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Energy xxx (2017) 1e6

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Energy
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/energy

Renewable energy and energy storage systems

a b s t r a c t

Keywords: With the increase of the production of power/energy from renewables it becomes much important to
Renewable energy look at methods and techniques to store this energy. In principle, the renewable energy can be trans-
Energy storage systems formed into another form of storable energy and to be transformed back when needed.
Wind
The main Energy storage techniques can be classied as: 1) Magnetic systems: Superconducting Mag-
Solar
netic Energy Storage, 2) Electrochemical systems: Batteries, fuel cells, Super-capacitors, 3) Hydro Sys-
Heat pipe
Environment tems: Water pumps, 4) Pneumatic systems: Air compressors, 5) Mechanical systems: Flywheels, 6)
Thermal systems: Molten Salt, Water or oil heaters.
When we are talking about energy storage systems, we should consider the criteria of selection for
method and technique of storing this energy. Researchers and scientists have classied different criteria
in selecting the energy storage techniques, the main points to be considered are: 1) the available energy
resources, 2) energy requirement and application, 3) energy storage efciency, 4) energy storage cost, 5)
energy storage infrastructure, 6) other factors.
This editorial describes articles presented at the 8th International Conference on Sustainable Energy and
Environmental Protection SEEP2015. Main topics include renewable energy and energy storage systems
and various articles related to the conference scope.
2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

1. Introduction Comparison of double channel and open pore cellular foam ow


plates [120].
The eighth international conference on sustainable energy and Investigation of the effects of thermal, oxidative and irradiation
environmental protection is part of the series of SEEP Conferences treatments on the behaviour of poly-ethylene glycol as a phase
which have been established in 2004 by Prof A.G.Olabi, during the change material in thermal energy storage systems [121].
last years seven special issues has been published [1e8], the confer- The ignition characteristics and combustion processes of the
ence editor has contributed in many publications related to renew- single coal slime particle under different hot-coow conditions in
able energy and environmental issues under different subtitles N2/O2 atmosphere [122].
such as; Hydrogen and Fuel Cell [9e12], Biofuel [13e17], Solar En- An investigation into the use of the heat pipe technology in ther-
ergy and Air Pollution and Environmental issues [18e22]. mal energy storage heat exchangers [123].
Many articles have been published in the previous SEEP confer- Energy savings and reduction of CO2 emission using Ca(OH)2
ences; articles were published to cover all renewable energy and incorporated zeolite as an additive for warm and hot mix asphalt
environment themes. The main themes are; Hydrogen and Fuel production [124].
Cell developments [23e28], Electric Vehicles [29e31], Wind and Cost reduction for the lipid production from distillery and do-
planning issues [32e35], PV and Solar Energy [36e44], Bio- mestic mixed wastewater by Rhodosporidium toruloides via the
Energy [45e58], Alternative Energy and Environmental Issues, reutilization of spent seed culture medium [125].
Pipe Heat Exchanger and related Fuel Efciency and Environmental Performance and emission characteristics of an IC engine under
Protection [59e119]. SI, SICAI and CAI combustion modes [126].
This special issue presents some selected and peer reviewed pa- Trends and prospects of energy efciency development in Slove-
pers from the 8th International Conference on Sustainable Energy nian industry [127].
and Environmental Protection SEEP 2015 which was held at the The performance of a heat pipe based solar PV/T roof collector
University of West of Scotland in Paisley Campus between 11th and its potential contribution in district heating applications [128].
and 14th August 2015. In SEEP2015, about 180 papers were pre- Optimal management of a theoretical coastal aquifer with com-
sented, 60 papers were invited to submit an extended version to bined pollution and salinization problems, using genetic algorithms
the Energy. After peer review, 21 papers were selected to be pub- [129].
lished as a special issue in this journal. Design and development of an hybrid light commercial vehicle
These articles can be described as: [130].
Three-dimensional proton exchange membrane fuel cell model: A new pH phenomenon to predict polarity reversal in lead-acid

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.07.054
0360-5442/ 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Please cite this article in press as: Olabi AG, Renewable energy and energy storage systems, Energy (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
j.energy.2017.07.054
2 A.G. Olabi / Energy xxx (2017) 1e6

cells [131]. three corresponding ignition regimes were observed in the oxygen
Energetic potential of the co-digestion of sludge with bio-waste concentration-coow temperature plane. Critical conditions for the
in existing wastewater treatment plant digesters: A case study of an transitions of the three ignition mechanisms varied as ow was
Italian province [132]. increased from 0 to 30 L/min. Various ignition mechanisms resulted
Modeling of energy efciency increase of urban areas through in various combustion processes.
synergies with industries [133]. In paper [123], the issue of the low conductivity of PCMs has
Early fault detection and diagnosis in bearings for more efcient been addressed by using an embedded nned water-charged heat
operation of rotating machinery [134]. pipes into the PCM bulk. Both heat pipes and the PCM tank used
Design and optimization of bafed uid distributor for realizing in this investigation were made of 316 L stainless steel. The PCM
target ow distribution in a tubular solar receiver [135]. used in this work was PLUSICE S89, which has a melting tempera-
Co-hydrotreating of algae and used engine oil for the direct pro- ture of 89  C and crystallization point of 77  C. The evaporator sec-
duction of gasoline and diesel fuels or blending components [136]. tion of the heat pipe was heated by condensing a steam ow. The
Supplying bio-compressed natural gas to the transport industry heat that was absorbed in the evaporator section was then dis-
in Ireland: Is the current regulatory framework facilitating or hin- charged to the PCMs by the heat pipe multi-legged nned
dering development? [137]. condenser. Tests were conducted for both charging (melting) and
Theoretical and empirical study of heat and mass transfer inside discharging (crystallization) of PLUSICE S89. It was observed that
a basin type solar still [138]. the thermal resistance posed by PCM during the discharging stage
A model calculation of the carbon footprint of agricultural prod- was higher compared to that during the charging process.
ucts: The case of Slovenia [139]. Next paper [124], investigated the energy saving and CO2 emis-
Development of a global energy management system for non- sion reduction properties of Ca(OH)2 incorporated zeolite (CaZ),
energy intensive multi-site industrial organisations: a methodol- synthesized by a solegel method and used as an additive for ASCON
ogy [140]. (asphalt concrete) production at different temperatures (120, 140
and 180  C). The addition of up to 6 wt.% CaZ lowered the ASCON
2. Content details production temperature to 120  C, leading to a production cost
saving of 0.882 million US$/y, and an energy saving of 24,831 GJ/
The rst paper [120], presents a study to develop a unique three- y for 140,000 Tonne/y compared to conventional HMA (hot mix
dimensional computational uid dynamic electrochemical model asphalt) production at 180  C. In addition, CO2 emission was
for open pore cellular foam material as a ow plate, comparing it reduced from 7500 ppm for HMA production to 500 ppm for
to a double channel ow plate and experimental results, research- WMA production at 120  C. The signicantly lower energy con-
ing its application as an alternative to conventional ow plate ma- sumption and CO2 emission resulting from addition of CaZ com-
terials in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. posite are associated with easy release of water vapor due to the
Using the same membrane electrode assembly and operating dendrite nano structure of the synthesized CaZ, accompanied by
parameters, the model simulations, including hydrogen and oxygen easy volume expansion and asphalt viscosity reduction.
distribution and water activity, are examined. IV-curves obtained This study [125] explores the possibility to reuse the spent seed
from the model and experimentally, are analysed and the results culture medium while saving resource and cost. The cells produced
are discussed. The model is validated by comparing simulated IV- from the 2nd time reused medium without extra nutrient addition
curve results against experimental results, and model limitations showed similar performances to the fresh medium in lipid produc-
are identied. tion (biomass 7.42 0.31 g/L, lipid yield 2.74 0.42 g/L, and lipid
The results indicate that the open pore cellular foam material content 36.90 4.36%) and removal efciencies for organics and
ow plate distributes both hydrogen and oxygen more evenly nutrients (chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phos-
from inlet to outlet through the fuel cell, when compared to the phorus removal of 86.47 1.40%, 50.73 6.15%, and 74.36 3.39%,
double channel fuel cell, outperforming it in both simulated and respectively), in non-sterile distillery and domestic mixed waste-
experimental runs. water after two-day cultivation. The 3rd time reused medium
The second paper [121], PEG (poly-ethylene glyco1) with an showed relatively low removal efciencies for organics and nutri-
average molecular weight of 2000 g/mol has been investigated as ents as well as poor lipid production at the early culture stage,
a phase change material for thermal energy storage applications. resulting in the reutilization of 3rd time spent medium not recom-
PEG sets were maintained at 80  C for 861 h in air, nitrogen, and mended even with 50% nutrient supplementation. Around 30%
vacuum environment; the samples maintained in vacuum were reduction in the material cost for the medium preparation could
further treated with air for a period of several weeks. The experi- be achieved by the spent medium reutilization.
ments showed that the presence of oxygen led to the degradation The objective of paper [126] is to determine the effects of spark
of the polymer and to a slight decrease of its melting temperature, ignition (SI), spark assist controlled auto ignition (SI-CAI) and pure
while the treatment with electron radiation reduced polymer's CAI combustion modes on the performance and emissions in a
heat of fusion. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) spec- modied IC engine. For this purpose, the emissions, performance,
trum analysis showed bands assigned to carbonyl/carboxylate func- and heat release analyses for these combustion modes were ob-
tional groups, indicating the degradation of PEG in the presence of tained at two different engine speeds (1500e2000 rpm) and
air/oxygen. various excess air ratio (EAR) in the range of 1.0e1.3 with 0.1 incre-
The third paper [122], presented work on the ignition character- ments for both wide open throttle (WOT) and 50% opening throttle
istics and combustion processes of single coal slime particle in a positions.
vertical heating tube furnace in N2/O2 oxidant atmosphere were Reference [127], presents an overview of the energy efciency
investigated under different hot-coow conditions, including vari- development trends in Slovenian industry. To assess the develop-
ations in coow temperature (Tc 923, 1073, and 1173 K), gas ow ment of energy efciency, an energy efciency index (ODEX) is
rate (V 0e30 L/min), and oxygen concentration (O2% 5%e applied, also highlighting some of the non-technical, structural
100%). All investigated hot-coow conditions exhibited three igni- changes. Furthermore, the future development prospects of
tion behaviours, homogeneous ignition of volatiles, heterogeneous energy-intensive industry in Slovenia are addressed in compliance
ignition of char, and heterogeneous ignition of coal. Additionally, with the national legislative framework and energy efciency

Please cite this article in press as: Olabi AG, Renewable energy and energy storage systems, Energy (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
j.energy.2017.07.054
A.G. Olabi / Energy xxx (2017) 1e6 3

targets. determined. Additionally levelized costs for electricity and heat un-
Paper [128], presents the ndings of six experimental congura- der different scenarios are calculated. They reach from 60 to 91 V/
tions of solar-thermal collectors are presented and analyzed. Five of MWh for electricity and 25e38 V/MWh for heat. A sensitivity anal-
the solar-thermal panel congurations were implemented with a ysis takes into account possible price uctuations.
cooling cycle. Two of the solar-thermal panels were equipped Early fault detection and diagnosis plays an increasingly impor-
with monocrystalline silicon modules, the other two collectors tant role in various energy systems where it is critical to avoid dete-
were equipped with polycrystalline silicone modules, one of the riorating condition, degraded efciency and unexpected failures.
collectors was based on heat pipe technology and was equipped Rollingelement bearings are among the most common components
with a cooling system, while the last collector did not include any of rotating machinery used for transformation of energy. Mechan-
cooling cycle. The duration of the experiments was four days during ical wear and defective bearings cause rotating machinery to
the September of 2014 and they were conducted under different so- decrease its efciency, and thus increase energy consumption. A
lar radiation conditions. The second part of the paper presents the new technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-
simulation results for ve of the solar-thermal panels connected element bearings based on vibration signal analysis is presented.
with a cooling water tank (volume of 500 L), a domestic hot water After normalization and the wavelet transform of vibration signals,
tank (volume 350 L) and a water heat pump, in terms of covering the standard deviation as a measure of average energy and the log-
the hot water demands of a single family dwelling. The results arithmic energy entropy as a measure of the degree of disorder are
showed that the hybrid solar collectors would be able to cover extracted in sub-bands of interest as representative features. Then
approximately 60% of the dwelling's hot water needs for days the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scat-
with low levels of solar radiation, while for days with high solar ra- ter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the
diation they could cover the hot water requirements of the family fault detection and diagnosis is performed by quadratic classiers.
by 100%. Accuracy of the new technique was tested on four classes of the
Paper [129], discusses optimal management of a theoretical recorded vibrations signals, i.e. normal, with the fault of inner
coastal aquifer, providing water for drinking and/or irrigation pur- race, outer race and balls operation. An overall accuracy of 100%
poses, which is threatened by seawater intrusion from the coast was achieved. The new technique will be further tested and imple-
and by nonconservative pollutant plumes from the inland. A new mented in a real production environment [134].
computational tool, able to address the combined pollution- Paper [135], presents an original study on the design and opti-
salinization problem, is used. It optimizes the classic Pump-And- mization of bafed uid distributor for the realization of optimal
Treat and Hydraulic Control techniques without compromising uid ow distribution in a tubular solar receiver. The basic idea is
aquifer's sustainability. to install a perforated bafe in the inlet uid distributor and to opti-
Paper [130] presents the powertrain control strategy and the mize the conguration of orices on the bafe so as to approach the
development process of the rst prototype. Finally, the work fo- target ow distribution among downstream parallel tubes. A
cuses on the main results which have been achieved by the rst pressurized-air solar receiver comprising of 45 parallel tubes is
vehicle prototype during an experimental campaign carried out used for study, with copper or Inconel 600 used as the lling
on a chassis dynamometer. material.
This paper [131] discusses new experimental work investigating In Ref. [136], the microalgae and UEO blends were converted
the change in pH of the electrolyte of individual cells in Lead-Acid into three fractions (oil, gas and solid) when subjected to the co-
batteries during discharge with a view to predicting cell polarity hydrotreating processes. The most abundant product fraction was
reversal and thereby pre-empting potentially catastrophic failure upgraded oil. Mass loss is predominantly ascribed to the light oil
in batteries. The discharge tests were carried out on batteries which fraction loss during the solvent vaporization process. The solids pri-
were classied as new and aged as a means of indicating their marily consisted of the catalyst, inorganic salts and char. The
state of health. A new pH phenomenon has been recorded for the dispersing and clearing agents in the UEO are potential sources
rst time in this paper as evidenced by experimental results for the control of solid formation. The gaseous products consisted
including measurement of half-cell potentials. The trends observed predominantly of unreacted H2 along with CO2 and CH4 formed
during the discharge tests could be used as additional means of during the cohydrotreating process. Large quantities of C2eC5 hy-
indicating impending cell reversal in series connected lead-acid drocarbons were observed in the gaseous products produced at
cells. more severe temperatures. The addition of the noble metal cata-
Paper [132], studies the effect of co-digesting sludge with bio- lysts promoted the in situ hydrogenation and cracking of oil inter-
waste was investigated using an experimental apparatus set for mediates, which led to oil with low viscosity and easy recovery.
reproducing the operating conditions of a full-scale digester in an Catalysts also promoted the secondary reactions of the gaseous
existing wastewater treatment plant of 90,000 PE (population products to form heavier oil molecules. The presence of hydrogen
equivalent). An increase in the organic loading rate from 1.46 can improve the oil quality by promoting the in situ hydrocracking
kgVS/m3 day to 2.1 kgVS/m3 day obtained by introducing 40 kg and hydrorening of the oil.
of biowaste per m3 of sludge in the digester caused an increase Paper [137] critiques the current regulatory framework in
in the specic methane generation from 90 NL/kgVS to 435 NL/ Ireland, highlights areas of ambiguity and puts forward an aligned
kgVS. These results were used to assess the energetic potential of solution to allow bio-CNG market participants to utilise the
digesters in eight existing wastewater treatment plants operating network safely, in a regulatory sound and cost-effective manner.
in an Italian province with 28,000 PE to 90,000 PE. Results showed In paper [138], two recent models for calculating the coefcient
that these facilities were able to codigest globally about 2900 of evaporative heat transfer (he,w-gc) have been investigated by
tonnes per year of bio-waste and to generate about 3400 MWh/ taking into account view factors of radiative heat exchange. In the
year of electricity. rst model (Model 1), the vapour concentration ratio (Cr he,w-
Due to the lack of research concerning the symbiosis of industry gc/hc,w-gc) depends on different thermodynamic variables inside
and cities, no gures are available which enables an economic com- the solar still. The other model of Cr (Model 2) is a third-order poly-
parison with other energy production technologies. An economic nomial function of the operating temperature of the solar still (Ti).
assessment was carried out [133] using four towns as examples. Results show that Cr has a critical value for Model 1 with no turning
With the help of the annuity method, amortization times are point for Model 2 in the considered temperature range. There exists

Please cite this article in press as: Olabi AG, Renewable energy and energy storage systems, Energy (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
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4 A.G. Olabi / Energy xxx (2017) 1e6

an operating temperature TiTis at which the two models yield the [8] Olabi AG. The 3rd international conference on sustainable energy and envi-
ronmental protection SEEP 2009, Guest Editor's Introduction. Energy
same value of Cr. Estimates of the coefcient of he,w-gc obtained by
2010;135(12):4508e9.
using Model 1 are higher than those of Model 2 when Ti < Tis, with [9] Oladoye AM, Carton JG, Benyounis K, Stokes J, Olabi AG. Optimisation of pack
a reversed trend when Ti > Tis. Model 1 exhibits lower values of the chromised stainless steel for proton exchange membrane fuel cells bipolar
root mean square error. plates using response surface methodology. Surf Coat Technol 2016;304:
384e92.
In paper [139], a model calculation of the carbon footprint in the [10] Wilberforce Tabbi, Alaswad A, Palumbo A, Dassisti M, Olabi AG. Advances in
agricultural sector was developed in order to calculate the carbon stationary and portable fuel cell applications. Int J Hydrogen Energy
footprint of grains, fruit, and other agriculture products based on 2016;41:16509e22.
[11] Alaswad A, Baroutaji A, Achour H, Carton J, Al Makky Ahmed, Olabi AG. De-
a calculation of total greenhouse gas emissions resulting from pro- velopments in fuel cell technologies in the transport sector. Int J Hydrogen
duction, from the beginning of the production process to storage Energy 2016;41:16499e508.
and delivery to the nal consumer or the food industry. [12] Carton JG, Olabi AG. Representative model and ow characteristics of open
pore cellular foam and potential use in proton exchange membrane fuel
Paper [140] presents the systematic development and imple- cells. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2015;40(16):5726e38.
mentation of a novel energy management methodology for [13] Rodriguez Cristina, Alaswad A, Benyounis KY, Olabi AG. Pretreatment tech-
multi-site organisations to reach optimal efciency across their niques used in biogas production from grass. Renew Sustain Energy Rev
2016;68(2):1193e204.
network. The methodology, a Global Energy Management System, [14] Montingelli ME, Benyounis KY, Stokes J, Olabi AG. Pretreatment of macroal-
is based on the following strategic pillars: (1) Site Characterisation; gal biomass for biogas production. Energy Convers Manag 2016;108:202e9.
(2) Performance Evaluation; (3) Energy Strategy; and (4) Shared [15] Ekpeni LEN, Benyounis KY, Stokes J, Olabi AG. Improving and optimizing pro-
tein concentration yield from homogenized baker's yeast at different ratios
learnings and dissemination. These pillars are underpinned by
of buffer solution. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2016;41:16414e27.
essential foundations: (a) Global energy team and communication [16] Ekpeni1 LeonardE N, Nkem-Ekpeni FehintolaF, Benyounis KY,
forum; (b) Knowledge base at site and global level; and (c) Corpo- Aboderheeba AKM, Stokes J, Olabi AG. Yeast: a potential biomass substrate
rate Energy Policy. The methodology incorporates both quantitative for the production of cleaner energy (biogas). Energy Procedia 2014;61:
1718e31.
performance evaluation using novel key performance indicators [17] Ekpeni1 LeonardE N, Benyounis KY, Nkem-Ekpeni FehintolaF, Stokes J,
and benchmarking, as well as qualitative characterisation using en- Olabi AG. Energy diversity through renewable energy source (RES) e a
ergy management maturity models. case study of biomass. Energy Procedia 2014;61:1740e7.
[18] Wang K, Wu H, Wang D, Wang Y, Tong Z, Lin F, et al. Experimental study on a
coiled tube solar receiver under variable solar radiation condition. Sol Energy
3. Conclusions and remarks 2015;122:1080e90.
[19] Zhu Jianqin, Wang Kai, Wu Hongwei, Wang Dunjin, Du Juan, Olabi AG.
Experimental investigation on the energy and exergy performance of a
In this special issue of the international conference of sustain- coiled tube solar receiver. Appl Energy 2015;156:519e27.
able energy and environmental protection SEEP2015, all the above [20] Achour H, Olabi AG. Driving cycle developments and their impacts on energy
topics have been presented and discussed, which cover many consumption of transportation. J Clean Prod 2016;112(2):1778e88.
[21] Lawlor V, Olabi AG. Review of scientic research regarding PPO, tallow and
important themes related to the conference scope. This conference RVO as diesel engine fuel. Fuel 2015;145:25e38.
series wish to contribute to the developments of achieving 100% [22] Achour H, Carton J, Olabi AG. Estimating vehicle emission from road trans-
renewable energy by 2050 and to sort out all issues related to En- port, case study: dublin city. Appl Energy 2011;88(5):1957e64.
[23] Doherty W, Reynolds A, Kennedy D, Computer simulation of a biomass
ergy Storage Systems. gasication-solid oxide fuel cell power system using Aspen Plus, Energy,
135, 12, pp 4545e4555.
[24] Carton JG, Olabi AG. Wind/hydrogen hybrid systems: opportunity for Ire-
Acknowledgments land's wind resource to provide consistent sustainable energy supply. Energy
2010;35(12):4536e44.
The guest editor would like to thank the reviewers who have [25] Carton JG, Lawlor V, Olabi AG, Hochenauer C, Zauner G. Water droplet accu-
mulation and motion in PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell mini-
made a valuable contribution by reviewing, commenting and channels. Energy 2012;39(1):63e73.
advising the authors. Also, the guest editor would like to thank [26] Rokni M. Thermodynamic analysis of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell)-stirling
all authors for their excellent contribution of high standard articles. hybrid plants using alternative fuels. Energy 2013;61:87e97.
[27] Bunin GA, Wuillemin Z, Franois G, Nakajo A, Tsikonis L, Dominique Bonvin.
The guest editor would like to thank the Editor-in-Chief Prof. Hen-
Experimental real-time optimization of a solid oxide fuel cell stack via
rik Lund for the valuable support to edit this special issue. Finally, constraint adaptation. Energy 2012;39:54e62.
the guest editor would like to thanks all administration staff in [28] Carton JG, Olabi AG. Design of experiment study of the parameters that affect
performance of three ow plate congurations of a proton exchange mem-
the journal for their excellent support, in particular to the Journal
brane fuel cell. Energy 2010;35(7):2796e806.
Senior Publisher Ms Fernanda Ogochi, the Journal Manager Mr Dhi- [29] Khne R, Electric buses e an energy efcient urban transportation means, En-
lip Kumar Perumal and the Publishing Content Coordinator Ms. ergy, 35, 12, pp 4510e4513.
Emily Wan. [30] Smith WJ. Can EV (electric vehicles) address Ireland's CO2 emissions from
transport? Energy 2010;35(12):4514e21.
[31] Zhang Q, Mclellan BC, Tezuka T, Ishihara KN. A methodology for economic
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Please cite this article in press as: Olabi AG, Renewable energy and energy storage systems, Energy (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
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