad
Museum of Beirut. One of them, a Rhyton (drinking horn in the shape of a pork
head) is dated from the 5th century B.C., and is considered a very precious find,
since very few examples are attested in this region
Halbas Citadel
A castle is mentioned in Halba in 1266, when the Sultan Baybars proclaimed
Halba himself the master of the city. The investigation of the site suggests the position of
this castle on the spur overlooking the present city, on the location of the former
Ottoman seraglio.
Borj Tybo Medieval Tower
Quoted in a treaty between the Sultan Qalaoun and the Templars in 1282, this
Majdel tower, located at the meeting point between two valleys, east of Majdel, played a
strategical military role during that period. Scattered basaltic and limestone rubble
are the only remains that can be seen on the site.
Roman Temple
At Beit Jaalouk lies the remains of a Roman Temple built with basalt stones from
Akkar, an unusual material construction in Lebanon. This little temple was erected
in stages starting in the first century A.D., and was later made into a church in
Byzantine times. These remains, restored by the DGA, have some dedications in
Greek letters. One of them, a statue base measuring 110cm x 67cm, was
dedicated in 262 A.D. by the priest Drusus to Nemesis who was considered the
goddess of cosmic destiny. A wheel of fortune is etched into the rock below the
name of the goddess. In the valley below the temple is the Monjez River.

North of the temple towards the river, you can see the old Roman canalization with
Monjez
its 5 meters-high supporting walls. This water course winds its way for some
distance both east and west of the temple and makes an interesting hike.

The town of Monjez is the site of the monastery of Our Lady of the Fortress, located
at the end of a long stone paved road. Built in 1890, the structure stands near the
remains of a Crusader castle where cisterns and tombs may also be found.

Al-Feliz Citadel
Built on a rocky spur above Nahr al Kebir, basaltic and limestone facings are
disseminated on the location of the medieval construction.
Qlayaat Citadel
Located 2km from the shore, on a slight natural relief, Qlayaat Citadel comes in
the shape of a quadrilateral (63m to 56m), protected by four corner towers and
flanked by oblong towers arranged in the middle of each side. A 10m-wide ditch is
Qlayaat
cut in the rock surrounding the site. This pattern is similar in all respects to the
entrenched camp of el-Machriffe and to the Syrian Arab fortress of Salamiye (150m
to 150m), built according to the antique model, still in use during the Byzantine,
Umayyad and Fatimid eras. The tower of the north-east corner, with its 2.20m-thick

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Locality National heritage site


walls, and photographed by the French army in the 1930s, dominates all the
others. Was it the dungeon? To the south, remains of huge silos and barns can be
observed, while it is supposed that cells of the monk-soldiers were aligned to the
north.
Silk Plant
One hundred years ago, Qobaiyat was a silk-rich community. Two vestiges of
these days still exist: the abandoned silk reeling factory and the mansion of the
Daher family. This patrimonial house has an ornate portal with relief carvings of
Qobaiyat stylized lions which were borrowed from a Mamluke monument in the region,
probably Akkar el Aatiqa. Near the silk factory, an Italian style church and school
dedicated to St. George can be found. Outside the village, Mar Challita, an old
church that was built from Roman temple elements, has been recently
reconstructed.
Roman Temples
The village of Sfireh is located 35 km East of Tripoli. In the village itself remains
the podium of a Temple. The main site is at an altitude of 1200m where we can
see the remains of three structures: two temples parallel one to the other (Temple
A and Temple B) and a third monument traditionally identified as a third temple
(Temple C). A smaller sanctuary is located on a promontory. Temple A is one of
the best preserved Temples in Lebanon. A Greek inscription located on its North
Sfireh Wall informs us that this wing was built during the 3 rd c. A.D. Temple B, of which
only remain the foundations, lies at some 3m to the North of Temple A. We can
see inside of this Temple an altar decorated with a radiated head, the God Helios.
During the Byzantine period, a church was built on the site of this temple.
Perpendicular to Temples A and B, we can see the remains of an open
construction. An inscription engraved on the doors lintel notifies us that it was
dedicated to the Kyria (the Mistress), that probably designates the Syrian
goddess Atargatis.

To preserve this valuable heritage, the NPMPLT identifies two types of sites:
the classified sites, enlisted by the MoC/DGA, and the non-classified sites (refer
to Table 71 for an exhaustive list of the heritage sites classified by decree
published in the Official Journal). In order to safeguard and bring out this wealth
and its related memories (Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) - IAURIF, 2005),
the NPMPLT underlines the necessity to identify protection perimeters around
these heritage sites and to implement legal and technical valorization
instruments adapted to the situation of every site.

The NPMPLT recommended heights and density regulations for construction,


quarries and industrial sites in and around distinguished sites are listed in Table
72.

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5.4 Tourism-related services in the study


area

In April 2013, the MoT registered 101.898 tourists29 (17,58% less than in April
2012) distributed according to the origins shown in Graph 12. The same
document reveals that 1.365.845 tourists were registered in Lebanon for the
whole year 2012. It was however not possible to obtain official numbers of
tourists visiting the study area.
4% 0,07%

5%
Africa
14%
America
Arab countries
36%
Asia
Europe
Oceania
32% Other

9%

Graph 12: Geographical origins of tourists in Lebanon (April 2013)


Source: (MoT, 2013)

The NPMPLT issued several national recommendations encouraging the MoT


to (Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) - IAURIF, 2005):
Cooperate with the MoPWT and municipalities to improve the road
network and tourism signage system all over the country;
Conceive, with the help of tour-operators, tourist products (tours,
organized trips, etc.) and promote them to potential clienteles;
Establish a policy of classifying rural dwellings and promote
seasonal renting;
Allocate a privileged attention to cultural tourism, rural tourism and
eco-tourism, which are more attractive practices these days and
need less promotion efforts than other forms of tourism (luxury
tourism);
Contribute to the reinstatement of seaside tourism, and support
appropriate free public beach sites for mass tourism.

29http://www.mot.gov.lb/Content/uploads/Publication/130704014242742~TOTAL%20ARRIVALS

%20FIX%202012-%202013.pdf on 2013-11-20

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The study area proposes various arts and crafts facilities, restaurants and
accommodations (refer to Table 9) throughout its territory (refer to Table 73 for
a survey of the available services in the study area), along with three sections
of the Lebanon Mountain Trail (LMT) both representing a route of 50,6 km (refer
to Error! Reference source not found.).

Table 9: Detailed list of accommodations in the study area

Locality Hotels and lodges Number of rooms

Aarqa Jannat Aarqa Hotel


Akkar el
Ghassan Hanna Lodge
Aatiqa
Couvent des Surs Lazaristes 6 rooms, capacity: 2 guests
Tel: +961 6 351 535, +961 3 416 906 1 room, capacity: 4 guests
Qobaiyat Country Club
Tel: +961 6 351 111
Qobaiyat Motel 8 fully equipped apartments, capacity:
Tel: +961 6 350 636, +961 3 746226 4 guests
Graneroverde Resort 4 standard chalets, capacity: 2 guests
Qobaiyat
Tel: +961 70 473 347, +961 3 213 201 1 duplex chalet, capacity: 4 guests
Bernadette Iskandar Guesthouse
Tel: +961 6 350 213, +961 6 318 937
Jabalna Ecolodge 5 bungalows, capacity: 3 to 4 guests
Tel: +961 3 542935 1 bungalow, capacity: 7 guests
Father Michel Abboud
Tel: +961 70 108 692
Motel El Sayad
Beino 8 bungalows, capacity: 4 guests
Tel: +961 3 899 612, +961 3 755 697
Dahr
Gracias
Layssineh
Al Jord ecolodge Welcoming personal tents and already
Tel: +961 3 458 702 placed Bedouin goat hair tents
Hermel Abu Nidal ecolodge
Tel: +961 70 745 907, +961 70 643 3 rooms, capacity: 10 guests
620
Flor do Campo
Tel: +961 70 416 009
5 rooms, capacity: 2 guests
Jebrayel Tel: +9616 840 555
5 rooms, capacity: 4 guests
contact@hotelflordocampo.com
bachar_abdallah@hotmail.com
Kfar Abdel Hamid Saade
4 rooms, capacity: 4 guests
Bebnine Tel: +961 70 512613
Monastery of our Lady of Peace
Memneaa
Tel: +961 6 252 525
Mishmish Hotel
Mishmish 5 rooms, capacity: 2 guests
Tel: +961 3 335 538
Hussein Abou Draa Guesthouse
Qmamine Accommodates 20 guests
Tel: +961 3 817 312
Sir ed Lazzab Lodge
8 rooms, capacity: 4 guests
Donniyeh Tel: +961 3 797 569, +961 71 146 915

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Locality Hotels and lodges Number of rooms


Sir Palace
24 rooms, capacity: 3 to 4 guests
Tel: +961 6 490 202, +961 6 490 407
Abou Marwan Guesthouse
2 rooms, capacity: 7 guests
Tel: +961 6 895 661
Tasheaa
Deir Mar Jerjes, Father Salloum
2 large rooms, capacity: 14 guests
Tel: +961 3 810355

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Map 11: Location of hotels, restaurants, museum, and the LMT route in the study area

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6 SECTOR 6: AGRICULTURE

6.1 Prevailing agricultural activities in


Akkar

Akkar is a major agricultural region of Lebanon. The mohafaza (governorate)


has many assets that make of it the second major area of production after the
Bekaa valley. The Akkar is one of the most productive agricultural regions of the
country, mainly in its lower plain. Its agricultural potential lies in the fertility of
the soil and the gentle slopes, mainly along the coastal zone. In addition, several
permanent streams and water springs ensure sources of water for irrigation.
The diversity of the cropping pattern is the resultant of the diversity of agro-
climatic zones.

Akkar can be divided into four agro-climatic zones:


The fertile coastal plain up to 200m: Close to the northern border with Syria lies
the Akkar plain. It hosts a wide range of irrigated agriculture crops, including
potato, cereals, citrus, grapevine and vegetables in open field or in
greenhouses. Animal production is gaining importance especially in mixed
farming system where dairy is coupled to plant production. Boqayaa plain which
is on the northeastern border with Syria is cultivated with cereals, vegetables
and irrigated fruit trees. Fishing activities are recorded in Aabdeh and Aarida.

The foot hills of the up to 1000m: Rainfed cultivation of olive trees, almond,
grapevine and cereals are common. Poultry farms are widespread and goats
are raised. The natural ecosystems include scrublands, oak coppices and pine
forests, where grazing, charcoal production and medicinal plant collection are
practiced.

The middle altitude zone between 1000m and 2000m: The abundance of water
springs in this zone enables the cultivation of irrigated fruit orchards on
agriculture terraces between Fneideq and Qobayat. Apple, pear, and peach are
the dominant crops. Summer vegetables and other fruit trees are of second
importance. Animal husbandry is traditional and on small scale in general.
Natural ecosystems include diverse and unique forest ecosystems combining
oaks, pines, cedar, fir, and junipers. These are natural pathway for small
ruminants towards the summer pastures of the higher altitudes.

The higher altitude zone, above 2000m: Herbaceous ecosystem dominates


Qalaat Aarouba. Following snow melt, it constitutes summer pastures for small
ruminants.

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The FAO study on Agricultural Homogenous Zones classified Akkar into four
major zones (Error! Reference source not found.), accounting agro-climatic
conditions, farming systems, and sub-regional characteristics:
the fertile plain which is rich in water and has diversified field crops: Al
Sahel.
the middle plateau convenient for non-irrigated crops, woodlands and
pastures: Middle Dreib, Qayteh and Joumeh lower parts, and Shafat.
the mountainous part dominated by irrigated fruit trees cultivation and
forests: Qayteh, Joumeh and Dreib upper parts.
the northeastern part which is a mosaic of predominant non-irrigated
crops, forests and rangeland: Boqayaa, Akroum and Wadi Khaled.

Farming systems are characterized by the prevalence of traditional cropping


patterns, and marked by the fragmentation of agricultural exploitations.

Mixed farming systems, organic farming, conservation agriculture, agro-forestry


are set off thanks to private initiatives and activities of several international
organizations, academia and research institutes (FAO, GIZ, UNDP, USAID,
AUB and LARI).

Akkar total area is estimated to 81.000 ha (Agriculture Homogeneous zones,


FAO,). According to the MoA 2010 Agriculture Census, the total agricultural
surface area in Akkar is 43.361 ha. The distribution of arable land per Mohafaza
shows that Akkar ranked third in 2010. It is worth mentioning that the arable
lands in Akkar represent 60% of the total arable lands of North Lebanon.
Nevertheless, only 17% of these are cultivated (MoA, 2010).

Cropland in Akkar includes:


Arable land: 35.352 ha
Fallow land (abandoned for more than 5 years): 2.477 ha
Uncultivated land: 4.133 ha
Crops under protective cover: 1.100 ha
Others: 278 ha

Irrigated area is estimated to 15.649 ha (44% of the cultivated area), out of


which 75% are completely irrigated, and 25% benefit from complementary
irrigation. Surface irrigation is predominant and only 19% of irrigated area rely
on sprinkler or drip irrigation systems.

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Nabatiyeh, South, 11%


North 11%
Lebanon, 10%
Baalback-
Hermel, 25%
Akkar, 16%

Mount-
Lebanon, 9% Bekaa, 18%

Graph 13: Distribution of arable lands by mohafaza (%)


Source: MoA, 2010 Bekaa Mount-Lebanon Akkar North Lebanon
South Baalback-Hermel Nabatiyeh

From an economic point of view, agriculture is the second sector in employment,


ensuring a major source of income for 30% of households (UN, 2011).
Agriculture employs respectively 21,9% and 27,3% of the male and female labor
force. In the plain, agriculture accounts for 46,6 % of family income compared
to 28,3% in Middle Dreib (Mouchref, 2008). According to MoA 2010 statistics,
there are 28,120 holders in Akkar out of which 93% are males; moreover around
half of the holders are aged between 35 and 54. The distribution of holders per
Mohafaza shows that Akkar has the second highest share (17%) after Mount-
Lebanon (18%).

South, 13%
Nabatiyeh, 16%

Baalback-Hermel, 13%
North Lebanon, 16%
Bekaa, 7%

Akkar, 17% Mount-Lebanon, 18%

Graph 14: Distribution of holders by mohafaza (%)


South Source: MoA, 2010Bekaa
Baalback-Hermel Mount-Lebanon Akkar North Lebanon Nabatiyeh

Labor force consists mainly of family workers, with 15.878 permanent versus
55.076 seasonal family workers (MoA, 2010). The average number of family
members working in agriculture (including holders) in Akkar is 5 per exploitation,
registering the highest national average in 2010 (MoA, 2010). Permanent paid
labor force accounts for 5.501 workers distributed over 1.998 holders; thus
around 2,8 workers per exploitation (second highest average in the country after
Bekaa: 3,2 workers). Seasonal paid labor force is assessed by man-days, the
total number of man-days being 1.375.277 distributed over 22.095 holders in

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Akkar; thus around 62 working days per exploitation (third highest average in
the country after 80 days in the Bekaa and 66 in Baalback-Hermel) (MoA, 2010).

Families relying on the exploitation of natural resources (i.e. charcoal


production, collection of medicinal and aromatic plants, etc.) for their livelihood
are not assessed. It is worth citing that these constitute an important group,
especially in Qayteh area.

6.2 Major cropping prevailing patterns

Cereals:
Cereals include essentially wheat and barley as rainfed winter crops and to a
lesser extent corn as a summer crop. The latter is irrigated, and is increasingly
planted as a forage crop or as sweet corn for fresh consumption. Cereals are
mostly planted in the coastal plain, in Boqaaya plain, and to a lesser extent on
the gentle slopes of the middle plateau (Midde Dreib), Akroum area and
Qammoua plain. In some cases, cereals benefit from complementary irrigation
and are planted in crop rotations with irrigated crops such as potato and onion,
rarely with sesame seed or forage legumes (vetch, alfa-alfa). The surface of the
exploitation is relatively higher for these crops, and harvesting is mechanized.
Nevertheless, whenever irrigation is ensured, the farmers tend to shift to other
higher yielding crops. Wheat is subsidized and sold to the Government, while
barley and corn are locally sold to animal production farms.

Wheat and barley as well as corn are also planted in scattered rainfed patches
in the upper Hermel and Donniyeh, sometimes in systems combining forestry
and animal production, with no significant economic importance.

Table 10: Cultivated cereals in Akkar (total and major crops)

% Coverage between Rank between


CROP Cultivated Surface (ha)
7 Mohafazas 7 Mohafazas
TOTAL CEREALS 8,985 20% 3

Wheat 6,565 22% 2

Sweet Corn 1,053 64% 1

Corn (as forage crop) 741 37% 2

Barley 641 6% 3

Table 11: Cultivated forage crops in Akkar (total and major crops)

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% Coverage Rank
CROP Cultivated Surface (ha) between 7 between 7
Mohafazas Mohafazas
TOTAL FORAGE CROPS 308 19% 2

Vetche 152 26% 2

Alfa-alfa 124 15% 2


Source: MoA, 2010

Vegetables:
Akkar is a major producing area for vegetables at a national scale covering
26.602 ha (MoA, 2010). Potato is the major winter crop (3.005 ha) (FAO/MOA,
2006), with 30% of the countrys total production. Tomato is produced in all
regions, mostly under greenhouses on the coastal plain. Cucumber, squash,
bell pepper, eggplant and beans are planted mostly in greenhouses, while
onion, carrot, watermelon, fava bean, peanuts, and all leafy vegetables are
planted as field crops.

Table 12: Cultivated vegetables in Akkar (total and major crops)

% Coverage Rank
CROP Cultivated Surface (ha) between 7 between 7
Mohafazas Mohafazas
TOTAL VEGETABLES 26.602 23% 2

Green beans 829 27% 2

Chickpeas 546 19% 3

Broad Beans 387 24% 2

Peas 146 14% 2

Lettuce 259 10% 2

Spinach 250 66% 1

Cabbage 212 19% 2

Cauliflower 145 19% 2

Molokhia 115 46% 1

Tomato 789 18% 2

Cucumber 543 13% 2

Eggplant 788 38% 2

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% Coverage Rank
CROP Cultivated Surface (ha) between 7 between 7
Mohafazas Mohafazas
Squash and Zucchini 502 35% 1

Potato 3,005 27% 2

Onions 529 14% 3

Radish 142 48% 1

Carrots 35 12% 2

Parsley 586 53% 1

Thyme 53 29% 1

Mint 5,7 33% 1


Source: MoA, 2010

All vegetable crops are irrigated; nevertheless, water quality and quantity are
both deteriorating. Most of the production is concentrated in the plain, however
summer vegetables (mainly tomato) in some areas (upper Joumeh mainly) are
getting importance. Potato is usually planted in relatively big holdings while
other vegetables dominate small exploitations. Products are sold at the gross
markets of Tripoli and Beirut. Only quality products (i.e., organic products) and
industrial crops (potato, sesame) are sold to niche markets. Conversely, other
renowned products of geographical origins are lost (e.g., the onions of Chadra).

Summer vegetables includingpotato, tomato and leafy vegetables are widely


planted in Marjhin plain in upper Hermel, and in Mrebbine in Upper Donniyeh.
These products benefit from higher prices due to their quality and late arrival on
the market.

Irrigated pome and stone fruits:


Apple, pear (pome fruits) and cherry are cultivated on the terraces of the
mountainous part of Akkar (Upper Joumeh, Jord el Qayteh), while peach,
plum, and apricot (stone fruits) are planted mainly in the Joumeh area. Stone
fruits relative importance is still low, except for almonds, while pome fruits
although important for Akkar, are less significant at the national scale (1.859 ha)
(MoA, 2010). These crops suffer from serious problems resulting in lower yields,
lower quality and higher cost of production. Although these crops are irrigated,
pressure on water demand for domestic use is hindering the development of
these crops. Exploitations are small and fragmented. Product marketing is
similar to vegetables.

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Almond covers 1.246 ha (MoA, 2010), and is planted in the middle part of Akkar
as a rainfed crop (mainly Joumeh and Qayteh). The trend in surface is
regressing because of a virulent phytoplasma affecting the trees. Almonds are
sold green and semi-green on the gross markets of Tripoli, Nahr Ibrahim and
Beirut, whereas dried almonds are sold to specific industries (pastry and
roastery shops).
Table 13: Cultivated pome and stone fFruits in Akkar (total and major crops)

% Coverage Rank
POME AND STONE FRUITS Cultivated Surface (ha) between 7 between 7
Mohafazas Mohafazas
Pome Fruits 1,859 13% 2

Red Apples 1,251 17% 3

Green and Yellow Apples 405 8% 5

Pears 163 9% 4

Stone Fruits 1,737 8% 4

Almonds 1,248 23% 2

Cherry 62 1% 5

Apricots 45 1% 4
Source: MoA, 2010

Apple and cherry are both planted in irrigated plots of Upper Hermel and
Donniyeh, while apricot is planted on a non-economic scale. These products
benefit from higher prices due to their quality and late harvesting.

Olive:
This crop is predominant in the middle part of Akkar and Wadi Khaled/Akroum
area, where water is not available for irrigation. Olive orchards cover some
9.656 ha and constitute 18% of the total national cultivated surface (MoA, 2010).
Sometimes, it is alternated with other non-irrigated crops such as almond, fig,
grape and carob. Olive cultivation has been increasing in surface at the expense
of other crops (i.e. almond, pomegranate, cereals and grapes), since it is not a
time-consuming and input-requiring crop. Exploitations are small and
fragmented. Olives are mainly pressed and marketed as olive oil. The
production is either for domestic consumption or directly sold to consumers.
Stagnating olive national market is mainly due to an increasing competition from
imported oil (Syria, Tunisia) and the absence of a marketing strategy which
would define the appropriate packaging type and volume, awareness campaign
promoting olive oil benefits and uses, quality control, certification and

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traceability. Yet, emerging niche products with higher oil quality (extra virgin;
organic) are sold in Beirut and sometimes exported.

Seasonal Industrial Crops:


The two major seasonal industrial crops are tobacco and peanut. Peanuts are
cultivated over 376 ha covering 95% of the national production (MoA, 2010).

Tobacco is cultivated over 1.418 ha and constitutes 18% of the national


cultivated areas, ranking 2nd between the 7 Mohafazas (MoA, 2010). It is
subsidized by the Government, which buys the product from farmers at a
predefined - price. Currently it is more likely to be planted and sold directly on
the market for specific markets (Syrian workers).

Tobacco is planted in some patches in Upper Hermel. Nevertheless, it is widely


replaced by cannabis illicit plantations, which are better performing under the
existing environmental conditions.

Citrus crops:
Citrus crops that are cultivated on a commercial scale include mainly orange
and lemon and to a lesser extent Clementine/Mandarine, and cover 1,339 ha
(MoA, 2010). Valencia oranges are also widely cultivated in the region, a
summer crop cultivated mid-May with profitable revenues to farmers. The Akkar
plain constitutes the second area of production in the country. Citrus is marketed
fresh along with other fruits in the gross markets of Tripoli, Nahr Ibrahim and
Beirut. Export is limited.
Table 14: Cultivated citrus trees in Akkar (total and major crops)

% Coverage
Rank between 7
CROP Cultivated Surface (ha) between 7
Mohafazas
Mohafazas
Citrus 1.399 14% 2

Orange 883 16% 2

Mandarin 90 20% 2

Lemon 175 6% 3

Grapefruit 24 9% 3
Source: MoA, 2010

Grapevine:
Grapevine covers some 894 ha (MoA, 2010) in Akkar, mostly in the plain where
table grapes are produced. These have a comparative advantage of arriving

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early on the market and cover an area of 679 ha in Akkar (MoA, 2010). Wine
grape, covering 214 ha (MoA, 2010), production is marginal and localized. Like
other fruits, grapes are sold mostly on gross markets, rarely exported.

Livestock production:
Cattle raising is a key sector to provide families that already work in other fields
of agriculture with additional revenues. Modern dairy farms are getting
importance as well, especially within mixed exploitations as farmers tend to
plant fodder crops for their own exploitation (vetch, corn, alfafa, barley). Cattle
(15.388heads, including dairy cows) contribute to 14% of the national livestock,
while goat and sheep (49.212 and 26.535 heads respectively) are of minor
importance at the national level (MoA, 2010). Akkar is the major producing area
of dairy cow milk, although 80% is produced by small exploitations with 5 cows
or less.Recently, seven (7) livestock farms holding 237 heads have stopped
working due to smallpox outbreaks.

Small ruminants follow traditional animal husbandry, relying on natural pastures


and rangeland for most of the vegetation season. Transhumance of herds is
sometimes practiced between lower and higher altitudes. Conflicts between
shepherds and other stakeholders implicated in natural ecosystems are noticed
(namely in Upper Akkar, in the area concerned with the natural park). Milk is
directly sold on the local market, and to a lesser extent through milk distribution
systems to big dairy farms outside the region.

Upper Donniyeh and Hermel sustain summer pastures for small ruminants
(goats and sheep) coming from lower altitudes (Bekaa valley, Menieh, Zgharta
regions). These activities could be subject to regulation, management or
limitation within the future natural park.

Poultry:
Akkar is one of the most important producing areas for broilers in Lebanon, with
a farm capacity of 1.625.000 birds (MoA, 2010). Most of the farms are located
in the middle part of Akkar, namely in Middle Dreib. Farm capacity for laying
hens is 722.000 birds (MoA, 2010); however, egg production is a family activity
for self-consumption widely distributed in the villages. Around 50% of farmers
have contracts with broiler production companies (mostly Hawa Chicken) that
insure all farm inputs, and take all the production (CDR/EU/ELARD, GFA. 2011-
2012) while the rest have established their own market (such as Raad,
etc.).Recently, this farming contract system was shut down as provision and
marketing are facing difficulties related to the security problems in Tripoli. Some
of the farms are being rent and rehabilitated as collective centers to Syrian
refugees by relief agencies (UNHCR).

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Fishery:
There are 4 fishing seaports in Akkar (Arida, Cheikh Zennad, Hay el Bahr and
Abdeh) with fish halls (Auction). The fleet includes 320 boats serving 1.000
fishermen out of which 90% are from Bebnine (ELARD/GFA, 2013). FAO cites
the presence of one saltwater aquaculture facility for shrimp production near
Abdeh while Akkar MoA office mentions the presence of few prawn, trout,
catfish, and carp aquaculture facilities exist along the different rivers of Akkar
and in the plain of Marjhin in Hermel.
Table 15: Aquaculture in Akkar

Aquaculture
Trout Carp Catfish Prawn
Type
Wadi Khaled
Beit Younes
Plain - Cheikh
Qabaait Meshmesh
Location Debbebieh Ayash Akkar Plain
Debbebieh
Aboudieh -
Fneideq - Qatlbeh
Debbebieh

Other agriculture subsectors:


Other agriculture subsectors are also found, including carob, sumac, forage
crops, kiwi, avocado, pomegranate, persimmon, fig, and activities like
beekeeping (22.010 beehives (MoA, 2010)), collection of aromatic and
medicinal plants, etc.

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Table 16: Other cultivated agriculture subsectors in Akkar

% Coverage
Rank between 7
CROP Cultivated Surface (ha) between 7
Mohafazas
Mohafazas
Carobs 29 12% 3

Summac 6% 4
9
Kiwi 28% 1
17
Avocado 4% 5
27
Anona 1% 5
3
24 34% 1
Pomegranate
32% 1
Persimmons 140
9% 5
Fig 154
Ornamental flowers 1.558 41% 1
Source: MoA, 2010

6.3 Agro-industries

Although Akkar is an important agricultural production area, agro-industries are


of relatively low importance at the national scale. Processing is still traditional,
at micro-scale, and does not utilize proper hygienic and marketing standards in
general. Some partial production facilities are present and market directly from
the farm to the Bekaa industrial enterprises.

Akkar has a national renowned product, Shanklish, which is a combination of


dairy product and aromatic herbs found in the region. Nevertheless, the product
remains a family product.

The major agro-processing subsector is olive oil production. Other sub products
like soap are of lesser importance, and for self-consumption. Olive oil mills are
mostly traditional and do not produce extra-virgin oil. Nevertheless, modern
mills are found in Beino and Deir Jannine. Oil production of these two villages
meets international standards and is exported.In addition, theres an olive
pomace fermenting factory in Bqarezla, funded by the UNDP.

The second important subsector is dairy production, since Akkar is a major milk
producing area. The major dairy factory is Douroub which collects milk from
different farmers and absorbs alone 15 t/day. Other small dairy factories are
scattered in different villages (mainly Qobayat).

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There are two milk collection centers (Abdeh and Wadi Khaled/ Mkaibleh)
established by IFAD several years ago. Although the centers are fully equipped
and have laboratories, they have not been operational due to the lack of human
and financial resources.

Other scattered subsectors include a winery in Zwerib, several small animal


feed plants, and a juice factory in Qobayat. Safadi Foundation has a storage
and grading and packaging facility for fruits in Abdeh.
The prevailing artisanal family processed products comprise Shankish and
Kishk (dried yogurt), arak, orange water, rosewater, fruit jams and syrups,
carob and pomegranate molasses, tomato sauce and many others that are
produced for self-consumption. Some local associations tend to sell them in
Beirut as traditional homemade products. Fewer inhabitants produce organic
food recipes.

6.4 C o o p e r a t i v e s a n d f a r m e r s g r o u p s

Almost every village has a local agricultural cooperative, nevertheless functional


cooperatives are rare. Most of the cooperatives are created to get better access
to support from different organizations and institutes, rather than to have a
development objective for a certain value chain or market. Many of the
cooperatives are active in ensuring training for farmers in specific fields
(pruning, pest control, etc.), but rarely tend to develop marketing activities or
empower farmers to be competitive on the market or to get inputs at lower prices
(economy of scale).

Amongst the rare market value chain cooperatives, the following can be cited:
Beekeeping cooperatives, which are also united under a federation or
union of cooperatives for Akkar. The most active is in Joumeh.
Fishermen cooperatives of Akkar and Abdeh, both are members of the
North Lebanon fishermen syndicate.
Dairy cooperatives, mostly those of Halba, Qobayat, Joumeh, Tall
Abbas and Dreib.

Farmers associations are also numerous, and sometimes are based on


production/crop type, like the medicinal plants development association of
Mqayteh, forage crops development in Tall Maayan, association of potato in
Hayssa, fruit trees in Abdeh, etc. Many others concern rural development and
artisanal processing of products, some of them are women associations (i.e.,
Aandqet, Al Borj Cooperation for Borghol and Agro-Production).

Many associations are also found in the Upper Hermel area, mostly dealing with
dairy production.

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6.5 Public institutions and development


projects

The Ministry of Agriculture is one of the first institutions to have a decentralized


administration. MoA already deals with Akkar as a Mohafaza and therefore, is
empowering their services in Abdehs research institute. Each of the Ministrys
directorates is represented by an engineer, all under the head of the service.
Moreover, the Ministry has extension service centers in Hrar and Dreib area.
Danniyeh and Minieh also have one center, and Hermel as well. Although the
centers have minimal human resources, they are active and serve as an
interface for different activities including farmers training, distribution of inputs
and services, in collaboration with other NGOs and projects active in the
region.In addition the ministry has a nursery producing forestry seedlings with
a current capacity of 350,000 seedling that can be upgraded to produce more
than 500,000 seedlings.

Moreover, the Ministry has forest guards that beside their forestry tasks, are
mandated to control fishing vessels (licenses) grazing in communal lands. They
also collaborate with the extension services in delivering specific activities.
Forest guard centers are in Aandqet, Ain Yacoub, Hrar, with a dis-activated
center in Qammoua. One center (Sir) serves Upper Danniyeh and another
serves Hermel.

LARI that has a major station in Abdeh ensures several services including soil
and water analysis, early warning for pest outbreaks, training sessions for
farmers, etc.

In general the infrastructure of MoA and LARI buildings and nursery require
considerable improvement and rehabilitation.

The Green Plan offers demand driven services for farmers and farmers group
including land reclamation, irrigation infrastructure installation, reservoir
construction, water harvesting, and agricultural roads.

Among the ongoing projects in the agricultural sector that are currently active in
Akkar, the following can be mentioned:
ADELNORD EU/CDR project: agricultural infrastructure development
(roads, irrigation infrastructure, water harvesting) coupled with extension
activities, etc.
ARTGOLD and MDG ACHIEVMENT FUND UNDP projects: strategic
action plan for vegetable production in the plain, strategic action plan for
olive production in Dreib, field training for farmers, etc.

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LEBANON RECOVERY FUND FAO/MoA project:Recovery and


rehabilitation of the dairy sector in Bekaa and Hermel Akkar Uplands
SAFADI FOUNDATION activities and services for citrus, pome fruit and
tomato productionas well as agricultural products processing such as
pomegranate molasses
MADA initiatives related to the promotion of some food processing
activities.

At the national level, several projects are currently implemented, including the
ADP (EU funded project) which is under the MoA supervision, and tackles
issues related to agriculture crediting facilities.

Add to this the DRI Value Chain project (funded by USAID) which will develop
several value chains including apple, citrus, cherry, olive, avocado, beekeeping
and other products. Akkar, Danniyeh and Hermel could also be targeted within
this project.

Expected future projects with MoA funded by IFAD include the Hilly Areas
Sustainable Agricultural Development (HASAD) project and the Adaptation
Fund (AgriCal) which will focus on water harvesting, extension activities,
forestry and rangeland management. Also, the forthcoming World Bank
Sustainable Agricultural Livelihoods in Marginal Areas (SALMA), which will work
in parallel to HASAD, will focus on the same target areas, i.e., 3 regions
including Akkar-Danniyeh. SALMAs objective is to increase: water storage
capacity for irrigation uses; area of farm land under supplementary irrigation;
production of fruits, vegetables and other high value crops; value of crop
production, particularly for small farmers; and area under forest cover.

The Syrian crisis which has a negative impact on agriculture in bordering areas
like Akkar is the center of current interests of FAO and MoA. Both partners are
seeking funds to assist vulnerable farmer groups in Akkar.

6.6 Problems and priority objectives

6.6.1 Problems

Most of the root problems to the development of the agricultural sector are
related to government policies which did not put agriculture and the preservation
of natural ecosystems as a national priority. Moreover, the highly centralized
governmental institutions have a negative impact on the development of remote
areas like Akkar.

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Consequently, rural migration is historical, as most of the young classes are


absorbed by the army and other public institutions. Most farmers are old, with
less capacity to learn and improve the sector. In all cases, farming activity is
inherited or retained as a retirement plan (mostly for soldiers), which leads to a
total absence of professionalism and know-how.

The existing inheritance and land tenure systems result in more fragmentation
and abandonment of arable lands. The absence of a land management plan
encourages shifting arable lands to other more profitable land uses (mainly
urbanization), which by itself increases land rental prices and sustains a vicious
circle.

Natural resources, especially water, are not fully exploited. Lebanese water
rights from the bordering river of Nahr el Kabir have been wasted for decades.
It is expected that the planned dam in Noura will increase water availability. The
three other rivers of Akkar are not soundly exploited, and are subject to sewage
and solid waste dumping, which results in a poor water quality for irrigation. The
high dependency on pumping groundwater and surface irrigation results in a
higher cost of production.

Another problem is the absence of any agricultural policy for each agricultural
zone that is sustained by mainstreaming of different projects to create areas
with specific vocations, according to their specific assets, completing each other
rather than competing.

Although the MoA is currently regulating imports of chemical fertilizers and


pesticides, and is promoting integrated pest management through its extension
centers, with the collaboration of several NGOs and projects, the trend of
overuse of these chemicals is generalized, leading to a higher cost of production
and high pesticide residues.

The absence of crediting facilities leads to economic failure of many farmers,


who find themselves in debt for input providers and gross market middlemen.
Moreover, in addition to the absence of processing units for food, farmers have
no access to new technologies to improve their plant material, livestock, farm
infrastructure and field practices.

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6.6.2 Priority objectives

Priorities related to agricultural sectors can be summarized as follow:


Maintain the fertile arable land, especially those that are located in the
plain and in irrigated schemes, and protect them from conversion to
other types of land use.
Promote the development of agro-industries, poultry and dairy cattle
farms, due to the comparative advantage of Akkar in these subsectors,
through several incentive approaches (crediting facilities, incentivizing
fodder plantation, veterinary services and animal breeds, etc.)
Empower the existing MoA/LARI infrastructures (research
centers/laboratories, nursery, agriculture technical school, extension
centers, etc.)
Substitute crop oriented subsidies (for tobacco and wheat) with practice
oriented incentives, namely crop rotations involving the plantation of
forage legumes, along with wheat, barley and corn, no till practice,
organic farming and IPM, where incentives could be through facilitating
access to credits; support in inputs and agricultural equipment,
certification cost, seeds and seedlings.
Promote the valorization of rainfed areas with mixed farming systems,
where olive is not cultivated as a monoculture, but within intercropping
systems including a diversity of crops (almonds, medicinal plants, vetch,
barley, wheat) and animal production (poultry and dairy production).
Diversify the production through the introduction of crops and varieties
in irrigated schemes that have a higher storage capacity and withstand
transportation (kiwi, nectarine, new varieties of plums, pear and apple,
soybean, potato).
Mobilize funds for the treatment and reuse of wastewater in agriculture
as well as for the building of small dams on Nahr el Kabir (Noura) and
concrete closed channels and pressurized irrigation systems.
Revise laws related to water management and plant resource
management, enabling a sustainable use of these natural resources.
Relate the financial flows to the proposed management plan for Akkar,
meaning that development of infrastructure (roads, dams, irrigation
infrastructures) will be exclusive for lands allocated for agriculture in
the future.
Promote the establishment of agricultural facilities (storage and
packaging units, new varieties mother plants, etc.) and revitalize the
existing milk distribution centers, after securing their sustainability
requirements.
Enable an appropriate agricultural crediting system.

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Map 12: Agricultural homogenous zones of Akkar

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7 SECTOR 7: INDUSTRY, TRADE AND


SERVICES

7.1 General

Since the end of the Civil War (1990), the Lebanese economy growth was not
steady and sustained which resulted in the widening of income inequalities, the
contraction of the productive sector to the detriment of the service sector, the
neglect of the preservation of the commons and the persistence of the
prevalence of poverty. More specifically, the post Civil War period in Lebanon
was characterized by a booming economy with a Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) growth averaging 3,1% over 1993-2005 followed by a 0% growth in 2006
due to the War with Israel. This was followed by an 8% growth during the 2007-
2010 periods and a decline to 1-2% in 2011 although economic growth bounced
back to 2-4% in 2012 (IMF, 2012). Lebanons GDP is hence highly vulnerable
to exogenous factors (international, regional and national conjuncture) but also
to endogenous factors that could highly improve the performance of the
Lebanese economy such as: institutional streamlining as well as market
distortions that could be addressed through fiscal stabilization and reduction of
barriers to investment (Barthlemy et al. 2007).

As a result, the value added of both agricultural and industrial sectors, which
should be the engine of growth in a developing economy (at least 10% of the
value added should be associated with the industrial sector) to allow for a local
economy such as Akkars to gradually gain track, has instead been shrinking in
relative terms. This in turn indicates a lack of transformation of the agricultural
products into agro-products by climbing up the value chain in a region showing
an important agricultural potential.

With regards to Government tiers, Akkar was recently carved out of the Northern
Lebanon Mohafaza and coupled with Hermel to become an independent
Mohafaza. However, the Akkar and Hermel Mohafaza is still orphaned and will
greatly benefit from setting up and operationalizing its institutional structure in a
timely way.

The following key sectors are herein assessed: administration (including the
Lebanese Army), trade, small and medium industries, finance, and construction.

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7.2 Public administration and the


Lebanese army

With 269 administrative building units in Akkar only, the public administration
constitutes an important employer with 21,4% of the active Akkari population
(37,6% of total active females due especially to teaching and 19,5% of active
males). Moreover, the weighted average salary across the three principle
administrative professions is of USD 740 per month which ranks second to the
highest salary bracket (i.e.: the manager/ professional bracket mainly covering
the private sector with USD 1.035 per month refer to Table 17). Hence,
servicemen, teachers and administrative staff benefit from relatively good
salaries and good social packages in terms of social security and pensions. This
allows this cohort of public servants to essentially invest in agriculture and small
services when they retire (refer to Sector 6). Nevertheless, it is difficult to
evaluate the services provided by the administration in Akkar although public
perception suggests that, at least with regards to the Administration staff,
services are below expectations (refer to Sector 3).

Table 17: Distribution of workers in Akkar by professions, according to average wage and sex

Average monthly Overall Women Men


Profession wage USD % % %
Army 757 13,4 0,8 14,8
Specialists (teachers) 748 6,3 31,3 3,4
Administration staff 576 1,7 5,5 1,3
Sub-total Administration 740 21,4 37,6 19,5
Managers and Senior personnel 1.035 6,0 5,5 6,0
Middle occupations ( ) 664 3,1 13,3 1,9
Service workers, vendors 579 6,7 7,8 6,6
Farmers and agriculture skilled workers 354 11,5 3,9 12,4
Construction & quarries 8,4 - 9,4
Metal constructions, technical 398
occupations and printing Skilled workers 8,3 1,6 9,1
Operation of machinery, Drivers 538 10,4 0,8 11,5
Non-skilled workers in the services 311
sector Unskilled workers 4,1 3,9 4,1
Non-skilled workers in agriculture + 11,0 23,4 9,5
Other non-skilled workers + 8,8 1,5 9,6
Unspecified 0,4 0,8 0,4
TOTAL 100 100 100
Note: it is assumed that most teachers are hired by public schools.
Source: Cluster Profiles - CDR, ELARD-GFA, 2011-2012

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More specifically, Akkar is the Lebanese Army reservoir since the 1960s as the
Army represents the main employment opportunity (13,8% of the active labor in
Akkar) especially for males (95% of recruits are males) and has a very
competitive salary for the Akkar region with USD 757 on average per month.
Hence, the Army is a major source of employment:
In the Akroum Cluster (Kfar Touna Akroum Qaniyye Sahlet
Mrah Khokh Al Mouwanset Basatine), most of the young persons
are recruits;
In Akkar el Atiqa, 70% of the male heads of household are employed
by the Army;
In Fneideq, 50% of the male heads of household are employed by the
Army;
In Hrar Cluster (Hrar Habchit Safinet Al Qayteh Qabait Bzeila),
nearly 30% to 40% of the active population is enrolled in the Army.

7.3 Trade and commercesectors (formal


and informal)

With 95% of economic institutions employing less than 5 people, Akkar has
12.296 economic institutions distributed geographically accordingly:
30% in Sahel on the international road linking Lebanon to Syria;
25% in middle Akkar (Halba and surroundings Joumeh);
20% in Qayteh Jurd;
16% in Qobbayat; and
9% in Jabal Akroum and Wadi Khaled.

These economic institutions are divided among three major activities


representing 81,6% of total activities, as listed in Table 18: retail and wholesale
trade with 45,1%; agriculture and mining with 28,1%; and sale and maintenance
of vehicles with 8,4%. Hotels and restaurants is a distant 4th representing only
2,7% of the activities.

Table 18: Establishments in Akkar and the North, by activity (number and percent)

Akkar
No. of No. of % of total
proportion
Type of Activity establishments establishments establishments
to the
in Akkar in the North in Akkar
North (%)

Retail trade 4.519 16.188 27,9 36,8

Agriculture, Agro-
3.461 5.836 59,3 28,1
industry and mining

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Akkar
No. of No. of % of total
proportion
Type of Activity establishments establishments establishments
to the
in Akkar in the North in Akkar
North (%)
Sale and
maintenance of 1.027 5.069 20,3 8,4
motor vehicles

Wholesale Trade 1.021 2.085 49,0 8,3

Hotels and
326 2.139 15,2 2,7
restaurants

Health and social


238 1.513 15,7 1,9
work

Services for
209 1.191 17,5 1,7
individuals

Food products and


200 1.116 17,9 1,6
tobacco

Metal products 202 1.044 19,3 1,6

Furniture 174 1.830 9,5 1,4

Textiles and leather


152 1.028 14,8 1,2
products

Non-metal products 140 509 27,5 1,1

Education 108 408 26,5 0,9

Other commercial
72 792 9,1 0,6
activities

Recreational, cultural
70 487 14,4 0,6
and sports activities

Fishing 61 792 7,7 0,5

Wood and paper


66 439 15,0 0,5
products

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Akkar
No. of No. of % of total
proportion
Type of Activity establishments establishments establishments
to the
in Akkar in the North in Akkar
North (%)

Construction 60 297 20,2 0,5

Post and
36 139 25,9 0,3
telecommunications

Water, electricity and


25 107 23,4 0,2
gas

Public Administration
24 73 32,9 0,2
and Social Security

Social and
21 105 20,0 0,2
community service

Manufacture of
machinery and 16 165 9,7 0,1
equipment
Activities auxiliary to
transportation ( 10 270 3,7 0,1
)

Financial
9 83 10,8 0,1
intermediation

Activities auxiliary to
financial 11 122 9,0 0,1
intermediation

Real estate 8 123 6,5 0,1

Rent of machinery
18 84 21,4 0,1
and equipment

Printing and
6 100 6,0 0,0
Publishing

Transportation 1 30 3,3 0,0

Insurance 2 45 4,4 0,0

Computer services,
research and 2 52 3,8 0,0
development

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Akkar
No. of No. of % of total
proportion
Type of Activity establishments establishments establishments
to the
in Akkar in the North in Akkar
North (%)

Non-regional NGOs
1 9 11,1 0,0
( )

Unspecified 0 24 0,0 0,0

TOTAL 12.296 44.294 27,8 100,0

Source: Cluster Profiles - CDR, ELARD-GFA, 2011-2012.

Trade is confined to Al-Abdeh and Halba, and employs 14,3% of the working
population in Akkar. Despite the strategic importance of Northern Akkar
(especially Sahel endowed with 2 international roads), the effect of trade on the
region is still very limited. It consists of small local shops and few larger ones in
some important locations on international roads and in the Caza centre, i.e.,
Halba.

With regards to the trade infrastructure, Akkar is at the cross roads of two
international roads reaching Syria. The port in Al-Abdeh also serves as a fishing
port. Moreover, there is a lot of debate about transforming the Ren Moawad
military airport into a civilian airport which could help promote the region.
However, the airport is located next to a potential protected area in Cheikh
Zennad wetland which is considered as an Important Bird Area and represents
two migratory bird flyways. During the early 2000s NPMPLT process, there was
a debate to transform the Ren Moawad military airport into an air cargo hub.
The idea could be defeated on economic grounds as it was very unlikely to
compete with the regional heavy weights (refer to Table19) where Beirut Airport
already represents only 1,5% of the Top Ten Cargo Airport volume in the region.
Moreover and since 2011, Beirut is no longer ranked among the Top Ten Cargo
airports in the region (refer to 1.2 Transport infrastructures for more details on
the challenges faced by the Ren Moawad Airport)1.2.

Table 19: Middle Eastern air cargo airports ranked by volume in tons 000, 2011 unless specified
Riyadh

Kuwait
Airport

Musca
Sharja

Amma
Bahrai

Jedda

Beirut
Dubai

Dhabi
Doha

Abu

n
t

Year 2012 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2010
Cargo 2.280 775 469 330 279 247 229 203 97 96 78
Source: CDR-SDATL (2004); and Arabian Supply Chain Website: <www.arabiansupplychain.com>.

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To summarize the situation regarding the possible rehabilitation of Ren


Moawad Airport, it is evident that there is an arbritrage to be done after
performing an economic analysis. Other alternatives can also be considered
and options can be provided where decision makers will make choices.

Around 19% of the clusters active population works in smuggling goods through
the border with Syria which mainly includes selling fuels and specifically gas oil.
It is moreover considered as the main source of income for the youth. Around
6% of the clusters active population works in grocery, clothing and home
appliances stores.

7.4 Light industry and local crafts and mid


to heavy industry

The Ministry of Industry has a three-class system that however does not
regulate for the necessary setback distances from populated areas. Akkar has
two dedicated classes, spread over 3 municipalities and represent an area
0,315 km2 of which 0,211 km2 is being exploited. However, a great deal of SMEs
operates outside these perimeters.

Only 8,4% of the working population in Akkar is employed by small to medium


industries including agro-industries. The industrial sector in Akkar is almost
inexistent with 67 small and medium enterprises although it could rely mainly
on agro-processing in the future. Some of the existing agro-processing is
covered in Sector 6. To date, animal and agricultural processing is often
unregulated and lacks quality control and certification, which makes it difficult to
export. The only major working manufacturer is the Arab Gas Corporation
located near Minyara and which extends over 10,000 m2. However, due to
political, security, and administrative reasons, many major manufacturers have
been closing down or moving their operations overseas, especially in the Gulf
countries: Fares Factory, Makhzoumi Factory Future Pipe, Razi Hospital, and
vocational institutions. Small and medium enterprises main activities (Table 20)
are associated with the construction sector (aluminum, tiles, smithery, wood,
etc.).

Table 21 illustrates the distribution of industrial establishments by adherence to


professional associations and by industrial activities as the social capital seems
poorly developed where 42% belongs to at least one professional association
although some member double-counting is possible with regards to their
adherence to more than one association.

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Table 20: Types of light industries


Activity Number
Farmhouse 7
Aluminum Production 7
Yagourt/Labneh Production 7
Chicken Farm 5
Wood 4
Fruit Processing 3
Livestock 3
Vegetable Processing 3
Bread Production 3
Printing 2
Olive Oil Production 2
Plastic Bag Production 2
Transport 2
Clothing Production 1
Furniture Production 1
Charcoal production 1
Repackaging 1
Seed Production 1
Meat Production and Storage 1
Milk by-Product Production 1
Sweets Arabic Production 1
Paint Production 1
Jewelry Crafting 1
First Aide Product Production 1
Toilet Paper Production 1
Scafolding Production 1
Plastic Pipe Production 1
Nut Rotissery 1
Laboratory 1
Consultant Engineers 1
Total 67

Table 21: Distribution of industrial establishments by adherence to professional associations and by


industrial activities
Member
A+B+D

A+C+D

B+C+D
A+B+C

A+B+C
Caza

A+D

B+D

C+D
A+B

A+C

B+C

+D
D
A

Akkar 4 31 8 5 4 1 1 6 2 2 1 1 0 1 0 48 67

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Note: A: Membership in Association of Lebanese Industrials (ALI)


B: Membership in Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture (CCIA)
C: Membership in regional industrial associations
D: Membership in sector industrial associations
E: Not member in A, B, C and D
Source: MoI DATA (2007 data published in 2010).

7.5 Banking and services

In Lebanon, banks and other financial institutions fall under the jurisdiction of
the Banque du Liban (BDL), which is the bank regulatory authority. The BDL
controls entry into the banking industry, defines the scope of banking activities
and sets prudential regulations and codes of practice for banks. The BDL was
instrumental in avoiding the contamination of the Lebanese banking sector by
the 2008 international financial crisis triggered by the United States sub-primes.
However, the banking sector is the major financier of the Lebanese government
and holds 74% of the public debt in 2012. Yet, the regulatory and supervisory
framework can be considered satisfactory.

The Lebanese banking industry is financially sound and stable with its main
characteristics being: a large number of banks of different sizes, nature and
ownership structure; significant openness to overseas activities; a commitment
to international norms and standards; bound by sustainable growth and
performance through high liquidity (assets equivalent to USD 152 billion in
December 2012) and well capitalized and provisioned sector; and resilient to
external shocks through its strong ability to weather and overcome shocks and
crisis.

There are 48 commercial banks operating in Lebanon, 11 of which are foreign


banks. Eight banks, with a total of 10 branches, are operating in Akkar as
follows:
1. Byblos: 2 branches, Kobayat Halba
2. IBL: 1 branch, Kobayat
3. SGBL: 2 branches, Halba Abdeh
4. Credit Libanais: 1 branch, Abdeh
5. Fransabank: 1 branch, Halba
6. BLF: 1 branch, Halba
7. FNB: 1 branch, Halba
8. Audi: 1 branch, Halba

The Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Lebanon 38th among 55 countries


worldwide in the Microfinance Index but Lebanon remains the smallest micro-
finance market in the Arab world with a portfolio not exceeding USD 62 million

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as of 2012 for five major microfinance institutions registered with MixMarket 30.
The microfinance institutions are only regulated by the MoIM for NGOs (e.g., Al
Majmoua) and foundations or by the MoET for corporation (e.g., Vitas), whereas
banking authorities have not regulated their operations but the BDL oversees
their activities. However, certain commercial banks are applying the dispositions
of the BDLs circular number 93 issued in 2004 when they are lending to the
microfinance institutions. There is a dozen Micro-finance players in Lebanon
notably: Al Majmoua that is a MicroWorld and Pi Slice partner; Accs la
Microfinance et aux Niches Enterprise Enhanced (AMEEN); Association for the
Development of Rural Capacities (ADR); Vitas; Cooperative for Lebanese
Development, Al Qard Al Hassan; the Makhzoumi Foundation; and Emkan.

Micro-finance is provided in Akkar through 4 Micro-finance institutions that


operate through agents working through banks (Capital Finance Company,
Imkan, Ibdaa and Vitas), a number of micro-finance Institutions (notably, Al
Majmoua, Lebanese Cooperative for Development (LCD) and exceptionally
Makhzoumi), projects such as the EU-Economic and Social Development Fund
with the aim to bridge the gap to foster employment and poverty reduction, local
NGOs and Foundations (Safadi Foundations). Micro-finance includes only
micro-credit as micro-saving is not available due to lack of commercial bank
downscaling whereas micro-insurance (mutuelle) is an emerging niche for this
line of business. Currently, micro-credit borrowers are mostly women and rural
borrowers. Yet, Micro-Finance Institutions do not provide breakdown of their
activities by region and category on a regular basis.

Bank loans and micro-credits provided through commercial banks and directly
are illustrated in Table 22and Graph 15 for Akkar in 2012. Eight banks provided
loans and four banks provided micro-credits through agents. The total amounts
to LL 200 billion (84% for loans and 16% for micro-credits) targeting 14.420
beneficiaries (44% for loans and 56% for micro-credits). LCD was the only MFI
to provide information on Akkar whereas Al Majmoua provided quasi-data that
could not be added to the compilation in Table 22. For instance, only 13% of
the Al Majmoua portfolio of 0.01 billion (equivalent to USD 9 million) in 2007
targeted Northern Lebanon, namely Halba, Bebnin-Abdeh and Sahel in 2012.
By category, 75% of credits are contracted by SMEs, 10% by workers and
employees and 10% for agriculture.

Table 22: Distribution of loans and micro-credits through banks by beneficiary in Akkar in 2012

30 Retrieved from www.mixmarket.org

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Beneficiaries
Construction
Agriculture

Number of
Commerce
(LL billion)

(LL billion)

(LL billion)

(LL billion)

(LL billion)

(LL billion)

(LL billion)
Institution

Industries
Financial

Personal

Other

Total
#
Bank branch 9 26 9 2 8 116 7 168 6.416
MFI-Bank 4 8 2 1 2 13 6 32 8.013
Total 13 34 11 3 10 128 13 200 14.429
% Total 17% 5% 2% 5% 64% 7% 100%
Bank/Total 69% 77% 86% 65% 81% 90% 51% 84% 44%
MFI/Total 31% 23% 14% 35% 19% 10% 49% 16% 56%
Direct MFI
-LCD 0,3 0,02 0,4 0,72
Source: BDL (2013); and LCD (2013)

By category, the breakdown of both loans and micro-credits are mainly provided
for personal purposes (64%) followed by commerce (17%), Other (7%),
Agriculture (5%), Industries (5%) and Construction (2%). When comparing
loans and micro-credits and ranking the most important volume by category,
bank loans are provided for personal purposes (LL 116 billion) and micro-credits
are provided for Other (LL 13 billion) which is unspecified. Conversely, when
ranking the least important volume by category, loans are provided to
Construction (LL 2 billion) and micro-credits also to construction (LL 1 billion).
Regarding direct micro-credits provided by LCD that amount to LL 0,72 billion
in 2012, 56% of volume is provided for agriculture, 42% for industries and 3%
for construction.

Graph 15: Distribution of loans and micro-credits through banks by beneficiary in Akkar (2012)
Source: BDL (2013).

From an interview with Fransabank Branch Manager in Halba, it appeared that


the financial sector was shaken by improprieties since the fraud committed by
the banks in Akkar reduced the citizens' confidence in the banking sector (Nasr

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Bank and Foreign Trade Bank). Before 2012, the construction loans
represented 25% of total loans. Currently, 50% of the loans are personal loans
followed by the agricultural and tourism sectors although the former roughly
matches the personal loan in Table 22 but the ranking of agriculture and tourism
relative loans in second and third places seems somewhat odd. Although retired
military monthly salary reaches LL 800.000-900.000 and compensation starts
from LL 80-90 million, retirees have the largest savings account volume and
although half the retirees wish to invest, they remain cautious due to the lack of
prospects.

Hence, loans and micro-credits volume benefits personal purposes (64% of


total) followed by commerce (17%) whereas agriculture and industries are only
provided 5% each of the total volume. These two sectors, which are supposed
to be the drivers of Akkar development, seem to be on the backburner while
consumerism seems to be the driver of the economy of Akkar. Since 2012, the
construction boom seems to have faded away.

7.6 Construction sector

With an antiquated zoning system and a cadastre subject to interpretations, the


construction sector, which is poorly regulated and enforced, saw a sharp
increase in ribbon development especially along the trading routes with Syria
and in agricultural land. In parallel, the illegal sand mining, especially along the
coastal zone of Akkar and the poorly regulated and enforced quarry extraction
helped increase sight pollution in scenery areas that ought to be preserved. As
8,2% of Akkar working population is employed in manual work, the inhabitants
of Akkar however lack the skills needed to compete in the manual work
marketand when they have them, cheaper foreign labors are hired to do the job.
Nevertheless, the adaptation rate of SMEs (related to construction) and
commerce (construction equipment and furniture) is very high and an increasing
number of businesses are involved in construction. Yet, the sector is the lowest
loan and micro-credit borrower which seems confirming the fading away of the
construction boom.

7.7 Problems faced by the study area

The four clusters suffer from a political and a security problem that will not help
putting the regional economy on a sustainable footing in the short run. Although
the region has a lot of potential, it suffers from a number of problems that need
to be addressed.

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Some of the problems are too internationally, regionally and locally politicized
that they lie outside the purview of this development strategy exercise. The end
of the Arab world crisis could definitely help revive the investment climate in
Lebanon in general and Akkar in particular, and boost trade.

Some problems are due to a lack of governance, policy-related or structural in


nature that increase institutional and market distortions such as: the centralized
government is not providing the needed services at the local level and cannot
enforce the rule of law (smuggling), most cooperatives are not serving their
purpose, etc.

Other problems are related to the competitiveness of the economy (productive


efficiency, skilled labor, knowhow, access to market, product certification, etc.).
Despite attempts at developing heavy industries and developing agro-business,
these two sectors faced enormous challenges that are preventing them from
competing in local, regional and international markets. This in turn does not
allow the productive economy to get track to become the driver that will help
reduce poverty. The contraction of and lack of opportunities in the productive
sector is helping the formal and informal tertiary sector grow as the sector has
a high rate of adaptability (a number of SMEs and commerce are geared
towards the construction business) and provides the needed goods and
services for the population. Moreover, the government laissez-faire policy
allows this sector to consolidate itself and even threaten the potential of the
productive sectors: land use opportunities for agriculture or nature conservation
are substituted for construction as construction rent is becoming significantly
higher than agricultural/nature conservation rent.

When considering each sub-sector alone: administrative retirees, especially the


Army servicemen who benefit from a relatively important pension, are
potentialinvestors that unfortunately lack profitable investment opportunities
with acceptable risks; formal and informal trade and commerce follow the
economic trend and political swings and seems to be the most adaptive sector;
industries are struggling to survive as they are not competitive and lack secure
markets, and despite a huge potential, the tourism sector is embryonic due to
the political and security situation; consumers lack confidence in banks and the
latter provide mainly personal, agricultural and construction loans while they
secure their excess liquidity by investing in government treasury bills; micro-
credits are available through various intermediation mechanisms although their
market penetration does not cover the entire clusters; and finally construction is
being developed haphazardly and is helping develop a small industry
associated with construction while disfiguring natural sceneries (sand mining,
quarries, deforestation and poorly regulated construction).

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7.8 Priority development objectives for the


study area

Redefining the roles and investment environments of these sub-sectors in the


context of Akkars development strategy could help unlock Akkar potential and
economic comparative advantages in the future. Strong justification for pursuing
redistributive policies in the early phase of a development strategy in Akkar by
prioritizing employment and inclusion (opportunity such as access to health care
and schooling) should be followed by the move to increase market efficiencies,
institute governance and target quality economic growth. Nevertheless, an
inclusive green growth strategy is also needed to be considered at the macro
level by revisiting the NPMPLT. This important issue needs to be debated at the
national level although Lebanon is currently facing critical political challenges.
Moreover, the crisis in Syria and the Syrian refugee problem are also bringing
an additional bias, especially since the growing informal market and the parallel
labor market remain difficult to factor in in the future development strategy.

Priorities related to the four sub-sectors can be summarized along these lines:
more competitiveness, more opportunities, more governance, more
preservation of the commons and more social cohesion, jobs and quality of life
that will help reduce poverty. More specifically, priorities include:
Creation of a new form of social corporatization by involving all
stakeholders (banks, investors, entrepreneurs, insurance, equipment
sellers, management companies, marketing companies, locals, etc.)
and by targeting key high value-added investments will help capture
local savings and investments and improve social harmony, cohesion
and trust
Reorganizing and streamlining agro-cooperatives that will develop
transformation hubs owned by cooperative members (frozen
vegetables, dairy products, etc.) and where compliance, enforcement
and penalty are applied by the cooperative on its own members to
maintain quality control, certification, branding and markets
Reducing smuggling could improve the fiscal stance
Diversification and climbing up the value chain could increase formal
commerce and trade opportunities (see above)
Development of skills and knowhow for crafts, agro-business, energy
farming, small and medium enterprises and tourism could help attract
investors
Involving farmers in harnessing Akkars renewable energy could help
increase the redistribution effect of the sustainable management of
natural capital

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Banking should spearhead the new social corporatization stance by


being more inclusive and sharing the investment risk with other
shareholders
Microfinance institutions should be regulated by the Central Bank of
Lebanon and introduce new lines of business such as micro-savings and
micro-insurance
Regulating land use (cadastre with zoning), building form and function
standards (earthquake proof, energy smart, green building, etc.), and
natural resource extraction (sands and rocks) could help reach a quality
of life and the environment balance while increasing small and medium
industry efficiencies.

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8 SECTOR 8: URBAN PLANNING

8.1 Legal framework of the SSRDP

As specified in the Inception Report of the SSRDP (CDR/GFA/ELARD, 2013),


the legal framework for this mission lies in the following texts:
Decree no.2366 of 20 June 2009 that approved the NPMPLT as a
strategic development plan for the territory of Lebanon: all public
authorities are obliged to comply with this plan;
Decree-Law no.69-83 of 1983 on Urban Development that refers to
master plans and urban development plans; however, this legislation
was passed at a time when the notion of sustainable development had
not yet been introduced. This Decree-Law refers to three levels of
planning:
o National: the National Territorial Development Plan (article 4);
o Local Master Plans (article 7); and
o Local Detailed Urban Plans (article 8).
Decree no.8213 of 2012 that introduces the concept of Strategic
Environmental Assessment (SEA) and specifies its application and
procedure.

The SSRDP (planned for 10-20 years) constitutes an intermediary scale


between the NPMPLT (planned for 25 years) and future local master plans
(generally planned for 5 years), for which it aims at outlining comprehensive
guidelines. Both the SSRDP and the NPMPLT, although functioning on two
different scales, revolve around one single strategic vision: establishing and
respecting the vocation of the region in accordance with its surroundings. Thus,
the SSRDP will define this vocation and will establish a flexible step-by-step
strategy, which could evolve on the long term.

8.2 Major land use orientations for Akkar

8.2.1 Identification of the study area

The study area (Map 13) consists of 165 localities in the caza/mohafaza of
Akkar, 24 localities in the caza of Minnieh-Donnieh, and 1 locality in the caza of
Hermel (refer to Table 75 for the exhaustive list). These represent approximately
160 municipalities31 and seven federations of municipalities (refer to Table 67
for the list of these federations).

31Approximately 131 in Akkar, 28 in Upper Donnieh and 1 in Upper Hermel.

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Map 13: Location of the study area national/ regional scales

8.2.2 The study area in the National Physical


Master Plan

The NPMPLT underlines the following planning priorities (Dar Al-Handasah


(Shair & Partners) - IAURIF, 2005):
The implementation of a legal framework defining the principle of
land use in the mountain according to three ranges of elevation: from
1.000 to 1.500 meters; 1.500 to 1.900 meters; and above 1.900
meters;
The implementation of a legal framework for the coastal zone and
the water streams;
The implementation, within the framework of the Law of Urban
Planning and Law of Construction, of new dispositions concerning
natural floods and landslide hazards;
The elaboration of a new legal framework, in collaboration with the
MoE, regarding the protection of natural assets;
The enforcement of specific local plans for areas particularly
threatened by urban linear expansion and scattered invasion of
agricultural lands, as it is the case for the Abdeh-Halba area (taking
into consideration the future implementation of an important
industrial zone in this area).

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In order for large cities to play an effective leading role in the development of
their regions, the NPMPLT recommends an urban structure where major
agglomerations interact with the rural world through a network of relay-
villages. One the one hand, these relay-villages would provide
administrative, commercial and service functions for a number of surrounding
villages. On the other hand, this interaction would ensure that sufficient income
is guaranteed to the rural regions for the population to stabilize in place and
develop its life conditions. (Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) - IAURIF,
2005).

The North and Akkar will then be planned around the urban center of Tripoli. In
Akkar, the following villages, being more important than others, will play the role
of relay-villages (Map 14):
For the coastal area of Akkar: Abdeh
For lower Akkar: Halba, expected to be the administrative center of the
mohafaza
For middle Akkar: Beino
For higher Akkar: Fnaydek
For the region of Qobeyat: Qobeyat
For Wadi Khaled: Chadra

Furthermore, the NPMPLT established recommended building regulations


according to three different settings of the land (Dar Al-Handasah (Shair &
Partners) - IAURIF, 2005):
For lands presenting a general vocation (specifically urban, rural,
agricultural, or natural vocation), the corresponding construction
regulations are available in
Table77;
For lands located in natural constraints areas (areas liable to flooding,
areas prone to landslides, areas with scarce water resources and lands
facilitating water pollution), the corresponding construction regulations
are available in Table 78;
For remarkable lands presenting major natural and heritage assets,
corresponding construction regulations are available in Table 72.

Finally, the NPMPLT particularly stressed on the necessity to establish specific


local plans for certain zones that are threatened by urban linear expansion and
scattered invasion of agricultural lands, particularly the axis Abdeh-Halba (Map
16) (including the desire to reserve an important industrial zone in this sector).

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8.2.3 Major land orientations for the study


area

The study area is characterized by natural coastline dunes, salinas and


wetlands in Qleyaat, large agricultural plains, numerous caves and springs,
three main rivers (Nahr el Bared, Nahr el Ostwan, and Nahr el Kabir el Janoubi),
three picturesque villages (Halba, Qobayat, and Beino), and several protected
natural sites and forests (refer to Table 34for a list of the protected sites and
forest available in the study area). Its geography, morphology and
characteristics are further detailed in Sector 9, while its heritage, cultural and
natural assets are further detailed in Sector 5. These valuable assets call for
several land use recommendations, each regarding a specific sector of concern
(refer to Table 76 for a detailed list of these recommendations).

In 2003, the caza of Akkar was established as a new mohafaza (in accordance
with Law n522 issued on July 16th, 2003) with Halba as its administrative
center. However, the decrees to apply this law have not been issued yet. In the
meantime, Akkar has been facing considerable changes:
Laws preparation (mainly the one regarding the Natural Park) and the
implementation of scheduled main infrastructure projects have been
delayed;
Internal population growth is reshuffling the position of Akkar, from a
region reliant on Tripoli towards an independent major region;
The study area faces several conflicts regarding the administrative
boundaries of its towns (amplified by the creation this past decade of the
various Federations of Municipalities) and, like the rest of the country,
lacks of a complete topographical survey;
In the areas out of control, illegal constructions and environmental
damage have dramatically increased since the elaboration of the
NPMPLT in 2005 and its implementation in 2009, thus changing the
extent of its recommendations;
Since the beginning of the Syrian civil war in 2011, Akkar has been a
refuge for displaced populations. This issue becomes now closely
interrelated to any future short-term and mid-term strategic vision for the
region;
The area also faces an uncontrolled urban sprawl and lacks tools for
controlling it.

Another issue is the forests of the region distributed according to bioclimatic


stages that are either private or semi-private properties, the concept of state
ownership being inexistent. Even though the management and exploitation of
these forests are regulated by the Forests Department of the MoA, each owner
manages them freely, in the total absence of effective monitoring by the MoA.

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As a result, patches of forests are disappearing due to cutting, coal exploitation,


transformation into agricultural lands, or fires resulting from the lack of effective
anti-fire measures (such as training forest-rangers, envisaging additional
firefighters facilities, and executing roads that can be used to reach and
extinguish fires).

These various changes and issues clearly affect the vision established in 2005
by the NPMPLT and urgently call for the implementation of Law n522 and the
establishment of Akkar as an independent major region with Halba as its
administrative center.

Nine zoning maps corresponding to 16 municipalities were obtained from the


DGUP. These zoning maps were compared to the NPMPLT recommendations
(Map 15) in terms of land use and heights conformity. Overall, 14 of the 16
obtained maps comply with the NPMPLT recommended heights, while two (the
municipalities of Cheikh Mohammad and Halba) do not respect them.
Regarding land use, several discrepancies exist between the DGUP zoning
maps and the NPMPLT recommendations (for a detailed list of these
discrepancies, refer to Table 79), and concern particularly urban areas build on
lands advised as agricultural or lands used for agriculture while advised as rural.

On the other hand, the 2013 Land Use map (Map 16) generally matches the
NPMPLT recommendations regarding the vocation of the land.

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Map 14: Administrative divisions of Akkar, its "relay-villages", and the available DGUP zoning

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Map 15: Comparison between the NPMPLT recommendations and the DGUP zoning

*The zoning maps of Beino and Rahbe could not be georeferenced and are not represented on this map.

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Map 16: NSCR 2013 land use map

Source: adapted by ELARD from NSCR

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8.3 Urbanization tendencies in the study


area

In order to understand the urbanization tendencies of the study area, two NCSR
Land Use maps respectively showing the 2003 and 2013 land uses of Akkar
(refer to Map 40 and Map 16) were compared. This comparison allowed to
highlighting the following evolution of land use, in regard with the urban fabric,
agricultural land, wooded land, grassland, and wetland:

Table23: Evolution of land use in Akkar between 2003 and 2013

Land use 2003-2013 Evolution of land use

Almost all of the 2003 existing urban fabric has expanded by 2013; the most
noticeable changes are:

The city of Abdeh slightly extended towards the South East


Constructions emerged along the road linking Abdehs port to the
village of Bebnine
The village of Bebnine more than doubled in surface area over
agricultural lands
Although already existing, urbanization along the road linking Abdeh to
Halba, expanded slightly
The village of Berqayel greatly expanded towards the North over
agricultural lands
Urban The village of Hrar expanded towards the East and West over
fabric agricultural and wooded lands
The village of Qabaait developed on wooded lands
The village of Danbo slightly expanded over wooded lands
The village of Qobayat slightly expanded over agricultural lands
The village of Takrit greatly expanded towards the North and the East
over agricultural lands
90% of the villages that observed an expansion did it on agricultural
lands. The rest on wooded lands
The village of Karha (Wadi Khaled) grew 1.5time its size, towards the
South and over agricultural lands
The villages of Minyara, Jdeidet el Joumeh, Cheikh Taba, Cheikh
Mohamad, Nfisse and the city of Halba expanded greatly (over
agricultural lands) during the last 10 years and tend to form a single
urban continuum

Scrubland/wooded land surface has dramatically decreased in the past 10


Scrubland/
years mainly in favor of agricultural lands in Danbo and Qabaait. On the
Wooded
contrary, in Rahbe, Bezbina and Qenia, the reverse phenomenon was
land
observed and scrubland took over agricultural lands.

Grasslands are of vital importance for raising livestock for human consumption
and for milk and other dairy products. Grassland surface has dramatically
Grassland decreased in Akkar during the past 10 years mainly in favor of:
Agricultural lands in: Tlaile, Bire, Chadr, Majdala
Wetlands in: Sindianet Zeidan, Mqaible, Akroum, Bezbina, Chaqdouf
Scrubland/Wooded lands in: Machta Hassan, Kfar Toun, Akroum,
Qenia, Ilat

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Land use 2003-2013 Evolution of land use

Wetlands have appeared in the last 10 years, taking the place of:
Grasslands in: Sindianet Zeidan, Mqaible, Akroum, Bezbina,
Wetland Chaqdouf
Agricultural lands in: Qobayat
These can be human-made wetlands for storage, irrigation, or even seasonally
flooded arable or farm land.

There, we observe three major tendencies of development for the study area:

1- Linear expansion along the main axes, notably the already exisiting
Abdeh-Halba, and the new Abdeh-Bebnine, Halba-Kouikhat, and Halba-
Khreibet el-Joundi (Map 17). This generates congestion along these axes,
slows down traffic and leads to the reduction of green spaces (agricultural
and/or wood lands) in these areas. It also leads to larger villages often
resulting in governance difficulties from underequipped and understaffed
municipalities;

Map 17: Linear expansion along the main axes and evolution between 2003 and 2013

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2- Urban sprawl and creation of urban continuum, notably for the localities
of Bebnine, Halba-Minyara, Takrit, Hrar, and Berqayel (Map 18). Similar to
linear expansion, urban sprawl also leads to the reduction of green spaces
(agricultural and/or wood lands) and to governance difficulties from
municipalities not prepared to manage wider agglomerations.

Map 18: Urban sprawl and creation of an urban continuum Minyara-Halba between 2003
and 2013

3- Scattered sprawl on agricultural and/or wood lands, notably between


Qleyaat-Halba and Halba-Machha (Map 19). This tendency is particularly
observed in the study area where a large proportion of the male population
(50% in some villages, such as Akkar El Atika and Fnaidek, according to
previous studies) retires from the army in their forties and after a service of
18 years and above. At retirement, each former soldier receives an amount
between $50.000 and $75.000, depending on his rank. In addition, he
receives a monthly payment between $750 and $900 following the same
logic. Another service offered by the army consists in a house loan where
soldiers can obtain around $83.000 to build a house or to buy an apartment
after paying a monthly amount from their salaries during the years of
service. They use all these resources to build unfinished basic houses (for
their family and their sons future families) mainly on their land32. This
results in constructions scattered all over the natural landscape. The
landscape gradually loses its rural character in favor of a coexistence

32Information obtained from an interview conducted with the president of the municipality of
Kherbet Char, Mr Shahir Mohammad, himself a former soldier.

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between green and low density built-up areas. The impacts of this scattered
sprawl are various:
a. The degradation of the rural landscape which loses its homogeneity and
identity;
b. A costly expansion of networks and services (electricity, water, garbage
collection, sewage network, asphalted roads) whose maintenance is the
responsibility of already burdened municipalities;
c. An increased travel and associated energy consumption.

Map 19: Scattered sprawl that appeared between 2003 and 2013on agricultural and wooded
lands

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8.4 Relevant sustainable development


projects for Akkar

8.4.1 Integrated Management of East


Mediterranean Coastlines project

Launched in 2005, the IMAC33 project, inscribed within the NPMPLT, aimed at
initiating a strategic sustainable development plan for Lebanons north coast.
The main objectives of this strategic project were to improve the standard of
living and the ecosystems health and to raise awareness on the benefits of
adopting an integrated coastal zone management in Lebanon and the Eastern
Mediterranean in general (Majal/ALBA/IUA, 2009). The framework proposed
by IMAC in the study and implementation of this strategic plan was an applied
approach that included the local agents in the development of their region.

The IMAC project issued a series of recommendations for its study area, each
regarding specific sectors of development (Majal/ALBA/IUA, 2009):

Table 24: IMAC recommendations for its study area

Valorization of the Akkar agricultural plains, acknowledging the biological


biodiversity of its agro-coastal ecosystem
Agriculture Protection of the Minieh agricultural plain from the extensive urban sprawl,
through municipal measures aiming at grouping the dispersed fabric into
delimited urban nuclei

Industry Development of the Abdeh site through the valorization of its harbor, and the
valorization of the preexisting railway line between Tripoli and Abdeh
Reactivation of the Ren MoawadAirport as commercial airport

Transport Reactivation, after its maintenance, of the railway line from Tripoli to Abdeh and
the construction of an extension, specifically dedicated to merchandises,
towards the Ren Moawadairport
Protection and valorization of the coast of Akkar, more specifically of the sand
Nature dunes and the salt pans of Qleyaat, through the prohibition of quarrying
activities
Protection of important archeological and heritage value sites

Heritage Insertion of the heritages sites located near the coast within the local and
regional tourist circuits on the level of the whole coast of North Lebanon, in
order to link the local circuits among each other

Fishing Implementation of aquaculture areas, in line with the NPMPLT


recommendations, along the coast of Akkar
Source: (Majal/ALBA/IUA, 2009)

33IMAC: Integrated Management of East Mediterranean Coastlines

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8.4.2 The Preliminary Master Plan for Upper


Akkar/Hermel Region

In 2011, the Society for the Protection of Nature in Lebanon (SPNL) produced
a report (SPNL, 2011, unpublished) aiming at developing a Master Plan for the
region of Upper Akkar Hermel.

The core of this Master Plan was the development of an ecotourism project,
Evergreen, located in close proximity to several sites of natural heritage (such
as the Qammouaa and the Karm Chbat forests). Evergreen was meant to be a
pilot project intended to revive the economy of the area by attracting tourists
and creating job opportunities for the local inhabitants. The project area was
then divided into five environmental zones, each subject to specific guidelines
for development and management (Table 25): Protected Habitat, Preservation
Zone, Outdoor Recreational Zone, Agricultural Zone, and finally a Service Zone
(SPNL, 2011, unpublished). Finally, the SPNL team elaborated an ecotourism
plan development and a business plan for the Evergreen project, as well as a
preliminary EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment).

Table 25: Environmental zones established by the SPNL Master Plan for its study area

Brief Relevant
Classification Guidelines for Development
Description Sites
Protected Contains a Sensitive Prohibited motorized vehicles
Habitat number of habitats, access and circulation
physiographic containing Provision of buffer zones and soil
and biotic endangered erosion prevention measures in case
features that are and/or the construction activities are taking
unique to the endemic place in the close proximity to such
area species areas
Prohibition of dumping of solid and
Protected liquid waste
areas Minimize air pollution during the
construction activities
Apply sustainable agriculture
methods
Visitors allowed access only
through the designated trails
Preservation Contains or Nesting and Any development activities should
Zone supports roosting site be scheduled for the summer period to
unique, for migratory avoid disturbance of migrating birds
threatened or and resident during migration period
endangered birds Re-vegetation, if necessary only
natural or by using native plants
cultural Rivers and Use of environmentally friendly
features, or are streams materials for construction of bird
among the best riparian watching huts as well as special
examples of the habitat consideration should be given to
features that design of huts and trails, that are not
represent a intrusive
natural region.

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Brief Relevant
Classification Guidelines for Development
Description Sites
Preservation is Prohibited motorized vehicles
the key access and circulation
consideration. Provision of buffer zones and soil
erosion prevention measures in case
the construction activities are taking
place in the close proximity to such
areas
Prohibition of dumping of solid and
liquid waste
Minimize air pollution during the
construction activities
Apply sustainable agriculture
methods
Visitors allowed access only
through the designated trails
Outdoor Accommodates Trails Provision of the adequate
Recreational a broad range Picnic infrastructure in the newly developed
Zone of opportunities Areas areas and improvement and upgrading
for Visitor of existing infrastructure
understanding, Center Enforcement and monitoring of the
appreciation Lodges adequate solid and liquid waste
and enjoyment Other disposal
of the area's recreational Direct access by motorized
heritage amenities vehicles is permitted
Agricultural Area is already Cultivated Provision of buffer zones and soil
Zone cultivated, and areas erosion prevention measures in case
as such could the construction activities are taking
serve as an place in the close proximity to
educational agricultural areas
platform in Prohibition of dumping of solid and
regards to liquid waste
sustainable Minimize air pollution during the
agricultural construction activities
practices and to Apply sustainable agriculture
be capitalized methods such as integrated pest
for the rural management and monitoring of
tourism application of fertilizers
Regular monitoring and control of
agricultural run off
Only service vehicles are allowed
Service Zone Areas Development Introduction of Integrated Waste
specifically Zones Management
allocated to
accommodate
the staff and
necessary
equipment

Direct access
by motorized
vehicles is
permitted.
Source: (SPNL, 2011, unpublished)

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9 SECTOR 9: ENVIRONMENT

9.1 Geology

In terms of geology, the study area has 13 outcropping formations, ranging from
the Recent Deposits to the Middle Jurassic. The geological formations
presented in the geology map (Map 20) belong to four main periods further
detailed in the following sub-sections, while Table 26 presents the stratigraphy
of the area and the main characteristics of each formation.

9.1.1 Jurassic
The Jurassic formations span from Middle Jurassic to Late Jurassic, exposed
along the axis of North Mount Lebanon Anticline. They cover an area of 132
km2 of the studied area, out of which 3 km2 are basalts and volcanic tuff, while
129 km2 are mainly composed of limestone rocks. The three outcropping
formations belonging to the Jurassic period are:
Kesrouan Formation (J4)
Bhannes Formation (J5)
Bikfaya Formation (J6)

9.1.2 Cretaceous
The Cretaceous formations span from Early Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous.
The Cretaceous formations cover 514 km2 of the study area, composed of
sandstone, limestone, and shale. The study area has four outcropping
formations belonging to the Cretaceous period:
Chouf Sandstone (C1)
Hammana Mdairej Abeih Formation (C2 C3)
Sannine Maameltein Formation (C4 C5)
Chekka Formation (C6)

9.1.3 Tertiary and Quaternary


The Tertiary and Quaternary formations span from Miocene to Recent Deposits.
The Tertiary and Quaternary formations cover an area of 650 km 2 of the study
area, composed of limestone, and alluvial/fluvial deposits. The study area has
four outcropping formations from the Tertiary and Quaternary periods:
Miocene Limestone Formation (mL)
Miocene Conglomerates (cg)
Pliocene Volcanic (BP)
Quaternary Deposits (Q

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Map 20: Geological formations of the study area

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Table 26: Stratigraphy of the study area

Formation Approximate
Period Code Main Characteristics
Name Thickness (m)*
Unconsolidated deposits
Cover the northeast of the
study area from the
QUATERNARY
Mediterranean Sea to the
Pliocene Volcanics
Quaternary
Q > 100 Composition: gravels, sands,
Deposits
pebbles, detritic silty fluvial
deposits, recent alluvials,
alluviums, pudding, fluvial
terraces, and raised river
terraces.
Outcrop north of the study
area, along the border with
Pliocene Syria
BP 250
Volcanics Composition: volcanic brecia,
basalts, and basalt
agglomerates
Outcrop in a small patch on the
TERTIARY

northwest of the study area


Miocene
Partly marly and highly
Conglomera cg up to 50
indurated (continental
tes
succession)
Composition: conglomerates
Outcrop on the west side near
the coast, in addition to small
Miocene
mL up to 100 patches along the Akkar Fault
Limestone
Composition: marls and
lacustrine limestone
Senonien age
Outcrops in small patches
along the Akkar fault system
Thin to medium bedded and
Chekka Marl C6 up to 50
highly jointed
Composition: chalky marl,
chalky marly limestone, and
sometimes siliceous limestone
Cenomanian Turonian
Highly jointed and karstified
CRETACEOUS

Outcrops in the center and east


Sannine of the study area
C4
Maameltein > 700 Composition: well bedded
C5
Limestone and dolomitic limestone with
occasional calcareous shale
intercalation, marly horizons
and marly limestone
Barremian to Upper Aptian age
Thin to thick bedded, stylolitics,
partly dolomitised, partly
Hammana
jointed and karstified
Mdairej C2
up to 150 Exposed along the boundary of
Abeih C3
the Chouf Sandstone
Formations
Composition: clastic
limestone, basalts, dolerites,
and tuff with agglomerates

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Formation Approximate
Period Code Main Characteristics
Name Thickness (m)*
The base of the Cretaceous
Highly jointed
Exposed along the boundary of
the Kesrouan formation
Chouf
C1 up to 75 Composition: cross-bedded or
Sandstone
thin to thick bedded and
massive sandstone with
intercalation of siltstone, clays
and shales
Kimmeridgian age
Karstified
Outcrops in small patches in
the middle of the study area
Bikfaya
J6 up to 80 Composition: massive to
Limestone
medium bedded limestone with
horizons of dolomitic
limestone, thin marly limestone
and chert nodules
Late Jurassic age
Outcrops along the boundary
JURASSIC

of the Kesrouan formation and


Bhannes the Chouf sandstone
J5 up to 40
Basalts Composition: basalts and
volcanic tuff accompanied with
in-bedded clastic and ooltitic
limestone, marls and shales
Batholian age
The oldest exposed formation
in Lebanon
Mainly outcropping in the
Kesrouan
J4 > 1000 middle of the study area
Limestone
Composition: massive
dolomitic limestone, highly
karstified limestone and some
marly horizons
* in the study area

9.2 Soils

In terms of soil types and classification, the study area has twelve (12) different
soil types; the characteristics of each along with their distribution in the study
area are presented in Table 27 hereunder, while the soil map is shown in Map
21.

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Map 21: Study area soil map

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Table 27: Major soil types present in the study area

Distribution within the


Soil Type Main Characteristics
study area
Luvisols are characteristics of forested regions;
identified by the presence of eluvial horizons and
illuvial horizons where silicate clay is accumulated. - North East of Akkar
Luvisols
They can also be characterized by the presence of - Scattered patches
a leafy, humus surface horizon that is separated in the center of
from the mineral horizon; a horizon eluviated of clay Akkar
minerals and a horizon at least 5 cm thick with
illuvial clays.
AnAnthrosol is a type of soil that has been formed
or heavily modified due to long-term human activity,
- Scattered patches
such as fromirrigation, addition of organic waste or
in the center and
Anthrosols wet-field cultivation used to createpaddy fields.
North of Akkar
Such soils can be formed from any parent soil, and
- Sir- Donniyeh
are commonly found in areas where agriculture has
been practiced for centuries.
- South of Akkar
ALeptosol is a very shallowsoilover hardrockor
- Scattered patches
Leptosols highly calcareousmaterial, or a deeper soil that is
in the middle of the
verygravellyand/orstony.
Akkar plain
Arenosols are sandy-textured soils that lack any
significantsoil profiledevelopment. They exhibit only
- Arida
Arenosols a partially formed surfacehorizon(uppermost layer)
- Mrebbine
that is low inhumus, and they are bereft of
subsurfaceclayaccumulation.
Cambisols are developed in medium and fine-
textured materials derived from a wide range of
rocks, mostly inalluvial, colluvialandaeolian - Abdeh and
deposits. Most of these soils make good agricultural surroundings
Cambisols land and are intensively used. Cambisols in - Akkar plain
temperate climates are among the most productive - Akroum
soils on earth. They are common in area with active - Fneideq
erosion where they may occur in association with
mature tropical soils.
AFluvisolis a genetically young soil in
alluvialdeposits. Apart from river sediments,
Fluvisols also occur inlacustrineandmarinedeposits.
- Halba and
Fluvisols The good natural fertility of most Fluvisols and their
surroundings
attractive dwelling sites on river levees and higher
parts in marine landscapes were recognized in
prehistoric times.
ARegosolis very weakly developed mineralsoilin
unconsolidated materials. Regosols are extensive
ineroding lands, in particular inaridandsemi-
- North East of the
Regosols aridareas and inmountainregions. The group of
Akkar plain
Regosols is a taxonomic rest group containing all
soils that could not be accommodated in any of the
other groups.
Andosolsaresoilsfound involcanicareas formed
involcanic tephra. In some cases andosols can be
- Northern part of the
also found outside active volcanic areas. Andosols
Akkar plain
Andosols are closely related to other types of soils such as
- South of Nahr Al
vitrosols, vitrandosols, vitrons and Pumice Soils that
Kebir
are used in different soil classification systems.
Poorly developed Andosols are often rich in vitreous

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Distribution within the


Soil Type Main Characteristics
study area
materials and are therefore also called Vitric
Andosols.
ACalcisolis a soil with a substantial secondary
accumulation of lime. Calcisols are common
incalcareousparent materialsand widespread
inaridandsemi-aridenvironments. Calcisols are - Adjacent to Abdeh
Calcisols
developed in mostlyalluvial,colluvialandaeolian area
depositsofbase-richweatheringmaterial. They are
found on level to hilly land in arid and semi-arid
regions.
AGleysolis a wetland soil (hydric soil) that, unless
drained, is saturated withgroundwaterfor long
enough periods to develop a characteristicgleyic
color pattern. This pattern is essentially made up of
reddish, brownish or yellowish colors at surfaces of
Gleysols - West of Fneideq
soil particles and/or in the uppersoil horizonsmixed
with greyish/bluish colors inside the peds and/or
deeper in the soil. They are found
indepressionareas and lowlandscapepositions with
shallow groundwater.
Lixisols develop on old landscapes in a tropical
climate with a pronounced dry season. Their age
and mineralogy have led to low levels of plant
nutrients and a high erodibility, making agriculture - East of Akkar Al
Lixisols
possible only with frequent fertilizer applications, Atiqa
minimum tillage, and careful erosion control.
Perennial crops are thus more suitable for these
soils than root or tuber crops.
Vertisols is a soil in which there is a high content
ofexpansive clay known asmontmorillonitethat
forms deep cracks in drier seasons or years.
Alternate shrinking and swelling causesself-
- North East of Akkar
Vertisols mulching, where the soil material consistently mixes
plain
itself, causing vertisols to have an extremely deepA
horizon (topsoil) and noB horizon (subsoil). This
heaving of the underlying material to the surface
often creates a microrelief known asgilgai.

9.3 Natural risks and vulnerabilities

Human society and the natural environment have become increasingly


vulnerable to natural risks such as flooding, landslides, desertification, and
seismic activity. An overview of the natural risks occurring in the study area are
presented in the sub-sections below.

9.3.1 Landslides

Lebanon is located in a relatively high seismic zone and has a rugged


topography, making it vulnerable to hazards from earthquakes and landslides.
The soils of Lebanon are easily eroded as a result of the steep slopes and

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intensive rainfall events; in addition to deforestation and reckless construction


activities that have aggravated the problem.

Landslides usually occur during earthquakes and/or heavy rain events. The
study area has witnessed several landslides, especially near uncontrolled
quarrying sites. A major landslide occurred in Beit Younes Akkar in 2012 after
heavy storms, which caused several buildings to shake and damaged 32
houses34.

Map 22 presents the erosion risk map of the study area; the high erosion risk
regions are located in the vicinity of the following villages: Berqayel, Btermaz,
Mrebbine, Fneideq, Rahbeh, Akkar Al Atiqa, and Machta Hammoud.

Map 22: Erosion Risk Map of the Study Area

9.3.2 Flooding

Floods are recurrent events in Lebanon during winter heavy rain periods when
river streams and water canals cannot contain the volume of rainfall due to the
lack of maintenance and adequate infrastructure.

34 Landslides put 32 homes at risk in Beit Younes, The Daily Star issue of 17 February 2012

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The study area has its share of flooding events, which result in roads blocking,
physical damages, health and safety accidents, and financial losses mainly
when agricultural products and households are affected. As shown in Map 23,
the most affected areas are the Akkar and Boqaiaa agricultural plains. Flooding
is a recurrent issue in Boqaiaa plain, along the Kabir basin, causing damages
along the river and losses to farmers. For instance in 1979 floods destroyed a
metallic bridge in the village of Arida, and in 2003 the river flooded neighbororing
villages, destroying several houses, damaging crops and causing the loss of
livestock (UN-ESCWA and BGR, 2013). More recently, in January 2013 about
1.500 tons of potato seeds were ruined during a flood of Nahr al-Kabir and
Ostwan Rivers and the total losses reached around 1,5 million USD35. Picture
10 shows images of flooding events in Akkar.

As a result, a two-meter-high flood protection wall was built over a distance of


4,5 km in the Boqaiaa plain to reduce flooding risks; nevertheless, regularly
occurring flash floods in the basin continue to cause significant damage to the
agricultural sector (UN-ESCWA and BGR 2013).

Picture 10: Flooding events in Akkar

35 Akkar potato farmers call for aid to replant seeds; Lebanon Opportunities issue of 28 January
2013

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Map 23: Flooding risks in thestudy area

9.3.3 Desertification

Lebanon comprises three Desertification Prone Areas (DPA): North Bekaa,


Akkar, and the South. Desertification risks for the country and the three DPA
are shown in Table 28below.

Table 28: Desertification risks (as % of total land)

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Land with very


desertification

desertification

desertification

desertification
Land with low
unproductive

Land with

Land with
moderate
land (%)

risk (%)

risk (%)

risk (%)

risk (%)
Urban/

high

high
Akkar 4.5 0.1 19.9 55 20.5

Hermel 3.4 0.5 19 60.6 16.5

Tripoli & Donniyeh 13.3 12.6 48.8 21.9 3.4

Lebanon 8.6 5.7 26.4 48.1 11.2

The table shows that Akkar has a higher percentage of land with very high
desertification risk than the national average as well as Hermel, Tripoli and
Donniyeh. The percentage of land in Akkar with a high desertification risk is also
highest after Hermel.

Land degradation in Akkar is the result of a combination of human activities


driven by poverty, lack of basic security, lack of awareness, inadequate
extension services, and lack of technical know-how.

The main human activities leading to desertification include:


Deforestation and overexploitation of woody resources, in particular fuel
wood and charcoal;
Uncontrolled use of fire for agricultural and forest clearing;
Unsustainable agricultural practices;
Poor irrigation practices and inefficient water use;
Chaotic urban sprawl on fertile lands and forests;
Uncontrolled disposal of solid waste and wastewater effluents; and
Quarrying.

The consequences of desertification are numerous, the main ones noted in


Akkar are:
Removal of forest and vegetation cover;
Overexploitation of available natural resources;
Increased tendency for slope failure, landslides, soil and gulley erosion;
Limiting natural potential, thus reducing production and making it
increasingly precarious;
Agricultural encroachment of fragile land;

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Increase in rural migration, resulting in land abandonment and neglect


of terraces; and
Increased pressure on the existing urban infrastructure.

9.3.4 Seismic activity

The tectonics of Lebanon are dominated by the northward motion of the African
plate with respect to the Arabian plate, with a velocity of about 6 mm/year.
Motion is accommodated principally by slip along the Dead Sea fault zone. On
a regional scale, the Dead Sea fault zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault, but
both strike-slip fault strands and normal-slip fault-strands have been
geologically mapped within the Dead Sea fault. Instrumentally recorded
earthquakes have been caused by both strike-slip faulting and normal faulting.
An earthquake catalogue for Lebanon has been recently compiled consisting of
instrumental seismic data (European- Mediterranean Seismological Centre;
U.S. Geological Survey) as well as historical earthquake data pertaining to the
seismic activity inside Lebanon and vicinity36.

A catalogue of historical and instrumental seismic records in this part of the


world, going back to BC 1365, had already been presented by Harajli et al.
(1994). This catalogue has been further completed and expanded to cover the
periods 2150 BC to AD 1896 for historical records and 1903 to 2009 for
instrumental records. These records are presented in the figures below.

36 Plassard & Kogoj, 1981; Ambraseys & Melville, 1988; Harajli et al., 1994; Mokaddem, 1994;
Khair et al., 2000; Gomez et al., 2003; Daron, 2005; Daron et al., 2007; Elias et al., 2007

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Figure 2: Large historical earthquakes along the Dead Sea transform fault (2150 BC - AD
1837)

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Figure 3: Instrumented earthquake events in and around Lebanon between 1903 and 1197
with a magnitude greater than 3.

Figure 4: Instrumentedearthquake events in and around Lebanon between 1998 and 2009
with a magnitude greater than 2, retrieved from the EMSC Euro-Med bulletin.

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A general seismic hazard map of the Middle East and Lebanon by the U.S.
Geological Survey is presented in Figure 5.

Figure 5: Seismic hazard map of the Middle East and Lebanon (USGS)

Following the discovery of the offshore thrust Fault System (a theory which is
still debatable), a study has been undertaken at the American University of
Beirut (Huijer et al., 2011) to upgrade the seismic hazard map of Lebanon,as
illustrated in Figure 6. The Akkar Study area lies between the 0,15 and 0,2 g
contours. According to the USGS instrumental intensity scale, this is classified
as strong in terms of perceived shaking and moderate in terms of potential
damage.

As for the study area in specific, the Akkar platform is separated from the inland
mountains by two sets of faults. The first set is trending in the north east
southwest direction called the Akkar Fault system, forming the southeastern
boundary; and the Yammouneh Fault System, forming the eastern boundary.

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Figure 6: Contourmap of peak ground acceleration (PGA) with a 10% probability of


exceedances in 50 years

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Map 24 below shows the seismic risks in the study area. As shown, there are
three (3) areas of high seismic risk:
1- Mchaaa Marjhin and Mazraat Jabal Akroum in Hermel;
2- Berqayel and surrounding in Minnieh-Donnieh; and
3- The stretch from Abdeh to Jdeidet El Qayteh in Akkar.

Map 24: Seismic risk in the study area

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9.4 Water resources


EL KABIR RIVER
The study area is rich in water resources including
numerous springs; huge underground lakes, such as in the
Flows from east to west over an Joumeh area; and several rivers. There is no published data
approximate distance of 52 km
about the overall quantities of water resources in the area;
Rises from numerous karstic springs however a research published by IDRC in 2003 states the
and wadis (about 70 perennial following One of the most intriguing findings of our research
springs)
is that, arguably, there is an ample supply of water in the
Divided into four geomorphological Akkar region to meet perceived needs for the foreseeable
zones: 1.Upper catchment mountain;
future37, but stresses on the need to sustainably manage
2.Intra-mountainous Bqaiaa Plain;
3.Central plateau/gorge; 4.Coastal these resources.
cross-border Akkar/Hamidiyeh Plain
Main tributaries on the Lebanese side
Moreover, an assessment of the surface and groundwater
are Wadi Khaled, Es-Safa and Chadra resources in Lebanon is currently being conducted by the
MoEW and the results areexpected to be published soon.
Basin covers 954 km2, 26% lie in
Lebanon and 74% in Syria The sections below provide a description of these resources
based on available data and published studies.
In Lebanon, water in the basin is
mainly used for domestic purposes
and irrigation 9.4.1 Surface water
There are two main irrigation schemes
9.4.1.1 Rivers
in the area: the Bqaiaa Plain (990 ha)
and the Machta Hassan/ Machta Out of the 26 most important perennial rivers in Lebanon,
Hammoud/ Chadra lands (730 ha)
eight are in the North and four within the study area: El
Water quality is a serious issue in the Kabir, Ostouan, Arqa, and El Bared (Map 24).Rivers
basin
lengths and flow data measured over different periods of
Water & sediments analysis in 2001- time are presented inTable 29below.
2002 showed high levels of nitrate-
nitrogen, phosphates, nitrite, and
El Kabir is the longest river, has the highest flow rates and
coliform bacteria
traces the northern border of Lebanon with Syria. Being a
There are no dams in the Lebanese transboundary river, it has been the subject of several
part of the basin but one is planned in
Noura Al Tahta.Dam
studies, contrary to other rivers in the area,namely The
Akkar W atershed in Syria and Lebanon, a research funded
by IDRC and the Inventory of Shared Water Resources in
Western Asia published by UN-ESCWA and BGR in 2013
(refer to Box).

37 IDRC, 2003. Institutions for Transboundary Rivers: The Akkar Watershed in Syria and
Lebanon. CadhamHayes Systems, NCRS Lebanon, GORS Syria

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Table 29: Lengths and flows of major rivers within the study area

River Length (km) Period Average Flow Max Flow Min Flow

El Kabir 58 2008 -2010 8.37 52.44 0.26


Ostouan 44 2000 - 2012 0.20 7.47 0.00
1967 - 1974 1.53 6.94 0.60
Arqa 27
2002 - 2012 1.73 9.47 0.39
1967 - 1974 5.66 18.11 0.24
El Bared 24
2002 - 2011 5.16 22.85 0.26

9.4.1.2 Watersheds

An ongoing study about water resources in Lebanon has identified about 68


river watersheds throughout the country; eight of these watersheds are located
in the study area (Map 26).

Map 25: Major rivers map

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Map 26: Rivers watershed map (numbered)

9.4.1.3 Lakes and dams

Two dams are located along the course of El Bared River, creating two lakes, and
feeding two hydropower stations established in 1936 38 (Picture 11). The first station
is located at the Moussa Dam and consists of one plant with 4,5 MW installed
capacity6. The Moussa Dam is located 20 km from the river source in the village of
Oyoun El Samak, which lies between the cazas of Donnieh and Akkar, and creating
the Oyoun El Samak Lake (Khalaf et al. 2009). The lake is one of the most visited
sites in the study area. Water flowing from Upper Donnieh springs feeds the lake,
which covers an area of 50.000 sqm, then continues to combine with the tributaries
of El Bared River39.

The second station is located at the Rawda Dam and consists of two plants with
4,5 MW installed capacity each. The Rawda Dam is located 26 km from the river
source in the village of Rawda, and is surrounded by narrow agricultural plains
surmounted by the village of Jdeidet Al Qayteh, creating a lake known as Bared
River Lake (Khalaf et al. 2009) with a water holding capacity of 37 Mm3(Comair,
2010).

38 EDL website www.edl.gov.lb


39 National News Agency, 2012. " "

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Picture 11: Bared hydropower plants (Moussa and Rawda)

Moreover, in the 1970s the MoEW created a 230.000 m3 artificial lake in the
Kouachra village in Akkar40, which irrigates approximately 900.000 m2 of
agricultural land41. The lake is currently being rehabilitated and expanded to
hold up to 350.000 m3.

Picture 12 below shows photos of the lakes present in the study area.

Picture 12: Lakes in the study area

Oyoun Samak Lake Bared River Lake Kouachra Lake

40 The Daily Star, 1999. Projects underway to quench Akkars thirst


41 National News Agency, 2013. Bassil kicks off works to rehabilitate Kwashra Dam in Akkar

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9.4.1.4 Wetlands

There are seven wetlands in Lebanon, three of which are considered particularly
significant in terms of waterbirds according to A Rocha42: Lake Qaraoun, Cheikh
Zennad and Aammiq. The Cheikh Zennad site, located on the coast of Akkar
about a half km inland from the Mediterranean, is a series of derelict salt pans
rich in mudflats (Picture 13)

Picture 13: Cheikh Zennad wetland

(Source: SMAP III Final Workshop Marseilles: ICZM Policy Note- Making the Case for
Protecting Cheikh Zennad Lebanon, 2009)

Little information is available on this wetland that has been classified as an IBA
as mentioned in Section 9.6.2.2.1.1.

42 Sprenger A., 2002-2003. International Waterbird Census Report for Lebanon, A Rocha
Lebanon

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9.4.2 Groundwater

In terms of geology and hydrogeology, four main aquifers exist in the area: the
Quaternary (Q) heavily exploited in the Akkar Plain the Jurassic (J4), the
Cretaceous (C4-C5) karstic formations, and the Miocenes (mcg, mL) (refer to
the Geology Map in the Geology section). Table 30 below presents the
hydrostratigraphy of the study area and the main characteristics of its aquifers
and aquicludes. However, these water resources are still not adequately
exploited and properly managed to meet the needs of residents, especially
during the summer periods.

Qammouaa, a plain located on a plateau above the villages of Fneideq and


Akkar el Atiqa, is one of the most important groundwater recharge areas that
feeds the springs and groundwater resources of the region; the protection of the
region has even been the subject of several legislative texts. In 2010, a
Hydrological Analysis and Vulnerability Mapping of Qammouaa was
conducted43. The study area defined as the Qammouaa watershed was
considered part of the Kabir river watershed in the rivers watershed map. The
study based the Qammouaa vulnerability assessment on seven measurable
factors: depth to water, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography,
impact of the vadose zone, and hydraulic conductivity. The study classified the
area as follows in terms of aquifers vulnerability to pollution:
28% with High Vulnerability
67% with Medium Vulnerability
4.4% with Low Vulnerability

The results show that the Qammouaa area is threatened by various pollution
sources (solid waste, wastewater, pesticides, etc.), and prompt measures must
be taken to prevent pollution sources from reaching the groundwater aquifers.

43 MORES, 2010. Hydrological Analysis and Vulnerability Mapping of Qammoua and the
Surrounding Area

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Figure 7: Qammouaa and surroundings classes of net recharge and vulnerability maps

Table 30: Hydrostratigraphy of the study area

Formation Aquifer
Period Code Main Characteristics
Name Type
QUATERNARY

Major porous medium


Quaternary Semi-
Q Groundwater might percolate to
Deposits Aquifer
and from the underlying aquifers

The volcanic layer acts as an


Pliocene Pl Aquiclude aquiclude with small quantities
TERTIARY

of water in fractured zones

Porous medium aquifer


Miocene
mcg Aquifer Water might leak to the
Conglomerates
underlying aquifer

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Formation Aquifer
Period Code Main Characteristics
Name Type

Acts as an important karstic


aquifer under favorable
Miocene conditions
mL Aquifer
Limestone Groundwater is stored and
transmitted in fractures and
conduits

The marls of this sequence act


as an aquiclude separating
Chekka Marl C6 Aquiclude
major aquifers above and below
this unit

Combining those limestone


formations to create one of the
major water towers in Lebanon,
it is widely exposed and highly
Sannine karstified
Maameltein C4-C5 Aquifer
Major recharge of this aquifer is
Limestone
from snow
Groundwater is stored and
CRETACEOUS

transmitted in fractures and


conduits

Hammana Groundwater percolating from


Abeih Aquiclude the upper unit is trapped at the
Formations marls, and volcanic rocks act as
C2-C3 an impermeable layer
Mdairej Semi- Aquifer under favorable
Formations Aquifer conditions, especially in the
karstic limestone units

Porous medium aquifer allows


the passage and minor storage
of groundwater
Chouf Semi- Volcanic rocks and clay
C1
Sandstone Aquifer horizons act as impermeable
layers with perched
groundwater build up above
them

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Formation Aquifer
Period Code Main Characteristics
Name Type

Groundwater might leak to the


underlying formations through
fractures because of structural
disturbances
Bikfaya Semi- Acts as an important karstic
J6
Limestone Aquifer aquifer under favorable
conditions
Groundwater is stored and
transported in fractures and
conduits

Divided into two units: Basalts


and Limestones
Bhannes Areas of volcanics are taken as
J5 Aquiclude
Basalts a single unit while the
JURASSIC

Limestone unit is considered as


one major aquifer with the J4

One of the major water towers


of Lebanon
Intensely and deeply karstified
to the lower units
One of the widest exposed
karstified units in Lebanon
Kesrouan Exposed thickness around
J4 Aquifer
Limestone 1,000 m
Dolostone and dolomite are
mostly found in north and south
Lebanon
Groundwater is stored and
transmitted in fractures and
conduits.

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9.4.2.1 Springs
The study area has more than 250 low flow springs with average minimum discharge rates ranging
discharge rates ranging between 0 and 380 liters/sec.

Map 27 below shows the location of the 26 major springs, based on their
average minimum discharge rate, and Table 31 lists the major 10.

Table 31: Ten major springs within the study area

Spring Name Average Minimum Discharge (liters/sec)

Nabaa El Bireh 380

Nabaa Ras El Nahr 368

Nabaa Brissa 327

Ras El Ain 213,5

Nabaa El Haour 162

Ain El Bardeh 98

Ain El Aarous 79

Ain El Dibb 76

Nabaa Fneideq 71

Nabaa El Sirwane 66,7

9.4.2.2 Wells

The study area has 35 public wells and more than 700 licensed private wells.
Existing public wells were established between 1965 and 2005 and are mainly
concentrated in the Joumeh (46%) and High Dreib (29%) areas. The NLWE is
fully responsible for 86% of the wells, while the rest are under the responsibility
of either the municipality or a local water committee. Depths of wells vary
between 120 and 450 meters, and their discharge varies between 132 and
2.655 m3/day when operational.

All public wells in the area are seasonal, water is mainly pumped during the
summer season and used for drinking and domestic purposes.

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Map 27: Springs and wells map

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9.4.2.3 Geothermal sources

Geothermal groundwater (warm


water) exists in Lebanon in several
localities44 (Figure 8), as springs or in
deep boreholes, but have not been
exploited yet. Geothermal waters fall
into two major categories: hot springs
which can be exploited for medical
purposes or recreational and touristic
resorts; and hot (or warm)
groundwater used for electrical
power generation and considered a
potential renewable energy source.
In this context, a Geothermal
Resource Assessment of Lebanon is
currently ongoing in order to prepare
a Geothermal Atlas for the country
and estimate the current overall
potential of geothermal heat and
power generation. The SSRDP/ SEA
study will be updated accordingly Figure 8: Geothermal sources in Lebanon
following the release of the
Geothermal Atlas of Lebanon.

Geothermal sources are spotted as hot/warm water sources or hot gas vents.
The spotted sources occur as surface water or are drilled in a subsurface
stratum, yet they are both of groundwater origin and can be classified as follows:

1- Surface geothermal sources:


A number of springs and seeps are present in Akkar; however, many of them
have dried up as a result of groundwater overexploitation, or are unprotected.
Ain El Samak is the most known hot spring in the region discharging more than
1 liter/sec with an average temperature ranging between 50 and 65 C.
As for marine sites, three water springs and gases have been detected in
Lebanon out of which a site in Abdeh known to local fishermen. Bubbles of warm
water are spotted at the site with a temperature of about 38C while the
surrounding water temperature is about 22,5C.

44 Shaban A., Khalaf-Keyrouz L., 2013. The geological controls of geothermal groundwater
sources in Lebanon. NCSR, NDU, International Energy and Environment Foundation.

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2- Subsurface geothermal sources:


Subsurface geothermal waters mainly occur in deep rock stratum and are
discovered when boreholes are dug or when they overflow along weak surfaces
such as faults. In Lebanon, they appear in drilled wells; hot water and gases
have been observed in several drilled boreholes in Akkar at variable depths.
The most known well was drilled in the 1970s, reaching a depth of 550 m; the
water had a temperature of about 70C and a high sulfur content.

The Geothermal Atlas of Lebanon, an ongoing project in collaboration between


UNDP and the MoEW, is expected to provide further details about geothermal
sources in Lebanon and the potential for generating geothermal power.

9.4.3 Water quality

Analysis of water quality in Akkar has been the subject of various articles and
sampling campaigns at river basins, the coastal stretch, and interior villages in
the Akkar Plain. The sections below show the results of three different analysis
campaigns in 2001-2002, 2004, and then 2011. The results of these
assessments show that the available water resoucres are polluted mainly from
uncontrolled sewage disposal and agricultural practices.

As part of the Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia (UN-


ESCWA and BGR, 2013) a sampling and analysis of water and sediments
campaign was conducted in the Kabir basin in 2001-2002. The campaign
covered the Upper Kabir area, Boqaiaa Plain, Chadra, and the corresponding
coastal plain around Arida. Results (detailed in Table 32), showed the following:
Prevalence of nutrient pollution with high levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-
N), phosphates (PO4-P), and nitrite (NO2-N) resulting from the overuse
and misuse of agricultural fertilizers;
Exceedances in coliform bacteria as compared to international guidelines
whether for drinking, irrigation or bathing resulting from uncontrolled
disposal of untreated sewage;
Increase in Electrical Conductivity (EC) values towards the coastal plain
as a result of intensive irrigation practices;
DDT parent compound in the river sediments at higher levels than its
residual compound DDE, indicating that this banned substance was still
being used as an insecticide in 2001-2002 in agricultural areas within the
watershed;

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High levels of the heavy metals chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in
sediments, indicating anthropogenic enrichment that can be attributed to
small-scale leather tanning and metal plating industries in the watershed;
Traces of oil products from fuel tanks;
Detection of nutrients and coliform bacteria in certain springs, indicating
that contamination through localized upstream land use practices may
already have reached the aquifer; and
Presence and spread of an invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia sp.),
known as Zahret el Nil in Arabic. The plant cloggs waterways throughout
the river course, blocks sunlight and oxygenation of aquatic organisms,
disturbs river flow causing flooding events, and creates a prime habitat for
mosquitoes which are a potential vector of disease.
Table 32: Mean salinity, nutrients, bacteria and heavy metals in the Kabir Basin (2001-2002)

Salinit Heavy
Nutrients Coliform Bacteria
y Metals
(mg/l) (cfu/100 ml)
(s/cm) (ppm)
PO4 - NO3 NO2 Total Fecal
EC Cr Ni
P -N -N Coliform Coliform

Upper 1,15
470 8.02 0.58 0.03 173,609 18,684 375
Kabir 0

Boqaia 15.8
520 0.04 0.05 64,056 29,489 702 459
Regio a Plain 2
n
15.0
Chadra 510 0.03 0.02 39,756 18,177 513 562
5

Coastal 17.6
670 0.08 0.08 37,500 19,924 686 515
Plain 4

443
0.05 0 0 306
10 0 0
Total Range 26,999,80 1,890,00
680 15.6 0.15 1,15
31.4 0 0 640
0
International

In the order

0 (drinking
Guidelines

(Irrigation)

(irrigation)

120 (world

80 (world
(bathing)

average)

average)
of 0.001

10,000
water)
1,000
<700

0.1

0.2

Source: Inventory of Shared Water Resources n Western Asia (UN-ESCAW and BGR, 2013)

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The State of the Environment Report 2010 states that the majority of Lebanons
rivers have unacceptable levels of raw sewage contamination reflected in high
levels of total coliform and E.Coli counts. The report presents water quality data
for both El Kabir and El Bared rivers assessed in the period extending from July
to September 2004. The results, presented in Table 33 show exceedances in
BOD, Total Coliform, and E.Coli.

Table 33: Quality parameters for selected rivers in the dry season

Total
BOD NO3 TDS SO3 E. Coli
River Coliform
(mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (c/100 mL)
(c/100 mL)
El Kabir 14.4 3 270 20 900 20

El Bared 28.2 2.8 225 28 610 17

Limit
Nil* 50* 600* 250* 500** 100**
Value
*WHO (2006) **MoE Decision 52/1
Source: Houri et al. 2007 in SOER 2010

Another sampling campaign was conducted in May 2011 (Baroudi et al. 2012)
with the objective of determining pesticides (nitrates and nitrites) levels in
groundwater of the Akkar plain. In order to cover coastal and interior cultivated
area, the following nine sampling sites were selected:

1. Arida 6. Knaisseh
2. Cheikh Zennad 7. Massoudieh
3. Kobet Chamra 8. Tall Bibi
4. Haret al Jedideh 9. Semmaqieh
5. Qaabrine

Results indicated nirate contents higher than the allowable limit of water for
human consumption (50 mg/L) in all samples; as for nitrite, only two samples
met the standard value of 0,1 mg/L. Detailed results are presented in Graph 16.
The high concentrations observed can be explained by the intensive use of
fertilizers and the decreased ability of soil degradation.

The analysis included the assessment of the concentration of 11 different


pesticides in the samples as well. Results showed that the concentrations
exceeded the European Council Drinking Water Directive 80/778/EEC
allowable limits and that fungicides and insecticides are the most commonly
used pesticides.

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Graph 16: Concentrations of nitrate and nitritein sampled location


Source: Baroudi et al. 2012

9.5 Quarrying

Quarrying activities in Lebanon have always been critical. On one side, quarries
are needed to support the construction sector, especially following wars, and
have to be located within reasonable distance from construction sites in order
to reduce transportation costs. On the other hand, they have become a major
environmental threat and nuisance to the population due to their proximity to
populated areas, encroachment on forestry or agricultural areas, and presence
in geologically and hydrogeologically sensitive areas.

The number of quarry sites in Lebanon has always been in an increase at the
expense of green spaces. Between 1996 and 2005, the number of quarries
increased from 711 to 1.278 with a simultaneous increase of quarried land from
2.875 to 5.283 ha (Darwish, et al., 2010). Remote sensing data from 2005
showed that 21,5% of quarries were distributed on forestland/arable land while
32,4% of quarries were detected on scrubland-grassland (NCSR, 2010).

The geological wealth of the region and the pressure of the construction sector
led to the development of a number of quarries in the area mostly in an
uncontrolled way. Remote sensing data coupled with surveys undertaken by
MoE in 2006 within the framework of the ABQUAR Project (Alleviating Barriers
for Quarries Rehabilitation in Lebanon) showed that 34 rock quarries are
present in the study area: 24 in Akkarand 10 in Minnieh. Data about these quarry
sites can be found in Table 80.

According to official correspondences with the MoE in February 2014, there are seven (7)
seven (7) active and licensed quarries in the study area shown in

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Map 28.

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Map 28: Licensed and active quarries


Source: MoE

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During the site visits conducted in the Hermel area in July 2013, two additional
active rock quarries were noted in El Khirbeh (Picture 14) and Wadi El Arich,
and one active sand quarry in the region in addition to several abandoned and
un-rehabilitated sand quarries.

Picture 14: Active quarry sites in Hermel

Due to institutional weakness and the absence of a national policy, most


Lebanese quarries have not taken environmental considerations into account
during exploitation. Lack of management of the quarrying sector is leading to air
and noise pollution, traffic and accidents from overloaded trucks, groundwater
contamination, severe visual impacts, loss of green spaces, and increase in
erosion risks and landslides. These impacts are further aggravated by the
absence of restoration activities.

An assessment of quarrying activity on natural ecosystems (NCSR, 2010)


based on loss of soil resources, impact on vegetation cover, risk of groundwater
contamination and proximity to settlements shows that the majority of quarries
located in the area of study are classified as having a medium impact, two are
considered as having high impacts and about 8 as having a low impact.

Owners of quarry sites use the loopholes of the permitting system to start
excavation and blasting on a site while requesting a construction permit or even
a site enhancement permit (terracing, rehabilitation for agricultural purposes
, etc.) as such permits are easier to obtain than quarry permits. Once
the permit is granted, the site is overexploited and abandoned without
rehabilitation; some abandoned sites are then used for dumping of solid waste
such as in Fneideq and Beino.

Map 29: Risk assessment of quarries in Lebanon on natural resources

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9.6 Biodiversity and natural ecosystems

9.6.1 Protected areas

9.6.1.1 Categories and management of


protected areas in Lebanon and the
study area

In addition to the ratification45 of the United Nations Framework Convention on


Climate Change (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), Lebanon has signed and ratified
several international conventions intending to protect vulnerable habitats and
conserve ecosystems and biodiversity (refer to Table 81 for a detailed list of
ratified conventions). Designating protected areas is one of the steps towards
the recognition of the ecological, patrimonial and cultural national heritage.
Since the establishment of the MoE in 1993, Lebanon has witnessed an
increase in the number of PAs46. However, while PAs benefit from legal
recognition, their management remains a complex issue involving several

45 Ratified on August 11th, 1994 by Law no.359


46 According to the 2010 SOER protected zones in Lebanon cover 21.970 ha.

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stakeholders various ministries, the municipalities, non-governmental


organizations, scientific institutions as well as local communities (MoE, 2006)
in a multifaceted decisional process, often difficult to pursue. According to the
MoE (MoE, 2006), the state of the existing classification system for Protected
Areas in Lebanon reveals an overall lack of a structured and national
categorization of Protected Areas. It identifies [] five groups of protected sites
designated by different national authorities with no clear rationale of criteria for
such grouping47. A sixth category regroups areas in need of protection and a
seventh category concerns the sites protected by the UNESCO (for further
details refer toTable 81). The PAs available in the study area are listed in Table
34.

In addition to the legal texts listed in Table 34, there are two draft laws for the
creation of nature reserves in the study area: Qammouaa and Donnieh Juniper
forest. The project law related to the creation of a nature reserve in the
Qammouaa area is still pending cadatral delimitation, approval of the proposed
reserve borders by concerned municipalities, and then approval of the Council
of Ministers. The draft law establishing the Donnieh Juniper nature reserve,
including parts of public lands in the villages of Jayroun, El Qorn, Kfarbebnine,
Mrebbine, and Qammamine, was prepared by the MoE and transferred to the
Council of Ministers on March 5th, 2013 and is pending approval.

47 Moreover, Arabic terminology did not follow pace with international nomenclature (MoE, 2006).

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Table 34: List of available decisions for protected areas in the study area

Authority/NGO Legal text Targeted zone Designation Content Status


Ministry of Ministerial Decision All governmental lots are subject to Legally
Karm Chbat Nature reserve
Environment no.14/1 of 1995 natural reserves regulations protected
Qammouaa forests protection and
Ministry of Legally
Decision no.19/1 of 2002 Qammouaa --- initiation of the process for the
Environment protected
declaration of a protected area
Legally
Decision no.165 of 1991 Qammouaa National Hima ---
protected
Legally
Decision no.588 of 1996 Qammouaa Protected forest Cedar, Cilicia Fir, and juniper forest
protected
Legally
Decision no.589 of 1996 Karm Chbat Protected forest Cedar, Cilicia Fir, and juniper forest
protected
Cedar, Cilicia Fir, juniper, oak,
Legally
Decision no.591 of 1996 Bazbina Protected forest Aleppo oak, and Quercus infectoria
protected
Ministry of Oliv. forests
Agriculture Cedar, Cilicia Fir, juniper, oak,
Ain Al Hokaylat, Al Keif Kirnet and Legally
Decision no.8 of 1997 Protected forest Aleppo oak, and Quercus infectoria
Shalout (Donniyeh) protected
Oliv. forest
Jord Al Njass Al Arbaeen Legally
Decision no.9 of 1997 Protected forest Cedar and juniper forest
mountain (Donniyeh) protected
Legally
Decision no.10 of 1997 Sfineh village Protected forest Cedar and Aleppo oak forest
protected
Legally
Decision no.11 of 1997 Mrebbine Wadi Jhannam valley Protected forest Cedar, Cilicia Fir, and juniper forest
protected

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Authority/NGO Legal text Targeted zone Designation Content Status


Ministry of Legally
Decision no.198 of 1993 Qammouaa Touristic site Natural landscape
Tourism protected
Higher Council of Decision issued in Declaration of the Qammouaa as an Legally
Qammouaa ---
Urban Planning 22.02.2006 area under study protected
Limits North: Wadi Jhannam;
South West: Brissa, Nabaa
Makhatirs Letter to the MoE issued Creation of a nature reserve over
Sukkar; South East: Mazraat Nature reserve
request in 2002 10,000,000 m2 of governmental lots
Jourd Mghrebine and West:
Donniyeh village
Designation through
municipal decision in
collaboration with Al- Locally
Karm Chbat Maabour al Abyad Hima ---
Jaafar tribe and the protected
support of the MoE in
2010
Municipalities
Designation through
Locally
municipal decision in Qobayat Hima ---
protected
2010
Designation through
Locally
municipal decision in Andqet Hima ---
protected
2013
BirdLife Fnaideq, Wadi Jhannam, Important Bird Areas Internationally
International Qammouaa and Mishmish (IBAs) recognized

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In response to this complex management process, the NPMPLT advised the


MoE to establish, in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture, a framework
law on the protected areas in Lebanon, introducing a distinction between the
notions of protected sites, protected reserves, national parks and regional
parks (Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) - IAURIF, 2005). The NPMPLT also
recommended this Law to define the notions of confined and wide perimeters
of preservation.

Back in 1996, the MoE launched the Protected Areas Project (PAP, 1996
2002) setting the framework for PAs management in Lebanon. At the first
stages of PAP, management of protected areas was in the hand of local NGOs
under the supervision of MoE, as the MoE was newly developing. PAP mid-term
evaluation highlighted the limited managerial and financial capacity of NGOs,
and therefore suggested a transfer of site management to a Government
Appointed Committee (GAC) established through a decision from the Minister
of Environment. The GAC comprised volunteer representatives from local
environmental NGOs, municipalities, and some concerned ministries as well as
technical experts and advisers, hence involving more stakeholders in PAs
management. This management approach, the MoE-GAC-MT model, involved
three main entities in management: 1) the MoE; 2) the GAC; and 3) a
Management Team (MT). The MT, contracted by the GAC in coordination and
approval by MoE and supervisedby the GAC, had the responsibility to
implement the management plans of corresponding PAs. The MoE through the
PAP project produced a first draft of the PAs Law in 2002.

Later on, the SISPAM project (MoE/EC-LIFE/UNDP 2004 2006), following a


participatory approach (consultative meetings, round table, national workshop),
aimed at revising and improving the existing MoE-GAC-MT model, at reviewing
the best practices in Protected Areas management, and assessing their
applicability to Lebanon, and at creating a more stable and pragmatic
structure overlooking site-specific issues to concentrate on the national
identity of Protected Areas (MoE, 2006).The 2002 version of the draft PAs Law
was thus amended and improved by the SISPAM project that was closed in
2006, and the amended draft law was approved by the Council of Ministers in
2012 and transferred to the Parliament through decree No. 8045 dated
25/4/2012.

At that time, the CDR upon an official request to MoE and approval from MoE,
further amended and improved this Draft Law on protected areas. The
amendment was done through the ADELNORD project and in close
coordination & collaboration with MoE and was based on the classification of

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the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), with the aim of
setting a comprehensive definition of PAs categories in Lebanon including the
category of Natural Park and how it is created. Thedraft Law was recently
submitted to the Parliamentary Committee for the discussion and approval of its
latest amendments. TheDraft application Decree subsequently developed,
which is currently under review, sets the legal framework for Natural Parks
objectives, classification, management, and financing mechanisms,making it
possible for the bodies managing future natural parks to apply for loans and to
work with the private sector.

9.6.1.1.1 Definition and relevance of the Natural Park


In 2005, the NPMPLT identified the forests of Akkar, Upper Hermel and Upper
Donniyeh as an entity with exceptional landscape and biodiversity assets (Dar
Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) - IAURIF, 2005). Based on the exceptional
quality of the natural areas of this region, the preservation status of this zone
and its very low urbanization rate, the NPMPLT suggested the establishment
of this entity as a Natural Park.

In addition to the exceptional landscape and heritage features detailed in Sector


5, the area is also home to a rich biodiversity. It hosts three major and drastically
different eco-zones the Mediterranean (West and North), the Alpine (high
altitudes of the North of Mount Lebanon) and the Irano-Turanian (North of the
Bekaa valley) as shown in Map 31 and embraces four Mediterranean
vegetation zones the Euro-mediterranean, the Supra-Mediterranean, the
Mountainous Mediterranean and the Oro-Mediterranean (ECO-MED, 2013).
The morphological differences between plain and mountains within the region
lead to a diversity of climate, hydrology, soil and vegetation; all of which are
considered assets for agricultural production and tourism.

Forests cover 21% of the Akkar-Hermel Caza area, an extent considered to be


the largest continuous forest cover in Lebanon, sheltering various forests
species (Cilician fir, hop-hornbeam, Turkish oak, Brutian pine, Cedar, Juniper,
Calabrian pine, evergreen oak) often showing relict populations (ECO-MED,
2013). The area is also home to most of the Lebanese flora thriving at altitudes
ranging from 1.200 to 2.100 meters with around 420 plant species (of which 17
are endemics) (Sattout, 2007 in (ECO-MED, 2013)). Moreover, the study area
shows no less than 294 bird species (of which 9,5% are under threat) either
present in the area or passing through especially during migratory dispersion
and/or the breeding season (ECO-MED, 2013). Finally, the study area is home
to 69 species of mammals (of which 18 are considered seriously threatened of
extinction) (ECO-MED, 2013). Designated as a national hotspot for biodiversity,

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the study area therefore justifies the Natural Park48 (NP) perimeter identified in
the NPMPLT. Indeed, this perimeter harbors the key representative forest
communities of the North Lebanon governorate and is considered as the green
reservoir of the area sheltering high rates of genetic, specific and ecosystemic
diversity (Cluchier, 2013).

On the other hand, being considered as one of the most deprived regions in
Lebanon with high rates of illiteracy and marginality, the caza of Akkar
witnesses unsustainable practices and a lack of environmental awareness
which in turn have led to various natural and anthropogenic misdeeds. These
have turned the area into one of the most ecologically threatened regions in the
country: uncontrolled over-hunting, overgrazing, cultivation, deforestation,
groundwater table pollution, open dumping of solid waste and the
encroachment of construction projects into wooded areas ( (MADA Association,
2009) and (ECO-MED, 2013)).

Thus, forests are heavily impacted by engrained anthropogenic practices and


are expected to experience a significant shift in bioclimatic level from sub-humid
to semi-arid if climate change scenarios were to become a reality. This will
radically challenge the survival of the species and considerably affect forest
stands, where C. libani, A. cilicica, Q. cerris and J. excelsa have also been
identified as having the lowest natural adaptive capacity to current and future
climate trends (Sattout & Nemer, 2008; MoE/GEF/UNDP, 2011). Fnaideq and
Karm Chbat forests along with open areas are increasingly exposed to
overgrazing, logging, agricultural encroachment and hunting. Another example,
as shown in Map 29, is the localities of Sir ed Donniyeh, Qarsita, Beit el Faqs,
Sfireh, Btoumaz, Tarane, Chmis, Haql el Aazime, Haoura, Debaal, and
Qozhaiya (all of these localities are considered in the NPMPLTs Natural Park
delineation) which have significantly expanded between 2003 and 2013. This
expansion occurred over woodedland/scrubland, and tends nowadays to form
an urban continuum.

Fire events caused by amplified drought periods and/or human hostilities are on
the other hand very common in Qobayat and Andqet, both harboring dense
populations of pine and oak. Temperature increases and changes in rainfall

48
After coordination between representatives of the MADA Association and MoE, it appeared that
the MoE questions both designations of National and Regional Park proposed in the NPMPLT,
and proposes one common denomination: Park. The MoE justifies this new denomination by
stating that the relatively small surface area of Lebanon does not allow for such a distinction
between National and Regional Park.

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patterns are obviously affecting natural dynamics, ecosystems survival, as well


as water availability.

Map 30: Urban sprawl and creation of an urban continuum around the city of Sir ed Donniye

Thus, the study area is in urgent need of conservation and calls for the
sustainable management of its resources, the protection and the rehabilitation
of its archaeological sites. The designation of a protected area the Natural
Park (NP) within the study area is a first step building the path towards
conservation efforts and is crucial for several reasons:
Preserving and protecting the area from degradation;
Offering considerable potential for socio-economic development and
poverty alleviation through income generation from ecotourism;
Establishing clear public, private and governmental cadastral
boundaries; and
Attracting investors to the region.

However, the implementation of the NP faces a number of constraints:


Unclear land ownership, in particular authority over the forests (this
issue already creates conflict between municipalities);
Weakness of legal protections;
Unsustainable and illegal activities practiced by certain tribes and
political parties: uncovering cannabis plantations, deforestation

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practices and stocks of arms during the process may lead to opposition
of the NP project by local populations;
Inappropriate land management;
Lack of municipal funds and technical expertise for the implementation
and management of the NP;
Absence of a legal framework regulating the establishment,
management and financing modalitiesfor Natural Parks. The Draft Law
on PAs, defining Natural Parks and their establishment procedure, is in
the endorsement process while the Draft Decree related to PAs which
defines management and financing mechanisms is still in the process of
development and review.

9.6.1.1.2 Delineation of the Natural Park

In the NPMPLT, the area of the NP, only schematically delineated, was not
meant to include villages and roads, but was limited to a core zone with very
strict regulations in the matters of urban and roads development (Dar Al-
Handasah (Shair & Partners) - IAURIF, 2005).

Map 31: Schematicdelineation of the Natural Park in the NPMPLT

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However, in addition to its exceptional natural and landscape assets, the area
also possesses a rich historical and cultural heritage49, both representing
potential tourist destinations. This lead MADA to propose the extension of the
NP project over inhabited zones with potential for protection and conservation
initiatives, areas dedicated to agro-pastoral activities, as well as areas for socio-
economic development (MADA Association, 2009). Therefore, MADA50 started
a set of initiatives aimed at setting a framework for the establishment of a Park
over a pilot area presenting the following time-frame:
In 2000/2002, MADA delineated a biodiversity/avifauna study area going
from the south of Qobayat, including the Qammouaa, all the way down
to the north of the Donniyeh region. Initially, and in order to preserve the
continuity of the ecosystems, this study area also covered the western
part of the Hermel region. However, the tribes of Hermel hardly
recognize the authority of the municipalities, and MADA, unable to
establish contact with a unique spokesperson, finally decided that this
part would not be included in their pilot area. The Qammouaa also
represents an area of conflict between the municipalities of Akkar el-
Aatiqa and Fneideq who fail to agree on their respective administrative
boundaries;
In 2004/2005, together with initial discussions with the CDR regarding
the Park, MADA expanded its pilot area, now also including the
municipality of Qobayat;
In 2006, MADA signed protocols of cooperation with the municipalities
of Fneideq, Hrar, Mishmish, and Qabaait towards the elaboration of a
Charte du parc and the definition of priorities for future land use. This
Charte du parc, through its action plan, will open the door to a better
management of natural resources and remarkable cultural heritage of
the region;
The Federations of Municipalities of Jord el Qayteh and el Joumeh were
then added to the pilot area, now covering an area of 101 km2 that might
be extended to other municipalities upon the approval of the Charte du
parc;
The presence of villages and towns within the territory of the park will
result in its division into several areas in order to maintain and develop
human activities, all while causing the least possible stress on the

49Refer to Sector 5 for a detailed survey of the historical and cultural sites in the area.
50
MADA as an NGO has carried out the necessary studies to propose a framework for the
establishment of a Park over a pilot area. The final perimeter of the NP must be defined and
approved by the concerned administrative authorities that undertake the administrative & legal
procedures for the legal establishment of the National Park (NP). According to MADA, the
implementation of a NP in the Akkar region is mostly dependent on a certain political will which is
an essential ore-requisite for its creation.

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environment. From that perspective, in a report presented in 2007 and


in association with MADA, the Environmental Council of Qobayat
(Conseil de lEnvironnement de Qobayat) (Georges, 2007) proposed the
following five subcategories of land use allocations:
1. A core area for CONSERVATION, virtually uninhabited,
corresponding to the location of the unique landscapes; this zone
would include both the existing reserves of Qammouaa and
Karm Chbat, and should be subject to strict preservation
measures;
2. A peripheral zone at the edge of the core area including 14
municipalities51 and around 27,000 to 33,000 permanent
inhabitants. In this zone, a policy based on supporting local
development while respecting environmental features and
characteristics should be formulated and implemented. This
peripheral zone could be itself divided into several areas (each
with its own degree of strict measures) for AGRICULTURE,
AGRO-SYLVO-PASTORAL ACTIVITIES, URBAN
DEVELOPMENT, and REMEDIATION.
In 2008, the Rhne-Alpes region (France), organized a visit to France
inviting MADA along with representatives of different governmental
agencies. This visit resulted in the creation of two Park committees: a
Technical Park Committee (TPC) with technical persons mandated from
the municipalities of Fneideq, Akkar el Aatiqa, Qobayat, Hrar and a
Steering Committee (SC) gathering the head of these municipalities.
While the TPC has an advisory role, the SC has a decision role and
MADA is in charge of the coordination towards the Park.

The delineation of the NP will mainly be determined by the municipalities willing


to be part of the protected area. Apart from the cities and large urban areas, the
entirety of the Upper Akkar region can be included within the NP, provided that
the territory of the NP (Cluchier, 2013):
Covers a large rural area including exceptional natural, cultural, and
heritage assets requiring conservation;
Presents promising opportunities in reconciling its economic
development and the conservation of its natural, cultural, and heritage
assets;
Includes one or several areas under supervised management, one or
several areas respecting the principles of sustainable development and

51 Qabaait, Hrar, Mishmish, Fneideq, Akkar el-Aatiqa, Qobaiyat, Btermaz, Kfar Bibnine, Sfire,
Tarahe, Tshea, Menneaa, Bezbina, Ain Yaaqoub.

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one or several areas dedicated to conservation. Regarding the latter, it


is difficult at this stage to delineate particular areas of conservation.
However, the project team highlights that the forests protected by
decisions of the MoA deserve more attention, particularly those of
Bazbina, Andqet, Akroum, Fnaideq, Qammouaa, Kfarbenine, Jayroun,
and Karm Chbat.

Since the territory of the NP should respect a coherent pattern, the project team
suggests integrating a grid made of several criteria geomorphology and
environmental criteria, governance-related issues with both administrative and
legal aspects, as well as development and planning related issues along with
the delineation resulting from the municipalities willingness to be part of the NP
(Table 35).

Table 35: Additional criteria for the delineation of the Natural Park area

Category Criteria
- Altitude and topography
- Green/Forest cover: categories and types
Geomorphology - Biodiversity and ecosystems: existing/endangered
and environment - Endemic species: location and status
- Natural corridors
- Water reservoirs and sources, rivers
- Administrative boundaries
Governance, legal - Private/public limits
- Tribal/municipal disputed areas
and administrative
- Existing/potential entities that can manage/sustain
preservation at the local and national levels
- Development dynamics/trends of rural areas
-
Development and Areas where development should be reoriented
- Activities that can be developed/tolerated/limited or
planning
excluded
- Location of activities that can sustain preservation

9.6.1.1.3 Recommendations for the establishment of the Natural Park

Several recommendations and comments concerning the future NP, its


establishment and management, can already be outlined:
The tool to plan and manage the NP could correspond to the French
planning tool SCOT (Schma de Cohrence Territoriale): a planning
document that determines, at the scale of several municipalities or
groups of municipalities, a regional project aimed at making urban

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planning policies, housing policies, and mobility policies consistent in a


protected and valued natural and built environment52;
Since the park covers parts of the districts of Akkar, Donniyeh, and
Hermel, it would be relevant for management issues to study the
possibility of implementing a management plan specific for the park, and
not included in the SSRDP;
It is crucial to implement the concept of sustainable development in the
NP area and to encourage inhabitants to adopt it while maintaining their
culture, traditions and values. Hence, the inhabitants should be able to
answer touristic requirements while creating an internal economic cycle:
reuse the profits of tourism in the local economy. The inhabitants will
also have to refrain from practicing unsustainable activities.
Natural resources will have to be exploited by the inhabitants of the NP
area, thus creating two economic scales:
o At the national and regional levels, the NP will create in/out
touristic flows along with their own economy;
o At the local level, the NP will empower the inhabitants to work
and live in the NP area in respect to sustainable development.
The proposed Preliminary Master Plan for Upper Akkar/Hermel Region
published in 2011 by SPNL (refer to Sector VIII Urban Planning)
encourages the team of experts to promote active participation and
support of the local communities in order to (SPNL, 2011, unpublished):
o Identify priority development needs;
o Support environmental awareness among the local citizens; and
o Involve local citizens in the responsible management of the
Natural Park.
Finally, the Federation of Municipalities of the Haut-Metn, having signed
a Charte de Territoire Durable in October 2013 along with the
assistance of the Rgion le-de-France and in partnership with the
CGLU/BTVL, proposed the following methodology for the development
of such a Charte (Fdration des Municipalits du Haut-Metn, 2013):
o First step: elaboration of a territorial diagnosis in order to define
a coherent territory and to identify its strengths and threats;
o Second step: identification of the sustainable stakes to be
included in the Charte;
o Last phase: drafting of the Charte and its ratification by the
participating municipalities;

52http://www.territoires.gouv.fr/spip.php?article3230 on 2013-05-24

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From the work accomplished by the Federation of Municipalities of the Haut-


Metn, the following recommendations relevant to the establishment of the
Natural Park of Akkar can be suggested (Fdration des Municipalits du Haut-
Metn, 2013):
The creation of the park will be possible only after the municipalities
reach an agreement on the Charte and, following the future Law on
protected areas, propose it to the MoE. The Charte will then be annexed
to the Local Planning Plans;
The implementation of the park will not be possible without the strong
involvement of the central government in order to create a sound legal
framework (including enforcement) and a strong management
mechanism for the park. It is necessary that this framework gives more
prerogatives and resources to municipalities, especially regarding
firefighting, control of quarrying and deforestation, etc.;
The central government should facilitate access to the financing of
municipal projects. It should also hand over to the corresponding
Municipalities their Municipal Investment Fund.

9.6.2 Biodiversity

9.6.2.1 Introduction

ECO-MED (ECOlogy and MEDiation) is in charge for ELARD of the ecology


section of the Strategic Sustainable Development Plan for the region of Akkar
and the areas of Upper Hermel and Upper Donniyeh (AUHUD Region).

For the purpose of this study, ECO-MED has missioned two experts of
complementary scientific and ecological skills who both have a strong
experience in Lebanon:
M. Alexandre CLUCHIER, expert in Fauna of the Western Palearctic
region,
M. Paolo VARESE, expert in natural habitats, flora and forest
management of Mediterranean and arid environments.

The cazas of Donniyeh, Akkar and Hermel have a very important floral and
faunal biodiversity and several ministerial resolutions provide special protection
or regulate some of the natural sites in this region, especially in forest stands.
The aim of this report is to emphasize the knowledge in flora, fauna and natural
habitat conservation and management in the region. Major ecological corridors
are located in this region and special attention is given to forest and pasture
sustainable management.

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9.6.2.2 Biodiversity issues in Akkar, Upper


Hermel and Upper Donnyieh region

The Akkar, Upper Hermel and Upper Donniyeh region (AUHUD region) is
characterized by its biogeographic position at the crossroad of several
bioclimatic zones. This small territory (96,220 ha) encloses three major and
drastically different eco-zones: the Mediterranean (West and North), the Alpine
(high altitudes of the North of the Mount Lebanon) and the Irano-Turanian (North
of the Bekka valley), and therefore encloses representative species - including
endemic species - and natural habitats for each eco-zone.

Map 32: The major biogeographic eco-zones of the study area

9.6.2.2.1 Natural habitats of the AUHUD region


For better international integration, the natural habitats typology and description
follow the EUNIS natural habitat hierarchical classification53. These habitat
types are under legal designation at the European level, but the EUNIS
classification is an important reference for the entire Mediterranean basin. This
habitat classification system relays Paleartic and CORINE Biotope habitats
typologies.

53http://eunis.eea.europa.eu/habitats.jsp

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Coastal and halophytic habitats


(EUNIS A, B1, B2, and B3 habitats)
This category of habitats groups together marine habitats, coastal dunes and
sandy shores, coastal shingle and rock cliffs, ledges and shores.

Very little data is available for the region in terms of coastal and halophytic
habitats; the published and available data consist of two theses undertaken on
the estuary of El Kabir River (Dagher, 2001) and the sand coastal site of Cheik
Zennad (Dardas, 2000), in addition to Mouterde's classic Flora (1983) and
Thom & Thom (1997). Other endemic halophytes are known and present in
Lebanon but are mainly found in southern regions (Hepper & Zahrredine, 2000):
Pancratium maritimum, Vagaria parviflora,Astragalus berytheus, Centaurea
procurrens, Crepis aculeata, Crocus aleppicus, Gagea dayana, Launaea
tenuiloba, Maresia pulchella, Rumex occultans (maybe extinct according to
Mouterde, 1983), Trifolium billardieri, Matthiola crassifolia, and Lotus cytisoides.

Salsola kali is a good biological indicator of coastal grassland and halophytic


communities (Dardas, 2000) and allows for the mapping of such habitats (for
example near the salty water ponds of Talhayat). Coastal and halophytic
communities are heavily disturbed throughout Lebanon. Natural sites are rare
and characterized by degraded anthopogenic communities. In coastal lagunas
near Cheik Zennad (Dardas, 2000) Juncus acutus makes up the coastal
grasslands (E3.1); the Cheik Zennad area is known as an important bird area
(IWB, Sprenger, A Rocha report, 2003) and was once singled out by special
protection measures (ICZM Policy Note, 2009).

At present no information about inland halophytic habitats is available for the


AUHUD region.

Picture 15: The coastline near the estuary of Arqa River

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Source : N.FARAH, 14/08/2013, Qobbet Chomra

Freshwater habitats
(EUNIS C1, C2, and C3 habitats)
This category of habitat regroups surface together standing waters (C1), surface
running waters (C2) and coastal zones of inland surface water bodies (C3).
Riverine trees and shrubs communities are described in the Forests section
below.

In the Akkar plain, large surfaces are covered by Arundo donax communities
(C3.32); other habitats are: sparsely vegetated river gravel banks (C3.55) and
short Mediterranean amphibious communities (C3.421) with Cyperus species
(Cyperus longus, Cyperus fuscus). Typha beds (C3.23) are present near many
rivers, especially with Typha australis (= Typha domingensis) communities, but
Typha latifolia communities are common in Lebanon. Mentha spp. communities
(Mentha longifolia is common in mountain zones) and Nasturtium officinale with
small helophytes beds (C3.11) are present in many mountain and hill areas. Still
or slow running waters sometimes host aquatic habitats with Potamogeton
nodosus or Ceratophyllum demersum communities, but the data concerning
northern Lebanese aquatic vegetation communities (C1.23, C1.33, C1.34,
C2.18, C2.19, and so on) is very sketchy.

This report focuses on the four main rivers of Akkar: El Kabir, El Bared, Arqa
and Ostouan. The riverine habitats of the four rivers are heavily degraded, with
the occurrence of many nitrophilous species. Stand structures (development,
age, stratification, composition, etc. of all plant groups) degraded by fires, shrub
and tree cutting, erosion, and illegal waste dumping lead to habitat degradation
and deterioration of water quality.

El Kabir River

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This rivers estuary is analyzed in an AUB thesis (Dagher, 2001) along with
other coastal zones. A percentage of the Kabir riverine habitats is occupied by
Arundo donax stations and synantropic communities, while Equisetum
telmateja and Juncus articulatus communities are present on clay humid
sediments. No other data is actually available but more interesting and rare
species and habitats could possibly be found in the upper and middle zones of
this river. Regarding aquatic species for example, Mouterdes flora (1983)
indicates the presence of Najas delilei on the Syrian side of the river: this
presence is to be confirmed on the Lebanese side.

El Bared River
This river located in Akkar presents sparse woody vegetation along its banks
(see hereinafter) with an important coverage of Arundo donax and Arundo plinii
communities. Typha australis occupies the most humid terrestrial sites with
Mentha spp. in mosaic with grasses such as Polypogon monspeliensis and
Paspalum paspaloides on the sands. Many allogenous plants like Ricinus
communis, Conyza bonariensis, and Bidens frondosa are present in its riverine
habitats.

Arqa River
Pioneer grasslands like Paspalo-Agrostidion communities are present on the
river banks. Grasses are dominant (Agrostis stolonifera, Paspalum paspaloides,
etc.)with a sparse presence of Salicaceae shrubs. Nitrophilous sand
communities with Xanthium strumarium occur in mosaic with Arundo donax and
with Typha australis communities on large surfaces.

Ostouan River
Nitrophilous and thermophilous vegetation like Onopordion communities are
present in mosaic with Arundo donax and Arundo plinii communities. Extensive
pasture grasslands are present in the adjacent plain.

Picture 16: El Baredriverine communities in the low valley and in the plain of Akkar

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Source: N.FARAH, 14/08/2013, El Rihaniyeh

Sclerophyllous and temperate shrubs


(EUNIS: F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F9 habitats)
This category of habitats groups together temperate and mediterranean-
montane scrub, temperate shrub heatland, maquis, arborescent matorral and
thermo-mediterranean bushes and garrigue, spiny mediterranean heaths
(phrygana) and riverine and fen scrubs.

Sclerophyllous shrubs are mainly present in the mediterranean eco-zone at


lower altitudes (thermo-mediterranean and meso-mediterranean bioclimatic
zones in Quercus calliprinos, Quercus ithaburensis, Ceratonia siliqua, Pistacia
palaestina, Pinus brutia and Phyllirea media diffusion areas). Relevant
biological indicators for this habitat are species such as Hypericum thymifolium,
Juniperus oxycedrus, Cistus creticus, Cistus salvifolius, Fumana arabica and
Salvia triloba.

The dominant species stations present in this region are: Sarcopoterium


spinosum, Calicotome villosa and Spartium junceum.

The Sarcopoterium spinosum shrubs are very common from low to high altitude
in phrygana with bioclimatic high diversity (F5.5, F6.6 to F7.3). Degraded former
wooded lands are today mostly covered with Calicotome villosa shrubs
(F5.515). Spartium junceum shrubs (F5.4) grow in former agricultural lands with
invasive Rhus coriaria shrubs present on the side of roads or near human
establishments.

Temperate shrubs are present in the mountain areas of the cazas of Akkar and
Donniyeh. Berberis libanotica scrubs are widespread at mountain and oro-
mediterranean levels, in degraded wooded lands and above forest limits.
Rosaceae dominant shrubs are present at mountain and supra-mediterranean

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levels in post agricultural lands. The most common species in this pioneer
habitat are Prunus ursina, Crataegus monogyna, Rubus and Rosa spp. Phlomis
chrysophyla shrubs are scattered in degraded wooded lands, for example
between Sfireh and Kfar Bebnine. All these shrub communities are currently not
included in the EUNIS vegetation types classification, but can be ecologically
assigned to F3.1 and F3.2 categories.

East Mediterranean phryganas (F7.3) are present at high altitudes (generally >
1.900 m.): these communities are rich in Astragalus species such as Astragalus
cruentiflorus, Astragalus dictyocarpus, Astragalus sofarensis and Astragalus
kurnet-es-sauda (Sattout, 2007; Stephan et al., 2012). Astragalus gummifer
communities are mostly found in sandy areas where snow coverage is
persistent.

Picture 17: Rhus coriaria invasive shrubs (left) and Calicotome villosa, Sarcopoterium spinosum and
Cistus spp communities (right) in abandoned agricultural and degraded wooded land landscapes

Source: P.VARESE, 30/07/2013, Sir El Donniyeh and Bazbina

Natural and semi-natural grasslands


(EUNIS: E1, E2, E3, E4, E5, E6, E7 habitats)
This category of habitats groups together dry grasslands, mesic grasslands,
seasonally wet and wet grasslands, alpine and subalpine grasslands, woodland
fringes and clearings and tall forb stands, inland salt steppes and sparsely
wooded grasslands. Natural and semi-natural grasslands are present at
different altitudes ranging from the coastal zone to the high altitude oro-
mediterranean level.

In areas of the alluvial Akkar plain near the coastline, overgrazed by cows and
sheep (E3.1), Juncus acutus forms coastal grassland communities for which
sufficient information is currently not available. At thermo-mediterranean and
meso-mediterranean levels, xerophitic perennial grasslands (E1.434) in arid

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sites are characterized by Hyparrhenia hirta, Botriochloa ischaemum and


Oryzopsis miliacea in mosaic with Cistus, Sarcopoterium and Calicotome
shrubs and in alternance with therophytic sub-nitrophilous grasslands formed
by Bromus, Aegylops, Lagurus and Trifolium annual species (E1.61). In the
Hermel zone, steppic and therophytic rich grasslands need to be characterized
with more precision.

In deeper soils, frequently starting from the supramediterranean level up to the


oro-mediterranean level, Hordeum bulbosum forms high development
grasslands (not yet identified in the EUNIS classification) especially in basalt
and clayey soils on limestone soils. At the mountain level, particularly on rocky
limestone slopes, Sesleria anatolica and Festuca indigesta subsp. pinifolia form
open or nearly closed pioneer grasslands (E4.4). Stipa fontanesii, Melica
angustifolia and Melica ciliata can occur on dryer sites. Poa bulbosa subsp.
vivipara is very common in all these grassland communities. At higher altitude,
insufficient data exists on oro-mediterranean grasslands: persistent snow-
coverage grasslands (E4.1) are characterized by species such as Alopecurus
gerardii, Romulea nivalis or Ranunculus chionophilus.

Picture 18: Littoral and mountain grasslands: an important resource for agriculture

Source: N.FARAH, 14/08/2013, El Rihaniye and P. VARESE, 29/07/2013, Qammoua

Picture 19: Snow-patch sites and dry grasslands in Hermel mountain slopes

Source: P. VARESE, 30/07/2013, Hermel

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Picture 20: Sesleria anatolica pioneer grasslands on limestone rocky slopes and Hordeum bulbosum-
Astragalus gummifer communities on basalt soils

Source: P. VARESE, 29/07/2013, Nabaal el Soukkar and Brissa

Fens
(EUNIS: D4, D5, D6 habitats)
This category of habitats groups together base rich fens and calcareous spring
mires, sedge and reedbeds and inland saline and brackish marshes and
reedbeds.No data is available on calcareous fens and hygrophilous or meso-
hygrophilous plant communities in the region. Plants like Carex flacca,
Eleocharis palustris, Schoenus nigricans or Blysmus compressus (at high
altitude) are present in north Lebanon, but knowledge about this region is not
sufficient to illustrate these vegetation types.

Rocky habitats and caves


(EUNIS: H1, H2, H3 habitats)
This category of habitats groups together terrestrial underground caves, cave
systems, passages and water bodies, screes and inland cliffs, rock pavements
and outcrops.Inland cliffs, rock pavements, outcrops and screes communities
are found in the thermo-mediterranean zone to the high altitude oro-
mediterranean level At low altitude, Scariola triquetra is common on the rocks
with thermophilous other species while at mountain level the heliophilous rocky
communities are characterized by species such as Aubrietia libanotica,
Rosularia kesrouanensis, Rosularia libanotica or Hypericum pallens. In shaded
rocks,at high altitude, live Arabis caucasica, Saxifraga scotophila (Akar Al
Atiqa), and Umbilicus intermedius with ferns like Phylittis scolopendrium.
Adianthus capillus-veneris is found in humid rocky sites. Other Crassulaceae
species like Sedum palaestinum, Sedum tenuifolium or Sedum album alsolive
in rock debris (Sattout, 2007).

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Picture 21: Cliffs and screes near Nabaa el Soukkar Mountain and rocky habitats near Qammouaa

Source: P. VARESE, 29/07/2013, Nabaal el Soukkar and N. ANTOUN, Qammouaa

Forests
(EUNIS: G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 habitats)
This category of habitats groups together broadleaved deciduous woodland,
broadleaved evergreen woodland, coniferous woodland, mixed deciduous and
coniferous woodland and lines of trees, anthropogenic woodlands and recently
felled woodland.

An important number of recent studies (El Hajj et al., 2012 and 2013; Jomaa et
al., 2007; Koepsell et al., 2012; Saadhieh et al., 2011; Sattout, 2007; Stephan
et al., 2011 ) provide good knowledge of forest vegetation in the study area.
Classical geobotanical papers (Abi Saleh et al., 1974, 1976, 1988) give a
general overview of Lebanese forest communities and the dynamic relations in
the forest landscapes (vegetation series). In northern Lebanon, species like
Abies cilicica, Ostrya carpinifolia or Quercus cerris are at the southern limit of
their range and other species (Pinus brutia, Cedrus libani, Juniperus excelsa
and Juniperus foetidissima) often show relict populations; these facts reinforce
the need for forest biodiversity conservation in this region.

The following table summarizes the forest communities in the study area while
a further detailed assessment of existing forest communities is presented in the
Forest biodiversity management section.

Table 36: Forest communities in the AUHUD region

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EUNIS
Forest Category Dominant Trees
Classification
Palestinian oak forests Quercus calliprinos F5.114 G2.13

Turkish oak forests Quercus cerris G1.75


Other oak broadleaved Quercus infectoria, Quercus G2.135
forests ithaburensis, other Quercus spp. G1.75
Hop-hornbeam forests Ostrya carpinifolia G1.74
Platanus orientalis, Salix spp, Alnus
Riverine forests G1.38
orientalis
Brutian pine forests Pinus brutia G3.75

Cypress forests Cupressus sempervirens G3.91

Cilician fir forests Abies cilicica -

Cedar forests Cedrus libani G3.9C


Juniperus excelsa, Juniperus
Juniperus spp forests G3.93
foetidissima, Arceuthos drupacea

Picture 22: Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) Stands and Plane Tree (Platanus orientalis) Riverine
Forest

Source: P. VARESE, 29/07/2013, Sir Donniyeh and Bared river

Picture 23: Pinus brutia and Cedrus libani stands

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Source: P. VARESE, 29/07/2013 and 30/07/2013, Wadi Sirreh valley and Souaisse-Hermel

Picture 24: Cilician Fir (Abies cilicica) and Turkish Oak Forest (Quercus cerris)

Source: P. VARESE, 29/07/2013 and 28/11/2012, Qammouaa and Fneideq

Protected forests in the study area


Recognizing the ecological, patrimonial and cultural values of Akkars
ecosystems, local communities, municipalities and ministries have set the path
towards the designation of several protected areas in the region. This process
has led to the establishment of:
1. Legally protected forests:
Qammouaa:
National Hima (decision 165/1991 issued by MoA)
Protected forest (decision 588/1996 issued by MoA)
Protection of the Qammouaa forest and initiation of the process
towards its designation as a nature reserve by the MoE (decision
19/1 issued on 11/3/2002)
Area under study (for two years) by the Higher Council for Urban
Planning (decision dated 22/2/2006)
Touristic site (decision 198/1993 issued by MoT)

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Draft Law by the MoE to declare the Qammouaa as a nature


reserve, pending cadastral delimitation of the reserve and approval
of the borders by concerned municipalities followed by the Council
of Ministers.
Karm Chbat:
Nature reserve (decision 14/1 issued on 6/10/1995 by the MoE)
Protected forest (decision 589/1996 issued by MoA)
Mrebbine - Wadi Jhannam: Protected forest (decision 11/1 issued by
MoA and published on 17/1/1997 based on the law 85 of 24/7/1996)
Jayroun, El Qorn, Kfarbebnine, Mrebbine, Qammamine: Proposed
nature reserve: Donnieh Juniper Nature Reserve- A Draft law has been
prepared by MoE and transmitted to the Council of Ministers on March
5, 2013.
Bazbina: Protected forest (decision 591/1996 issued by MoA)

2. Locally protected areas:


Designation of three Himas through municipal decisions:
Hima Karm Chbat - Maabour el Abyad (declared in collaboration
with Al-Jaafar tribe and the support of the MoE) declared in 2010
Hima Qobayat declared in 2010
Hima Andqet declared in 2013

3. Internationally recognized areas:


Designation of the forests of Fneideq, Wadi Jhannam, Qammouaa and
Mishmish as IBAs by BirdLife International

Cultivated fields, orchards and agricultural land vegetation


(EUNIS I1, FB1-4)
These semi-natural or artificial vegetation units have a rich therophyte and
bulbous flora in traditionally cultivated fields and orchards (such as olive
groves), especially in drylands. In Lebanon, the spring flora in cultivated fields
is composed of Papaver, Anthemis, Aegilops and Adonis spp, Chrysanthemum
coronarium, Orlaya platycarpos, Nigella arvensis, Anemone coronaria. At the
local level, Centaurea cyanoides (in Qammouaa valley and Qobayat), Tulipa
agenensis and Gladiolussegetum have been identified in previous field surveys.
Tulipa aleppensis was also found in the study area (Sattout, 2007, Sattout et
al., 2012); in Akkar and Donniyeh mountains, Eryngium creticum facies are
common on the edge of cultivated lands and in abandoned fields.

Picture 25: Olive grove and little mountain fields with traditional cultivation

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Source: (P. VARESE, 28/07/2013 and 29/11/2012, Beino and Sfireh)

9.6.2.2.2 Floral biodiversity


Data about floral biodiversity in Lebanon can be found in classic works on
Lebanese flora such as the Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie by Mouterde
(1983) and the Illustrated Flora of Lebanon (Tohm & Tohm, 2007); more
information is available on the recent Lebanon flora website54, a web project
that might become an online reference for the Lebanese floristic chorology.
More specifically, the flora of the study area has been described by Sattout
(2007), Mada (2008 & 2011), Stephan et al. (2011), and Kasparek & Stephan
(2012).

In Sattouts (2007) inventory, 420 speciesare mentioned. This inventory covers


the mountain zones in the central and western parts of the study area.
Consequently, data on the Akkar plain and its surroundings, the Kabir valley
and Hermel sector is scarce.

Information and data management


For a good management process of botanical biodiversity, the establishment of
a geo-referenced database is recommended along with periodical update of the
taxonomy; this is essential in order to know the species dynamics and provide
efficient measures for conservation management. Three information levels of
precision can be conceived (increasing precision from 1 to 3):
1. Occurrence in the locality territorial limits : the precision can range
between 1 and 10 km, depending on the localitys surface
2. Occurrence near a location (precise sub-council toponym): the
precision can usually be < 1 km

54 www.lebanon-flora.org

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3. Occurrence recorded with a GPS receptor (precise field record): the


precision can usually range between 1 and 25 meters.

It is important to create a standard operating procedure for flora surveys and to


extend the sampling of data in all future projects relating to forestry, agronomy,
natural habitat or flora study: a protocol and survey sheet can be agreed upon
and adopted. Although the study area is not particularly affected by biological
invasions of alien weed plants (except the Akkar littoral plain), it is very valuable
to survey alien plants susceptible to become problematic weeds in the future
and to establish a reference on their land occupation. A black-list or grey-list
is not currently available for weeds in Lebanon and it is still unknown whether
species such as Ailanthus altissima, Ricinus communis, Conyza canadense or
Conyza bonariense are problematic for biodiversity conservation in the study
area.

Remarkable botanical biodiversity management


The inventory of Sattout (2007) suggests the presence of 17 endemic species
of flora in the AUHUD region; other data (Stephan et al., 2011 and Kasparek &
Stephan, 2012) upgrades this point of view and requires several considerations
on the relationship between the status of endemic, rare, and endangered
species for biodiversity conservation. It is therefore important to specify the
effective rarity or biological value of these species by an in-depth knowledge of
local and national distribution as well as data on chorology and conservation
ecology. The implementation of IUCN categories and criteria (IUCN, 2001) is
useful within the scope of:
CR: taxa with critical danger of extinction
EN: endangered taxa
VU: vulnerable taxa
NT: nearly threatened taxa (taxa near the vulnerability threshold that can
be endangered in the absence of conservation measures)
LC: low concern taxa (taxa with low disappearance risk)
DD: deficient data taxa (taxa with no possibility of evaluation because
available data is scarce.)

With regards to the IUCN conservation policy, another important international


reference is the report Important Plants Areas (IPA) of the south-eastern
Mediterranean basin (Radford et al. red., 2011): this synthesis identifies the
IUCN botanical target species in the south-eastern Mediterranean sector by
national inventory reports. For Lebanon, the national report (Yazbek et al.,
2011) indicates two IPA in the study area: LB06: Menjez and LB07: Qammouaa-
Donniyeh-Jurd Hermel.

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A cross-work between IPA, Sattouts inventory (2007) and other available


botanical data can identify a preliminary list of interesting endemic species in
this region. This list is presented in Table 37 below.

Table 37: Taxa identified in the study area by Sattout (2007) and IPA work

Taxon Chorology Known places

Acantholimon
** Marjhine-Hermel (T.&T), Qammouaa
antilibanoticum Mout.

Acantholimon libanoticum
** Jairoun (K.&S.), Qammouaa
Boiss.

Allium chloranthum Boiss.


* No available data
var montanum Mout.

Asperula libanotica Boiss. * Qammouaa, Quemmamine

Qammouaa (T.&T et M.), aboveSir el


Astragalus angulosus D.C. *
Donniyeh (M)

Astragalus dictyocarpus
** Qammouaa, West of Fneideq (M)
Boiss.

Astragalus kurnet-es-
* No available data
Saudae Eig.

Astragalus sofarensis
* Mishmish
Thibaut

Qammouaa (Lebanon-Flora.org)
Aubrietia libanotica Boiss. ***
Quemmamine, Jairoun (K.&S.)

Berberis libanotica Ehrenb. ** Very common in all the study area

Corydalis solida (L.) Swartz Hermel, Qobayat (T.&T.), Qammouaa


*
var. brachyloba Boiss. (Chouchani et al., 1975)

Cousinia libanotica D.C. * Nabaa Soukkar (T.&T)

Galium libanoticum Ehren. *** Marjhine-Hermel (T.&T), Qammouaa

Geranium libanoticum Quemmamine, Jairoun (K.&S.),


*
Schenk Qammouaa, Mishmish

Helichrysum virgineum D.C. * Akkar el Aatiqa (T.&T.)

Marrubium libanoticum
* Foum el Mizab (M)
Boiss.

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Taxon Chorology Known places

Fneideq, Sir el Donniyeh and Jabal


Origanum libanoticum Boiss * Akroum (M), Wadi el-Sireh (PV ined,),
Qammouaa, Qemmamine, Jairoun

Papaver umbonatum Boiss. * Qammouaa, el-Hermel (T.&T)

Puschkinia scilloides Adams


* Foum el Mizab (M)
var. libanotica

Romulea nivalis Boiss. et Ky * Qammouaa, Wadi Faara (T.&T)

Verbascum libanoticum
*** Marjhine-Hermel (T.&T.)
Murb. &Thieb.

Notes:
* SITE RESTRICTED SPECIES: Extent of occurrence <100 km 2
** RESTRICTED RANGE SPECIES: Extent of occurrence <5.000 km2
*** Not mentioned in IPA report
(T&T): Thom & Thom, 2007; (K. & S.), 2012 Kasparek & Stephan, 2012 ; (M):
Mouterde, 1983

Stephan (in Kasparek & Stephan, 2012) extends the status of endemic taxa to
Alcea kurdica subsp. coelesyriaca, Nepeta leucostegia, Paeonia kesrouanensis
(in Qammouaa by Chouchani, 1975), Rosularia kesrouanensis, Silene astartes,
Trifolium plebeium, Anthemis cretica subsp. crassica, Astragalus cruentiflorus
(in Qammouaa by Sattout 2007), Quercus cedrorum, Sideritis pullulans (all
these taxa are present in Qemmamine and Jairoun/Kfarbnine forests).

Species like Lebanon barberry (Berberis libanotica) are an endemic taxa, very
common in the natural mountain and oro-mediterranean landscapes and do not
deserve special conservation measures except maybe for pastoral regulation
(for example only cutting for forage must be permitted, and not rooting out).
Some species like Origanum libanoticum appear rather common, other taxa like
Allium chloranthum var montanum are somewhat ignored.

Because of the lack of available information, it is not possible at present, to


develop conservation measures for the majority of species. Many species like
Astragalus or Acantholimon spp. appear to be in balance with the traditional
pasture systems, others like several geophytes (for example Puschkinia
scilloides or Romulea nivalis) appear more delicate to manage. Some species
like peonies (particularly Paeonia kesrouanenis and Paeonia mascula which is
present in Qammouaa) can be rare, endemic and attractive, and therefore
constitute a priority target for conservation measures. Better knowledge of the

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Orchidaceae family is necessary regarding exact taxonomy status, chorology


and frequency of occurrence in northern Lebanon populations.

Picture 26: Lebanese Marjolaine (Origanum libanoticum), Common Plant of Open Habitats and Jimson
Weed (Datura stramonium), Synanthropic Poisonous Plant

Source: P. VARESE: 30/07/2013, Wadi el-Sirr valley

Finally, most of the reviewed taxa are found in the mountainous zone of the
cazas of Donniyeh, Akkar and Hermel: data about the plain and the coastal
stretch is very scarce and fragmented. A bibliographical research allows the
identification of potential species for conservation; however, future field surveys
should be envisaged to complement the findings of the bibliographical research.
Species like Pancratium maritimum or Matthiola crassifolia are found especially
on the Lebanese southern coast (Hepper & Zahreddine, 2000); the bad state of
conservation of the coastal area of Akkar is alarming. The following table
presents species that are potentially/hypothetically present in the plain and
coastal zones of Akkar.

Table 38: Potentially interesting species for conservation in Akkar riverine and coastal zones

Taxon Conservation value Habitat


Vagaria parviflora (Desf. ex
Important Rocky coastal sites
Redout) Herb.
Tamarix smyrnensis Bunge Moderate River banks
Vitex agnus-castus L. Moderate River banks
Insufficient data to Rivers banks and shady
Pteris vittata L.
determine rocky sites
Insufficient data to
Najas delilei Rouy determine Aquatic sites
conservation value

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Improvement of regulations relating to the collection of visually attractive


floral species
Some species are not endemic or rare at present, but are of great visual interest
to people and have become targets for tourists and/or hikers; these include:
Fritillary species: Fritilaria elwesii, Fritilaria crassifolia, Fritilaria
acmopetala
Geophytes like Narcissus tazetta subsp. syriacus, Iris unguicularis
subsp. cretensis (species with eastern limits of diffusion)
Little geophytes of genus Crocus, Sternbergia, Romulea,Gagea
Common Mediterranean basin orchids of genus Orchis, Dactylorhiza,
Epipactis, Neotinea, Ophrys.

In order to protect these species; it is possible to submit a regulation proposal


restricting crop practice for the most common species, or to prohibit the
collection of bulbs or rhyzomes. Regulations can be introduced once a better
knowledge of the diffusion of the main interesting species has been achieved.
Special educational actions can be studied in this field.
For traditional curative, aromatic and food plants, a sustainable crop is possible
without quantitative limitations, but with specific ways of harvesting (cutting but
not rooting out and similar measures).

Picture 27: Paperwhite (Narcissus tazetta subsp. syriacus) and Autumn Daffodil (Sternbergia clusiana)

Source: N. ANTOUN, Bazbina and P. VARESE, 27/11/2012, Andket

9.6.2.2.3 Faunal biodiversity


Invertebrates
If invertebrates constitute remarkable bio-indicators for natural habitats and
their conservation state, very little is documented specifically for the AUHUD
region. This biologic group of fauna should be considered with serious attention
before conclusions can be made regarding threats and need for conservation,
especially for the orders Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata and some families

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of Coleoptera that are more largely studied around Europe, North Africa and the
Middle East.

Picture 28: Blepharopsis mendica Larvae


Picture 29: False Apollo (Archon apollinus)

Source: J. VIGLIONE, North Lebanon,


2011 Source: N. ANTOUN, Akkar, 06/08/2013

At a regional scale, and in order to ensure the conservation of a maximum


diversity of insects and other invertebrates, one must keep in mind that their
survival is dependent on the persistence of their specific habitats. Therefore the
more varied natural habitats a territory encloses, the more diversity of insects it
will shelter. As it will be pointed out for other groups of animals, one must keep
in mind that biodiversity is not restricted to forest areas, especially in the
Mediterranean region and more globally in the Western Palearctic zone of which

Lebanon is part. Indeed, open lands, rocky lands, pastures, shrubs, and
wetlands are of major interest and are the source of most of the biodiversity in
the country.

Amphibians
Similarly to invertebrates, little is known aboutamphibians. Based on
bibliography and our knowledge of the region, the three major amphibian
species on which all interest is focused for the AUHUD region are:
The Southern banded Newt (Omatotriton vittatus): this species is known
today in very few locations in Lebanon and generally occurs in ponds
with no fish from sea level to 1.500 m of altitutde; it has not been reported
in the Akkar region yet, probably because of the lack of active
prospection in this region;
The Syrian spadefoot toad (Pelobates syriacus): this species was
recently reported in the southern Bekaa valley, and is believed to be very
likely present in relictual wetlands of the Akkar plain, most likely in the
North at low altitudes;
The Hula painted frog (Latonia (Discoglossus) nigriventer): this species
was considered extinct until recently when it was rediscovered in the

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Hula valley in Israel; two expeditions were undertaken in Lebanon


(AROCHAS, 2005) with no success, but the species might potentially be
present in the very rare wetlands of the Bekaa valley and in the North of
Lebanon.

Even though these three species of high ecological value do not occur exactly
in the same eco-zones, they have in common their type of habitat: ponds with
no fish. This type of habitat is therefore a crucial element for the territory in the
conservation of amphibians. The conservation of high ecological value
amphibians in this region is therefore tightly bound to the conservation state of
available fresh water ponds.

Picture 30: Syrian Spadefoot Toad


(Pelobates syriacus) Picture 31: Southern Banded Newt
(Omatotriton vittatus)

Source: A. CLUCHIER, Turkey, 2013


Source: A.CLUCHIER, North Lebanon,
20

Reptiles
Regarding reptiles, the AUHUD region is rich in different associations of species
(corteges of species), each sheltering high ecological value species. Most of
them are threatened today at the national scale since no attention has yet been
paid to their conservation. Reptiles can be used as efficient bio-indicators of
climatic influence or of the conservation state of a habitat.

Lebanon, through its geological and biogeographic history and despite its
limited surface, happens to shelter endemic species of reptiles for the Levant
region, two of which are only present at altitudes above 1.800 m: Fraas Lizard
(Parvilacerta fraasi) and the Lebanese viper (Montivipera bornmuelleri). They
occur in open land habitats presenting phrygane-type vegetation cover.

Picture 32: Fraas lizard (Parvilacerta fraasi)

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Picture 33: Lebanese viper (Montivipera


bornmuelleri)

Source: A. CLUCHIER, Ouyoun as


Siman, 2013

Source: A. CLUCHIER, Ouyoun as


Siman, 2013
In the Mediterranean eco-zone, one species is of particularly concern: the
Terrestrial tortoise (Testudo terrestris). The conservation of this species
involves the conservation of a mosaic of natural habitats. The tortoise needs an
alternation of dry open lands (for laying its eggs), grass and shrub open lands
for feeding in spring and autumn, in addition to more covered forest lands for
summer and winter. Therefore, conservation and monitoring of this species and
of its different habitats should be a priority in the Mediterranean low lands (from
sea level up to 1.000 meters) and will ensure the conservation of most of the
other important reptile species of the area.

Picture 34: Terrestrial tortoise (Testudo terrestris)

Source: A. CLUCHIER, Bazbina, 2011

The Irano-turanian bioclimate reveals its most typical expression in the regions
of Hermel, Knaisse and Qarha where many endemic species not present
elsewhere in Lebanon can be found. The Irano-turanian steppe shelters very
typical elements of the region such as a newly described species of lizard
Mesalina microlepis that occurs from South Turkey to Jordan, the small agama
Trapelus lessonae or the harmless Crowned dwarf snake (Eirenis
coronelloides). These very original species for Lebanon can be found in

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sparsely vegetated steppe areas. Other elements of the Irano-turanian eco-


zone remain to be studied along the Assi River, especially the Phoenicolacerta
complex, which remains an outstanding corridor of wildlife through the dry
steppe leading to the endorheic lake of Homs at the interface of the
Mediterranean and Irano-turanian eco-zones.

Picture 35: Crowned dwarf snake (Eirenis Picture 36: Lessonas Agama (Trapelus
coronelloides) lessonae)

Source: A. CLUCHIER, Hermel, 2011 Source: A. CLUCHIER, Hermel, 2011

Avifauna
The IUCN has assessed more than 294 bird species present in Lebanon or
passing through the country along their migratory paths55.

The AUHUD region lies along a major migration path for birds heading or
coming from the Bosphorus every spring and end of summer.

Given the geographical position, altitude range and habitat diversity of the
AUHUD region, all these 294 species are likely to occur in the AUHUD region,
especially during migratory dispersion but also during the breeding season for
some of them.

IUCN considers that 9,5% of these species are under threat with (species
mentioned in bold are considered present or significantly potentially present in
the AUHUD region):
1 Critically endangered (CR): the Sociable lapwing;
2 Endangered (EN): the Egyptian Vulture and the Saker Falcon;
6 Vulnerable (VU): the Marbled Teal, the Greater Spotted Eagle, the
Eastern Imperial Eagle, the Dalmatian Pelican, the Mediterranean
Shearwater & the Syrian Serin;

55http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/link/52039c93-b59adf1d

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11 Near Threatened (NT): the Ferruginous Pochard, the European


Roller, the Little Bustard, the Great Snipe, the Black-tailed Godwit, the
Eurasian Curlew, the Black-winged Pratincole, the Cinereous Vulture,
the Pallid Harrier, the Red-footed Falcon and the Cinereous Bunting.

Graph 17: Lebanons birds species on IUCN red list category

(Status: LC: Least Concern; NT: Near Threatened; VU: Vulnerable; EN: Endangered; CR: Critically
endangered)

In the AUHUD region, the woody Akkar Mountains offer breeding places for
specialized mountain species like great raptors or passerines such as the
emblematic and scarce Syrian Serin (Serinus syriacus).

Its position on the western border of the plain of Hermel and the Bekaa Valley
provides the AUHUD region with a very high potential for active migration and
stopover on different habitats, especially the rare wetlands such as Cheikh
Zennad.

As such, the AUHUD region includes one Birdlife Important Bird Area (IBA):
Upper Mountains of Akkar-Donniyeh. Its characteristics are presented in the
following tables.

Twenty eight pairs of Syrian Serin are known to breed in this IBA, as well as
another seven species restricted to the Irano-Turanian eco-zone. The IBA
territory is a succession of open mountainous rocky areas, fast flowing streams,
cliffs and mixed forests dominated by the emblematic Cedar of Lebanon, but
also by the Turkey Oak and at lower altitudes the Calabrian Pine. This territory
is considered exposed to major ecological threats such as uncontrolled over-
hunting, over-grazing, woodcutting, by random urban development and by open
dumping of solid waste.

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Located at the northern extremity of the Mount Lebanon range, the upper
mountains of Akkar-Donniyeh IBA are made up of four adjoining sites:
Qammouaa, Fneideq, Mishmish and Wadi Jouhannam.

MADAs avifauna assessment prepared by SPNL in 2008 and converging


towards the establishment of the Natural Park of Donniyeh proposed joining
these four sites in order to achieve the criteria levels listed in the table
hereinafter. The Syrian Serin was recorded in all four sites as a breeding
species and was revealed to be one of the major reasons for designating the
IBA, along with the biogeographical position of the region lying on a major flyway
path for migrating birds. Three other interesting species are reported in
Qammouaa: the Pallid Harrier (NT), the Red Kite and the European Roller (the
latter both regionally NT); and one from Fneideq: the Red footed Falcon (NT),
although none of these are believed to breed in the IBA and were only spotted
during active migration.

Table 39: Upper Mountains of Akkar-Donniyeh IBA characteristics

Location Lebanon, North Lebanon


Central coordinates 36o 12.46' East 34o 26.93' North
IBA criteria* A1, A2, A3, A4iv
Area 5,270 ha
Altitude 665 - 1,890m
Year of IBA assessment 2008

*Criteria for the Upper Mountains of Akkar-Donniyeh IBA:


A1. Species of global conservation concern
The site regularly holds significant numbers of globally threatened species, or
other species of global conservation concern.
A2. Restricted-range species
The site is known or thought to hold a significant component of the restricted-
range species whose breeding distributions define an Endemic Bird Area (EBA)
or Secondary Area (SA).
A3. Biome-restricted species
The site is known or thought to hold a significant assemblage of the whose
breeding distributions are largely or entirely confined to one biome.
A4. Congregations
The site is known or thought to be a bottleneck site where at least 20.000 storks
(Ciconiidae), raptors (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) or cranes (Gruidae)
regularly cross during spring or autumn migration.

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The table hereinafter lists the important resident and breeding IBA species
(MADA 2008), i.e., species that justified the designation of this Birdlife site.
Besides these identified species, the major migration flyway path is also an
important criterion for the IBA.

Table 40: Upper Mountains of Akkar-Donniyeh IBA important species

Species Season Period Population Estimate* IBA Criteria IUCN Category

Sombre Tit
resident 2007 5 individuals A3 Least Concern
Parus lugubris

Upcher's
Warbler
breeding 2007 5 individuals A3 Least Concern
Hippolais
languida
Western Rock-
nuthatch resident 2007 1-6 individuals A3 Least Concern
Sitta neumayer
White-throated
Robin breeding 2007 2 individuals A3 Least Concern
Irania gutturalis
Finsch's
Wheatear
breeding 2007 5 individuals A3 Least Concern
Oenanthe
finschii
Pale Rock
Sparrow 2005-
breeding 35-54 individuals A3 Least Concern
Petronia 2008
brachydactyla
Syrian Serin
Serinus breeding 2007 28 breeding pairs A1, A2 Vulnerable
syriacus
* The quality of these estimates was assessed as medium.

Map 33: Lebanons Important Bird Areas IBA

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Red square: Upper Mountains of Akkar-Donniyeh, the only IBA in AUHUD Region

AUHUD region trigger species


The trigger species detailed hereinafter were selected according to their confirmed
occurrence in the studied region and their IUCN Red List status. For each species
a general area of occurrence in the AUHUD region, the population trend and the
IUCN criteria are given56. A general presentation of the species is also given (IUCN,
2013.).
Breeding species

56 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org

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1. Raptors

Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) (Linnaeus, 1758)

and Criteria

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Authority
Scientific

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year
percnopterus

Endangered

and Hermel
Decreasing

A2bcde+
(Linnaeus,

3bcde+
Neophron

4bcde

Donniyeh
2012
Breeding
Egyptian
Vulture

Akkar,
1758)

This long-lived species qualifies as Endangered due to a recent and extremely


rapid population decline in India, combined with severe long-term declines in
Europe and West Africa, and ongoing declines through much of the rest of its
African range.

The bulk of the Neophron percnopterus resident population occurs in Ethiopia and
East Africa, Arabia, and the Indian Subcontinent. In addition, isolated resident
populations occupy a large range in theCape Verde and Canary Islands,
Morocco,Angola, Namibia, Algeria, Niger, northernmost Cameroon, Chad and
northern Sudan (I. Angelov in litt. 2012), and parts of West Africa (Ferguson-Lees
et al. 2001). Migratory birds breed in Northernmost Africa (Morocco, Algeria,
Tunisia, Libya, Northern Egypt), southern Europe, from Spain in the west, through
the Mediterranean, Turkey, the Caucasus and central Asia to Northern Iran,
Pakistan, northern India and Nepal.

Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) Savigny, 1809


and Criteria

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Scientific

Authority

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year

Akkar and
Decreasing

Vulnerable

Donniyeh
(probably
Breeding

2012
Savigny,

Imperial
Eastern
heliaca

extent)
Aquila

Eagle
1809

This species has a small global population, and is likely to be undergoing continuing
declines, primarily as a result of habitat loss and degradation, adult mortality

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through persecution and collision with power lines, nest robbing and prey depletion.
It is therefore listed as Vulnerable.

Aquila heliaca mainly breeds in Austria, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, China, Czech


Republic, Macedonia, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Russia, Serbia,
Slovakia, Turkey and Ukraine (Heredia 1996). During migratory seasons and in
winter, birds are found in the Middle East, east Africa south to Tanzania, the
Arabian Peninsula, the Indian subcontinent, and south and east Asia (from Thailand
to Korea).

Cinereous Vulture (Aegypius monachus) (Linnaeus, 1766)

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Authority
Scientific

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Criteria
Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year
and

Akkar and
Threatened
Decreasing
(Linnaeus,
monachus

Cinereous

Donniyeh
Aegypius

Breeding

2012
Vulture
1766)

Near

This species has a moderately small population which appears to be suffering an


ongoing decline in its Asiatic strongholds, despite the fact that in parts of Europe
numbers are now increasing. Consequently it qualifies as Near Threatened.

Aegypius monachus mainly breeds in Spain, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey, Armenia,


Azerbaijan, Georgia, Ukraine, Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan, Kyrgyztan, and Afghanistan (A. Khan, A. Parveen and R. Yasmeen
in litt. 2005), Mongolia and mainland China, with a small reintroduced population in
France (Heredia 1996b; V. Galushin in litt. 1999; Heredia et al. 1997; WWF Greece
1999).There wintering areas include Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Pakistan, north-
west India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Lao, and North and South Korea. Its global
population is estimated at 7.200-10.000 pairs.

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2. Non-raptors

Syrian Serin (Serinus syriacus) Bonaparte, 1851

and Criteria

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Authority
Scientific

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year

and
Syrian Serin

Decreasing
Bonaparte,

Vulnerable

Donniyeh
2012
Breeding
syriacus
Serinus

Akkar
1851

C1
This species is classified as Vulnerable because the small population, which was
once thought to be stable, appears to have declined at key sites since 1996,
principally owing to the effects of droughts exacerbating the threat from grazing
pressure.

Serinus syriacus has a restricted range, breeding in mountains (900-1.900 m)


inLebanon, Syria, and Jordan (Evans 1994, Baumgart 1995, Khoury 1998,
Ramadan-Jaradi 1999). The small population comprises 1.000-1.250 mature
individuals in Jordan (Khoury 1999) but there are no national population estimates
for Syria ("local" [Baumgart 1995]) or Lebanon (described as "very common" with
an estimate of 3.500 pairs in total at Qammouaa, Horsh Ehden, Tannourine and
Arz el Shouf protected areas [Ramadan-Jaradi 1999 and Ramadan-Jaradi 2002]).
In winter, birds in Jordan disperse locally (Khoury 1998), while the breeding
grounds in Lebanon and Syria and Palestine are completely vacated (Evans 1994,
Baumgart 1995and Ramadan-Jaradi 1999) for wintering grounds that probably
comprise desert and semi-arid countries at lower altitudes (near water) throughout
the Levant and as far afield as Egypt (Sinai and Nile valley)and Iraq (Evans 1994,
Baumgart 1995, Khoury 1999, Ramadan-Jaradi 1999).

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3. European Roller (Coracias garrulus) Linnaeus, 1758

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Authority
Scientific

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Criteria
Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year
and

&
and
Breeding and

Threatened
Decreasing
Linnaeus,

European

2012

Donniyeh
Migration
Coracias

stopover
garrulus

Hermel
Akkar,
Roller
1758

Near
flight
This species has apparently undergone moderately rapid declines across its global
range and is consequently considered Near Threatened. Declines have been most
pronounced in northern populations, and if similar declines are observed elsewhere
in the species's range, it may warrant uplisting to Vulnerable. The situation in
Lebanon is quite preoccupying.

Coracias garrulus occurs as two subspecies: the nominate breeds from Morocco,
south-west and south-central Europe and Asia Minor east through north-west Iranto
south-west Siberia (Russia); and semenowi, which breeds in Iraqand Iran (except
north-west) east to Kashmir and north to Turkmenistan, south Kazakhstanand
north-west China(west Sinkiang). The species overwinters in two distinct regions of
Africa, from Senegaleast to Cameroonand from Ethiopiawest to Congoand south
to South Africa (del Hoyo et al. 2001).

Migrating, wintering and stopover species

1. Migrating and stopover raptors species

Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) Gray, 1834


and Criteria

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Scientific

Authority

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year
dispersion &

Donniyeh &
A2bcde+3cd
Endangered
Decreasing
Gray, 1834

Wintering,

e +4bcde
migration
cherrug

juvenile

Hermel
Falcon

Akkar,
Saker
Falco

2012

This species has been uplisted to Endangered because a revised population


trend analysis indicates that it may be undergoing a very rapid decline. This

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negative trend is a result of unsustainable capture for the falconry trade, as well
as habitat degradation and the impacts of agrochemicals. The rate of decline
appears to be particularly severe inCentral Asia. This classification is highly
uncertain and may be revised when new information becomes available.
Surveys are urgently needed to produce more robust and less uncertain
population estimates.Further research to monitor key populations and to clarify
the extent of the threat from trapping and its effect on population trends is vital.

Falco cherrug occurs in a wide range across the Palearctic region from eastern
Europe to western China), with wintering or passage populations in Italy, Malta,
Cyprus, Palestine, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Tunisia, Ethiopia, Kenya,
Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, UAE, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iran, Pakistan, India,
Nepal, AfghanistanandAzerbaijan, with much smaller numbers or vagrants
reaching many other countries (Baumgart 1991, 1994, Snow and Perrins 1998,
Haines 2002, ERWDA 2003).

Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus) (Gmelin, 1770)

and Criteria

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Scientific

Authority

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year
&

East Akkar-
Threatened
Decreasing
macrourus

Migration

stopover
(Gmelin,

2012

Hermel
(Bekka
Harrier

Valley)
Circus

1770)

Pallid

Near
flight

This species is known to be undergoing steep population decline in Europe,


although numbers in its Asiatic strongholds are thought to be more stable. Thus,
it is probably experiencing a moderately rapid population decline overall, and
consequently it is categorised as Near Threatened.

Circus macrourus breeds primarily in the steppes of Asiatic Russia,


Kazakhstanand north-westChina. Small populations breed inAzerbaijan,
Romania, Turkey and Ukraine. A minority winter in south-east and central
Europe, North Africa and the Middle East but most migrate to the Afrotropics
and the Indian subcontinent (Thiollay 1994).

Red-footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus) Linnaeus, 1766

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and Criteria

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Scientific

Authority

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year
&

East Akkar,
Threatened
vespertinus

Decreasing
Red-footed
Linnaeus,

Migration

2012
stopover

Hermel
(Bekka
Valley)
Falcon
Falco

1766

Near
flight
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it is experiencing a moderately
rapid population decline, owing to habitat loss and degradation. This species would
qualify for uplisting to a higher threat category if evidence suggests a rapid
population decline.

Falco vespertinus breeds in eastern Europe and west, central and north-central
Asia, with its main range from Belarussouth to Hungary, northern Serbia and
Montenegro, Romania, Moldovaand east Bulgaria, eastward through Ukraine and
north-west and south Russia and north Kazakhstanto extreme north-west Chinaand
the upper Lena river (Russia). It winters in southern Africa, from South Africa
northwards to southern Kenya (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001).

2. Migrating and stopover waterbirds species

Marbled Teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris) (Mntris, 1832)


and Criteria

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Scientific

Authority

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year
&

East Akkar,
Marmaronett

+4cd ver 3.1


angustirostri

Decreasing
(Mntris,

Vulnerable
A2cd+3cd
Migration

stopover
Marbled

Hermel
(Bekka
Valley)
1832)

2012
flight
Teal
a

This species appears to have suffered a rapid population decline, evidenced in


its core wintering range, as a result of widespread and extensive habitat
destruction. It therefore qualifies as Vulnerable. However, data are scarce and
some birds may have relocated to alternative wintering sites. Apparent
increases in Iraq and the western Mediterranean population probably reflect
improved observer coverage rather than genuine changes. This population has
suffered a long-term decline and widespread loss of habitat.

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Marmaronetta angustirostris has a fragmented distribution in the western


Mediterranean (Spain, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia,wintering in north and sub-
Saharan west Africa), the eastern Mediterranean (Turkey, Israel, Jordan,
Syria,wintering south toEgypt) and western and southern Asia (Azerbaijan,
Armenia, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Iraq, Iran,
Afghanistan, Pakistan, IndiaandChina, wintering in Iran, Pakistan and north-
west India) (Green 1996).

Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus) Bruch, 1832

and Criteria

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Scientific

Authority

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year

East Akkar,
&
Bruch, 1832

Decreasing

Vulnerable
Pelecanus

Dalmatian

Migration

2012
stopover

3ce+4ce
Pelican

Hermel
crispus

(Bekka
Valley)
A2ce+
flight

Conservation measures have resulted in a population increase in Europe,


particularly at the species' largest colony, at Lake Mikri Prespa in Greece, and
also in other countries, following implementation of conservation actions.
However, rapid population declines in the remainder of its range are suspected
to be continuing and therefore the species is listed as Vulnerable.

Pelecanus crispus breeds in Eastern Europe and east-central Asia, inSerbia


and Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia, Azerbaijan,
Turkey, Ukraine, Mongolia, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan
(Crivelli 1996).

Great Snipe (Gallinago media) (Latham, 1787)

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and Criteria

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Authority
Scientific

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year

(Bekka
&
Great Snipe

Akkar,Herm
Threatened
Decreasing
Gallinago

Migration

stopover

2012
Latham,

Valley)
media

1787)

Near
flight

East

el
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it is thought to be
experiencing a moderately rapid population decline, owing primarily to habitat
loss and degradation, as well as hunting pressure (Tucker and Heath 1994).
Any evidence that the decline is more rapid may qualify the species for uplisting
to a higher threat category.

Gallinago media breeds primarily in Russia, east to 95E (150.000-250.000


males), with large numbers in Belarus (12.000-20.000 males) and
Norway(10.000-20.000 mature individuals [J. A. Kls in litt. 2007]). It also
breeds in Poland, Finland, Sweden (1.800 lekking males [Ekblom and Carlsson
2007]), Estonia (500-700 males [Kls et al. 1997]), Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine
and Kazakhstan. The Scandinavian population probably numbers 13.000-
25.000 mature individuals (J. A. Kls in litt. 2007).

Black-winged Pratincole (Glareola nordmanni) Fischer, 1842

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Authority
Scientific

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Criteria
Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year
and

East Akkar,
&

Threatened
Decreasing
nordmanni

Pratincole
Migration

stopover
Glareola

2012
Fischer,

Hermel
winged

(Bekka
Valley)
Black-
1842

Near
flight

Although difficult to classify, the evidence of declines in Europe, West Africa


and Central Asia indicate that this species has experienced moderately rapid
overall declines, and thus warrants Near Threatened status.

Glareola nordmanni has a very large range, breeding in Russia, Ukraineand


Kazakhstan and sporadically in Belarus, Hungary andAzerbaijan. It migrates to
southern Africa, mainly Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Namibia, and

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irregularly to West Africa. It is now rarely recorded in West Africa, possibly


indicating a dwindling 'sub-population' of breeding birds from south-east Europe
that once wintered in larger numbers (Dodman 2002).

Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) (Linnaeus, 1758)

and Criteria

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Scientific

Authority

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year
&

East Akkar,
Black-tailed

Threatened
Decreasing
(Linnaeus,

Migration

2012
stopover
Limosa

Hermel
Godwit

(Bekka
Valley)
limosa

1758)

Near
flight

Although this species is widespread and has a large global population, its
numbers have declined rapidly in parts of its range owing to changes in
agricultural practices. Overall, the global population is estimated to be declining
at such a rate that the species qualifies as Near Threatened.

Limosa limosa has a large discontinuous breeding range extending from Iceland
to the Russian Far East, with wintering populations in Europe, Africa, the Middle
East and Australasia(del Hoyo et al. 1996). It occurs as three subspecies, L. l.
islandica, L. l. limosa, and L. l. melanuroides. Subspecies islandica breeds
predominantly in Iceland, with much smaller numbers in the Faeroe Islands,
Shetland (United Kingdom) and the Lofoten Islands (Norway). Significant
numbers of this subspecies overwinter in France (Triplet et al. 2007).
Subspecies limosa breeds across a wide area extending from Western Europe
and central Europe to central Asiaand Asiatic Russia, as far east as the River
Yenisey. The European population of this subspecies migrates south through
France and Iberia to winter in West Africa (Gill et al. 2007, Oomen 2008).

AUHUD region bird threats and ecological requirements


The 13 species presented above are all decreasing because of various threats
presented in the following table.

Table 41: AUHUD region bird threats

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Bird group

Scientific

Authority
Common

Status in
Lebanon
Species

Threats
Name

Name
Disturbance, lead
poisoning (from Breeding &
Egyptian Neophron (Linnaeus,
gunshots), direct Migration flight
Vulture percnopterus 1758)
poisoning, electrocution and stopover
Breeding raptors

(by powerlines)

Eastern Breeding
Aquila Savigny, Intensive forestry in the
Imperial (probably
heliaca 1809 mountains
Eagle extents)

Cinereous Aegypius (Linnaeus, Hunting and poisoning


Breeding
Vulture monachus 1766) corpses

Breeding &
Breeding Non raptors

European Coracias Linnaeus, Persecution on migration,


Migration flight
Roller garrulus 1758 Intensive agriculture
and stopover

Excessive tree-cutting,
Syrian Serinus Bonaparte,
grazing and water Breeding
Serin syriacus 1851
abstraction

Wintering,
Saker juvenile
Falco cherrug Gray, 1834
Falcon dispersion &
Migrating raptors

migration
Harmful pesticides on
Pallid Circus (Gmelin, stopover sites and Migration flight &
Harrier macrourus 1770) migrators hunting stopover

Red-
Falco Linnaeus, Migration flight &
footed
vespertinus 1766 stopover
Falcon

Marmaronett
Marbled (Mntris, Migration flight &
a
Teal 1832) stopover
angustirostris
Migrating water birds

Dalmatian Pelecanus Migration flight &


Bruch, 1832
Pelican crispus stopover
Wetlands alteration and
destruction
Great Gallinago (Latham, Migration flight &
Snipe media 1787) stopover

Black-
Glareola Migration flight &
winged Fischer, 1842
nordmanni stopover
Pratincole

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Bird group

Scientific

Authority
Common

Status in
Lebanon
Species

Threats
Name

Name
Black-
Limosa (Linnaeus, Migration flight &
tailed
limosa 1758) stopover
Godwit

In order to locally limit the decline of those species, several recommendations,


listed in the following table, should be applied according to each bird group.

Table 42: AUHUD region recommendations for threatened birds

Bird group Recommendations


Prohibit hunting
Breeding raptors Regulate and prohibit logging in raptors breeding areas
Prohibit and prevent harmful poisoning
Prohibit hunting during migration
Breeding Non-
Regulate and prohibit logging in Syrian Serin breeding areas
raptors
Protect river banks and any wetlands disturbance
Prohibit hunting
Migrating raptors
Prohibit and prevent harmful poisoning
Migrating waterbirds Protection of wetlands

Furthermore, projects such as major power lines or wind farms should consider
thorough ornithological (and flying mammals: bats) surveys at their feasibility
and impact assessment stages. These avifauna studies/surveys should be
undertaken not only during pre-nuptial and post-nuptial migrating periods, but
also during the breeding season (i.e., from March to October included). If the
plant or power line is near a major water point (such as Cheikh Zennad), winter
surveys will also be necessary. Implemented projects should then consider
conducting serious mortality monitoring in order to provide feedback and
corrective measures.

Mammals
IUCN currently considers 69 mammal taxa in Lebanon, among which 18 species
are seriously threatened of extinction with a status ranging from Near
Threatened to Critically Endangered (confirmed or potentially present species
in the AUHUD Region are highlighted in bold):
1 Critically Endangered species: the Mediterranean Monk Seal;
3 Endangered species: the Short-beaked common dolphin, the Asiatic
Wild Ass and the Persian Fallow Deer;

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8 Vulnerable species: the Fin Whale, the Sperm Whale, the Lion, the
European Marbled Polecat, the Wild Goat, the Common Bottlenose
Dolphin, the Long-fingered Bat and the Nubian Ibex;
5 Near Threatened species: the Euphrates Jerboa, the Striped Hyena,
the Eurasian Otter, Schreiber's Bent-winged Bat and the Mediterranean
Horseshoe Bat;
1 Data Deficient species: Palestine Mole Rat.

Five species of conservation concern are present in the AUHUD Region: three
bats, the European Marbled Polecat, and the Striped Hyena. No data is
currently available on the Palestine Mole Rat but given its habitat and biological
requirements, the species is believed to occur in the Irano-Turanian eco-zone.
Besides these mammal species of concern for the AUHUD Region, the Persian
Squirrel and the Gray Wolf both ranked Least Concern species by IUCNs red
list. The latter not even being considered for Lebanon, represents for some
authors an ecological issue (SPNL website). The Persian Squirrel can be found
in all forested areas, but little data is available concerning its population trends.
The Gray Wolf would recently have been spotted in the mountains of Bazbina
at the end of winter 2013 by an old inhabitantwith no further description of
number or specific location (therefore homologation of the data is difficult). No
further data is available concerning this species in the region or even in
Lebanon, and its possible occurrence should be monitored and evaluated
before conservation actions are considered.

The Persian Fallow Deer, although currently extinct in Lebanon and was
believed to be extinct at a global scale, is presented below since it was recently
spotted in Iran.

According to the IUCN confirmed species list, 50 species of mammals occur in


the AUHUD region. The population trends for 16 species (31,3%) are unknown,
39,2% of the species show a stable population trend, and 27,5% show an
unfavorable population trend. Only one species shows an increasing population
trend: the Golden Jackal. If the Gray Wolf is added to the IUCN confirmed
species, then 51 species of mammals are considered occuring in the AUHUD
region.

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Graph 18: Population trends for AUHUD region mammal species (IUCN) for the 50 species evaluated
by IUCN

With 10% of threatened species (5 species out of 50), many of which remain
locally in fragmented populations at the fringe of their distribution (e.g. Arabic
species, Anatolian species, or Mediterranean species), and 60% of species for
which local populations are considered in decrease or unknown trend, the
mammal species of the AUHUD Region should globally be considered seriously
threatened.

AUHUD region trigger species


The trigger species detailed hereinafter were selected according to their
confirmed occurrence in the studied region and their IUCN Red List status. For
each species, a general area of occurrence in the AUHUD region, the
population trend and the IUCN criteria are given57. A general presentation of the
species is also given (IUCN 2013).

57 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>

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1. Carnivora

Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) (Linnaeus, 1758)

and Criteria

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Authority
Scientific

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year

Dannieh and
Threatened
Decreasing
(Linnaeus,

2008
Hyaena

Hyaena
hyaena

Hermel
Striped

Extant

Akkar,
1758)

Near
The Striped Hyena islisted as Near Threatened as the global population size is
estimated to be below 10,000 mature individuals, and experiences ongoing
deliberate and incidental persecution coupled with a decrease in its prey base
such that it may come close to meeting a continuing decline of 10% over the
next three generations (almost qualifies as threatened under criterion C1).

The Striped Hyaena has a very large, albeit now patchy distribution, extending
from Africa, north of and including the Sahel, and including much of East and
North-east Africa south to about central Tanzania, through the Middle East and
Arabian Peninsula, Turkey, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Indian
subcontinent, though not reaching Assam, Bhutan or Myanmar. They may have
recently expanded into Nepal (Hofer and Mills 1998a; Arumugam et al., 2008).

European Marbled Polecat (Vormela peregusna) (Gldenstdt,


1770)
and Criteria

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Scientific

Authority

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year
(Gldenstd

and Hermel
Decreasing

Vulnerable
peregusna

European

Danniyeh
2008
Vormela

Marbled
t, 1770)

Polecat

Extant

Akkar,
A2c

This species is listed as Vulnerable under criteria A2c (population reduction). It


seems reasonable to infer at least a 30% reduction in the population in the last
ten years due to the loss of steppe habitat (especially in Europe and China).
This reduction may continue into the future, as suggested by climate change

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models and land-use change, but it is difficult to say if it would be at the same
rate.

The marbled polecat has a distribution extending from south-east Europe,


through Asia Minor, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Central Asia, to
northern China and Mongolia. In Europe, it is found in Serbia and Montenegro,
Macedonia, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Turkish Thrace, and southern parts of
Ukraine and the Russian Federation and the northern Caucasus (the steppe
areas not the mountains). It is also known to be widespread throughout the
Middle East, having been recorded from just across the Sinai eastern border in
Gaza (Harrison 1968), in Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and northern Iraq
and northern Saudi Arabia (Ellerman and Morrison-Scott 1951; Harrison 1968;
Nader 1991). It occurs from sea level to 2.000 m. It is found up to 3.000 m in
the Tien Shan Mountains (Tikhonov et al., 2008).

2. Chiroptera

Long-fingered Bat (Myotis capaccinii) (Bonaparte, 1837)

and Criteria

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Authority
Scientific

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year

an eco-zone
fingered Bat

Mediterrane
(Bonaparte,

Decreasing

Vulnerable
capaccinii

2008

of Akkar
Myotis

Extant

A4bce
1837)

Long-

The species occupies specialized habitats (caves and associated water


systems). In the eastern part of the range it congregates in winter in a few sites
which are threatened by human disturbance. It has declined between 30 and
50% in Spain in the last 10 years, and there are indications of declines in other
parts of the range. It only hunts in watercourses and is therefore threatened by
water pollution and the development of tourist infrastructure, which is expected
to continue in the future. It is suspected that population declines are underway
that will exceed 30% over 18 years (3 generations), and for that reason the
species is considered Vulnerable under criterion A4bce.

Myotis capaccinii is sparsely distributed from eastern Iberia, Spain through the
northern Mediterranean to coastal Asia Minor and Israel, Lebanon and Jordan,
and also in Mesopotamia from Turkey to Iran and in north-west Africa (limited

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to the Mediterranean fringe of western Maghreb: north Morocco and northwest


Algeria). It occurs from sea level to 900 m (Hutson et al., 2008 c).

Mediterranean Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus euryale) Blasius,


1853

and Criteria

Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Scientific

Authority

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Status

Trend
Name

Name

Year

eco-
of
Mediterrane

Mediterrane
Threatened
Decreasing
Rhinolophu

Horseshoe
s euryale

Blasius,

Extant

Akkar
1853

2008

zone
Near
Bat
an

an
Many range states have reported that populations have declined and colonies
have disappeared over the last 27 years (=3 generations). It is inferred that
overall population decline has approached 30% over that period (although the
population is now stable and/ or even increasing in some areas, e.g., France),
such that the species is assessed as Near Threatened (approaching A2c).

Rhinolophus euryale is a western Palaearctic species, occurring in southern


Europe, north-west Africa (known range extends across northern Morocco,
Algeria, and Tunisia), and the Near East. There is only a single record from
Cyprus, but this is regarded by most authors to be R. mehelyi. It is widely
distributed over its range, and is found from sea level up to 1,000 m of altitude
(Hutson et al, 2008 b).

Schreiber's Bent-winged Bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) (Kuhl,


1817)
Location in
Study Area
Population

Published
Scientific

Authority

Category
Common

Lebanon

Red List
Species

Criteria
Trend:
Status
Name

Name

Year
and

Akkar and
Bent-winged
(Kuhl, 1817)
Miniopterus

Threatened
Decreasing
schreibersii

Schreiber's

Dannieh
Extant

2008
Near
Bat

This species is listed as Near Threatened. Significant population declines and


range contractions have been recorded in a number of range states and

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although it is stable in the Balkans and Turkey, the rate of population decline
may approach 30% overall (almost qualifies as VU under A2a).

Schreiber's Bent-winged Bat occurs from south-western Europe and north and
West Africa through Anatolia and the Middle East to the Caucasus. In Africa it
is known from records in North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya), and
West Africa (Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria, Cameroon). It is patchily
distributed over its range in some huge and vulnerable colonies (Hutson et al.,
2008 a).

Regionally extinct species


Persian Fallow Deer (Dama mesopotamica) (Brooke, 1875)

Published
Populatio
Authority

Common
Scientific

Category
Lebanon

Location
in Study
Red List
n Trend
Species

Criteria
Status
Name

Name

Area
Year
and
in
Regionnaly

Endangere
Increasing
mesopota

Hermel
Lebanon
(Brooke,

2011
Persian

dD
Extinct
Fallow
Dama

1875)
mica

Deer

The Persian Fallow Deer is listed as Endangered as although the total


population probably contains more than 250 mature individuals, it is questioned
whether the re-introduced individuals should count as a fully wild population,
and if these individuals have produced viable offspring. If these are excluded,
then the species qualifies for the endangered category under criterion D with
less than 250 mature individuals as the only surviving indigenous wild
populations are in Dez Wildlife Refuge and Karkeh Wildlife Refuge in
southwestern Iran. This species should be reassessed when further information
becomes available on population size and the exact number of mature
individuals.

The Persian Fallow Deer formerly occurred in Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan,
Lebanon, Palestine, Syria and eastern Turkey (Hemami and Rabiei 2002). It
was depicted in relief artwork dated prior to the 9th century BC and in ancient
times its range probably included North Africa from the Tunisian border to the
Red Sea. By 1875 it was restricted to southwestern and western Iran, having
disappeared from the rest of its range. It was considered extinct, but a small
population was rediscovered in southwestern Iran in 1956. The only surviving
indigenous wild populations are in Dez Wildlife Refuge and Karkeh Wildlife

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Refuge in southwestern Iran (though the population in Karkeh has also been
restocked with animals from the Dasht-e-Naz Wildlife Refuge). The species was
formerly found in the Hermel region and fossils from the Palaeolithic period were
found in all the Middle East, including near Beirut (Rabiei and Saltz, 2011).

Threats to the AUHUD region mammals and ecological requirements

Several threats affect the mammal species present in the study area; including
the overexploitation of biological resources, agriculture and aquaculture, and
residential and commercial development that respectively affect the
Mediterranean Horseshoe Bat, the European Marbled Polecat, and the Long-
fingered Bat and Striped Hyena. As shown in the chart below the threats are
mainly of anthropogenic origin.

Graph 19: Types of threat affecting the AUHUD region mammal species
Source: IUCN

In fact, the latter species, and other species considered as threatened in this
area have their own specific ecological requirements according to their
biological group.

Many of these threatened species request undisturbed areas of considerable


surfaces (especially Cetartiodactyla, Equidae, and Carnivora) where they will
be protected from hunting activity, infrastructure development projects, and
agriculture. Those areas should be connected between them to allow genetic
exchange and flow between them.

Ecological requirements for each emblematic and threatened order are


presented in the following table according to their vital ecological functionalities.

Table 43: AUHUD region threatened mammal group requirements

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Feeding place/ Resting place/


Order Hibernating
Food Breeding/Calving

Cetartiodactyla Huge grassy


Areas undisturbed -
and Equidae lands
by human
Abundant prey presence(resting
populations in and breeding
Carnivora -
consequent wild areas)
areas
Abundant insects
Areas undisturbed
populations in Areas undisturbed
with human
areas where by human
presence
phyto-chemical presence(hibernating
Chiroptera (breeding places
treatments are places such as
such as caves
not intensive; in caves and karst
and karst
rivers and systems)
systems)
wetlands

9.6.2.3 Ecological land management

9.6.2.3.1 Forest biodiversity management


The Caza of Akkar is one of the most deprived regions in Lebanon with high
rates of illiteracy and marginality. As a result of unsustainable practices and lack
of environmental awareness in the area, natural resources have become highly
susceptible to the various natural and anthropogenic misdeeds. Forests are
heavily impacted by engrained anthropogenic practices and are expected to
experience a significant shift in bioclimatic level from sub-humid to semi-arid if
climate change scenarios were to become a reality. This will radically challenge
the survival of the species and considerably affect forest stands, where C. libani,
A. cilicica, Q. cerris and J. excelsa have also been identified as having the
lowest natural adaptive capacity to current and future climate trends (Sattout &
Nemer, 2008; MoE/GEF/UNDP, 2011). Fneideq and Karm Chbat forests along
with open areas are increasingly exposed to overgrazing, logging, agricultural
encroachment and hunting. Fire events caused by amplified drought periods
and/or human hostilities are on the other hand very common in Qobayat and
Andqet, harboring dense populations of pines and oaks.

Temperature increases and changes in rainfall patterns are obviously affecting


natural dynamics, ecosystems survival, as well as water availability.

Although North Lebanon, and particularly the Akkar-Donniyeh region, is


considered to shelter the highest rates of biodiversity and forests continuity in
Lebanon, the rural environment of this area along with the high rates of poverty,

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illiteracy and lack of awareness of local communities, make it one of the most
ecologically threatened regions in the country.

Forest typology, an operational tool for forest management


When it comes to forest management, it is important to identify forestry
operation and mapping tools in the field, and particularly a typology definition of
forest stands and their limits with shrubby communities. The following table
shows the adopted definitions according to the FAO methodology:

Table 44: Adopteddefinitions at the base of forest typology

cover of forest species (h > 5 m) > 10% on a surface


FORESTS
>5.000 m2

OTHER WOODED cover of forest species (h > 5 m) < 10%, on a surface


LANDS >5.000 m2

The main bibliographical references for Lebanon and the study area were
consulted58 and an integration with cartographic works and previous forest
inventories with various methodological approaches was researched59.
Moreover, the typological framework recently used in the Akkar SEARCH
project (MADA, 2013) was also taken into consideration. This classification
model, adopted a while ago in Italian and French regional forest management,
has already been experimented in the Metn valley and Tannourine zone (Eco-
Med, unpublished).

The advantages of this framework are multiple:


common forestry language with quantitatively and qualitatively clear
explanations
key based system for field identification
methodological base for forestry and vegetation maps
opportunity for periodical updates and implementations
sub-unit system with sub-types (dynamically and ecologically based)
and variants (physiognomic based) to specify differences in site
suitability and mixed stands variations.

58 Abi-Saleh, 1978, 1988 et 1996; Abi-Saleh et Safi 1988; Chouchani et al., 1974; Awad, 2009;
Jomaa et al., 2007; Sattout, 2006, 2007; El-Hajj & Khater, 2011; Saadieh, 2011; Stephan et
al., 2011; Koepsell et al., 2012, El-Hajj et al. in press
59 Dalsgaard, 2005; A.F.D.C., 2007; Ecodit, 2009, etc

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The following table shows the current typological framework for the region; the
implementation of a complete typological system with variant sub-types and
key-system of identification can be later developed based on the systematic
knowledge of forest variability in the national context.

Table 45: Framework for the AUHUD region

Code Forest Type Notes

QCA1 Xerophilous Palestininian Oak type + on dry limestone slopes


Brutian Pine variant

QCA2 Mesoxerophilous Palestininian Oak type in valleys or on slopes, often


mixed with Acer, Quercus,
Cercis

QCA3 Thermomediterranean mixed oak and Carob at lower altitudes in


type + OWL variant Donniyeh and Akkar hill
systems

QCA4 Substeppic Palestinian oak type + Tabor oak in Hermel valleys area
and OWL variant

QUI1 Mesoxerophilous Gall Oak type on mesomediterranean


deeper soils or at
supramediterranean level

QUI2 Tabor Oak mixed type at lower altitudes in north


Akkar hill system

OCA1 Hop-hornbeam pioneer type + oak mixed in valleys or on slopes in


variant Donniyeh and western
Akkar

QCE1 Mesophilous Turkish Oak type on clay deep soils

QCE2 Mesoxerophilous Turkish Oak type on limestone outcrops

RIV1 Riverine Eastern Plain-tree type on riverbanks

RIV2 Riverine Willows type on riverbanks

RIV3 Riverine Tamarisk type on riverbanks

PBR1 Pioneer Brutian pine type + Juniperus on rocky outcrops


variant (in altitude)

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Code Forest Type Notes

PBR2 Secondary Brutian pine type + oak variant on normal slopes or ancient
agricultural spaces

CSE1 Cypress supramediterranean type in the Donniyeh zone

ACI1 Cilician fir type + broadleaved,Cedar and -


Juniperus variant

CLI1 NW Lebanese Cedar type + Cilician fir and In the Donniyeh and Akkar
Juniperusvariant zones

CLI2 NE Lebanese Cedar type + Juniperus in Hermel valleys zone


variant (Souaisseh)

JJU1 NW Mountain Juniperus type + mixed at altitude < 1.900 m; west


variant and OWL variant and north side of Lebanon
range

JJU2 East Mountain substeppic Juniperus type + On the east side of the
OWL variant Lebanese mountain range
(Hermel and Bekaa valley)

JJU3 Oromediterranean pure Juniperus + OWL altitude > 1.900 m


variant

Once the framework classification is established for forests, it is important to


focus on the forest biodiversity hotspots in the study area in order to locate
priority conservation and management projects.

Forest biodiversity hot-spots in the AUHUD region


This hotspot list was established with the support of many researchers currently
working in the study area; the location of each main hotspot is represented by
numbers in the forest hotspots map below. The map also shows the population
of Quercus ithaburensis since it is a rare species in the northern Lebanese
context (but not exclusive of this area) and is sporadically present unlike other
oak species such as Q. infectoria or Q. calliprinos.

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Table 46: Forestry biodiversity hot-spots in the AUHUD region

Forest category Locations

Karm Shbat Jaafar reserve (3)


Fir and Cedar forests (pure or Arz Najib (Jairoun Kfarbebnine) (12)
mixed: Cedrus libani, Abies
cilicica) Qammouaa (5)
Souaisseh (8)

Karm Shbat (upper zone) (3)


Jayroun (7)
Juniperus forests (Juniperus
Excelsa, Juniperus foetidissima, Qammouaa (5)
Juniperus drupacea or Upper Souaisseh forest (8)
Arceuthos drupacea)
Between Nabaa el Soukkar and Brissa
Near Marjhin in Upper Hermel

Qobaiyat (2)
Andqet (1)
Sfireh (11)
Wadi el Sirreh catchment (9)
Brutian pine forests (Pinus
brutia) Bazbina-Qammouaa-Fneideq surroundings (10)
Wadi Jhannam catchment
Between Akkar el Atiqa and Qobaiyat
Oyoun el Samak surroundings (Bared river lower
catchment)

Fneideq (4)
Turkish oak forests (Quercus Qommamine (6)
cerris subsp. pseudocerris) Wadi Aswad between Akkar el Atiqa and
Qobaiyat

Qobaiyat (2)
Bazbina-Fneideq surroundings (10)
Wadi el Sirreh catchment (9)
Palestine oak forests (Quercus
calliprinos) Joumeh area (Bazbina, Ain Yaacoub, Beino,
Tashea)
Akroum
Hrar

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Forest category Locations

Nahr Moussa (middle and lower el Bared


Plain and other riverine forests catchment)

(Salix and Tamarix spp., Nerium Nahr el Kebir (more stands + Wadi Chadra)
oleander) Little stands in Wadi Jhanam catchment
Little stands in Wadi el Sirreh catchment

Hop-hornbeam forests (Ostrya Qommamine (6)


carpinifolia ) Western slopes of Nabaa el Soukkar

Scattered wooded lands along El Kebir river and


Broadleaved oaks forests (in
in surroundings of Bireh, Deir Jannine and
particular Quercus ithaburensis)
Dousseh

Cupressus (Cupressus
Little stands near Sir el Donniyeh
sempervirens) forests

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Map 34: Forest hot-spots in the AUHUD region

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Improve biodiversity through forest management


In Lebanon, 11 tree species are listed on the IUCN red list, almost all of them
are present in the study area, and nearly all are characterized by a low
disappearance risk (LC class), including the Lebanese Cedar. In all the study
area, it is possible to improve the existing forest biodiversity by implementing
conservation actions for some of the minor tree species. This implies special
conservation treatment during forestry operations (thinning, selective cuts,
charcoal cuts, firebreak treatments, etc.); the most important minor tree species
living in the AUHUD region are listed in the following table.

Picture 37: Syrian Ash (Fraxinus syriaca) and Wild Service-Tree (Sorbus torminalis)

Source: P. VARESE, 29/11/2012, Hermel and 28/07/2013, Karm Shbat

Table 47: Most important minor tree species found in the AUHUD region

Minor Tree Species of concern Geographic Presence


Mount Hermon Maple (Acer Sparse in all the Quercus calliprinos
hermoneum) area (Jairoun, Mishmish) (Sattout, 2007)
Sparse in Donniyeh area, Mishmish,
Syrian Maple (Acer syriacum) Qemmamine, Jairoun (Sattout, 2007,
Stephan et al., 2011)
Sparse in Donniyeh area , Mishmish
Taurus Maple (Acer tauricolum)
(Sattout, 2007)
Contradictory information about Q. libani
Oaks such as Quercus libani, Quercus and Q. cedrorum; Q.ithaburensis in El
cedrorum, or Quercus ithaburensis Kabir river valley and north Akkar at low
altitude (Stephan, unpublished data)
Rare in Donniyeh area: Sfireh, Mishmish
Wild Apple (Malus trilobata)
(Sattout, 2007, Stephan et al., 2011)
Sparse in Donniyeh area (Sattout, 2007,
Syrian Pear (Pyrus syriaca)
Stephan et al., 2011)

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Minor Tree Species of concern Geographic Presence


Sparse in Qemmamine-Jairoun,
Service-trees ( Sorbus torminalis and
Qammoua, Karm Shbat (Sattout, 2007,
Sorbus flabellifolia)
Stephan et al., 2011)
Little stands near Sir el Donniyeh (P.
Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)
Varese, unpublished data)
Drupe-bearing Juniper (Arceuthos Sparse in Donniyeh and Akkar area
drupacea) (Sattout, 2007, Stephan et al., 2011)
Spontaneous wild species in Qammoua,
Walnut tree (Juglans regia) Akkar el Atiqa and their surrounding
area (Tohm & Tohm, 2007)
River banks such as Oronte river near
Hermel (P. Varese, unpublished data),
Syrian Ash (Fraxinus syriaca)
eventually along El Kabir river
(Mouterde, 1983)

Forestry and management recommendations


In the absence of a technical forestry structure, it is necessary to set realistic
perspectives in forest management. The development of a local sustainable
economic policy for the forestry sector is the best way to preserve forests and
create resources for forest improvement.

The priority themes for forestry management are:


Charcoal production with sustainable stand treatments;
Forest fire risk management; and
Natural regeneration of some selected forest stands.

Charcoal production is an important economic resource, especially in the


Donniyeh area; the species cropped is particularly the Palestinian Oak which is
cut down every 20-25 years. In the past, the coppice sites were pastured and
the terraces were then cultivated with wheat. The reserve trees (Preserved
specimens of trees in copses cuts) selected nowadays are often too thin and
frail. It is highly recommended to separate charcoal pits from potentially burning
vegetation in order to reduce fire risks. To preserve forest integrity, it is also
recommended to prohibit grazing in young copses and to leave stronger reserve
trees (best in small dense groups).

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Picture 38: Charcoal production at forest edges and reserve trees kept in Palestinian oak stands

Source : P. VARESE, 29/07/2013, Sir el Donniyeh

Better forest fire management can be achieved with some simple actions and
the implementation of best practices, specifically for Brutian Pine and
Palestinian Oak stands. It is recommended to thin, prune and cut shrubs back
to a minimum of a 5-m large stripe along the main roads and forest trails. The
collected wood can be used for firewood or ground with a shredder to avoid
leaving cut branches on the ground and reduce fire risks. To keep the vegetation
down, it is possible to pasture these borders with goats or sheep twice (or three
times) a year. It is also useful to maintain agricultural and pasture zones on plain
ridges and in the thalwegin the largest forest zones at low altitude (Andqet,
Qobaiyat, Sfireh, Qammouaa and Fneideq dryer areas, Wadi Sirreh and Wadi
Jhannam valleys, Joumeh area, etc.). In these zones, pasture management
best practices need to be encouraged outside forest stands or at forest edge.
To improve the growth of the young stands and young pines, regeneration-
thinning actions are also recommended on the slopes of the most accessible
sites.

Picture 39: Pastured areas and agricultural lands: useful fire breaks spaces

Source: P. VARESE, 27/11/2012, Andqet and Qobayat

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Picture 40: Thinning, pruning and shrub cutting reduce fire risk in Brutian Pine stands

Source: P. VARESE, 27/11/2012, Qobayat and Andqet

The regeneration of other important forest species like Lebanese Cedar, Cilician
Fir, Turkish Oak or Juniper Trees deserves specific actions:
Reduce grazing pressure in forests and move pasture to open lands and
forest edges;
Preserve established regeneration with enclosures in the deteriorated
stands;
Facilitate forest species mixture in some forest stands;
Reduce branch-cutting practice for forage.

9.6.2.3.2 Grazing management


Grazing management and biodiversity
A thematic bibliographic analysis was implemented to check the possibility of
increasing biodiversity with a reduction of grazing pasture in forests and
improving pastoral efficiency in grasslands and other open natural spaces. No
data on grazing pressure in Akkar, Donniyeh nd Upper Hermel region is
available; the last pastoral inventory was conducted in 1988 and requires
updating. Locally, grazing improvements were mostly managed by Himas in the
past, but they have since been abandoned, and sustainability best practices
should today be re-instated and supervised by Himas or other local
establishments. The previously established Hima system was a locally
managed system, mainly by farmers and shepherds, organizing grazing
locations and seasons.

Both under-grazing and over-grazing are problems of mismanagement, and


should be addressed through a participative approach involving local
community groups and all concerned stakeholders, leading to sustainable
grazing, utilization and management of the resources (Asmar, 2011).

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Information related to food preference of goats and sheep in pastures was


researched in bibliography and directly gathered on the field through interviews
with local shepherds. This information is presented in following sections.

Pastoral typology framework


Similarly to forest management, a pragmatic and operational typology allows
the identification of communities subjected to local pasture practices. This work
is useful to highlight the relationships with other natural habitats and give a clear
framework for the grazing resources in a particular area (Garde, 1996). Several
papers relating to grazing in east-mediterranean regions show the complexity
of the relationships between natural communities, grazing pressure, and
vegetation response60.Some of these studies have shown the importance of
woody species in the diet of small ruminants, mainly goats61 . Although
frequently accused of strongly contributing to the degradation of natural
vegetation in Lebanon, goats have always played an important role in the life
and survival of the local inhabitants. Unlike sheep and cattle, the local goat is
very dynamic and adapted to the landscape. The Lebanese forage and pasture
resource is detailed by Asmar (2011); however, the typological framework
developed in this report is not easily applicable in an operational context.

The following table presents the recommended framework; this typological


structure, as well as relations with OWL variants of forest typology (communities
with tree cover <10%), can be implemented and developed in the future.

Table 48: Proposed pastoral typology for the AUHUD region

Code Pastoral type Indicator plants

Open shrubs

SHR1 Mediterranean evergreen open shrubs (Akkar Hyparrhenia hirta, Piptatherum


-Donniyeh thermomediterranean and spp, Calicotome villosa, Cistus
mesomediterranean level) spp , Sarcopterium spinosum,

SHR2 Steppic low altitude Spiny-burnet open Sarcopterium spinosum and


shrubs (Hermel sub-steppic mediterranean other steppic species
level)

SHR3 Mountain broadleaved shrubs Prunus ursina, Pyrus spp,


Crataegus spp

60 Hajj et al., 2007; Sternberg et al., 2000; Golodets et al., 2010 ; Henkin et al. 2011)
61Hajj et al., 2007; Kharrat et al., 2008 and Kharrat, 2004

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Code Pastoral type Indicator plants

SHR4 Lebanese Barberry shrubs Berberis libanotica

SHR5 Gum-dragon mountain phryganas on basalt Astragalus gummifer


and clayey soils

SHR6 Limestone oromediterranean phryganas Astragalus spp, Acantholidon


libanoticum, Onobrychis
cornuta

Fallows and nitrophilous communities

FAL1 Viscous inula fallows Dittrichia viscosa, and other


fallow species

FAL2 Spiny nitrophilous fallows Echinops viscosus, Centaurea


spp, Eryngium creticum,
Onopordum illyricum,

FAL3 Other non-spiny fallows Anthemis, Aegylops,


Chrysanthemum spp

Grasslands

GRA1 Halophytic littoral grasslands Juncus acutus, Salsola kali

GRA2 Bulbous barley grasslands a) on basalt and Hordeum bulbosum


clayey soils; b) on limestone

GRA3 Mountain rocky grasslands on limestone Sesleria anatolica, Festuca


indigests subsp. pinifolia

GRA4 Water conditioned grasslands Mentha longifolia, Juncus spp,


Eupatorium cannabinum

GRA5 Oromediterranean snow conditioned Ranunculs chionophilous,


grasslands Blysmus compressus

Brachypodium gr. pinnatum and Bromus tomentellus communities are identified


on grasslands in Lebanese valleys located further south from the study region
(Qadisha, Tannourine, Ehden, etc.); their presence must be checked in the
mountainous part of this region.

Traditional herding and pastoral systems

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The grazing period in the mountains parts of the study area generally extends
from May until the end of October; during low snow coverage years, the herds
benefit from a longer season beginning in the middle of April and extending until
the middle of November. The transport of herds from the plain to the mountain
pastures is normally accomplished with little trucks, with the exception of herds
in the north of Akkar and Upper Hermel regions that maintain a traditional on
foot transhumance.

Semi-nomadic and nomadic herding systems are also present for goats and
sheep: sedentary herding systems are only reserved to cattle breeding in Akkar
and Donniyeh lowlands or low mountain areas (Srour et al., 2004).

In the mountains, the shepherds lead their herds following snow melting and
water point availability. From June to October, goats feed is in vast majority
composed of herbaceous plants and phryganas shrubs, and in winter of woody
species found at middle or low altitude (Abi Saab et al., 2008). At low altitude,
herds usually eat herbaceous annual yields and additional forage.

Herding feeding in natural lands


In the mountains, goats eat mostly grass species (Hordeum bulbosum,
Agropyron libanoticum, Bromus tomentellus), tender leaves and shoots of
thorny Asteraceae, and especially several oro-mediterranean phryganas
species like Astragalus coluteoides, Astragalus angustifolius, Astragalus
echinus and Onobrychis cornuta which are really appreciated in full bloom. A
few shrub species (Prunus ursina, Rosa glutinosa, Berberis libanotica, and
Arctostaphylos officinalis) and other strong tasting species (Artemisia judaica,
Achillea odorata, Notabasis syriaca, Cirsium acarna, Cressa cretica,
Chrozophora tinctoria, Glaucium leioscarpum, and Salvia acetabulosa)
complete the menu and make up a very varied goat feed.

In winter at low altitudes, the herd herbaceous animal feed is composed of


annual species yields of cereal crops, or of semi-natural pasture lands which
grow after the first autumnal rains (Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum (=
H. geniculatum = H. histrix), Trifolium clypeatum, Trifolium stellatum,
Convolvulus arvensis) or brambles (Rubus sanctus). Amongst shrubby or
arborescent plants, which represent between 70 and 95% of the winter feeding
at low and medium altitude are Calycotome villosa, Sarcopterium spinosum,
Quercus calliprinos, Quercus infectoria, Crataegus monogyna, Prunus ursina,
Pistacia palaestina, Ceratonia siliqua, Pyrus syriaca, Amygdalus orientalis,
Rosa glutinosa.

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According to a shepherd interviewed in Brissa, the goats preferred the following


grasses (in order of preference):
Orchard-grass (Dactylis glomerata) and Meadow-grasses (Poa spp)
Bulbous barley (Hordeum bulbosum), with yields in spring and bulbous
basal parts in full summer period
Anatolian Sesleria (Sesleria anatolica = Sesleria alba)
Fescues of F. ovina group like Festuca indigesta subsp. pinifolia (=
Festuca pinifolia)

Picture 41: Two common species with different grazing value: Viscous Globe-thistle (Echinops
viscosus) and Bulbous Barley (Hordeum bulbosum)

Source: P. VARESE, 29/07/2013, Nabaa el Soukkar and Brissa

The alfalfa (Medicago sativa and other Medicago spp.), is also appreciated. The
Lebanese Barberry (Berberis libanotica) is appreciated in autumn due to the
presence of the fruit; this shrub is often cut or uprooted and used for forage.

Picture 42: Sheep and goats graze different land units

Source: P. VARESE, 29/07/2013, Brissa

Pasture improvement proposals

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The following pasture improvement proposals are suggested, which will have to
be negotiated and acted in collaboration with the shepherds in the short, middle
and long term.

Two different situations occur in natural landscapes in this region:


Natural spaces subjected to heavy grazing and demographical pressure
Natural spaces where agricultural practices have been abandoned

In the first case, it is important to preserve pasture spaces from overgrazing,


improve the productivity of natural feeding and manage herding activities. In the
second case, managed grazing can be useful to control the growth of
combustible biomass and reduce forest fire risk.

Picture 43: Two different ways of wooded land grazing: indiscriminate grazing (left) and biomass
control in a fire prevention strip (right)

Source: P. VARESE, 29/07/2013, right: between Karm Shbat and Qammouaa, left: Ardche
dept., France

In one of the poorest regions of Lebanon, it is very difficult to perform important


improvements and suggest biodiversity enhancement amidst general rural
poverty, in the presence of local conflicts and poor landscape management
culture; these actions must be implemented in parallel with economic progress
of rural communities. Biodiversity and economic improvements can be
performed through the following measures, for example (see Bourbouze &
Donadieu, 1987; AA.VV., 2005; Bellon, 1995):

Alternatives to forest grazing:


Forage cultures outside forest stands, as in former cultivated terraces;
Pastoral recovery of abandoned open spaces in the potential area of
forest diffusion; and
Best use of altitude grasslands along the forest limit: water point
enhancing and rationalization of forage path and resources

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Impact reduction of forest grazing:


Manage small enclosed areas for tree species regeneration (Lebanese
Cedar, Cilician fir, Turkish Oak, Juniper species);
Reduce the time spent in the grazing area or the size of the herds
present at any time;
Encourage the maintenance of low biomass corridors in the Brutian
pine or Palestinian Oak levels with herds (firebreaks).

Development projects relating to the pastoral sector:


Gradual passage from goat to sheep grazing in some territories;
Management of rational pastoral corridors; and
Organization of thematic technical workshops.

An interesting example of forage cultures and grazing carrying capacity of


pastoral systems is the one developed in Jabal Moussa Biosphere Reserve by
the Lebanese University program in cooperation with the International Center
for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). In some tests, the
abandoned terraces were seeded with selected good performance forages such
as Vetch species: Vicia sativa, Vicia ervilia, Vicia narbonensis and Vicia
dasycarpa. In other dry landzones, good performance was achieved with
Alexandrian Clover Trifolium alexandrinum (not spontaneous in Lebanon)and
Alphalpha herb (Medicago spp). Experimental plots in the different sites and
bioclimatical conditions of the AUHUD region can be developed and tested in
the future.Firebreak corridors are currently experimented in all the
Mediterranean basin (AA.VV., 2006 and 2010; Beylier & Lecrivain, 2004;
Dureau, 2003; Gautier, 2007).

Picture 44: Goats appreciate shady places in the summer at medium altitude; horses appreciate non
stony and flat sites

Source: P. VARESE, 29/07/2013, between Sfir and Brissa; N. ANTOUN, Qammoua

Final comments on grazing management


A contract system will be useful in managing changes in the agri-environment.
In these contracts, the knowledge of shepherds will have to be highly valorized,

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integrating traditional know-how as well as innovative practices. These


contracts will need to reward the changes in attitude: prohibition and imposed
measures never work; the contract measures need to be simple, rather flexible
and light. Shepherds must be encouraged and incentivized to:
avoid grazing in forest stands;
cooperate with Himas, Waqfs, municipalities and other organisations;
obtain previously concerted results (for example in firebreaks);
switch from goat to sheep herding;
improve sanitary conditions of their family and herds;
adjust to more sustainable grazing periods.

Finally, it will be important to evaluate through medium and long term monitoring
the consequences of the several grazing techniques and herding systems on
biodiversity and economic status of the local population.

9.6.2.3.3 Ecological connectivity


The main ecological corridors have been identified in a connectivity map (see
below). This map allows a more detailed analysis of existing corridors in the
AUHUD Region, in particular the:
Riverine corridors along the main river systems, temporary or
permanent, going down from the northern Lebanese mountain system;
Forest corridors in this study area, in particular for Lebanese Cedar
and some mediterranean communities. Actually the Lebanese Cedar
and Cilician fir habitat corridors are very fragmented: a better ecological
continuity is an essential condition to forest species and biocenosis
survival;
Agricultural and grasslands corridors at all altitudes, particularly
important for specialized avifauna and flora species;
Coastal corridors, seriously degraded today, particularly important for
coastal fauna and halophytic species or communities.

The anthropogenic degradation (especially from urban sprawl, overgrazing,


forest fires62) and climate change (El Hajji et al. 2012 & 2013) are the biggest
threats to ecological connectivity.
The situation of the Lebanese Cedar is very fragmented: Karm Shbat and
Qammouaa forests have a nearly good connectivity, but Souaisseh and Arz-
Najib (Jairoun Kfarbebnine) forests are more isolated. The Arz-Najib forest,

62 Elard, 2010; Jaradi & Khater, 2009; Mada, 2009; Khater et al., in press; Kouzami et al., 1996;
Regato & Salman, 2008; Sattout et al., 2012; Stephan et al., 2011

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thanks to its isolation and humid climate, is actually in a larger regeneration and
expansive period (Stephan, personal communication). The Souaisseh forest
area in particular has shrinked in the last 20 years, cedar and other tree cutting
is still carried out for firewood (a big cut was realized 7 to 8 years ago).
According to Jomaa et al. (2007), the driest sub-steppic climate and overgrazing
worsen the resilience of these stands.

For oro-mediterranean (alpine eco-zone) and steppic (irano-turanian eco-zone)


corridors, the main connectivity problems mainly come from climate change.

Indeed, during the past century, species migration upward and northward has
already been noted in the Mediterranean basin with respect to their own
ecological niche (margin of ecological tolerance), as well as a perturbation of
most biological cycles related to pest outbreaks and reproductive cycles (Abou
Samra et al., 2009).

The expected modifications in temperature and rainfall are expected to be


accompanied by a significant change in bioclimatic levels in Lebanon,
particularly the geographical extent of bioclimatic levels in Lebanon, in terms of
percent of total cover. The Oromediterranean level is projected to have totally
disappeared from Lebanon by 2080, while the arid bioclimatic level is expected
to have increased from 5 to 15 % in area (Safi in Abou Samra et al., 2009).

Map 35: Cedar corridor (dark green color) in North-Lebanon

Source: MoE/UNDP/ECODIT, 2011


In addition to the stress resulting from the shift in bioclimatic levels and the
subsequent need for the species to migrate upward/ northward, other impacts
on forests in Lebanon related to climate change could be expected as follows:
The need for trees to physiologically adapt to pollinators' appearance
and adequacy with their blooming period

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Reduced migration and dispersal opportunities with increased


landscape fragmentation
Slower tree growth increments
Increased forest dieback as a result of temperature rise and reduction
of precipitation rate, which might severely limit the gross primary
production of forests. During dry periods with extremely low annual
rainfall, the respiratory cost is compensated by using the mobile
carbohydrates stored in the plants. Once this pool has been used up,
the visible symptoms of dieback become evident (Gracia, 2006).
Invasive species as climate change will certainly increase the
invasiveness of alien species. The number of alien species in the
Mediterranean region has grown considerably during the last decades,
but to date no relevant study has been conducted in Lebanon to assess
the risk related to invasive species.
New pests or increased recrudescence of pest outbreaks.

An analysis of the potential impacts of climate change on the forestry sector in


Lebanon was conducted within the framework of Lebanons Second National
Communication to the UNFCCC on Climate Change (MoE/UNDP/GEF, 2011).
The analysis revealed that the most vulnerable forest stands that are expected
to be most impacted by climate change are the Cedrus libani, Abies cilicica, and
Juniperus excelsa stands located in Akkar and Hermel areas. They are
expected to experience a shift in bioclimatic level from sub-humid to semi-arid,
which will potentially challenge their survival since they are already located at
mountain tops where they cannot further move to a higher altitude.

The connectivity of the Mediterranean ecosystems follows two directions: from


the southern Lebanese coastal area and from the Syrian coastal area in the
north of Lebanon. Not much information is currently available on the species
and habitat connectivity between Syria and northern Lebanon.

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Map 36: Main ecological corridors in the AUHUD region

9.6.2.3.4 Important elements to be considered for the conservation of


fauna in the AUHUD region
Besides forests, conservation of other open habitats is also crucial: the greater
the diversity of habitats, the greater the inherent biodiversity is revealed.

A precious natural resource for wildlife that seems to be very scarce in the
AUHUD Region is water points of acceptable quality. The conservation and
development of the territory should focus on the preservation/restoration of all
existing ponds and rocky river banks.

In the Mediterranean eco-zone, the alternation of open, shrub and forest


habitats should be preserved in order to allow the persistence of vulnerable
species such as the Terrestrial tortoise and many threatened breeding birds
such as the European Roller.

In the Alpine area above 1.800 m, focus should be on open areas with cushion-
like vegetation (phrygana) that shelter strictly endemic species.

More globally and in an ecologically sustainable development concept,


development of the territory should consider not breaking the identified major
wildlife corridors in order to ensure the upkeeping of local populations that

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depend on the long term on genetic exchanges with other adjacent or


neighboring populations.

9.6.2.3.5 Prospects to consider in the framework of the sustainable


development of the AUHUD region
The following axes should be considered for an improvement of the sustainable
development plan of the AUHUD Region:
1. Develop a global database of flora and fauna for the AUHUD Region in
collaboration with potential national and international projects. This
database constitutes the basis for a global monitoring of the region.
2. Collect more information on botanical and fauna biodiversity in areas
with low sampling coverage, especially:
a. Akkar plain, coastal and riverine areas and El Kebir valley
(IPA06);
b. Thermo-Mediterranean ecosystems in the hilly area of Bebnine,
Berqayel, Jebrayel, Beino, Berbara, El Rihaniye;
c. Upper Hermel zone (dry and steppic sector);
d. High altitude ecosystems;
e. Agricultural land, with special focus on weeds.
3. Develop a natural habitat map on GIS at 1/10.000 or 1/25.000 scale:This
cartographic document will represent the state of the landscape at year
0 and will be the basis for all monitoring or planning projects in the
region. This map will provide information on all natural dynamics and
pressures from human activities in this area. The EUNIS habitat system
is proposed as the typological basis that can provide a functional
typological focus on forest and grazing management, and give
information on local urban and agricultural planning.
4. Manage grazing with adaptive techniques to integrate traditional
systems and innovative ideas or skills.
It is important to develop grazing systems, especially outside forests, and
to redirect grazing to open lands in order to preserve the forest local
resources. The participation and cooperation with shepherds is important
to:
a. Manage medium to high altitude grazing corridors;
b. Preserve small enclosed reserves for natural regeneration in
strategic sites;
c. Improve selected areas with seedlings and pasture structures;
and
d. Manage strategic firebreak corridors.
5. Plan and develop coastal and river restoration projects.

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6. Develop educational projects to enhance knowledge of ecological


issues in schools and among the local population; promote and develop
sustainable eco-tourism in this exceptional natural landscape.
Sustainable ecotourism ideas include:
a. Mountain trekking paths;
b. Agro-tourism in farms or rural structures to promote
knowledge of traditional foods and their value;
c. Excursions and activities for schools and other groups.
7. Develop eastern-Mediterranean and European cooperation in
restoration ecology, conservation ecology, forestry and pasture
management, land suitability, professional and technical formation.

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10 SWOT ANALYSIS

Table 49: SWOT analysis for sector 1

INFRASTRUCTURE

STRENGHTS WEAKNESSES

S1: Strategic location between Tripoli and Syria W1: One of the most disadvantaged regions of the country
S2: Presence of 4 fishing ports (Arida, Cheikh Zennad, Hay el Bahr, W2: Lack of efficient public transportation
and Abdeh); W3: Several isolated villages due to poorly developed and
S3: Favorable weather conditions to implement renewable energy poorly maintained road network
projects W4: Absence of a proper wastewater treatment system
S4: Vast agricultural lands W5: Alteration in the landscape assets of the region;
S5: Abundant hydrological resources damage of the agricultural areas
S6: Proximity to the port of Tripoli W6: Pollution of the water resources by anthropogenic
S7: Presence of the Ren Moawad Airport activities
W7: Decrease in the availability of water resources, notably
due to excessive use for irrigation
W8: Population growth combined with inadequate
infrastructures
W9: Salinization of coastal aquifers from excessive
pumping of groundwater in coastal areas
W10: Several projects related to water and water
management are on hold due to security reasons,
expropriation problems or water ownership conflicts
W11: Absence of a proper solid waste management system
W12: Lack of adequate relevant infrastructure (roads,
difficulty of access by civil defense, water intake points) to
prevent forest fires

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W13: Incomplete water supply infrastructure and lack of


enforcement of regulations relating to the protection of
water resources
OPPORTUNITIES THREATS

O1: National plans for the implementation of a railway between Tripoli T1: No incentives for the development of green energies
and Syria, the reopening of Qleyaat airport, the extensions of the Arab and sustainable practices
Highway and the North Highway and for the implementation of the T2: Inefficient/incomplete electricity network, frequent power
Halba-Qobaiyat connection outages and weak supply (this particularly induces a
O2: Establishment of a National Wind Atlas for Lebanon in 2011 and considerable profit-loss for the food processing activities
identification of East Akkar as an area of powerful winds heavily relying on cooling rooms)
O3: Quick development of the solar water heaters market in Lebanon T3: Inefficient/incomplete telecommunications network
O4: Available MoEW schemes related to dams, lakes, and irrigation T4: Inefficient/incomplete water and wastewater networks
O5: Available plans and decrees for the management of solid wastes T5: Lack of funds and allocated budget to the region
and initiation of execution of governmental plans relating to wastewater T6: Slow, inefficient and insufficient implementation of
and solid waste management infrastructure projects
O6: National plan for the strategic use of the land: the NPMPLT T7: Large population of Syrian refugees shuffling any future
approved by Decree no.2366 short-term and mid-term strategic vision for the region,
O7: Availability of local and international funds for development projects pressure on already inefficient infrastructures, combined
O8: Rehabilitation of the Ren Moawad Airport as a key project for with the inexistence of a national plan addressing the
employment, tourism, agriculture and industry situation

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Table 50: SWOT analysis for sector 2, 3 and 4

EDUCATION, SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, GOVERNANCE, HEALTH

STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES

S1: A highly young populated area with 7.4% growth in 5 W1: High rate of poverty along with the highest number of children
years per family and the highest dependency rate, and the lowest average
S2: Increasing number of newly established municipalities of individual income
and unions in Akkar, as an empowering structure for W2: Negative effect of poverty on the access to health and education
development and improvement of life conditions services combined with a general lack of awareness towards health,
S3: Akkar's mixed population with minimal religious conflicts education and parental guidance for children
S4: Major role of local civil society and local leaders in W3: Bad quality, lack of adequate equipments and insufficient
development initiatives geographical distribution of services on the educational and health
S5: An increasing number of schools (public, private and levels.
technical), social centers, health centers and hospitals in W4: Insufficient specialized and skilled human resources working in
Akkar with a better geographical distribution education, health services and other public institutions
S6: New establishment of high schools, private schools and W5: Limited choices to improve job opportunities through technical
universities in the area with younger specialized staff and universal available and accessible majors and specializations for
S7: A higher number of educated young women involved in youth and young women
different aspects of life W6: High rate of: school dropouts, schooling delay, illiteracy and
S8: An increasing number of covered citizens by NSSF in failing students. Weakness in foreign languages and absence of
Akkar English as a second language in Akkar public schools
W7: Deterioration of the overall situation with the large influx of Syrian
refugees, on health and education services and on all infrastructure
W8: High rate of unemployment among youth and women
W9: Low rate of health and social coverage and insurance especially
for the most vulnerable groups
W10: Municipal lack of financial and skilled human resources is
weakening its role in development
W11: Corruption, frequent dispute over elections, and the traditional
hierarchal social structure hindering life improvement

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OPPORTUNITIES THREATS

O1: National strategies for health, education and social T1: General economic crisis and people impoverishment creating a
development, to improve service accessibility and quality, vicious circle between education, health and poverty
people protection and empowerment T2: Negative effect of security problems on access to health
O2: IT and available connectivity education and work opportunities
O3: Diversification and expansion of technical and universal T3: The Syrian crisis negative effect, impeding trade and other forms
facilities in Akkar and in Tripoli (UOB Institute of Technology, of economic activities, access to cheaper services and goods, and its
existence of a land plot for an agriculture university in effects on the uncontrollable influx of refugees with an increase of
Abdeh, etc.) unemployment for Lebanese
O4: Increasing market demand for technical labor force T4: Alarming consequence of 2008 clashes and the general political
O5: Growing interest of NGOs and international and sectarian conflicts on the security level and on relationship in
organizations, and implementation of centers, programs and Akkar. Group affiliation to extremists and a tendency to arm and
services in Akkar, with a better geographical distribution violence use, with a loss of values and ethical attitude
O6: School health program reinforcement as a mean to T5: The inefficient reactivity of all governmental institutions and
strengthen MoPH preventive programs ministries in addressing problems, enforce laws and implementing
O7: Large number of successful emigrants from Akkar national strategies (infrastructure projects for water and waste water,
spread in different continent and help their families through energy)
social, educational and financial support T6: Absence of national health coverage laws benefiting to all citizens
O8: Classification of Akkar as Zone C as per the Law 360 for and inefficiency of NSSF social security programs and coverage,
Encouraging Investments in Lebanon with a complete along with the inaccessible prices of private insurance to the majority
exemption for ten years from any income tax and tax on of Akkari citizens
profits of the investor, with other incentives
O9: Rehabilitation of the Ren Moawad Airport creating
employment opportunities

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Table 51: SWOT analysis for sector 5

CULTURE, LEISURE, TOURISM

STRENGHTS WEAKNESSES

S1: Presence of various archaeological/historic sites and W1: Absence of Cultural strategy on National Level
monuments; W2: Lack of an exhaustive inventory of Cultural/Natural Heritage
S2: Proximity to Tripoli, an already established touristic pole; W3: Archaeological/historic sites, monuments and natural assets are
S3: Rich and varied relatively preserved natural assets not highlighted;
(coastal dunes, forests, water streams, cavesetc.); W4: Relatively unknown historical background for the region;
S4: Presence of various picturesque landscapes and W5: Lack of cultural/sports equipment and facilities;
villages; W6: Low level of awareness in the community on the importance of
S5: Hospitality of the inhabitants protecting the archaeological/historic sites and monuments and natural
S6: Local women have academic level of education in assets;
History and Geography W7: No particular local competencies and trained personnel in eco and
agro tourism;
W8: Lack of adequate accommodation facilities for
national/international tourists;
W9: Overprotection of historical/archaeological/natural sites can
challenge their appropriation by local populations and visitors;
W10: Mismanagement of natural resources and cultural heritage;
W11: Desertification notably due to accidental fires and random cutting
of forests.
W12: Lack of coordination between the different governmental
authorities
W13: Absence of a primary site that attracts tourists to the region
W14: Education and social levels are highly variable in the region

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OPPORTUNITIES THREATS

O1: Development of the roads network; promotion of green T1: Vulnerable and unprotected sites;
transports; T2: Incomplete and inefficient road connections with the rest of the
O2: Development and promotion of ecotourism; country;
enhancement of existing facilities T3: Uncontrolled tourism can lead to the deterioration of natural sites
O3: Development of sports/leisure activities on a and the negligence of local traditions
national/international scale T4: Disrespected regulations regarding heritage related practices
O4: Development of traditional tourism (restoration, conservation of old houses, etc.)
O5: Increasing demand on national and international level for T5: Underestimation of the potential of Cultural/Natural tourism as a
eco-tourism and touristic products (Trend for healthy and revenue/employment generator on local (and national) level
quality lifestyle)
O6: Valorize existing Natural / Cultural sites
O7: Raise public awareness and strengthen bonds with
Cultural / Natural sites
O8: Rehabilitation of the Ren Moawad Airport increasing
the touristic potential of the region

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Table 52: SWOT analysis for sector 6

AGRICULTURE
STRENGHTS WEAKNESSES
S1: Availability of relatively large area of arable land W1: Remote area from main local markets, affecting quality and transportation
and of pastures, enabling the development of animal costs
production and field crops W2: Unsuitable land tenure system and land fragmentation, hindering
S2: Easy landscape and topography, enabling investments in machinery and economy of scale
mechanization of harvesting and planting of field W3: Absence of adequate water distribution infrastructure, resulting in water
crops shortage, leakage and pollution
S3: Availability of water for irrigation W4: Inefficient irrigation systems, resulting in high water consumption and
S4: High soil and climatic diversity, enabling the inappropriate use
diversity of products and exclusivity of some others W5: Inappropriate water rights laws
(sesame seed, peanut) W6: Non specialized labor force, with limited expertise available for extension
S5: Availability of labor force W7: Limited facilities for storage, calibration and packaging for export
S6: Close to border facility for export purposes
S7: Reckoned products (i.e. Shanklish) W8: Limited agro-processing units
S8: Possibility of early production with no competition W9: Absence of modern nurseries providing farmers with new varieties and
on the market (potato, table grapes) rootstocks
S9: Availability of small investors in the agriculture W10: Absence of a suitable agricultural crediting system, resulting in high
sector (retired military officers) dependency of farmers on input and service providers as well as on market
middlemen
OPPORTUNITIES THREATS
O1: The presence of mixed farming and the T1: Security failures near the border with Syria and in Tripoli which is the major
production of forage crops are essential for the gross market, and a necessity for a route to Beirut
developing animal production sectors, mainly poultry T2: Prevalence of smuggling activities on the border (when security is assured),
and dairy products which can sometimes negatively affect the marketing of local products
O2: The availability of large volumes of diverse crops, T3: The high demographic pressure over natural resources with an increasing
the relatively low cost of land and labor should trigger trend, reducing fertile arable land and irrigation water

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the development of agro-industries (dairy, poultry, T4: Mismanagement and malpractices (i.e., intensive production, absence of
potato chips, sesame oil, jams) crop rotation, inappropriate field operations, furrow irrigation...) affecting crop
O3: The presence of touristic attractions and the quality (untreated sewage used for irrigation, pesticide residues) and yield,
creation of a natural park are an opportunity to depleting fish resources, pastures and increasing soil erosion and salinity.
develop agro-tourism and high quality labeled T5: Increasing trend of climate extremes (floods, drought, heat waves, wind and
products snow storms), with subsequent impacts affecting the agricultural sector. The
O4: The exclusive soil conditions (basaltic soils) in limited preparedness of the Government and minimal resilience of agricultural
some parts are an opportunity to grow specific high communities to such risks
value products (kiwi, chestnut, cut flowers, organic
products)
O5: The long vegetation season in the coastal plain is
an opportunity to diversify the crop rotation and
introduce soybean for fodder
O6: The priority of Akkar at a national scale in
development projects related to agriculture
O7: The presence of LARI and other institutes and
organizations is an opportunity to promote good
agricultural practices, conservation agriculture and
other new agricultural systems
O8: The presence of some active farmers groups,
extension centers and projects as a means of
information dissemination and capacity building
O9: Rehabilitation of the Ren Moawad Airport
boosting the agriculture sector by generating
additional exchanges and merchandisings
exportations

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Table 53: SWOT analysis for sector 7

INDUSTRY, BANKING, TRADE

STRENGHTS WEAKNESSES

S1: Retirees from the public sector are important local economic W1: Lack of trusted financial instruments does not allow to
agents (housing, investments, etc.) and stimulate demand capture the retiree income and put it towards better local
S2: Trade and commerce are important activities that are tailor-made investments
to needs, demands and opportunities W2: Entrepreneurship seeking to invest in high value added
S3: Availability of cheap labor force for the industrial and agricultural agricultural products and agro-industrial products is the
sectors exception that confirms the rule
S4: Close to border crossings and ports facilitate export W3: Informal trade and commerce are outside the purview of
S5: Potential for tourism, recreational areas and restaurants the fiscal system and reduce local public budgets
S6: Banking branches are available and seem to have excess W4: Labor is unspecialized and cannot fit industrial, agro-
liquidity with loans provided for personal reasons, agriculture, tourism industrial and tourism needed skills
and construction W5: Tourism (natural, archeological and religious) and
S7: Microfinance institutions are active in Northern Lebanon recreational sector is almost non-existent in a very well
S8: Construction, as in all of Lebanon, is booming and is one of the endowed region
drivers of the economy. A number of small industries are associated W6: Despite their liquidity, banks are not risk takers and
with the construction sector clients do not trust them due to former embezzlement (lack of
S9: Presence of three industrial zones in Halba (Decisions n49 of confidence)
15/12/2010, n21 of 26/05/2011 and n5 of 01/02/2012), Aandqet W7: Micro-credit penetration in certain areas remains weak
(Decisions n10 of 17/03/2010, n44 of 02/11/2011 and n6 of and independent evaluation of micro-credit outcome is
unavailable
06/02/2013) and Rmoul (Decisions n13 of 26/03/2008 and n11 of
W8: Zoning is not respected and informal sand mining and
14/03/2012) as per the DGUP master plans
quarries are putting pressures on natural resources. Lack of
construction standards reduce small and medium industry
efficiencies
OPPORTUNITIES THREATS

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O1: Creation of a new form of social corporatization by involving all T1: Risk of nobody taking the lead given the current situation
stakeholders (banks, investors, entrepreneurs, insurance, equipment in Northern Lebanon
sellers, management companies, marketing companies, locals, etc.) T2: Risk of nobody taking the lead as the structure was not
and by targeting key high value-added investments will help capture tested in Lebanon
local savings and investments and improve social harmony, cohesion T3: Lack of governance and rule of Law is maintaining very
and trust cumbersome cooperative activities
O2: Reorganizing and streamlining agro-cooperatives that will T4: Security failures near the border with Syria and in Tripoli
develop transformation hubs owned by cooperative members (frozen are still occurring
vegetables, dairy products, etc.) and where compliance, enforcement T5: Security concerns are hampering any entrepreneurship
and penalty is ensured by the cooperative on its members to maintain T6: Development of skills and knowhow will continue on a
quality control, certification, branding and markets piece meal (e.g., offered by development partners based on
O3: Reducing smuggling could improve the fiscal stance available supply for specific development skills and not needs)
O4: Diversification and climbing up the value chain could increase instead of strategic basis
formal commerce and trade opportunities (see above) T7: Risk of elite capture/monopoly for future financial and
O5: Development of skills and knowhow for agro-business, small and political gains
medium enterprises and tourism help attract investors T8: Banks are usually conservative in their approach and
O6: Involving farmers in harnessing renewable energy could help Lebanese TBs have been their largest share of their
increase the redistribution effect of the sustainable management of investments
natural capital T9: Without banking authorities regulations on the micro
O7: Banking should spearhead the new social corporatization stance finance sector, it will be difficult to build the trust of savers
by being more inclusive and sharing the investment risk with other T10: Lack of commitment and governance at the central level
shareholders to seriously deal with setting and enforcing
O8: Microfinance institutions should be regulated by the Central Bank standards/resource extraction on one hand and the chaotic
of Lebanon and introduce new lines of business such as micro- construction boom that is driven by greed and quick gains on
savings and micro-insurance the other hand with its disfiguring impact on natural sceneries
O9: Regulating land use (cadastre with zoning), building form and
function standards (earthquake proof, energy smart, green building,
etc.), and natural resource extraction (sands and rocks) could help
reach a quality of life and the environment balance while increasing
small and medium industry efficiencies

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O10: Rehabilitation of the Ren Moawad Airport boosting the


industrial sector by generating additional exchanges and
merchandisings exportations

Table 54: SWOT analysis for sector 8

URBAN PLANNING

STRENGHTS WEAKNESSES

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S1: Climate conditions (potential for renewable energies, abundant W1: Internal population growth reshuffling Akkars position vis-
precipitation, snow and white cover during winter periods -vis Tripoli
S2: Position at the crossroad of several bioclimatic zones W2: Increase in illegal constructions and environmental
S3: Biodiversity and variety of ecosystems, habitats and corridors: damage
forests, wetlands, coastal/ halophytic habitats, freshwater habitats, W3: Bad and uncontrolled management of local forests, lack of
etc. enforcement of related regulations
S4: Abundant hydrological resources W4: Municipalities lack financial resources and technical
S5: Existence of a mosaic of iconic landscapes and exceptional expertise, notably regarding awareness for sustainable
points of views development and resources management
S6: Topography and different altitudes W5: Increase in the uncontrolled urban development (linear
S7: Diversified heritage (natural, cultural, religious, architectural) expansion along the main axes; urban sprawl and creation of
S8: Existence of several protected areas urban continuum; and scattered sprawl on agricultural and/or
S9: Strong attachment of local populations towards their territory wood lands and the encroachment of construction projects into
S10: Increasing number of newly established municipalities and wooded areas)
unions in Akkar, as an empowering structure for development and W6. Corruption, frequent dispute over elections
improvement of life conditions W7: Regulations do not cover all ecologically important areas
S11: Presence of three industrial zones in Halba (Decisions n49 of in Akkar
15/12/2010, n21 of 26/05/2011 and n5 of 01/02/2012), Aandqet W8: Unclear land ownership, notably over the forests
(Decisions n10 of 17/03/2010, n44 of 02/11/2011 and n6 of W9: Administrative/ political conflicts between the different
villages
06/02/2013) and Rmoul (Decisions n13 of 26/03/2008 and n11 of
W10: Presence of unsustainable and illegal practices (hunting,
14/03/2012) as per the DGUP master plans
cutting of forest, cannabis plantations)
W11: Zoning not respected: pressure on natural resources
W12: Vegetation loss
W13: Forest fires and lack of adequate relevant infrastructures
(roads, difficulty of access by civil defense, water intake points)
OPPORTUNITIES THREATS

O1: National plan for the strategic use of the land: the NPMPLT T1: Delay in law preparation and implementation of main
approved by Decree no.2366, which also defined the legal infrastructure projects and national strategies and the
framework for the creation of the Upper Akkar Natural Park inefficient reactivity of all governmental institutions and
ministries in addressing problems and enforcing laws

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O2: Decree-Law no.60-83 for the implementation of local master T2: Large population of Syrian refugees shuffling any future
plans and detailed urban plans short-term and mid-term strategic vision for the region,
O3: National plan for the strategic sustainable development for pressure on already inefficient infrastructures
Lebanons north coast: the IMAC (Integrated Management of East T3: Discrepancies between the DGUP zoning maps and the
Mediterranean Coastlines) project NPMPLT recommendations
O4: High touristic potential and various types of tourism: religious, T4: Unstable security and political conditions in the region and
cultural, ecological, etc. the surrounding regions and countries
O5: Presence of a large number of active CBOs (community based T5: Insufficient human, technical and financial resources to
organizations) implement public policies and plans
O6: Interest of some international donors in the area T6: Environmental issues are not a priority on the local and
O7: Establishment of Akkar as a Mohafaza by Law n522 issued on national political agenda
July 16th, 2003 T7: Not all areas are surveyed
T8: Illegal quarrying activities and lack of rehabilitation of
quarries
T9: Incomplete zoning and lack of construction standards
(earthquake proof, energy smart, green building)
T10: Negative impact resulting from tourism related activities
T11: Delay in implementation of necessary decrees to apply
Law n522 establishing Akkar as a Mohafaza

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Table 55: SWOT analysis for sector 9 - Environment

ENVIRONMENT

STRENGHTS WEAKNESSES

W1: Absence of a proper wastewater treatment


S1: Climate conditions, abundant precipitation, snow and white cover during system
winter periods W2: Absence of a proper solid waste management
S2: Position at the crossroad of several bioclimatic zones system
S3: Biodiversity and variety of ecosystems, habitats and corridors: forests, W3: Vulnerability to natural risks: floods, erosion,
wetlands, coastal and halophytic habitats, freshwater habitats, etc. earthquakes
S4: Topography and different altitudes W4: Grazing and over-exploitation of forest
S5: Karstic caves resources
S6: Diversified heritage (natural, cultural, religious, architectural) W5: Forest fires and lack of adequate relevant
S7: Renewable energies potential: wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal infrastructure (roads, difficulty of access by civil
S8: Abundant hydrological resources defense, water intake points)
S9: Existence of several protected areas W6: Incomplete water supply infrastructure and lack
S10: Existence of a mosaic of iconic landscapes and exceptional points of of enforcement of regulations relating to the
views protection of water resources
S11: Strong attachment of local populations towards their territory W7: Lack of enforcement of regulations relating to
S12: Initiation of a participatory approach with local populations in the Park area protected areas and forest resources in general
S13: Initiation of some ecotourism activities W8: Regulations do not cover all ecologically
S14: Existence of a large pristine coastal stretch rich in agricultural land and important areas
natural biodiversity, significantly less densely urbanized and with less polluted W9: Insufficient in-house technical capacities and
coastal waters than the rest of the Lebanese coast. awareness for sustainable development and
resources management
W10: Poverty

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OPPORTUNITIES THREATS

T1: Drought and desertification risk


O1: Very high touristic potential and various types of tourism: religious, cultural, T2: Vegetation loss
ecological, etc. T3: Influx of Syrian refugees and pressure on
O2: The NPMPLT defined the legal framework for the creation of the Upper quasi-absent infrastructure
Akkar Natural Park T4: Insufficient governmental policies for Akkar
O3: Presence of a large number of active CBOs T5: Weak enforcement of regulations
O4: Interest of some international donors in the area T6: Corruption
O5: Initiation of execution of governmental plans relating to wastewater and T7: Unstable security and political conditions in the
solid waste management region and the surrounding regions and countries
O6: Previous experience with local Himas that contributed to sustainable T8: Insufficient human, technical and financial
forestry and grazing resources to implement public policies and plans
O7: The NPMPLT has defined the legal framework for the preservation of the T9: Environmental issues are not a priority on the
Akkar coastal stretch due to its ecological wealth, presence of sand dunes, and local and national political agenda
saline and wet areas in the Qleyaat area T10: Encroachment of agriculture and construction
O8: The Integrated Management of East Mediterranean Coastlines (IMAC) and projects into wooded areas and the coastal stretch
the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) of Northern Lebanon project T11: Negative impact resulting from certain
sets preservation and management guidelines for the Akkar coastline unorganized tourism related activities
T12: Illegal quarrying activities and lack of
rehabilitation of quarries
T13: Health problems/outbreaks caused by
pollution
T14: Presence of unsustainable and illegal
practices (hunting, cutting of forest, illegal
plantations)

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Table 56: SWOT analysis for sector 9 - Natural Park

NATURAL PARK

STRENGHTS WEAKNESSES

W1: Absence of a proper wastewater treatment system


S1: Climate conditions, abundant precipitation, snow and white W2: Absence of a proper solid waste management system
cover during winter periods W3: Vulnerability to natural risks: floods, erosion, earthquakes
S2: Position at the crossroad of several bioclimatic zones W4: Grazing and over-exploitation of forest resources
S3: Biodiversity and variety of ecosystems, habitats and W5: Forest fires and lack of adequate relevant infrastructure (roads,
corridors: forests, wetlands, coastal and halophytic habitats, difficulty of access by civil defense, water intake points)
freshwater habitats, etc. W6: Incomplete water supply infrastructure and lack of enforcement
S4: Topography and different altitudes of regulations relating to the protection of water resources
S5: Karstic caves W7: Lack of enforcement of regulations relating to protected areas
S6: Diversified heritage (natural, cultural, religious, architectural) and forest resources in general
S7: Archeological Tell of Arqa W8: Regulations do not cover all ecologically important areas
S8: Renewable energies potential: wind, solar, hydro, and W9: Insufficient in-house technical capacities and awareness for
geothermal sustainable development and resources management
S9: Abundant hydrological resources W10: Poverty
S10: Existence of several protected areas W11: Unclear land ownership, notably over the forests
S11: Existence of a mosaic of iconic landscapes and W12: Lack of municipal funds and technical expertise for the
exceptional points of views implementation and management of the Natural Park
S12: Strong attachment of local populations towards their W13: Improper land management and zoning of the upper regions.
territory
S13: Initiation of a participatory approach with local populations
in the Park area
S14: Initiation of some ecotourism activities

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OPPORTUNITIES THREATS

T1: Drought and desertification risk


O1: Very high touristic potential and various types of tourism: T2: Vegetation loss
religious, cultural, ecological, etc. T3: Influx of Syrian refugees and pressure on quasi-absent
O2: The NPMPLT defined the legal framework for the creation infrastructure
of the Upper Akkar Natural Park T4: Insufficient governmental policies for Akkar
O3: Presence of a large number of active CBOs T5: Weak enforcement of regulations
O4: Interest of some international donors in the area T6: Corruption
O5: Initiation of execution of governmental plans relating to T7: Unstable security and political conditions in the region and the
wastewater and solid waste management surrounding regions and countries
O6: Previous experience with local Himas that contributed to T8: Insufficient human, technical and financial resources to
sustainable forestry and grazing implement public policies and plans
O7: Potential for attraction of donors and investors T9: Environmental issues are not a priority on the local and national
O8: Attraction of tourists political agenda
O9: Potential for sustainable development of the area T10: Encroachment of construction projects into wooded areas
O10: Potential for sustainable management of natural resources T11: Negative impact resulting from tourism related activities
and resulting income generation T12: Illegal quarrying activities and lack of rehabilitation of quarries
O11: Potential for the creation of job opportunities and income T13: Health problems/outbreaks caused by pollution
generation T14: Presence of unsustainable and illegal practices (hunting,
cutting of forest, cannabis plantations)
T15: Absence of a MoE-MoI consensus, essential to support the NP
and to attract the necessary funds for its implementation and
management
T16: Administrative and political conflicts between the different
villages

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11 FIRST PROPOSAL OF OBJECTIVES


FOR THE REGION OF AKKAR

Following a sound methodology resulting from the SWOT analysis established


in Section 10, the experts were able to identify a first set of objectives to
pursuein the various sectors of development in order to achieve the SSRDPs
Mission. This first proposal of objectives is presented in Table 57 below.

Table 57: First proposal of objectives for the region of Akkar

Objective
Objective 1: Develop mixed farming systems targeting dairy and poultry along with
crop rotation integrating forage crops
Objective 2: Develop sustainable crop production intensification
Objective 3: Promote the production of crops reckoned as assets for Akkar and
traditional local food processing
Objective 4: Promote sustainable use of water resources in Agriculture
Objective 5: Develop an environment conducive to entrepreneurial and industrial
innovation
Objective 6: Preserve, promote and valorize natural and cultural heritage sites
Objective 7: Develop local competencies, adequate facilities and the needed
infrastructures
Objective 8: Provide health and social coverage to Akkar inhabitants, especially to
its vulnerable groups working in construction, agriculture and fishing
Objective 9: Enhance all health services by building on existing primary health care
centers, dispensaries and hospitals and by developing emergency services
Objective 10: Raise Akkar young peoples educational level through drastically
reforming public education programs, management and services in schools,
technical schools and universities and widening professional choices by diversifying
accessible technical specialties and majors in accordance with the economic
vocation of the region
Objective 11: Alleviate extreme poverty by addressing Akkar vulnerable groups
with adequate programs and services through strong coordination between NGOs,
civil society and governmental institutions
Objective 12: Provide a safe environment and quality services by enhancing public
institutions and their ability for effective inspection
Objective 13: Give Akkar priority at the administrative and national level in a shift
from its long marginalization and deprivation to new opportunities for development
Objective 14: Awareness raising and emphasis on womens role in social
development

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Objective
Objective 15: Protect and promote sustainable management of forests, natural
habitats, ecosystems and corridors, coupled with awareness promotion
Objective 16: Develop the National Park and promote ecotourism, while building
local competencies needed
Objective 17: Preserve and protect water resources
Objective 18: Identify and control pollution sources, and rehabilitate
damaged/polluted natural sites in order to ensure a healthy environment, protect
public health and support tourism development
Objective 19: Promote a sustainable economy and support the creation of related
businesses/ employment opportunities.
Objective 20: Promote renewable energy (wind, solar, hydro, ...) by developing
innovative projects

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APPENDIX 1: BIBLIOGRAPHIC
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CDR/ESFD-GFA-ELARD (2011-2012). Appui au Dveloppement Local dans le Nord du


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ILO (2010). Northern Akkar Socio-Economic Assessment

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SECTOR 4
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Nehmeh A. (2000). Akkar, a Story of Deprivation. MoSA/UNDP

SECTOR 5
Blas de Robls, J.-M., Pieri, D., & Yon, J.-B. (2004). Vestiges Archologiques du Liban.
Edisud - Librairie Antoine.

Bross, C.-L., Pottier, B., & Pottier, E. La ncropole de Cheikh Zenad. In Syria, T.7,
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Mouchref, A. (2012). The Voice of Akkari Youth: Calling for a Better Tomorrow.Beirut:
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APPENDIX 2: TABLES

SECTOR 1:

Table 58: Projects implemented in the study area from 2004 to 2009

Locality Project's Name Sector Implemented by Implemented in

Krayat Potable water network Infrastructure UNDP- CDR 2006-2007

Table 59: Estimated costs of urgent electrical installations in Akkar

Table 60: List of planned wastewater treatment plants in Akkar and status of completion

WWTP
Main Villages Served Status
Location

Abdeh Halba Bebnine Abdeh Miniara Received funding from the Islamic
(biggest Bqarzla - Safinet El Qaiteh Bzal Bank for the construction of the
station) Berkayel Oyoun El Ghezlane Tall Abbas WWTP & the network. CDR is
- Bireh Khirbet Daoud - Aamriyeh preparing the phase I tender
Kouachra Ain El Zeit Daousse El documents.
Baghdadi Hlaileh Rihaniye Kouaikhat Phase II will consist of the
Hissa construction of the outfall

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WWTP
Main Villages Served Status
Location

Jebrayel Ain Yaacoub Chakdouf Borj Bazbina Will not be implemented in the
Qboula Baino Chattaha Beit Mellat near future
Rahbeh Jebrayel Dahr Laissine

Qobaiyat Qobaiyat Aandqet Chadra The WWTP is present and


functioning. The network needs
completion and connection to
households and the WWTP

Haizouq A small station serving Haizouq and its Will not be implemented in the
direct surroundings near future

Mishmish A small station serving Mishmish and its The project has been
direct surroundings implemented

Denbo A small station serving Denbo and its direct Will not be implemented in the
surroundings near future

Table 61: Additional wastewater studies and plans awaiting implementation from the CDR
and the MoEW

Region concerned by the study/plan Study/plan

Hermel and a few neighboring villages with a Implementation of a wastewater treatment


geographical location that favors wastewater plant funded by the European Union for a total
transfer by gravity amount of USD 22 million

Machta Hammoud, Wadi Khaled and


Implementation of a sanitation network
Akroum

Implementation of a pumping station in order


Aaraman to connect the Minnieh sewage network to the
Tripoli WWTP

Study of pollution abatement for Nahr el Kabir


Wadi Khaled
el Janoubi

Table 62: Solid waste and construction/destruction dumps in Akkar

Municipal Solid Waste dumps Construction/Destruction dumps

Aaiyat Aandqet

Aaouainat Aaouaainat

Aydamoun Cheikh Mohammad

Bebnine Jdeidet El Qaitaa

Beit Ayyoub (2) Khreibet El- Jindi

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Municipal Solid Waste dumps Construction/Destruction dumps

Beit Mellat Kouachra

Birqayel Mansouriyeh

Bzal (2) Qobaiyat

Chane

Dinbo (2)

Fnaydeq

Hosniyeh

Hrar

Hweish

Jdeideh

Mishmish

Mqaibleh

Qabeet (2)

Rahbeh

Saysouk

Sfaynet Al-Qaitaa (3)

Srar

Tikreet

Tleel

Table 63: Small-scale solid waste treatment facilities implemented through grant funding
from donor agencies

Type of small-scale
Location waste treatment Status Funding institution
facility
Currently not
Waste sorting and functional due to
Akkar el Aatiqa YMCA
composting plant management
difficulties

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Type of small-scale
Location waste treatment Status Funding institution
facility
EU funding, within
Solid waste Currently under
Fnaydek ADELNORD
treatment plant construction
framework
Currently under
Waste sorting and construction
Mishmish EU-OMSAR
composting plant Processing limit of
10 tons/day

Table 64: Recommendations of the 2013 National Master Plan for solid waste management
for the region of Akkar

Location Recommendation Capacity

Design, construction and


Al Rawda (Minnieh-
operation of a sorting and 150 tons/day
Donniyeh)
composting plant

Construction and operation


Deir Aamar (Tripoli) 700 tons/day
of a waste incinerator

Operation of the sorting and


Mishmish composting plant63, originally 100 tons/day
by OMSAR

Design, construction and


operation of64:
Srar A sorting and composting 150 tons/day
plant 100 tons/day
A sanitary landfill

SECTOR3:
Table 65: Characteristics of Akkars main clusters

Number
Akkar Geographic
Focal Localities of Main characteristics
subdivision boundaries
villages

Middle Bared River Bebnine, Arid agricultural


Berqayel, Bzel, 28
Qayteh Halba main road production
Denbo, Jdeidet El

63The cost of constructing the sorting and composting plants and the sanitary landfill proposed in
Akkar is 5 million USD while their yearly operating cost is 4 million USD.
64Idem

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Qayteh, Borj El
Arab

Jhannam valley - Fneideq, Apple production,


Jurd Hermel and Mishmish, 15 employment in the
Joumeh Hrar Army

Akkar el-Atiqa, Agricultural


Qobayat Beino, production,
Joumeh Ostouan River - 18
Rahbeh, Tekrit, employment in the
Qayteh and Halba
Bazbina Army

Administrative,
Halba, Miniara,
Mediterranean educational and
Shafat Sheikh Mohamad, 28
Sea - Syria commercial centre of
Machha
District

Bireh - Sahel Al- Agriculture, fishing,


Kabeer river and Tel Abbas, Tel Ren
Sahel 33
Hayat, Qlayaat MoawadAirport, small
Ostouan River trades

El-Kouechra, El Kouechra,
Arid agricultural
Middle Dreib Monjez, Deir Monjez, Deir 51
production
Jenine Jenine

Qobayat, Bireh,
Chadra,
Syria -
Kfartoun, Andqet, Arid and irrigated
High Dreib Beit Jaafar - 30 agriculture, civil and
Joumeh - Middle Aydamoun, military employment
Dreib Mashta

Hassan

Table 66: Number of new and total municipalities in Akkar (2002-2013)

Year Number of New Municipalities Total Number of Municipalities

2002 2 64

2003 13 77

2004 22 99

2005 3 102

2010 1 103

2011 8 111

2012 16 127

en association avec:
269
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

2013 4 131

Table 67: Federations of Municipalities in Akkar

Area Number of Municipalities Year of Establishment

Joumeh 16 2002

Shafat 12 2004

Jord El Qayteh 12 2004

Middle and Sahel Qayteh 10 2007

Middle Dreib 8 2012

Sahel 8 2013

Nahr Ostouan 7 2013

SECTOR4:

Table 68: Distribution of Akkar citizens enrolled in NSSF by activity and gender

Activity Females Males TOTAL

The extraction of building stone, clay and sand 0 4 4

Doctors 56 256 312

Real estate business 27 159 186

Construction and construction work 48 431 479

Insurance 61 54 115

Trade 672 3.234 3.906

The services that institutions need 420 1.956 2.376

Personal services 143 1.607 1.750

General services 3.346 2.012 5.358

Services for leisure and entertainment 9 70 79

Governmental and public institutions 113 170 283

Agriculture, forests, hunting, fishing 1 4 5

en association avec:
270
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Activity Females Males TOTAL

Metal production 1 37 38

Chemical production 20 227 247

Electricity and gas 10 169 179

Mokhtars 4 168 172

Warehouses and stores 0 11 11

Banks and other financial institutions 246 285 531

Transportation 117 517 634

Water distribution and cleaning services 8 127 135

Packaging of citrus and fruits 1 0 1

Public cars 4 1.735 1.739

Non-metallic mines extraction industries 2 147 149

Petroleumand coal industries 0 10 10

Manufacture of shoes,
28 21 49
clothingandvariouslinensandblankets

Industry of
5 120 125
tools,machineriesandelectricalappliances

Machineries manufacturing, excluding electrical


3 33 36
machineries

Tobacco industry 1 11 12

Industry of leather, fur and


14 5 19
itemsmadeofleatherandfur

Manufacture ofwoodandcork, excluding


1 55 56
furnitureindustry

Printing andpublishingindustryand its


33 121 154
affiliatedindustries

Beverage industry 13 103 116

The furniture industry 7 159 166

The food industry, excluding beverage 29 217 246

Textile industry 4 31 35

en association avec:
271
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Activity Females Males TOTAL

The paper industry andvarieties made of paper 21 180 201

Other industries 43 50 93

Transportation equipment manufacture 4 57 61

Metal working, excluding machineries and


4 88 92
transport equipment

Seafarers 0 2 2

Brokers and brand agents 215 965 1,180

Animal and poultry farms 2 20 22

Optional beneficiary 13 175 188

University student 1,948 856 2,804

Others 59 67 126

Total 7,756 16,726 24,482

Table 69: Distribution of Akkar citizens enrolled in NSSF by village

Village Females Males TOTAL

Abdeh 55 15 70

Aboudiyeh 17 65 82

Aidamoun 67 81 148

Ain Al Dahab (Denbo) 41 385 426

Ain Al Zeit 8 25 33

Ain Tenta 12 18 30

Ain Yaacoub 23 45 68

Akkar Al Atika 340 527 867

Akroum 36 67 103

Amar Al Baiqet 1 26 27

Amara 0 1 1

Amayer 1 8 9

Ammariyeh 0 5 5

en association avec:
272
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Village Females Males TOTAL

Andqet 169 208 377

Arqa 1 7 8

Awadeh 1 18 19

Baldeh 0 1 1

Bani Sakher 0 13 13

Barbara 2 6 8

Bsatin 5 2 7

Bazbina 82 95 177

Beino 70 102 172

Beit Al Haj 8 33 41

Beit Ayoub 14 49 63

Beit Ghattas 5 7 12

Beit Hosh 3 5 8

Beit Mellat 54 78 132

Beit Younis 10 43 53

Berqayel 95 431 526

Bibnine 189 694 883

Bireh 75 217 292

Bistan Al Hersh 3 5 8

Bleibel 1 0 1

Borj 25 66 91

Borj Al-Arab 15 40 55

Bqarezla 77 60 137

Bzal 33 71 104

Chadra 150 147 297

Chan 10 118 128

Charbila 23 23 46

en association avec:
273
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Village Females Males TOTAL

Cheikh Zned 0 1 1

Cheiklor 4 14 18

Chaqdouf 14 15 29

Chetaha 15 18 33

Daghle and Fsakin 4 13 17

Daher Qobayat 5 4 9

Dahr Al Layssineh 19 18 37

Dahr Al Qanbar 3 8 11

Dahr Hdara 3 6 9

Daoura 37 104 141

Darin 7 25 32

Dawse 2 1 3

Baghdadi 8 20 28

Debabiyeh 9 31 40

Deir Jenin 28 32 60

Deir Daloum 0 2 2

Dweir Adawiya 9 13 22

Eastern Arida 8 60 68

Western Arida 0 5 5

Eastern Debebieh 1 1 2

Eastern Martmoura 6 5 11

Western Martmoura 0 1 1

Eastern Tal Abbas 6 19 25

Western Tal Abbas 67 92 159

Edbel 28 47 75

Eyyat 44 103 147

Fared 1 2 3

en association avec:
274
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Village Females Males TOTAL

Fneideq 102 617 719

Freidis 1 13 14

Gebrayel 45 53 98

Germnaya 0 3 3

Ghazileh 4 20 24

Ghwaya 5 2 7

Habshit 9 42 51

Hakour 6 8 14

Halba 181 333 514

Hayzouq 17 45 62

Hbalea 0 2 2

Hedd 6 3 9

Heitla 18 42 60

Hekir Al Dahri 2 4 6

Hekir Al Sheikh Taba 20 28 48

Hekir Jineen 2 11 13

Hisheh 13 72 85

Hissa 15 114 129

Hmeira 19 25 44

Hneider 4 45 49

Hosniye 0 4 4

Howeysh 10 45 55

Howsh 3 45 48

Howshab 6 35 41

Hrar 71 161 232

Hweish Shan 8 32 40

Ilat 20 59 79

en association avec:
275
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Village Females Males TOTAL

Jdideh 62 79 141

Jdidit Al Qayteh 23 92 115

Karm Asfour 14 18 32

Karm Zebdin 0 1 1

Kfarhara 10 11 21

Kfarmelki 0 2 2

Kfartoun 44 112 156

Khat Al Petrol 1 11 12

Khirbet Al Jurd 12 21 33

Khirbet Daoud 7 20 27

Khirbet Shar 6 15 21

Khreibit Al Jindi 22 79 101

Knaisseh 3 43 46

Kneisit 0 1 1

Kousha 9 42 51

Kouwaikhat 5 27 32

Kouweshra 17 99 116

Kroum Arab 4 30 34

Machha 39 150 189

Mahmoudiyeh 0 3 3

Majdala 15 60 75

Majdel 1 25 26

Mar Touma 4 23 27

Mashta Hamoud 33 128 161

Mashta Hassan 42 91 133

Masoudiyeh 4 25 29

Mazraet Baldeh 28 53 81

en association avec:
276
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Village Females Males TOTAL

Memneh 48 48 96

Menjiz 43 49 92

Mhammra 10 44 54

Mina 1 0 1

Miniara 114 133 247

Mishmish 129 446 575

Mounseh 10 26 36

Mqaylbeh 19 143 162

Mqayteh 16 120 136

Mrah Al Khokh 4 21 25

Msheylha 7 6 13

Nahriyeh 6 0 6

Nfisseh 26 21 47

Noura 5 28 33

Ouwaynet 51 64 115

Oyoun 9 28 37

Oyoun Al Ghezlan 11 27 38

Qabiit 34 136 170

Qantara 17 30 47

Qanyi 20 43 63

Qarha 17 55 72

Qarqaf 21 92 113

Qashlaq 3 28 31

Qatlaba 4 7 11

Qboula 9 21 30

Qlayaat 11 186 197

Qloud Al Baqieh 2 14 16

en association avec:
277
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Village Females Males TOTAL

Qobayat 409 484 893

Qobet Shomra 5 34 39

Qorneh 22 163 185

Qrayat 17 42 59

Rahbe 177 228 405

Rajem Issa 3 14 17

Rama 7 58 65

Remmah 24 36 60

Rihaniyeh 2 22 24

Romoul 0 1 1

Rouaymeh 1 0 1

Saadine 4 30 34

Sadaqa 0 1 1

Sahle 22 42 64

Samouniyeh 0 2 2

Saysouk 20 21 41

Semakiyeh 8 51 59

Sendiyaneh 26 51 77

Sfinet Al Dreib 23 15 38

Sfinit Al Qayteh 16 69 85

Sheikh Ayyash 0 2 2

Sheikh Mohammad 56 74 130

Sheikh Taba 51 87 138

Sheikh Zned 11 99 110

Shir Hmirit 0 2 2

Shir Jirin 0 4 4

Sindeyenit Al Majdel 3 1 4

en association avec:
278
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Village Females Males TOTAL

Soweissi 19 99 118

Srar 10 25 35

Tal Andi 0 2 2

Tal Bibi 1 12 13

Tal Miayan 19 142 161

Tal Tnoub 1 0 1

Talbireh 10 47 57

Talhoumayra 8 44 52

Talle 8 9 17

Tashee 12 72 84

Tekrit 69 196 265

Tleil 29 43 72

Wadi Al Hor 6 40 46

Wadi Al Jamous 24 224 248

Wadi Khaled 52 367 419

Zawareeb 22 27 49

Zaytouneh 0 1 1

Zook Hbalssa 6 16 22

Zouk 4 3 7

Zouk Al Mkashrin 7 16 23

Zouk Hedara 6 33 39

Zouk Hossnieh 13 134 147

Zouk Qobayat 3 6 9

Unspecified location 2.832 4.128 6.960

Total 7.756 16.726 24.482

SECTOR5:

en association avec:
279
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Table 70: Projects implemented in the study area from 2004 to 2009

Implemented Implemented
Locality Project's Name Sector
by in

Mini-Football &
Akkar el Social UNDP- ART
Basketball Courts For 2007-2008
Aatiqa services/Youth GOLD
Akkar el Aatiqa

Al-Mjdel Rehabilitation &


Social
Furnishing of a Public UNDP- CDR 2004/2005
Al-Drieb services/Youth
Hall

Mini-Football Social
Al-Karkaf UNDP- CDR 2008-2009
Playground Services/Youth

Dweir Establish a Sportive Social


UNDP- CDR 2006-2007
Adweih Playground services/Youth

Building & Equipping A


Social
Ein Teinta Youth Playground In UNDP- CDR 2007-2008
services/Youth
Ein Teinta

Kherbeh Rehabilitate & Equip a Social


UNDP- CDR 2006-2007
Char Youth Club services/Youth

Equipping a Municipal
Kherbet Education/social
Cultural Center in UNDP- CDR 2007-2008
Dawoud services
Kherbet Dawoud

Building A Mini-
Mashta Social
Football Playground in UNDP- CDR 2007-2008
Hassan services/Youth
Mashta Hassan

Sfayneh Establish a Sportive Social


UNDP- CDR 2006-2007
Dreib Playground services/Youth

Sheikh Mini-Football Social


UNDP- CDR 2008-2009
Mhammad Playground Services/Youth

Mini-Football Social
Talbirri UNDP- CDR 2008-2009
Playground Services/Youth

West Tal- Municipal Mini-Football Social UNDP- ART


2007-2008
Abbas Stadium services/Youth GOLD

Table 71: National heritage sites classified by decree in the Official Journal

en association avec:
280
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
)de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT

Date of
Caza Locality Classified building Decree/Resolution
publication

1957 / 3 / 15 15282
:

1957 / 3 / 15 15282
:

1959 / 4 / 28 229

1967 / 2 / 13 3

1967 / 2 / 13 5

1967 / 2 / 21 6

1974 / 5 / 21 10

1975 / 9 / 6 13

1982 / 6 / 5 6

1988 / 6 / 8 36

1995 / 8 / 1 25

1996 / 12 / 19 4

1997 / 11 / 18 70

1998 / 4 / 16 15

1998 / 4 / 23 18

1998 / 4 / 23 19

1998 / 8 / 27 40

2000 / 12 / 1 3

/ 1959 / 10 / 7 441

/ 1993 / 6 / 9 7

en association avec:
281
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Table 72: NPMPLT recommended regulations for construction, quarries and industrial sites
in and around distinguished sites

500m 500m
500m around
around around
Within large In classified
remarkable groups of
landscape picturesque In forests historical and
natural sites traditional
perimeter villages archeological
(inland and built
sites
coastal) heritage

Study of Study of Study of


agglomerations

Study of
landscape landscape landscape
Required (in landscape
compatibility compatibility compatibility
Urban

continuity of compatibility
Mandatory showing the showing the showing the
cities and showing the
absence of a absence of a absence of a
villages) absence of a
negative negative negative
negative impact
impact impact impact

Nil within a
radius
(Built up surface areas)

of 50m, very
low Nil outside cities
between 50 and villages;
Density

Low, except Low, except Very low if


and very low in R, A No particular
in Relay- in Relay- authorized
500 (except and N; to adapt limitation
Cities Cities (5%)
in U: according to
to adapt each case in U
according
to each
case)
G+1 in flat
terrain and G+1 within a G+2 in R, A
max.5m radius of 500m and N and
G+1 except
above G+1 except in R, A and N, within a
picturesque
Heights

natural Relay-Cities and within a radius of 50m


Relay-Cities G+1 if
terrain if (G+2or more radius of 50m in in U; to adapt
(G+1or G+2 authorized
slope>15%, according U; to adapt for for each case
according to
except in to cases) each case between 50
cases)
Relay-Cities between 50 and 500m in
(G+2 and500m in U U
and10m)
Study of Study of
Construction

landscape landscape
s set backs

Minimum
compatibility Minimum 50m compatibility
No particular 50m from the No particular
showing the from the edge showing the
limitation edge of the limitation
absence of a of the sites absence of a
sites
negative negative
impact impact
Submitted to
Submitted to Submitted to
Classificati

picturesque Submitted to
housing
parcels

landscape analysis
on of

character analysis
impact To avoid No showing no
impact showing no
assessment negative
assessment negative impact
study impact
study
Within a
Submitted to
Submitted to radius of
Large scale

picturesque
projects

landscape 100m, visual


character
impact No No No impact
impact
assessment assessment
assessment
study study
study
required

en association avec:
282
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

500m 500m
500m around
around around
Within large In classified
remarkable groups of
landscape picturesque In forests historical and
natural sites traditional
perimeter villages archeological
(inland and built
sites
coastal) heritage
Study of
Isolated parcel

landscape Study of
construction

No except in insertion landscape


Submitted to Submitted to
immediate showing insertion
compatibility No compatibility
continuity of the absence showing the
study study
villages of a absence of a
negative negative impact
impact
Quarries

No No No No No No
Industries

Submitted to
Only Only
landscape Only harmless
harmless No No harmless
compatibility activities
activities activities
study

Table 73: Survey of the available arts and crafts, restaurants, and accommodations in the
study area

Locality Arts and Crafts Restaurants Hotels and lodges

Aandaqet 2

Aarqa 3 1

Akkar el Aatiqa several 3 1

Al-Bireh 1

Beino 2 1

Berqayel 1

Bkarezla 3

Dahr Layssineh 1 1

Edbel 2

Fnaydek 1

Hakour 3

Halba 5

Hermel 2

en association avec:
283
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Locality Arts and Crafts Restaurants Hotels and lodges

Jebrayel 1

Kfar Bebnine 1

Memneaa 1

Minyara 1

Mishmish 1

Monjez 1

Qmamine several

Qobaiyat Museum 7 6

Rahbeh 1

Tacheaa 2

SECTOR8:

Table 74: Projects implemented in the study area from 2005 to 2012

Implemented Implemented
Municipality/Region Project's Name Sector
by in

Appui au
dveloppement local
20 poverty clusters dans le nord Liban Cardno
and sub clusters Prparation de la Urban Emerging
2010
(Akkar, Hermel, composante planning Markets (UK)
Donniyeh) dveloppement Limited- CDR
communautaire
(Draft)

Conflict Mapping
Border villages of Urban
assessment, Akkar World Vision 2011
Akkar planning
Borders Area

Dreib el Awsat, Dreib UNDP- MDGF


Institutional Mapping Urban
el Aala, Sahel and 2011
of Northern Akkar planning
Akroum

14 villages (Park Simplified Local MADA


periphery) Development Plans Urban
2010-2012
elaborated with planning
women groups

en association avec:
284
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Implemented Implemented
Municipality/Region Project's Name Sector
by in

Union of Municipalities
Simplified Local Urban
of Joumeh-Akkar (18 OMSAR 2005
Development Plans planning
municipalities)

Table 75: Localities included within the study area

Locality Caza

Qarha Aakkar Akkar

Tall Hmayra Akkar

Aarm Akkar

Khirbet Er Remmane Akkar

Massaaoudiy Akkar

Barcha Akkar

Cheikh Zennad Akkar

Hnaider Akkar

Mounjez Akkar

Cheikhlar Akkar

Rmah Akkar

Qachlaq Akkar

Kneisset Aakkar Akkar

Fraydes Aakkar Akkar

Aamaret El-Baykat Akkar

Srar Akkar

Kouachra Akkar

Darine Akkar

Dayret Nahr El-Kabir Akkar

Machta Hammoud Akkar

Mazareaa Jabal Akroum Akkar

AAridet Cheikh Zennad Akkar

Sammaqiy Akkar

Janine Akkar

en association avec:
285
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Locality Caza

Aamayer Akkar

Aabboudiy Akkar

Aaouaainat Aakkar Akkar

Hokr Ed-Dahri Akkar

Khalsa Akkar

Kharnoubet Aakkar Akkar

Dibbabiy Akkar

Chir Hmairine Akkar

Tall Bir Akkar

Hokr Jouret Srar Akkar

Noura Et-Tahta Akkar

Kfar Noun Akkar

Aandqet Akkar

Baghdadi Akkar

Mighraq Aakkar Akkar

Mzeihm Akkar

Saadine Akkar

Tall Meaayan Tall Kiri Akkar

Ouadi El-Haour Akkar

Tall Aabbas Ech-Charqi Akkar

Qsair Aakkar Akkar

Haytla Akkar

Mazraat En-Nahriy Akkar

Qleiaat Aakkar Akkar

Aamriyet Aakkar Akkar

Ghazayl Akkar

Tleil Akkar

Kneisset Hnaider Akkar

Bard Akkar

Biret Aakkar Akkar

en association avec:
286
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Locality Caza

Msalla Akkar

Hayssa Akkar

Tall Aabbas El-Gharbi Akkar

Aain Ez-Zeit Akkar

Kafr Akkar

Charbila Akkar

Khirbet Daoud Aakkar Akkar

Saidnaya Akkar

Haouchab Akkar

Qbaiyat Aakkar Akkar

Aain Tinta Akkar

Koueikhat Akkar

Rihaniyet Aakkar Akkar

Sammouniy Akkar

Sfinet Ed-Draib Akkar

Bsatine Aakkar Akkar

Qaabrine Akkar

Daghl Akkar

Sindianet Zeidane Akkar

Mqaiteaa Akkar

Rmoul Akkar

Douair Aadouiy Akkar

Khirbet Char Akkar

Khreibet Ej-Jindi Akkar

Majdel Akkar Akkar

Hmaiss Aakkar Akkar

Berbara Aakkar Akkar

Deir Jannine Akkar

Hokr Etti Akkar

Kfar Harra Akkar

en association avec:
287
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Locality Caza

Halba Akkar

Kfar Melki Aakkar Akkar

Kniss Akkar

Balde Wa Mazraat Bald Akkar

Hedd Akkar

Aakkar El-Aatiqa Akkar

Aarqa Akkar

Tall Sebaal Akkar

Souaisset Aakkar Akkar

Daouret Aakkar Akkar

Cheikh Mohammad Akkar

Hayzouq Akkar

Kroum El-Aarab Akkar

Cheikh Taba Es-Sahl Akkar

Beino Akkar

Machha Akkar

Nfiss Akkar

Qoubber Chamra Akkar

Jdidet Ej-Joumeh Akkar

Semmaqli Akkar

Marlaya Melhem Akkar

Dahr Laissine Akkar

Minyara Akkar

Aaiyat Akkar

Cheikh Taba Akkar

Aamaret Aakkar Akkar

Beit Mellat Akkar

Zouarib Akkar

Idbil Akkar

Aayoun Aakkar Akkar

en association avec:
288
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Locality Caza

Deir Dalloum Akkar

Jebrayel Akkar

Qboula Akkar

Borj Aakkar Akkar

Tallet Chattaha Akkar

Tikrit Akkar

Ilat Akkar

Aain Yaaqoub Akkar

Karm Aasfour Akkar

Hakour Akkar

Chaqdouf Akkar

Qantarat Aakkar Akkar

Bebnine Akkar

Zouq El Hosniy Akkar

Mazraat Beit Ghattas Akkar

Bezbina Akkar

Bqerzla Akkar

Mar Touma Akkar

Ouadi El-Jamous Akkar

Zouq El-Moqachrine Akkar

Rahb Akkar

Zouq El-Hbalsa Akkar

Mhammaret Akkar

Zouq El-Hadara Akkar

Menneaa Akkar

Houaich Akkar

berqayel Akkar

Majdala Akkar

Hmair Aakkar Akkar

Dinbou Akkar

en association avec:
289
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Locality Caza

Tshea Akkar

Qardaf Akkar

Qloud El-Baqi Akkar

Fnaydeq Akkar

Chane Akkar

Sayssouq Akkar

Qornet Aakkar Akkar

Beit El-Haouch Akkar

Qraiyat Akkar

Khreibet Aakkar Akkar

Bzal Akkar

Jdeidet El-Qaitaa Akkar

Beit Younes Akkar

Aayoun El-Ghizlane Akkar

Habchit Akkar

Michmich Aakkar Akkar

Beit Ayoub Akkar

Sfaynet El-Qaitaa Akkar

Sadaqa Akkar

Hrar Akkar

Qabaait Akkar

Tarane Minnieh-Donnieh

Sfir Minnieh-Donnieh

Haql el Aazim Minnieh-Donnieh

Qattin-Miniy Minnieh-Donnieh

Mrah Es-Sfire Minnieh-Donnieh

Qraine Minnieh-Donnieh

Beit El-Faqs Minnieh-Donnieh

Qarsaita Minnieh-Donnieh

Aain Et-Tin-Miniy Minnieh-Donnieh

en association avec:
290
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Locality Caza

Hazmiyet-Miniy Minnieh-Donnieh

Sir Ed-Danniy Minnieh-Donnieh

Mimrine Minnieh-Donnieh

Bqarsouna Minnieh-Donnieh

Qarhaiya Minnieh-Donnieh

Qarne Minnieh-Donnieh

Aasaymout Minnieh-Donnieh

Debaael Minnieh-Donnieh

Btermaz Minnieh-Donnieh

Jayroun Minnieh-Donnieh

Haouaret-Miniy Minnieh-Donnieh

Beit Haouik Minnieh-Donnieh

Qemmamine Minnieh-Donnieh

Kfar Bibnine Minnieh-Donnieh

Mrebbine Minnieh-Donnieh

Michaa Mrajhin Hermel

Table 76: NPMPLT main land use recommendations for Akkar

Sector of concern Recommendation

In urgent need of protecting and valorizing the coastal sand dunes,


the projected Natural Park, the protected area of Karm Chbat, the
high valley of Nahr el Bared

Reinforcement of the green and blue grid through the protection


Preserving natural of water resources, the proper management of the forest cover,
sites and resources and the conservation of natural areas

Reestablishment of the ecological continuity along the Cedar


corridor and the remaining green areas

Establishment of management plans by the authorities in charge

Re-evaluation of the In urgent need of preserving the zone of the peaks (beyond 1,900
natural wealth of the meters altitude), vulnerable and important in terms of water
country resources

en association avec:
291
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Sector of concern Recommendation

Priority should be given to the preservation of the green incisions


along the coast and river mouths in order to avoid linear urban
expansion

Priority should be given to the preservation of remarkable coastal


sites and to making the seashore accessible

Agriculture, local trade, internal tourism and eco-tourism should be


promoted and subsidized as they represent the main source of
income of these areas
Preserving the identity
of mixed rural areas
Planning and architecture (character, forms, constructions
materials, colors and heights of buildings (typically G+2)) should
be in harmony with the local traditions

Banning of quarrying activities within a perimeter of 500 meters


around classified nature reserves, protected sites and monuments,
inhabited zones, coast lines, and rivers

Banning of quarrying activities in dense forest areas, mountain


peaks (above 1,900 meters), and the Cedars corridor

Construction of a wastewater treatment plant in Abdeh (as part of


Quarries, wastewater, the third (long-term) phase of the sewage Master Plan)
and solid waste
management Establishment and implementation of a thorough sorting, recycling,
and treatment plan

Selection of landfill sites for sorting and composting facilities by the


unions of municipalities, assisted by administrative and technical
support from MoE and MoIM at the Mohafaza level

Construction of controlled dump sites in Akkar and rehabilitation


of uncontrolled dump sites

Implementation of projects enhancing the quality and productivity


of agricultural lands
Agricultural land
preservation
Banning of urban sprawl and development outside the villages
perimeters and along main roads

Implementation of strict rules to control flood risks (specially in the


plain areas along the coast and in Wadi Khaled)

Reduction of the construction rights and ratios, keeping at least


Natural risks 80% of the plots unconstructed

Taking into consideration several natural risks related to the


morphological aspect as well as to the vegetation cover of the area:
floods; landslides (plain of Boqaya in Wadi Khaled); desertification

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Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
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Sector of concern Recommendation

N.B.: the villages of Haret al Jdideh and Kherbeh, have been


constructed in areas presenting a high risk of flooding

Table 77: NPMPLT recommended regulations for construction, quarries and industrial
establishments in Urban, Rural, Agricultural and Natural areas

N2 - N3 -
U- A-
R - Rural N1 - Peaks Corridor Valleys &
Urban Agricultural
of Cedars links
Not
required, Not
Compactn
except applicable
ess of Recomme
for forest Mandatory (no Mandatory Mandatory
urbanizati nded
area urbanization
on
boundari possible)
es
Average in Low,
towns, low except in
Average
on outskirts, Construction center of
High, in towns, Very low
Density very low on limited to cities and
except low on except for
(Built up distant military and villages
near outskirts, ski resorts
surface areas, in technical (average)
forest very low (average
areas) forest areas installations and
areas in forest density)
and in large (pylons) prohibition
areas
agricultural on slope >
entities 30%
G+# in G+1, G+3 in
centers of except in center of
towns, G+2 center of towns,
High, G+2, in suburbs, towns G+2 in
except in except in G+1 in Not (G+2) and suburbs,
Heights
forest towns sensitive applicable ski resorts G+1 in
areas (G+3) areas (considere forest,
(forests, d in large agricultural
groundwater scale and natural
intakes) projects) areas
In Only in
continuity continuity
with with
villages, villages,
otherwise over 20
Classificat Only in
min 10 Only in 000m2,
ion of continuity
Yes 000m2 on continuity of No otherwise
housing with
agricultur villages for tourist
parcels villages
al lands projects
and 20 only; with
000m2 on landscape
forest compatibilit
lands y study
Large Ski
Tourist
scale Yes resorts;
Only in projects;
projects except only with
Yes continuity No with
outside forest Environme
with villages compatibilit
agglomera areas ntal
y study
tion Impact

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N2 - N3 -
U- A-
R - Rural N1 - Peaks Corridor Valleys &
Urban Agricultural
of Cedars links
Assessme
nt

Prohibit
Prohibited
ed in
in woods.
woods.
Accepted
Accepte
within a
d within
min.
Yes; with an a min.
distance
Environment distance
of 500m
al Impact of 500m
away
Assessment away
from
Quarries No and No No from
streams
reclamation streams
and
of and
villages;
agricultural villages;
with an
lands with an
Environm
Environ
ental
mental
Impact
Impact
Assessm
Assess
ent
ment
Yes; with
pollution
Only for
s and Only for
mineral
hazards industries
Only for water
impact not
industries industries;
assessm polluting
Industries Yes not polluting No with study
ent; and the
agricultural of
study of agriculture,
soils landscape
landscap streams
compatibili
e and forests
ty
compatib
ility

en association avec:
294
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

Table 78: NPMPLT recommended regulations for construction, quarries and industrial sites,
and infrastructures in natural hazards prone areas

Flood risk
Landslide risk
(regulations for lands
(regulations for lands
classified as flood
classified as landslide
prone areas by
prone areas by
NPMPLT and for Extreme
NPMPLT and for which
which no technical vulnerability of
no technical study has
study has been water table
been carried out
carried out proving (regulations for all
proving that the project
that the project and its lands classified in
does not present any
road are safe from any this category by
threat to its future
flood hazard and that NPMPLT)
dwellers, nor that it
the project itself does
provokes the
not worsen the
aggravation of this
situation on the
hazard all around)
premises)
Expansions accepted
Urban No particular
only at the edge of No particular limitation
agglomerations limitation
existing villages
Average in U and R,
Density Very low, and
low in A and N3, very
(Built up surface Very low prohibition on slope >
low in N2, no
areas) 10%
construction in N1
No construction in N1
G+1 including G+1 including eventual No particular
Heights
eventual floor on piles floor on piles in U, R, A, limitation
N2 and N3
80% of the land
Construction should stay as garden 80% of the land should No particular
setbacks to help water stay as garden limitation
infiltration
On immediate borders In immediate border of
of cities and villages cities and villages and Conditioned by the
and via a technical via a technical analysis execution of
Classification analysis that proves that proves the appropriate sewage
of housing absence of flood absence of danger on works (total
parcels hazard on the project the project and the treatment) before
and nonexistence of nonexistence of hazard construction of any
hazard aggravation on aggravation on the road and building.
the surroundings surroundings
Conditioned by the
Large scale execution of
projects appropriate sewage
No No
outside works before
agglomeration construction of any
road and building
Yes in U;
Accepted only for
certain building types
Isolated in R, A and N
No No
constructions (harmless public
infrastructures and
agricultural
installations)
Prohibited in U, N1, Prohibited in U, N1, Prohibited in U, N1,
Quarries
and N2; and N2; and N2;

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Flood risk
Landslide risk
(regulations for lands
(regulations for lands
classified as flood
classified as landslide
prone areas by
prone areas by
NPMPLT and for Extreme
NPMPLT and for which
which no technical vulnerability of
no technical study has
study has been water table
been carried out
carried out proving (regulations for all
proving that the project
that the project and its lands classified in
does not present any
road are safe from any this category by
threat to its future
flood hazard and that NPMPLT)
dwellers, nor that it
the project itself does
provokes the
not worsen the
aggravation of this
situation on the
hazard all around)
premises)
In A, R and N3, a In A, R and N3, a In A, R and N3,
technical analysis technical analysis conditioned by a
proving the absence proving the absence of technical analysis
of flood hazard on the danger on site and the proving the absence
project and the nonexistence of of rocky blocks
nonexistence of landslide hazard destabilization risks
hazard aggravation on aggravation on the that could induce
the surroundings surroundings groundwater system
deregulations.
Accepted only for Accepted only for
industries that do not industries that do not
release toxic and release chemicals
Prohibited for all
Industries dangerous chemicals and solid wastes, the
categories
that could be spread degradation of which
into the ground in constitutes a
case of floods pollution threat
Conditioned by the
establishment of
Public facilities No No
adequate sewage
solutions

Table 79: Detailed comparison and conformity analysis between the DGUP zoning maps and
the NPMPLT recommendations

DGUP zoning maps NPMPLT recommendations


conformity
Land use
Description

Description

Maximum
Locality

Heights
Zoning
Zoning

Zoning

height of
Brief

construction Height conformity


except tiles
(m)

Touristic 8.5 R Rural 9, except in towns 12 Yes Yes


R Rural 9, except in towns 12 Yes Yes
12 in center of towns, 9
Urbanized 8.5 Valleys on suburbs, 6 in forest, Yes (verify
N3 Yes
& links agricultural and natural forests)
Aandqet

areas.
R Rural 9, except in towns 12 Yes Yes
12 in center of towns, 9
Urbanized 8.5 Valleys on suburbs, 6 in forest, Yes (verify
N3 Yes
& links agricultural and natural forests)
areas.
Urbanized 8.5 R Rural 9, except in towns 12 Yes Yes

en association avec:
296
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

DGUP zoning maps NPMPLT recommendations

conformity
Land use
Description

Description
Maximum

Locality
Heights

Zoning
Zoning

Zoning
height of

Brief
construction Height conformity
except tiles
(m)
12 in center of towns, 9
Valleys on suburbs, 6 in forest, Yes (verify
N3 Yes
& links agricultural and natural forests)
areas.
R Rural 9, except in towns 12 Yes Yes
12 in center of towns, 9
Urbanized 8 Valleys on suburbs, 6 in forest, Yes (verify
N3 Yes
& links agricultural and natural forests)
areas.
R Rural 9, except in towns 12 Yes Yes
12 in center of towns, 9
Urbanized 8 Valleys on suburbs, 6 in forest, Yes (verify
N3 Yes
& links agricultural and natural forests)
areas.
6, except in center of
Corridor No (verify
towns, 9, and ski resorts
Touristic 8 N2 s of town Yes
(considered in large scale
Cedars center)
projects)
Industrial 8.5 R Rural 9, except in towns 12 Yes Yes

Industrial 8.5 R Rural 9, except in towns 12 Yes Yes


R Rural 9, except in towns 12 Yes No
12 in center of towns, 9
Agriculture 4 Valleys on suburbs, 6 in forest,
N3 Yes No
& links agricultural and natural
areas.
6, except in center of
Corridor
towns, 9, and ski resorts
N2 s of Yes Yes
(considered in large scale
Cedars
projects)
Touristic 3
12 in center of towns, 9
Valleys on suburbs, 6 in forest,
N3 Yes Yes
& links agricultural and natural
areas.
Urbanized 9 R Rural 9, except in towns 12 Yes Yes
Urbanized 7 R Rural 9, except in towns 12 Yes Yes
Urbanized 7 R Rural 9, except in towns 12 Yes Yes
R Rural 9, except in towns 12 Yes No
12 in centers of towns, 9
Agriculture 8 Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive Yes (verify
A Yes
Dahr Layssine

ural areas (forests, forests)


groundwater intakes)
R Rural 9, except in towns 12 Yes No
12 in centers of towns, 9
Agriculture 4.5 Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive
A Yes Yes
ural areas (forests,
groundwater intakes)
R Rural 9, except in towns 12 Yes No
12 in centers of towns, 9
Agriculture 4.5 Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive
A Yes Yes
ural areas (forests,
groundwater intakes)

en association avec:
297
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

DGUP zoning maps NPMPLT recommendations

conformity
Land use
Description

Description
Maximum

Locality
Heights

Zoning
Zoning

Zoning
height of

Brief
construction Height conformity
except tiles
(m)
12 in centers of towns, 9
Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive Yes (verify
Urbanized 7.5 A No
ural areas (forests, forests)
groundwater intakes)
12 in centers of towns, 9
Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive Yes (verify
Touristic 7.5 A Yes
ural areas (forests, forests)
groundwater intakes)
12 in centers of towns, 9
Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive Yes (verify
Tall Meaayan; Qleyaat; Al-Meghraq

Urbanized 7.5 A No
ural areas (forests, forests)
groundwater intakes)
12 in centers of towns, 9
Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive
Agriculture 5.5 A Yes Yes
ural areas (forests,
groundwater intakes)
12 in centers of towns, 9
Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive
Agriculture 5 A Yes Yes
ural areas (forests,
groundwater intakes)
12 in centers of towns, 9
Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive
A Yes Yes
ural areas (forests,
groundwater intakes)
Touristic 4
12 in center of towns, 9
Valleys on suburbs, 6 in forest,
N3 Yes Yes
& links agricultural and natural
areas.
Area under 12 in centers of towns, 9
the Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive
Touristic A --- ---
jurisdiction of ural areas (forests,
the DGA groundwater intakes)
12 in centers of towns, 9
Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive Yes (verify
Urbanized 7 A No
ural areas (forests, forests)
Cheikh Zennad, Tall Bibi; Knaisse; Hissa; Rmoul; Qaabrin

groundwater intakes)
12 in centers of towns, 9
Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive Yes (verify
Urbanized 7 A No
ural areas (forests, forests)
groundwater intakes)
12 in centers of towns, 9
Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive Yes (verify
Urbanized 7 A No
ural areas (forests, forests)
groundwater intakes)
12 in centers of towns, 9
Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive Yes (verify
Urbanized 7 A No
ural areas (forests, forests)
groundwater intakes)
12 in centers of towns, 9
Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive Yes (verify
Touristic 7 A Yes
ural areas (forests, forests)
groundwater intakes)
12 in centers of towns, 9
Agricult on suburbs, 6 in sensitive Yes (verify
Industrial 9 A Yes
ural areas (forests, forests)
groundwater intakes)
Agricult 12 in centers of towns, 9 Yes (verify
Industrial 9 A Yes
ural on suburbs, 6 in sensitive forests)

en association avec:
298
Elaboration dun schma rgional damnagement et
de dveloppement durable du territoire (SRADDT)

DGUP zoning maps NPMPLT recommendations

conformity
Land use
Description

Description
Maximum

Locality