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1. ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS ACTIVE SAFETY VEHICLE..............................................4
2. TERM AND ROLE ESP SYSTEM.....................................................................................5
2.1 Historical development of ESC system...........................................................................5
2.2 The role of the ESP system...............................................................................................6
2.3 The names of ESP systems in various vehicle manufacturers..........................................8
3. THE WORKING PRINCIPE ESC SYSTEM....................................................................8
3.1 The working principe ESC system..................................................................................10
5. CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................14
6. REFERENCES....................................................................................................................15

Today, when the traffic became one of the main activities in daily life of people in
front of the man placed new requirements related to the safety of participants in traffic.
Problems related to the safety of road users are very complex. Traffic problems are the most
common occurrence of traffic accidents, which end with material damage or injuries to
participants or at worst with killed persons. Most often, these problems relate to the problem
of imperfection ie. nonconformity in the system of human-vehicle-road-environment

When it comes to the security of the vehicle itself, as a complex structural system can
not distinguish between two types of vehicle safety, such as:
Active safety
Passive safety

Active safety of vehicles are elements which prevent vehicles to come to a traffic accident
or due to breakage or whose failure may cause a traffic accident. This includes the control
system, braking systems, wheels, windscreen, equipment for signaling and lighting, and
equipment for drying and wiping the windshield, etc. In addition to these basic systems are
now developed and modern systems of active vehicle safety systems and automatic regulation
controlling the movement of vehicles minimal impact drivers allow for proper maintenance of
the stability of motion of the vehicle, regardless of the conditions of the vehicle. Passive
safety of vehicles are elements on board the midst of arrival to mitigate the consequences of
the accident.

The subject of this paper is an active safety system that ESC system.

The aim of the paper is to introduce the principle of the ESC system, in addition it is also
important to understand the role and importance of such safety systems on the vehicle.

In the first chapter of this work will be generally said about certain existing systems active
traffic safety, the second chapter is presented the concept of ESC systems, historical
development of the system itself and the role of the aforementioned system. The third chapter
presents a working principle of this system and its components. The fourth chapter presents
the importance of this system with the view of traffic safety, as well as its installation in new
vehicles in various countries of the world. In the sixth chapter gives an overall conclusion
about the ESC system.


Today, when the man realized the size of the problem of road safety when
technologically far advanced, more developed active safety systems in vehicles. These
systems today have a role largely to automatically regulate the movement of vehicles or to
contribute to the stability of the vehicle in motion regardless of the condition of pavement and
conditions of movement, and also that all this happens with minimal impact driver. Thus the
basic function of these systems help the driver, which enables a relatively later responses
while still maintaining a stable movement of the vehicle. Technological development of such
systems is intense however, is still not possible to eliminate the influence of the driver.
Several of these systems are:
Anti-lock Braking System (ABS)
Electronic Brakeforce Distribution (EBD)
Brake assist system (BAS)
Electronic braking in a curve (CBC)
A system of traction control (ASR)
Electronic stability program (ESC) [ http://www.cvel.clemson.edu/auto/systems/auto-
systems.html (09.12.2016)] ...

BS is a system that is installed on vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking during
braking, so that the wheels prevents the driver to maintain directional vehicles, so there is
vehicles sliding and losing control of the vehicle [
http://www.cvel.clemson.edu/auto/systems/auto-systems.html (09.12.2016)].

EBD is a system that works properly distributes braking force to individual wheels and
allows correction of distribution of brake force depending on the load. This prevents the
ability to block a time and sliding wheels [ http://www.cvel.clemson.edu/auto/systems/auto-
systems.html (09.12.2016)].

BAS is a system that is designed for situations that require a sudden and intense braking.
The system works by recognizing a situation of emergency braking via the encoder Rushing
to the gas pedal, when panic loosening the accelerator pedal, then the system activates the
brake fluid from the reservoir at a pressure of 180 bar comes in the brake master cylinder, so
an increase in pressure and uses the maximum available coefficient of adhesion [
http://www.cvel.clemson.edu/auto/systems/auto-systems.html (09.12.2016)].

CBC is a system that in the event of excessive wheel slip when braking in a curve,
electronically controlled lowering of the pressure in the brake system of the front inner wheel
and thus retains the correct flight path of the vehicle through the curve [
http://www.cvel.clemson.edu/auto/systems/auto-systems.html (09.12.2016)].

ASR is a system that prevents drive wheels to slip or traction when accelerating. This
system by adjusting the torque which can be transferred to the wheel on the surface at a given
time, the system responds if the wheel has a tendency to slide out [
http://www.cvel.clemson.edu/auto/systems/auto-systems.html (09.12.2016)].


The electronic stability can be encountered and called Electronic Stability Program.
ESC increases control in borderline driving situations, one example is the entry into a bend
too fast. This system is actually extends the functionality of ABS and integrates systems ABS,
ASR and dynamic stability and reduces the risk of skidding. This system is such that when
entering a vehicle in the critical zone of stability of the vehicle automatically intervene. The
remainder of this paper will show the historical development of this system and its
significance [orevi M., 2011].
2.1 Historical development of ESC system

One of the first companies in the automotive industry that are built into their vehicles
ESC systems were Mercedes-Benz, BMW and Toyota back in 1987. They then presented their
first traction control systems. This system is a combination radio braking individual wheels,
accelerate the vehicle to better popuici accelerate. However, this system did not have a role
to control vehicle stability unlike ESC system [http://espsurgex.com/about-us/our-history/

Then in 1990, the previously noted the system evolves in TSL system that has evolved
into a modern system of Mitsubishi Active Skid. It was developed to help the driver to
maintain the vehicle path that passes in case of sharp turns. He worked on the principle of the
control unit that follows several operating parameters of the vehicle using various sensors. For
drives through the curve with greater speed, this system would automatically respond by
regulating engine power and braking to ensure proper passage through the curve and ensure
adequate traction force and therefore prohibits the development of excessive lateral
acceleration when the vehicle is cornering. Unlike konvercionalnih system on the vehicle until
then, which were only preventing wheel slip. Mitsubishi TSL system was a preventive system
or an active system. Although it could not be said that the real stability control system, the
system monitors steering angle, the speed and the position of the individual wheels. He says
TSL system helps in overcoming curves on slippery surfaces. In order to improve
performance and TSL system for vehicles Mitsubishi has developed ECS (TLC) system,
which manages all four wheels [http://espsurgex.com/about-us/our-history/ (09.12.2016)].

BMW in cooperation with Robert Bosch GmbH and Continental Automotive Systems
has developed a system to reduce the torque to the wheels to prevent loss of control and the
system was applied to all models produced by BMW in 1992. In the period from 1987 to 1992
Mercedes- Benz in cooperation with Robert Bosch GmbH developed a system called
Elektronisches Stabilittsprogramm or "Electronic StabilityProgram" protected called ESR
[http://espsurgex.com/about-us/our-history/ (09.12.2016)].

GM is working with Delphi Corporation and introduced in 1997 with his version of the ESA
system called "StabiliTrak". StabiliTrak was standard equipment on all GM SUVs and vans in
the US and Canada by 2007. For most vehicles GM vehicles in the US market for this system
is used the term "StabiliTrak" in other markets to GM vehicles used the identity of "Electronic
Stability Control". Ford's version of the ESR system called AdvanceTrac built in 2000. Ford
was later added to the existing system Roll Stability Control, which first took the Volvo XC90
FC5BA313B3FE3952&nh=00&Search=0&id=549 (09.12.2016)].

The first time the ESR system was presented in 1995 at the Mercedes-Benz vehicles
on their W140 S-class models. Also this year, the BMW system receives from Bosch. Volvo
has started offering ESR only on some of its models, while Toyota its system stability built on
the model Crown Majesta. In the meantime, and other car manufacturers to develop their own
systems stability [http://www.netauto.rs/srpski/news/article/dvadest-godina-esp-a
During MOOSE test (test vehicles able to avoid an emergency or to avoid obstacles or
another test known as "elk"), a Swedish journalist Robert Collin, in October 1997, examined
the safety of Mercedes -A class at a speed of 37 km / h without ESR system this Mercedes
model has not passed this test on capsized. Since Mercedes-Benz promotes safety and security
is withdrawn from the market and upgraded the model 130000 car A-Class ESS. This has
resulted in a reduction in the number of traffic accidents, and an increase in the number of
vehicles with this system. Today, this system is also one of the standard equipment on the
vehicle [http://www.netauto.rs/srpski/news/article/dvadest-godina-esp-a (09.12.2016)].
2.2 The role of the ESP system

ESP system increases stability and control of the vehicle when a sharp maneuver or
during sudden changes of direction. Numerous studies have shown that this system provides
great help to the driver while driving. The case of sudden changes of direction very often can
be encountered in practice and especially in situations:
vehicle enters a curve too fast or web curvature,
vehicle suddenly encounters a danger on the road,
vehicle suddenly has to give overtaking at high speeds, [orevi M., 2011].

Figure 1. The movement of a vehicle through a curve at a higher speed,

[http://www.cvel.clemson.edu/auto/systems/auto-systems.html (09.12.2016)]

Figure 1 shows an example of the movement of vehicles through the curve at a higher
vehicle speed, but when it is added to a comparative overview of movement (behavior)
vehicles have ESC installed system that is not equipped with ESC systems. The display is
such that the behavior of the vehicle shown in stages, initially both vehicles have the same
conditions when passing through a curve and reactions are identical but in phase one follows
the maneuver and differences, [Aleksandrovi B. Jankovi A., 2008].

In Figure 1a shows an example of a vehicle that does not have ESC systems. As shown
in the figure, when initiated maneuvers to the right shows a tendency towards instability and
to the second phase. As the control maneuver suddenly created a sensuous amount of lateral
forces on the front wheels will also occur with a delay of this force, and on the rear wheels,
which will have the effect of rotation around the vertical axis. These maneuvers, the vehicle
without ESC does not receive the vehicle entrance and the driver does not respond to an
attempt to counter this moment, which is the third phase. Moments swimming and angle of
side-slip sharply and thus manifests rapidly slipping vehicles [orevi M., 2011].

On the other hand, in Figure 1b shows a vehicle has ESC system as we have already
pointed out, and this vehicle has the same requirements for the movement of vehicles through
the curve in the first phase. However, in this case, in the second phase, the ESC system
hampers the left front wheel, which becomes semi current trends, to predict the risk of vehicle
instability that accompanies maneuver the wheel. This intervention is of course without any
effort on the driver. This procedure reduces the tendency of the vehicle to be turned towards
the inside of the bend, and this limits the reaction of the side slip angle. Next maneuver the
driver in a counter direction and the amount of torque swimming swimming changing
direction, this is the third phase. In the fourth stage of the turns of the other side and this time
manifested goods right wheel braking, which returns to full stability, and thus the vehicle
retains the desired direction and set control information, [orevi M., 2011].

Similar to the previous case, the stabilization of the manageability and increase
stability, the system successfully responds and maintains stability in sudden maneuvers when
the driver of an emergency. Figure 2 presents the routes and modes of transport vehicles in the
event of a sudden need to fear with and without ESC system. Only the dat from two
perspectives and is easy to conclude that the benefits of using this systemm [Aleksandrovi B.
Jankovi A., 2008].

Figure 2. Avoid vehicles with and without ESC in the event of an emergency on the road
stabilnosti-ESP (09.12.2016)]

2.3 The names of ESP systems in various vehicle manufacturers

Different vehicle manufacturers variously called ESC system, however many

producers kept that particular title. An example of how manufacturers call this system is as
Acura: Vehicle Stability Assist (VSA),
Alfa Romeo: Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC),
Audi: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) ,
Bentley: Electronic Stability Program (ESP),
Fiat: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) i Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC),
Ferrari: Controllo Stabilit (CST),
Jaguar: Dynamic Stability Control (DSC),
Lamborghini: Electronic Stability Program (ESP),
Mitsubishi: Active Skid and Traction Control MULTIMODE and Active
Stability Control (ASC),
Porsche: Porsche Stability Management (PSM) ,
Renault: Electronic Stability Program (ESP),
Toyota: Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM) with Vehicle
Stability Control (VSC), [http://www.howsafeisyourcar.com.au/Electronic-
Stability-Control/ (09.12.2016)]...


This system improves vehicle stability in critical situations regardless of whether it

runs on the accelerator pedal, brake pedal, or both are available, on the individual braking of
individual wheels and adjusting the engine is stabilized vehicle not mentioned in more cases.
Unlike some other active safety systems in the vehicle such as. ABS and ASR, which
primarily regulates the longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle, ESC system further regulates the
stability of the vehicle in relation to its vertical axis. This system regulates the gyro-moment
which tends to rotate the vehicle about its vertical axis [orevi M., 2011].

ESC system monitors factors such as the rotation angle of the vehicle turning speed
and transverse acceleration of the vehicle to determine the vehicle's behavior. When the
system detects that the vehicle behavior differs from the driver's intentions and desired
trajectory, the system activates and maintains the vehicle in the path [orevi M., 2011].

The basis of this system consists of five components, and a component or components
are shown in Figure 3. Markings on the image indicate the following:
1. The hydraulic control with control unit,
2. Speed Sensor loaders,
3. The sensor for monitoring steering wheel,
4. The sensor for monitoring lateral acceleration and turning around a vertical axis,

5. Communication with the controller of the engine (ECU),
lability_of_esc.htm (09.12.2016)]

Figure 3. The basic components of ESC system,

lability_of_esc.htm (09.12.2016)]

Components ESC system are the aforementioned three sensors, the reason for this is
that based on the results produced by sensors, electronic unit determines the manner and
intensity of the system, but these sensors are:
speed sensor on each wheel,
Sensor steering wheel,
Sensor rotation of the vehicle about its vertical axis,
[http://www.howsafeisyourcar.com.au/Electronic-Stability-Control/ (09.12.2016)].

Figure 4. Components and layout work ESP system, [http://www.audi-

sport.net/xf/threads/esp-warning-lights.145188/ (09.12.2016)]

ESC system has developed a lot over time, so that today there are different systems
and how this system performs, or how it works. In addition to the basic sensors that we
mentioned there are other sensors and devices, such as Roll stop sensor that serves to correct
misjudgments vehicle behavior from other systems, longitudinal acceleration system that
provides additional information on the road, other sources of acceleration, lateral acceleration
sensor Vehicle etc. Figure 4 presents a layout components that are on sale, in addition to the
close and shows a part where there are speed sensors and the connection between the sensor
control unit [Aleksandrovi B. Jankovi A., 2008].

3.1 The working principe ESC system

The principle of operation can be represented in several stages. In the first phase the
sensor on the steering wheel sends the control unit that there has been a shift or change the
angle position of the steering wheel, and sends the angle for which the change occurred.

Figure 5. Changes in angle position the steering wheel and steering sensors send information
to the control unit, [ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=890yiWSJwQk (09.12.2016)]

In the second phase, the control unit calculates the manner and intensity with which
we should react to the situation at that moment. When calculating the control unit sends
sensors on the wheels. In our case, if the driver suddenly tried to divert or bypass the obstacle
auto will come across the right while the control units to give such a signal that the rear left
wheel brake for a moment and the car will be properly and stably rotated about its vertical
axis, as shown in Figure 6.A When the vehicle turns, then will receive the correct direction of
movement of the vehicle will remain stable and will not reach the same drift. This swing of
the vehicle is going at the moment it is safe and in addition there is a proper movement of
vehicles or restore driver control of the vehicle as shown in Figure 6.B

Figure 6. Turning the vehicle turning around a vertical axis, and obtaining the correct path ,
[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=890yiWSJwQk (09.12.2016)]

In the third phase after the driver turned, the driver wants to correct the car, or giving
control can lead to drift the rear of the vehicle as shown in Figure 7.A and Figure 7b. In these
situations, the system reacts in a similar way as the previous phase, except that the control
unit ESC system provides such a signal and zakoie the front left wheel, and so will stabilize
the movement of the vehicle, and the vehicle will be able to safely continue the movement as
shown in the Figure 7.C.

Figure 7. Correcting vehicle, , [ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=890yiWSJwQk

This system works on the principle that prevented swing the vehicle around its vertical
axis and thus the direction is changed so that there is a current braking the appropriate wheel.

Figure 8. Push button to activate or deactivate the system, and LED notification functions of
the system, [http://www.autocarpro.in/news-international/bosch-acceptance-esp-indian-
vehicle-growing-percent-2021-6715 (09.12.2016)]

A feature of this system is that there is generally in vehicles or Command key driver
which, if desired, may exclude the operation of this system. When the system is turned off, it
is not in fact completely turned off not to perform computation of parameters that indicate the
stability of the vehicle and that the vehicle does not perform stabilization. The difference is
that it reacts only when the situation becomes extremely dangerous while in less dangerous
situations does not respond. Also, this system reacts when he lights the lamp in the driver's
cab. Shutting down the system is recommended only when driving on snow or on sandy
ground. Figure 8 shows examples of keys on which turns on and off the system. Figure 8 is
also shown and the LED on the control panel that illuminates when the system reacts
[http://www.audi-sport.net/xf/threads/esp-warning-lights.145188/ (09.12.2016)].


Numerous studies have shown that the importance of this system is an instrumental
because the driver in order to better control of the vehicle, thereby reducing the number of
traffic accidents, as the 2004 study NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration)
and confirmed. Publication of the results of these studies conducted in the United States this
system shows very good results and it was concluded that with this system reduces the
number of accidents by 35%. In addition, the vehicles with off-road characteristics also have
significantly better performance and with the system reduce the number of accidents by 65%,
the vehicle can very easily lose stability
(09.12.2016) ].

Institute for Security SAD's research from 2006 confirmed that as many as 10,000
fatal traffic accidents were prevented these vehicles had installed this system, if all vehicles
were equipped with this system it is concluded would be reduced 43% of traffic accidents
with fatal consequences, while fatal single vehicle for 56% of a fatal single vehicle accident
or a rollover would be reduced by 77-80%

ESC system is now described as one of the most important safety system in the
vehicle when it came to the active vehicle safety. Many experts also recommend that people
who buy cars that have this system installed or to be equipped with the stability control. One
of the problems may occur because the system reacts before the situation is really dangerous,
and less experienced drivers can get the impression that they are much better drivers than they
are and can intentionally engage in critical situations

Figure 9. Application of ESC systems on new vehicles in Europe,


Today, this system is installed in all types of vehicles as it proved to be a very useful
system, which largely provides greater security and greater stability. This system has found
great application and commercial vehicles. When it comes to passenger cars have this system
as standard equipment. From Figure 9 we can see a graphical representation of the application
of ESC systems on new vehicles that are sold to different countries in Europe, showing the
differences between 2008 and 2009.

Figure 10. The ceiling construction ESC system and the uptrend installation of ESC systems,
percent-2021-6715 (09.12.2016)]

Figure 10 shows data on the installation of ESC systems on vehicles in some of the
major countries and regions of the world, as well as the tendency to increase the installation of
ESC systems by 2021. From the graph it is clear that North America, Europe and Japan have
the highest rate of installation of the system on their vehicles.

Figure 11. The ceiling construction ESC system by various vehicle manufacturers,
lability_of_esc.htm (09.12.2016)]

The application of ESC systems in vehicles do not have to be seen only in terms of the
countries in the world that use this system, but can be viewed from the aspect of the producers
of vehicles and the level of installation in new vehicles. In figure 11 is shown the level of
installation of the system in the new group. We note that some vehicle manufacturers, this
system installed in their vehicles as standard equipment, and that they understood the
importance of this system. On the other hand, some manufacturers incorporate this system
only as an option, if the customer wants, or even not installed. But there are also those
manufacturers do not offer the option of installing this system.


ESC system is a very useful system in the vehicle, which provides lateral stability of
the vehicle during sudden turns or when entering a bend, in conditions when the driver is
unable to beat the curve and that the vehicle remains stable and that prevents a vehicle to
come out of the curve. This is one of the systems that help the driver while operating the

This system is quite developed over time, so that now all car manufacturers have
developed their own systems on this principle, which often have the same names. However if
they are not the same names role is the same, and that is to maintain the stability of the

The system works by using sensors that control units calculate exactly how you should
respond to the situation or the maneuver performed by the driver and the vehicle to be as
stable as possible to avoid skidding and overturning. This system may not always be in
operation as early as we can rule out or he will then be in a position, but will respond only to
serious danger. It was also recommended that the system be turned off at a time when the
snows, and when the vehicle is moving at sandy ground. Vehicle Manufacturer noted the role
of this system and the benefits of the assistance provided to drivers so that more ugrauju in
their vehicles. In some countries, even this system has become the obligation of installation in
newly manufactured vehicles.


[1] orevi M (2011)., Road Motor Vehicles, Radna verzija, Kragujevac.

[2] Aleksandrovi B. Jankovi A. (2008), Active safety systems on the vehicle, Mainski
fakultet, Kragujevac
[3] Web page http://www.toyota-
[4] Web page http://www.mitsubishi-motors.com/
[5] Web page http://espsurgex.com/about-us/our-history/
[6] Web page
[7] Web page https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=890yiWSJwQk
[8] Web page http://www.netauto.rs/srpski/news/article/dvadest-godina-esp-a
[9] Web page http://www.drive.com.au/motor-news/milestones-mercedesbenzs-aclass-
[10] Web page http://www.bosch-press.com/tbwebdb/bosch-usa/en-US/PressText.cfm?
[11] http://www.mycity.rs/Opsta-diskusija-i-bezbednost-saobracaja/Elektronska-kontrola-
[12] Web page http://www.renault.me/nova-vozila/putnicka-vozila/laguna/laguna-
[13] Web page http://www.howsafeisyourcar.com.au/Electronic-Stability-Control/
[14] Web page
[15] Web pagehttp://www.nhtsa.gov/Laws+&+Regulations/Electronic+Stability+Control+
[16] Web page http://www.audi-sport.net/xf/threads/esp-warning-lights.145188/ [17] Web
page http://www.inautonews.com/nearly-60-percent-of-new-uk-car-sales-have-esp-on-board
[18] Web page http://www.autocarpro.in/news-international/bosch-acceptance-esp-indian-