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conditioning applications, the air drawn from the atmosphere can contain dust

and other contaminants, and droplets may be carried over from humidifiers or

dehumidifiers. Local exhaust systems are used to capture various particles.

High concentrations of particles are moved in pneumatic conveying systems.

Fans and fan systems that are exposed to particles may need special design

features. Protection against erosion and corrosion is discussed in various

application chapters. Drifting in ducts and increased energy requirements are

examined in the conveying chapter. Separation and retention are discussed in

the air-cleaning chapter.

Aerosols

Disperse systems in air have been given the general name aerosol, analo-

gous to the older term, hydrosol, which denotes a disperse system in water or

other liquid. An aerosol is defined as a stable suspension of ultramicroscopic

solid or liquid particles in air or gas. This denotes a two-phase system,

although the disperse phase alone (the particles) is often called the aerosol.

By common usage, aerosols have been given names (dust, fume, smoke, fog,

mist, etc.) that distinguish them as liquid or solid, as well as by their method

of formation and particle size. The size unit used for small particles is the

micrometer, abbreviated m. (The use of the term micron and its abbrevia-

tion is discouraged.) The unaided eye's limit of visibility is about 50 m,

the largest respirable particle is about 10 m, and the size of freshly formed

tobacco smoke is about 0.5 m.

Dust is formed by reducing earthy materials to small size. Processes such

as grinding, crushing, blasting, and drilling produce dust particles ranging

from the submicroscopic to the visible, their composition being the same as

that of the parent material. Common examples are mineral dusts, derived

from the disintegration of rock, and organic dusts, derived from wheat and

flour. Particle size is predominantly above 1 m for dust.

Fumes are formed by processes such as combustion, sublimation, and

condensation. Typical examples are the fumes of zinc oxide produced by zinc

vapor escaping the surface of molten metal. Its particle size is usually below

0.1 m at formation, but because these very small particles agglomerate

vigorously, their size increases rapidly.

7-2 FAN ENGINEERING

organic origin, such as the smoke from incomplete combustion of tobacco,

wood, oil, or coal. Particles of low vapor pressure that settle slowly under

gravity are also often called smokes. Smokes are characterized by a particle

size well below 0.5 m.

Fogs are formed by the condensation of water vapor upon suitable nuclei,

and mists by the atomization of liquids. Droplet size varies widely depending

upon formation conditions: persistent sea fogs are below 30 m, and sprays

range upward from 50 m.

When a solid or liquid is broken up into finely divided particles and

dispersed in air, two important changes take place: 1) the surface area is

greatly increased, and 2) the space occupied by the dispersed material is

expanded many times over the volume of the original mass. Thus, if 1 mL of

water is dispersed into droplets each 1 m3 in volume, 1012 particles will be

formed with a total surface area of 4.8 m2 compared with 0.00048 m2 for the

original 1 mL drop. Assuming a droplet concentration of a billion particles

per cubic meter of air, the 1 mL of original material will now be dispersed in

an air volume of 1000 m3. The enormous expansion in numbers and surface

area of the disperse phase of an aerosol has an important influence on chemi-

cal reactivity, including fire and explosion effects, cloud opacity, and particle

collection in air-cleaning equipment. The most important characteristics of an

aerosol are the size of the suspended particles and their concentration.

Particle Size

Clouds in which all the particles are the same size are termed monodis-

perse, and a single number is adequate to define their size. Aside from

airborne pollens and spores, monodisperse aerosols are rare in nature and

difficult to prepare in the laboratory. Almost every aerosol contains a range

of sizes around a central value (mode, mean, or median). These aerosols are

called polydisperse, and whereas a single number is adequate to describe a

central point of the distribution (for example, the median), this number fails to

indicate whether the sizes of the other particles are closely clustered around

the central size or are widely spread. This difference is illustrated in Figure 7.

1, which shows two particle-size distribution curves having the same median

value (that is, half the particles are larger and half smaller) but a markedly

different size range. Using familiar statistical terminology, the size range of

each of these bell-shaped, normal-probability distribution curves can be

quantified by its standard deviation.

If a plot of size versus frequency, similar to Figure 7.1, were prepared for

a foundry-shakeout dust cloud, it would have the skewed shape (Figure 7.2)

characteristic of most aerosol clouds. Figure 7.2 shows the mean (weighted

average) and the median (half larger, half smaller) of the size distribution,

neither of which is the same as the mode (greatest-frequency class interval)

plotted in the histogram.

CHAPTER 7 PARTICLES AND PARTICLE CLOUDS 7-3

made manageable by plotting the logarithm of the size instead of the size.

When this is done, the curve is transformed into a bell-shaped one, as seen in

Figure 7.3. Customarily, particle size is plotted as a cumulative distribution

curve on logarithmic-probability (or log-normal) graph paper. It gives a

straight line when size follows the likely log-normal distribution. This

transformation is shown in Figure 7.4, where the 50% value is the median size

and the ratio of the median size to the 15.87% size is the geometric standard

deviation of the size distribution. On a cumulative (or summation) size plot,

the geometric standard deviation is also equal to the 84.13% size divided by

the 50% size. When sizes are closely clustered around the central value, the

geometric standard deviation will be a small number, reducing to 1 at the limit

for a monodisperse cloud. Industrial-dust clouds commonly have a geometric

standard deviation from 2.5 to 3.5 and contain particles that range in size over

3 to 4 orders of magnitude. For example, foundry-shakeout dust clouds

contain particles of from 0. 1 to 100 m.

Adapted from the data of L. Silverman, C. E. Billings, and M. W. First, Particle Size Analysis

in Industrial Hygiene, Academic Press, New York, 1971, p. 236.

7-4 FAN ENGINEERING

The data from which the size curves of Figures 7.2, 7.3, and 7.4 were

derived were obtained by examining a representative sample of collected dust

under the microscope and measuring the diameter of particles, one by one.

This results in an analysis of particle size by number (or count), and the 50%

point is the count-median size. Similar data are derived from widely used,

automatic optical (and laser) single-particle counters and sizers. These

devices continuously conduct part of the aerosol through a small, illuminated

sensing volume in the interior of the device and direct a scattered light signal

onto a sensitive photomultiplier tube from each particle as it passes through.

The intensity of the scattered light signal is proportional to a well-defined

function of particle size. However, the characteristics of dust collectors and

many other devices, such as crushing and grinding machinery, are rated on a

mass rather than a count basis, so it is necessary to transform size-by-count

curves to size-by-mass curves to properly relate particle size to mass effi-

ciency.

Whenever the cumulative particle-size distribution by count plots as a

straight line on logarithmic probability graph paper, as in Figure 7.4, the

transformation to a mass basis can be easily made by using the following

equation:

Adapted from the data of L. Silverman, C. E. Billings, and M. W. First, Particle Size Analysis

in Industrial Hygiene, Academic Press, New York, 1971, p. 237.

CHAPTER 7 PARTICLES AND PARTICLE CLOUDS 7-5

where M m and M c are the 50% size by mass and by count, respectively, and

g is the geometric standard deviation. The entire size-distribution curve by

mass can be plotted as a straight line passing through the mass median size

M m at 50% and parallel to the count curve. This is because, for the same

aerosol, the slopes of both the mass and count curves will be identical (that is,

the geometric standard deviations will be the same).

When the size-by-count distribution fails to give a straight line on

logarithmic probability graph paper, it is necessary to divide the curve into

small size intervals and construct the mass-distribution curve by simple

iterative calculations using the center point of the interval (the average size)

and the total number within the interval to calculate total particle mass for the

frac- .

Adapted from the data of L. Silverman, C. E. Billings, and M. W. First, Particle Size Analysis

in Industrial Hygiene, Academic Press, New York, 1971, p. 238.

7-6 FAN ENGINEERING

and usually many times larger, than the corresponding count-median diameter

because of the dominating influence of the larger particles in a size-by-mass

distribution. For example, for a hypothetical cloud made up of two spherical

particles, one 1 m and one 10 m in diameter, 50% of the particles, by count

or number, will be 1 m and 50% 10 m. But, by mass, the 10 m particle

.

Mass median Mm = 5.2m

Figure 7.4

Cumulative Particle-Size Distribution Plotted

on Logarithmic-Probability Graph Paper

Adapted from the data of L. Silverman, C. E. Billings, and M. W. First, Particle Size Analysis

in Industrial Hygiene, Academic Press, New York, 1971, p. 240.

CHAPTER 7 PARTICLES AND PARTICLE CLOUDS 7-7

counts for 1000 units, whereas the 1-m particle counts for only 1 mass unit,

so the 1-mm particle now accounts for only 0.1% of the total mass (that is,

100 1 / (1000 + 1) ). A similar analysis shows that the surface-median di-

ameter, important in light-scattering and cloud-opacity calculations, will be

between the count- and mass-median diameters.

Small particles follow the speed and direction of the suspending air unless

acted upon by a force that either does not affect the suspending medium or

affects it less. The simplest situation is one where the air is still and an

external force acts on the suspended particles but not on the air. Just such a

situation exists for a small, spherical particle suspended in still air and experi-

encing the gravitational sedimentation force Fg . In any consistent units,

mg

Fg = , (7.2)

gc

immediately after it starts to settle, air resistance, or drag, will balance the

gravitational force, and the particle will then settle at a constant speed known

as the terminal or free-fall settling velocity. The nature of the resisting force

was investigated by Stokes in 1851, and the equation describing the terminal

settling velocity of small particles in still air bears his name.

The drag force FD on a settling particle is

CD A aV 2

FD = (7.3)

2 gc

where A is the projected area of the particle in the direction of motion and a

is the air density. Drag coefficients CD for small particles are related to the

particle Reynolds number, for which the characteristic dimension is the

particle diameter rather than the duct diameter, and the characteristic velocity

V is the velocity of the particle relative to the velocity of the air rather than

the velocity of the suspending air. Therefore, it is possible for the particle

Reynolds number to be a very small value, such as less than one, at the same

time that the suspending air has a Reynolds number higher than 100000. The

distinction between the particle Reynolds number and the suspending-air

Reynolds number is very important for understanding the dynamic behavior

of small particles. The coefficient of drag CD as a function of Reynolds

number Re is shown in Figure 7.5 for several particle shapes. This chart is

correct for smooth particles but only approximate for particles with rough

surfaces. Of the three zones marked on the figure, the one called the Newton

.

7-8 FAN ENGINEERING

in aerosol technology. This is because particles with Reynolds numbers in

this range usually settle so rapidly that most attention must be given to

preventing premature settling or drifting in ducts. The fact that the drag

coefficients for each of the various particle shapes are very nearly constant in

this zone is noted and utilized in the chapter on conveying.

The Stokes zone, which covers a range of Reynolds numbers from 0.0001

to 2.0, is the only one that applies to the motion of aerosol particles. The drag

coefficients for particles in this zone vary inversely with the Reynolds num-

ber. For spherical particles,

24 24

CD = = (7.4)

Re d pV a

Because the drag force FD equals the gravitational force Fg when the

settling particle reaches its terminal velocity (that is, Fg = FD ),

CD A aV 2

mg = . (7.5)

2

Engineers' Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1963, pp. 5-60.

CHAPTER 7 PARTICLES AND PARTICLE CLOUDS 7-9

3 8

m = p a d 6 and A = d 4 and solving for V redesignated Vg , the

3 2

Vg =

3

d 2 p a g 8 . (7.6)

18

For aerosols, the buoyant effect of the air is negligible, so the expression

3 8

p a is usually simplified to p .

The part of Equation 7.6 that contains only the particle and air character-

istics is called the Stokes number and is often termed the relaxation time

because it has the units of time:

d 2 p

= . (7.7)

18

For example, the relaxation time of a 0.1-m water droplet is 8.7 10 8 sec-

onds. For 1.0- and 10-m particles, it is 3.6 106 and 31. 104 seconds, re-

spectively.

In a gravitational field, the local acceleration g can be assumed equal to

32.2 ft/s2. The viscosity of air at ambient temperature is 1.225 10 5 lbm/ft-s.

The terminal settling velocity Vg of a 25-m spherical particle having a den-

sity of 150 lbm/ft3 according to Equation 7.6 is

2

25

25400 12 (150 )

Vg =

(32.2 ) = 0.147 ft/s.

(

(18 ) 1.225 105 )

Because of viscosity, a shear stress is produced in the suspending air by

the velocity gradient. This gradient exists between the layer of air molecules

adhering to the surface of a settling particle (and settling with it) and those air

molecules at rest in the still air surrounding the settling particle. Air viscosity

increases at higher temperature but is largely independent of pressure. When

particles are substantially below 1 m, their size approaches the length of the

mean free path of the air molecule in which they are suspended, and, as they

settle in what, for them, increasingly becomes the equivalent of a noncontinu-

ous medium, they tend to slip between the suspending air molecules instead of

dragging them downward. This results in a lower drag-coefficient value and

more rapid settling than predicted by Stokes' law and requires a correction

known variously as the Stokes-Cunningham and the Cunningham-Millikan

molecular-slip correction factor CC , which has the values shown in Figure 7.6

for ambient air at 1 atm pressure. For particles greater than 1 m, the

7-10 FAN ENGINEERING

correction factor does not differ significantly from unity, but for smaller

particles, it assumes great importance. For 0.1-m spheres, the slip correction

equals 3, and spheres of this size settle at a rate three times the value predicted

by the uncorrected Stokes' equation. For 0.01-m spheres, the slip correction

equals 23.

Particles that are not spherical settle at slower rates than predicted by

Stokes' equation because of the effect that a larger projected area A in the

direction of movement has on particle drag in Equation 7.3. (That is, a sphere

has the least projected area of any geometric shape containing equal volume.)

Spheroidal quartz particles, for example, settle at a rate that is only 65% that

of glass spheres of equal mass. Mica platelets and asbestos fibers are even

less like spheres, and they deviate even more from the settling velocity

calculated from Stokes' equation. Figure 7.5 gives drag coefficients for disks

and cylinders, but for less regular shapes, empirically derived particle-shape

factors are usually applied to Stokes' equation to correct for the effect of

increased drag. Similar difficulties arise in applying Stokes' equation when

the particles are not homogeneous and the correct particle density is hard to

determine. Many coal fly-ash particles are hollow (cenospheres) and, so, of

uncertain density. Agglomerates of metal-fume particles contain much empty

space, and the handbook value for the density of the metal oxide would

greatly exaggerate the density of a loose cluster. Because the geometric

dimensions of aerosol particles are usually of little intrinsic interest compared

to their behavior in motion, it is customary to refer to aerosol particles in

terms of their aerodynamic equivalent diameter. This is defined as the diame-

.

Cc = 1 +

2 104

pDp

3

6.23 + 2.01exp 1095 pDp 8

p = pressure in cm Hg

Dp = particle diameter in cm

Adapted from the data of L. Silverman, C. E. Billings, and M. W. First, Particle Size Analysis

in Industrial Hygiene, Academic Press, New York, 1971, p. 17.

CHAPTER 7 PARTICLES AND PARTICLE CLOUDS 7-11

ter of a homogeneous sphere of unit density (that is, 1 g/cm3 the density of

water) that has an identical terminal settling velocity in still air. By this

definition, a particle of lead shot having a density of 11.3 g/cm3 and a diame-

ter of 10 m has an aerodynamic-equivalent diameter of 10 113 . = 335

. m;

that is, the 10-m lead sphere will behave in all respects like a 33.5-m water

droplet when acted on by forces that do not act equally on the suspending air.

So far only a single, isolated particle in space, that is, unhindered settling,

has been considered. When particle concentration increases to the point

where a hydrodynamic interaction sets in between adjacent particles, substan-

tial entrainment of the surrounding air occurs, and the entire dust cloud settles

as a coherent body at a rate greater than would be expected for individual

particles of the same aerodynamic equivalent diameter in unhindered settling.

This phenomenon is important for clouds settling in still-air conditions but not

for clouds in turbulent motion.

Stokes' equation (7.6) has been derived for unhindered settling of homo-

geneous spheres in still air but can also be applied without serious error to

slowly moving aerosols. Although gravitational sedimentation will occur at

largely the rate predicted by Stokes' equation, the path followed by particles

that are simultaneously conveyed by a moving aerosol cloud will be a combi-

.

Adapted from the data of P. Drinker and T Hatch, Industrial Dust: Hygienic, Significance,

Measurement and Control, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York,

1954, p. 284.

7-12 FAN ENGINEERING

nation of the sedimentation vector and the aerosol-flow vector. This interac-

tion can be illustrated by examining settling chambers, once widely used for

removing large particles from industrial-process air streams. Figure 7.7 is a

schematic representation of such a device. Assume a horizontal aerosol-

velocity vector of 60 fpm in the effective-settling section, a chamber length of

20 ft, and a chamber height of 7 ft. From these figures and Equation 7.6, it is

possible to calculate the aerodynamic-equivalent diameter of the minimum-

size particle that will just settle into the dust bin after entering the chamber at

the upper surface. (This is the most unfavorable entry position because it

requires the longest settling path to reach the dust bin.) The aerosol retention

time inside the settling chamber will be the length (20 ft) divided by the

aerosol horizontal velocity (60 fpm), or (20 / 60) 60 = 20 s. Therefore,

particles entering at the top have this maximum time to settle 7 ft into the dust

bin and be captured, a rate of 0.35 ft/s (chamber height divided by retention

time). Rearranging Equation 7.6 to solve for the diameter and substituting the

appropriate quantities (in U.S. customary units), the solution is

12

18Vg

12

18 0.35 1.225 105

d =

p g

= 25400 12 = 60 m.

62.3 32.2

For quartz quarry dust, the higher particle specific gravity (2.65) will hasten

settling and, thereby, reduce the minimum-size particle collected at 100%, but

the nonspherical shape will reduce settling velocity to 65% of the original and

so increase the minimum size collected at 100%. Making these corrections in

the calculation gives the correct value for quartz dust:

12 12

18Vg

d =

p g

=

25400 12 = 30 m.

( 62.3 2.65 ) 32.2

particle size that will be 100% collectable to about one-half the diameter of

the minimum collectable water droplet. The settling time can be increased

either by lengthening the gas path or by reducing the gas velocity. For

practical reasons, gravitational settling is not used in air cleaning for particles

below 50 m in size.

Aerosol particles also respond to forces other than gravity, some much

more effective in influencing the differential behavior of air-borne particles in

motion. The most important include centrifugal, inertial, and electrical forces.

Centrifugal force. When a small, suspended particle travels in a circular

path, it is acted upon by centrifugal force and moves radially outward relative

to the path. Centrifugal force Fc equals the product of the centrifugal accel-

eration and the particle mass m . Centrifugal acceleration equals the square of

the tangential velocity Vt divided by the radius of turn R :

CHAPTER 7 PARTICLES AND PARTICLE CLOUDS 7-13

2

mVt

Fc = . (7.8)

R

flow, it is assumed that radial outward particle movement is resisted by

viscous drag and that Stokes' equation reasonably approximates this drag.

Therefore, the equation of equilibrium motion for a small, spherical particle in

a centrifugal-force field assumes the following form, whereby centrifugal

2

acceleration Vt R replaces gravitational acceleration g in a new equation to

define terminal radial velocity Vr :

d 2 pVt

2

Vr = . (7.9)

18 R

80000 ft/s2, which is about 2500 g's. The radial acceleration for a tangential

gas velocity of 5000 fpm and a radius of curvature of 3 inches is

2 2

Vt

=

R (3 12 )

For a 5-m particle in such a force field, the terminal radial velocity

according to Equation 7.9 is

2

5

25400 12

Vr = (150 )( 27800 ) = 5 ft/s.

(

(18 ) 1.225 105 )

Assuming a 1.0-ft-long gas path, the distance X that a 5-m particle will

travel radially can be approximated by

X=

(1.0 ) 5.06 = 0.06 ft.

(5000 60 )

This value is only approximate because it is based on a constant value of R ,

whereas R actually increases as the particle migrates radially. A more exact

value can be obtained by using a differential equation and integrating over the

entire path length or by an arithmetical method of dividing the path into short

incremental lengths, solving for X , adding this to R , and repeating the

process over the entire path. The total X can then be obtained by summation.

7-14 FAN ENGINEERING

When in the same flow field, the trajectories of particles having the same

relaxation time will be identical if they start from the same point. The radial

migration distance of the particle can be increased by lengthening the gas

path, by decreasing the radius of curvature, or by increasing the gas velocity.

For practical reasons, centrifugal separation is not used to capture particles

much below 5 m in size.

Inertial force. Inertia can be considered a special case of centrifugal force

because its application always involves the production of sharply curved

streamlines for the conveying air and the migration of particles across stream-

lines to impinge on a target around which air flows. This process is illustrated

in Figure 7.8, which shows an aerosol stream issuing from a round or rectan-

gular nozzle where the gas velocity is greatly increased. The jet from the

nozzle is discharged against an adjacent flat surface, causing the air to diverge

sharply. The numbers indicate the velocity pattern in the impinging jet flow.

Particles in the airstream have more inertia than the air itself and tend to

continue forward as the air turns off to the sides, causing particles with the

requisite inertia to impact on the surface. Because the air velocity over the

collecting plate is high, the plate must be coated with a viscous material to

prevent particle bounce and re-entrainment. The distance from the jet outlet

to the stationary plate governs the sharpness of curvature of the fluid stream

and, with jet velocity, also controls the collection efficiency. This distance is

maintained about equal to the characteristic dimension of the nozzle (for

example, jet diameter) for capturing small particles. Efficiency of impaction

is usually presented as a function of the square root of the dimensionless

impaction parameter I :

d C V

2 12 12

18 D

=

p c j

I1 2 , (7.10)

j

CHAPTER 7 PARTICLES AND PARTICLE CLOUDS 7-15

where D j is the jet diameter for a round jet or the jet width for a rectangular

jet and V j is the average air velocity at the jet outlet. The characteristic

grouping of d 2 p 18 , so prominent in Stokes' equation, is also clearly

visible in this equation. The Cunningham-Millikan slip-correction factor Cc

is added because, as jet velocity increases, smaller and smaller particles cross

the streamlines and strike the collecting plate. When sonic velocity is

reached, particles of 0.25 m and smaller can be collected very efficiently

although the energy expenditure is, necessarily, great. However, since energy

expenditure is only a minor concern for air-sampling instruments, impaction

.

Adapted from the data of ARIES, Inc., Box 111, Davis, California 95616.

7-16 FAN ENGINEERING

Characteristically, this is done by arranging several stages with decreasing

nozzle sizes in series. Such an arrangement, known as a cascade impactor, is

shown in Figure 7.9. As the same air volume passes through each nozzle

stage in turn, changes in V j are solely a function of jet size D j . For a circular

jet, V j = 4Q D j , where Q equals the air rate in consistent units. For a

2

series of jets of decreasing diameter, the square root of the impaction pa-

rameter I will change as the square root of V j D j or 4Q D j changes, that

3

32

is, inversely as D j . Rearranging Equation 7.10 to solve for D j gives

d C 4Q 1

13 13

18 I

2 23

D =

j

p c

1/ 2

.

for example, 5-m aerodynamic equivalent diameter, it is necessary to know

the relationship between I and impaction efficiency. This is given in Table

7.1. For 100% collection with a round jet, I 1 2 must equal 0.56.

Assuming an air-sampling rate of 2.8 Lpm (46.7 cm3/s or 46.7 10 6

m3/s), 10m (10 106 m) particles of unit density (1 g/cm3 or 1000 kg/m3)

. 105 Pa-s.

and an air viscosity of 182

% Round jet Rectangular jet

0 0.20 0.31

10 0.28 0.40

20 0.32 0.46

30 0.35 0.51

40 0.37 0.53

50 0.38 0.57

60 0.40 0.60

70 0.42 0.63

80 0.43 0.67

90 0.50 0.71

100 0.56 0.83

The experimental values above were determined for a ratio of plate spacing to

characteristic jet dimension of 3.

Adapted from the data of L. Silverman, C. E. Billings, and M. W. First, Particle Size Analysis

in Industrial Hygiene, Academic Press, New York, 1971, p. 21.

CHAPTER 7 PARTICLES AND PARTICLE CLOUDS 7-17

6

13

6

13

D = 0.56

23

18 182 5

.

. 10

j

The diameter of a jet at the same flow rate that impacts all particles 5 m and

larger would, by an analogous calculation, be 0.244 cm, and if the smaller jet

were placed downstream of the larger, the aerosol could be fractionated into

three particle-size groups: 10 m and larger, between 5 and 10 m, and less

than 5 m. Cascade impactors often contain as many as 12 coordinated stages

that make it possible to divide aerosol particles into narrow, overlapping size

fractions for accurate analysis of size and size distribution. Classifying a

particle cloud into discrete parts by using a cascade impactor measures

aerodynamic diameter directly and, so, makes the cascade impactor a highly

valuable aerosol-characterization device.

Electrostatic force. A particle carrying a charge in the region of an

applied electrical field experiences acceleration in a direction dependent on

the polarity of the charge. The magnitude of the acceleration a is the product

of the particle charge ne and the strength of the charging field E :

a = ne, (7.11)

where n is the number of electron charges on the particle and e is the charge

of one electron (4.8 10-10 statcoulomb). Airborne dusts often become

naturally charged by such common processes as combustion, comminution,

and dispersion as well as by collision with air ions formed by cosmic rays,

lightning, and similar air-ion-producing processes. But, natural charging

seldom results in more than one or two elementary charges per particle, and

the proportion of positively and negatively charged particles is usually about

equal. The result is an electrically neutral cloud containing neutral particles

as well as particles containing weak charges of either polarity. For example,

freshly formed, pulverized-coal fly ash contains about 30% positively charged

particles, 25% negatively charged, and 45% neutral, whereas freshly formed,

copper-smelter dust contains about 40% positively charged particles, 50%

negatively charged, and only 10% neutral. Each of these aerosols contains

only slightly more charges of one polarity over the other.

When particles larger than about 1 m in diameter are passed through a

high-voltage corona discharge, they acquire charges from adsorbed electrons

and gas ions in proportion to the square of the particle diameter d p and the

strength of the charging field. For conducting particles, the saturation charge

(that is, the maximum possible number) is

3E 0 d p

ne = . (7.12)

4

7-18 FAN ENGINEERING

For particles smaller than about 0.2 m, diffusion charging predominates,

and the number of charges acquired by a particle is given approximately by

d p cN 0e 2 t

d p kT

n= 2

ln 1 + , (7.13)

2e 2 kT

k is the Boltzmann constant (1.371 10-16 erg/molecule-K); N 0 is the ion

density in ions/cm3; c is the ion velocity (root mean square) in cm/s; and T is

the temperature in K. Typical charges acquired by particles of various sizes

are shown in Table 7.2. Particles in a unipolar ion flux acquire 75% of the

saturation charge in less than 0.1 s. The migration velocity of a spherical

charged particle Ve in the direction of a collecting electrode of the opposite

sign can be obtained from the following expression, which utilizes the air-

resistance relationship given by Stokes' equation:

EneCc

Ve = , (7.14)

3 d p

where E is the field strength in the collecting space (esu/cm) and Cc is the

slip-correction factor.

Electrostatic force fields usually produce migration velocities of about 0.1

ft/s for 1.0-m particles. Corresponding velocities for both larger and smaller

particles are somewhat higher. For particles larger than 1 m, which can

receive a saturation charge ne proportional to their surface (that is

proportional to the square of the diameter), the migration velocity increases

directly .

Diameter Exposure time (sec) Exposure time (sec)

m 0.01 0.1 1 0.01 0.1 1 10

0.2 0.7 2 2.4 2.5 3 7 11 15

2.0 72 200 244 250 70 110 150 190

20.0 7200 20000 24400 25000 1100 1500 1900 2300

assembly: T = 300K, N0 = 5 107 ions/cm3, E0.= 2 kV/cm, in air at

atmospheric conditions at 40 kV with a discharge current of 40 A/ft.

Adapted from the data of L. Silverman, C. E. Billings, and M. W. First, Particle Size Analysis

in Industrial Hygiene, Academic Press, New York, 1971, p. 19.

CHAPTER 7 PARTICLES AND PARTICLE CLOUDS 7-19

with the particle size. However, for particles smaller than 1 m in diameter,

the saturation charge that can be imposed is proportional to the first power of

the diameter. So, it appears that the migration velocity for particles below 1

m should be independent of particle size but, because the slip-correction

factor increases for smaller particles, the velocity actually increases with a

decrease in size. Assuming a 1 m particle with a migration velocity Ve of

0.1 ft/s, the migration distance X through air traveling at 300 fpm along a 2-

foot boundary can be determined from

X=

1300 606

This migration distance can be increased by lengthening the gas path, by

increasing the field strength, or by decreasing the gas velocity. For practical

reasons, electrostatic precipitation is not used in air cleaning unless high

efficiencies are required for particles smaller than 1 m in size. Larger

particles that may be present will also be collected.

Aerosol particles smaller than 0.1 m in diameter exhibit a significant

random movement called Brownian motion due to collisions with individual

gas molecules. Brown first described this random motion in 1827 in connec-

tion with small particles suspended in liquids, and later it was confirmed for

aerosol particles. The average linear displacement X of such a particle in a

time interval in seconds is a function of the particle size d p in ft and vari-

.

Table 7.3

Particle Displacements in Standard Air Due to Various Force Fields

1 2

m Feet Cc Grav. Cent.3 Elect.4 Brown.5

10.0 3.28 10 -5 1.016 .024 20.5 0.98 .0000057

1.0 3.28 10 -6 1.165 .00027 .235 0.11 .0000194

0.1 3.28 10 -7 2.93 .0000069 .0059 0.27 .0000972

0.01 3.28 10 -8 22.6 .00000053 .00046 2.12 .0008540

1

Stokes-Cunningham slip-correction factor - dimensionless.

2

Gravitational force field - downward linear displacements based on 32.2 ft/s2 acceleration.

3

Centrifugal force field - outward radial displacements based on 862 g's acceleration.

4

Electrostatic force field - normal linear displacements based on 7500 volts/in. field strength

and a saturation charge on the particles.

5

Brownian movement - random linear displacements based on average values.

6

All data based on 150 lbm/ ft3 of particle density.

7-20 FAN ENGINEERING

4 R TC

X =

12

3Nd

u c

, (7.15)

p

R, the gas temperature T is in Rankins, the viscosity is in lbm/ft-sec, and

Avogadro's number N is 2.76 1026/lbm-mol. The factor Cc is the

Cunningham-Millikan slip-correction factor previously discussed.

Brownian motion will lead to diffusion, that is, a net streaming of particles

through the carrier gas in the direction of the lower concentration when a

concentration gradient exists. Concentration gradients are produced when the

streaming particles are removed from the gas at a boundary. Values for the

diffusion coefficient Dv (cm2/s) can be derived from the relationship

Dv = kBT , (7.16)

as the universal gas constant divided by Avogadro's number. It has a value of

1.371 10-16 erg/molecule-K and is unaffected by pressure or gas

composition. The particle mobility B is defined as equal to Cc 3d p .

Values for the diffusion coefficients of various sizes of particles are given in

Table 7.3.

When the concentration of diffusing particles remains constant beyond a

certain distance from a deposition surface or boundary (as by vigorous eddy

.

Radius by gravity by molecular diffusion

m 1 m* l m* 10 m* 100 m* 1000 m* 10000 m*

10-4 negligible 7000 700 70 7 0.7

10-3 negligible 130 13 1.3 0.13 0.013

10-2 negligible 1.4 0.14 0.014 0.0014 0.00014

10-1 0.000225 0.022 0.0022 0.00022 0.000022 negligible

1 0.0128 0.0013 0.00013 0.000013 negligible negligible

10 1.2 0.00012 0.000012 negligible negligible negligible

100 70 0.000012 negligible negligible negligible negligible

*boundary layer thickness

Adapted from the data-of C. N. Davies, 'Deposition from Moving Aerosols, Chapter XII,

Aerosol Science, C. N. Davies (Editor), Academic Press, London and New York, 1966, p.

409.

CHAPTER 7 PARTICLES AND PARTICLE CLOUDS 7-21

diffusive mixing) and when the particle concentration decreases from this

value to zero within the diffusion boundary layer (on the basis that all parti-

cles contacting the deposition surface are permanently removed from the

aerosol), the rate of deposition is

Dv C

R= , (7.17)

h

where R is the deposition rate per unit area, Dv is the coefficient of diffusion,

C is the concentration of particles outside the boundary layer, and h is the

thickness of the boundary layer through which particle diffusion occurs. The

velocity of deposition Vd (the rate of deposition per unit of area for a unit of

airborne concentration) is R C and equals Dv h . Table 7.4 shows values of

the velocity of deposition for particles of differing sizes through boundary

layers of graduated thickness.

Thermophoresis. This is another characteristic of particles substantially

below 1 m for which the driving force is the gas-molecule bombardment of

suspended particles. An aerosol particle subjected to a temperature gradient

between a hot and a cold surface will tend to move toward the colder surface.

This motion is caused by a thermal force arising from differential interaction

of the particle with the gas molecules. Those approaching from the hot side

have a higher average velocity (momentum) than those approaching from the

cold side, producing a net force in the direction of the flux of thermal energy.

Thermal precipitation of dust particles is used to obtain samples for analysis

by light/optical or electron microscopy but has not yet been employed for gas

cleaning.

Coagulation. Coagulation of aerosol particles occurs continuously and

spontaneously when airborne particles in Brownian motion collide with one

another and stick together, forming larger particles in the process. When the

particle size becomes large enough, rapid gravitational settling occurs, but

when small particles are being formed or added continuously, the aerosol

particle size tends to remain constant, that is, larger particles settle out and

new agglomerates form to take their place. If no new particles are added,

however, coagulation ceases when the particle growth has produced particles

too large to have appreciable Brownian motion and when too few particles

remain to make possible frequent collisions. Consequently, the rate at which

particles disappear by coagulation follows a simple law:

dn

= k n 2 , (7.18)

dt

coefficient equal to 4 kTCc 3 .

7-22 FAN ENGINEERING

dn 4 kTn 2 Cc

= . (7.19)

dt 3

n0

nt = , (7.20)

4 kTn0Cc t

1+

3

coagulation by the eddy diffusion it produces within the aerosol. Eddy

diffusion is independent of particle Brownian motion and enhances it because

mechanical mixing increases contact between particles by improving the

chances of collision and by correcting local regions where particle diffusion (a

relatively slow process) has depleted the airborne dust concentration.

Coagulation is an important phenomenon in particle collection because an

increase in particle size usually results in either greater efficiency or a lower

energy requirement. A special application of coagulation to fume collection

occurs in the smelting industry where an important fraction of the product

coming from the furnaces is in the form of condensing vapor in a very hot

carrier offgas. Before collection by filters or electrostatic precipitators is

possible, the temperature must be greatly reduced. This is done by slowly

passing the hot, condensing aerosol through large, steel flues exposed to the

air. Equation 7.19 shows that the coagulation rate is directly related to the

temperature, the number concentration, and the Cunningham-Millikan correc-

tion factor, which increases as particles become substantially smaller than 1

m. All three factors are greatly enhanced in the very hot furnace offgases,

where freshly formed fume particles are in the range of 0.01 to 0.05 m and

concentrations may exceed 10 g/m3. This produces vigorous coagulation to

the point where large flocs form and rapid gravitational sedimentation occurs

.

1010 5236 3

109 523.6 30

108 52.36 300

107 5.236 3000

t 0 . equals the time required to reduce the number of particles to one tenth of the initial

number. W equals mg per L, assuming 1 m, and density equals 1 g/m3.

CHAPTER 7 PARTICLES AND PARTICLE CLOUDS 7-23

recovered from the floor of the large cooling flues as a byproduct of gas

cooling. The rate at which coagulation occurs at ambient temperature with

increasing particle numbers is illustrated in Table 7.5, which gives

approximate times necessary to reduce the number of particles to one-tenth of

their original number. It is clear from Table 7.5 that the size characteristics of

small-particle concentrations over 107/cm3 will not be stable, and as a result of

coagulation, even monodisperse aerosols rapidly become polydisperse unless

the particle-number concentration is quickly diluted with dust-free air to

below 107/cm3. No other method is known to be effective in preventing rapid

coagulation in submicrometer-particle clouds.

Particles as small as molecules and as large as raindrops scatter light.

They comprise a size range of from 10 angstroms to a few millimeters, or six

orders of magnitude. Light scattering also depends on particle shape and

orientation with respect to the incident light and the direction of observation.

Most of the theory of light scattering is limited to spherical particles, as it is

impossible to derive exact solutions for other geometric shapes.

When light is incident on a small particle, it is scattered in all directions,

and if the particle is made of an absorbent material, some of this light is also

absorbed. When the particle is large compared to the wavelength of the

incident light, the scattering process can be described by geometrical optics

laws, and one can identify individual light rays that are either reflected from

the surface of the particle or penetrate into it and that emerge from the particle

in a direction different from the incident beam after refraction and internal

reflection. The distribution of light around the particle by refraction and

reflection can be obtained by summing the intensities of the individual light

rays. When the particle is partially opaque for the wavelength of the incident

light, some of the light penetrating into the particle will be absorbed and

converted into other forms of energy, mostly thermal. Theory predicts and

observations confirm that the scattered light is composed of two, incoherent,

plane-polarized components whose planes of polarization are mutually

perpendicular. Figure 7.10 shows the angular distribution of light intensity

scattered by a 0.2-m-diameter water droplet illuminated by unpolarized light

having a wavelength of 0.524 m. The "i1"-light-intensity curves in Figure

7.10 are for light vibrations perpendicular to the plane of observation; the "i2"

curves are for the intensity of light vibrating parallel to the plane of

observation. The forward-scattering component is clearly the strongest. For

particles having a diameter larger than the wavelength of light, the ratio of

forward to backward scattering may be 1000 or more. For this reason,

forward scattering is used in most optical particle counters and sizers, as well

as in total-scattering photometers. For particles larger than the wavelength of

the incident light, the scattering pattern will have prominent side lobes at the

90 and 270 positions.

7-24 FAN ENGINEERING

.

Equations for single-particle light scattering are extremely complex and

vary with particle size, shape, and composition. Consequently, single-particle

counting and sizing instruments require calibration with monodisperse aero-

sols of known size and refractive index. A schematic for an aerosol-particle-

size analyser is shown in Figure 7.11. A small sensing volume of the order of

.

Figure 7.1 0

Angular Distribution of Intensity of Light Scattered

by a Spherical Particle i1 and i2 vs

Adapted from the data of D. Sinclair, "Optical Properties of Aerosols," Chapter 7, Handbook

on Aerosols: Chapters from the Summary Technical Report of Division 10, National Research

Committee, Selected and published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission,

Washington, D.C., 1950, P. 83.

CHAPTER 7 PARTICLES AND PARTICLE CLOUDS 7-25

1 mm3 is illuminated from a source that may, for the smallest particle-size

measurements, be a laser instead of the visible-light lamp shown. Aerosol

particles in the flowing aerosol pass, one by one, through the sensing volume

enclosed in a thin, outer sheath of air made dust-free to avoid contaminating

the sensing chamber. Scattered light from each particle is then collected by a

lens and directed to an electronic photomultiplier tube as a discrete light

pulse. The resultant photocurrent is amplified, and each pulse is counted and

passed through a pulse-height analyzer calibrated to display particle-size

units. Using laser and conventional-lamp illumination sources, it is possible

to measure aerosol particles in the range of 0.1 to 20 m with reasonable

accuracy, but instrumentation for this technique is difficult because the light

intensity scattered per particle is about 10-10 to 10-12 watt/steradian when the

.

Figure 7.11

Optical and Sampling Systems of Sinclair-Phoenix

Aerosol Particle Size Analyzer

Adapted from the data of D. Sinclair, "A New Photometer for Aerosol Particle Size Analy-

sis," Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, Volume 17, Number 2,1967, p. 107.

7-26 FAN ENGINEERING

are relatively insensitive to particle shape, at least in the range below 5 m.

Other types of optical instruments measure the light extinction of clouds

rather than single-particle scattering. These instruments, called total-

scattering photometers, are widely used for measuring atmospheric haze and

for filter testing. They use forward scattering, are of simple design, and are

intended only for relative measurements. Although they cannot make meas-

urements of absolute concentration, many of these instruments have a light of

fixed intensity that can be used as an approximate reference point for absolute

concentration measurements. Light scattering by aerosols is complicated by

the response variations produced by changes in particle size, surface texture,

index of refraction, particle color, and wavelength of illuminating light. But,

when relative measurements of concentration up-stream and downstream of

filters are made with light, these effects are nullified, since they are equal for

both, and only changes in concentration are detected.

Adapted from the data of Air Techniques, Inc., 1717 Whitehead Rd., Baltimore, Md. 21207.

CHAPTER 7 PARTICLES AND PARTICLE CLOUDS 7-27

The basic equation for light extinction (total scattering and absorption) by

fine-particle clouds is often called the Lambert-Beer Law and has this general

form:

I T = I 0 e k snax , (7.21)

where I T and I 0 are the transmitted and incident light intensities, respec-

tively; x is the path length through the particle cloud; a is the projected area

of the average particle in the beam; n is the particle concentration per cubic

centimeter, and k s is a particle-extinction coefficient dependent on the index

of refraction, the surface roughness, and the color of the particle.

Figure 7.12 is a schematic showing the essential elements of a total

scattering photometer, called a penetrometer because it is used to measure

filter penetration. When air is drawn through the scattering chamber by the

vacuum pump, the sampled aerosol passes through the focal point of the cone

of light and causes that light to be scattered forward through the dark area.

The phototube, which has been exposed to darkness up to now, is activated by

the forward-scattered light and sends a signal to the amplifier. The amplifier

then augments the signal linearly and indicates it on the microammeter.

(Detectable particle sizes range from approximately 0.1 m to 100 m.) This

photometer has a threshold sensitivity of at least 10-3 g/L for aerosols

containing particles with a count-median diameter of 0.75 m, and it is

capable of measuring concentrations 105 times this value. Its sampling rate is

about 1 cfm for rapid response. In service, a sample of the aerosol mixture is

taken from the upstream side, close to the filter, to measure the concentration

of the challenge aerosol. With the challenge aerosol flowing through the

scattering chamber, the apparatus is then adjusted by setting the needle on the

100% reading of the 100% scale. Next, a stray-light adjustment is made to

compensate for any signal caused by dark current or reflections off internal

surfaces of the scattering chamber. The equipment is now ready to read the

downstream concentration, and the result will be the penetration (1 - effi-

ciency) in percent.

Figures 7.13 and 7.14 summarize many of the properties discussed in this

chapter. They have been included here for easy reference to often-sought

information.

7-28 FAN ENGINEERING

CHAPTER 7 PARTICLES AND PARTICLE CLOUDS 7-29

Adapted from the data of C. E. Lapple: Reprinted from Stanford Res. Inst. J. in "Nonviable

Particles in the Air," Air Pollution, Volume 1, Second Edition, A. Stern (Editor), Academic

Press, New York, 1968, pp. 50-51.

7-30 FAN ENGINEERING

Figure 7.14

Common Particle Dispersions and Methods of Size Measurement

Adapted from the data of M. W. First and P. Drinker, "Concentrations of Particulates Found

in Air," Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine, Volume 5, Number 4,

April 1952, p. 388.

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