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EVALUATION OF SCHOOL ZONE IMPLEMENTATION IN INDONESIA

ENDANG WIDJAJANTI
Civil Engineering Department
Faculty of Engineering and Planning,
Institut Sains & Teknologi Nasional, Jakarta Indonesia
e-mail: wiwin62@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Directorate General Land Transportation, Ministry of Transportation in Indonesia has been


implemented School Zone (in Indonesian is Zona Selamat Sekolah or ZoSS) on a number of primary
schools in Indonesia. School Zone (Zona Selamat Sekolah or ZoSS) as an instrument to reduce the
speed limit in school area have been implemented in Indonesia. This study evaluated the ZoSS
effectiveness based on perception of ZoSS users; those are students, teachers, parents and traffic users
around school. Surveys were conducted in some ZoSS that has been built by the Ministry of
Transportation of 23 schools located in 14 cities in Indonesia. Data collected was used for the analysis
of user perceptions and effectiveness of the installation of facilities ZoSS. The study results showed
that most of the respondents understand the meaning and the purpose of ZoSS very well. Study of the
effectiveness of ZoSS have generally found the low knowledge of the meaning of Empat T (four T)
as a crossing procedure, poor driver compliance, also low knowledge of the meaning of traffic sign
and traffic marking set up in ZoSS. This study mentioned several improvements needed and
recommendations of school zone implementation in Indonesia. The recommendations are including
type of ZoSS, traffic markings, traffic signs and traffic light.

Keywords: school zone, perception, effectiveness

Subject area: (Please put a X as appropriate, you may choose more than one)
Logistics and Supply Chain Management
Transport Dynamics
Transportation and Geography
Transportation, Land Use and Built Environment
Transit Management and Operations
Transportation Modeling and Surveys
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Transportation
Sustainable Transportation
Transportation Engineering and Project Analysis
X Others

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Submission for HKSTS Outstanding Student Paper Award (You are a postgraduate student and the
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1. INTRODUCTION

The children are less experienced road users and tend to be less careful, that is why the children often
become victims of traffic accidents. Directorate General Land Transportation, Ministry of
Transportation in Indonesia, has been implemented School Zone (in Indonesian is Zona Selamat
Sekolah or ZoSS) on a number of primary schools in Indonesia. ZoSS is an innovative program in the
form of time-based speed zones that are used to regulate the speed of vehicles in school areas. It is
important to evaluate the ZoSS as a basis for improvements in the future.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of the ZoSS implementation through the
users survey namely students, teachers and communities. This study will be used as a basis for
improvements in the future.

3. LITERATURE REVIEWS

A school zone refers to an area on a street near a school or near a crosswalk leading to a school that
has a likely presence of younger pedestrians. School zones generally have a reduced speed limit during
certain hours.

School zone speed limits are often, but not always, only applicable during posted weekday hours near
the beginning and ending of school when children are likely to cross roads. In some jurisdictions, the
school zone speed limit is effective at all times when school is in session, plus additional time before
and after the school day. Flashing amber lights often indicate when the school zone is effective. For
Example, in California-USA, school zones are in effect only if children are present, and usually have a
speed limit of 25 mph, or 40 km/h. School zones typically have speed limits between 15 and 25 mph
(25 and 40 km/h).

Studies of the effectiveness of school zone limits, however, have generally found poor driver
compliance, particularly when the limits are set very low, and no relationship between pedestrian
crashes and the special limits.

3.1. Implementation of School Zone (ZoSS) in Indonesia

ZoSS Technical Guidelines issued by the Ministry of Transportation in 2006 determine ZoSS type
based on the status of the road, the road environment (urban or rural road), street type, and number of
lanes, traffic volume, design speed and its stopping sight distance required. ZoSS equipment needs are
set according to the status of the road that is divided into 3 (three) groups: national roads, provincial
roads and kabupaten or district roads.

The equipments needed at ZoSS include:


1. Traffic signs,
2. Road Marking,
3. Crossing guides.
4. Traffic Light,

3.2. Lay Out of ZoSS

Lay out of ZoSS on national roads, provincial roads and kabupaten roads are shown on Figure 1.
4. METHODOLOGY OF SURVEY

1. Perception of road users is obtained through questionnaires to pupils, teachers and society in this
case represented by a parent or person who delivered the pupils go to school.
2. Surveys conducted in some ZoSS that has been built by the Ministry of Transportation of 23
schools located in 14 cities in Indonesia.
3. Data collected is used for the analysis of user perceptions and effectiveness of the installation of
facilities ZoSS

5. DATA ANALYSIS

5.1. Number of Respondents

The numbers of respondents in the survey were 683 students consisting of students grade 4, 5 and 6,
222 teachers and 208 communities as road users. The average age of respondents was 38 years old
who are in the range of 31-40 years. The lowest age of respondents was 18 years and the highest 72
years.

5.2. Purpose and Benefits of ZoSS

In general, students, teachers and road users have a correct understanding of the function ZoSS. The
detailed understanding ZoSS meaning, purpose and benefits of installing ZoSS presented in Table 1.

Tabel 1. Understanding the Purpose and Benefits of ZoSS

Items students teachers Road users


right answers wrong answers right answers wrong answers right answers wrong answers
Meaning of ZoSS 71% 29% 83% 17% 77% 23%
Objective of ZoSS 87% 13% 75% 25% 68% 32%
Benefit of ZoSS 97% 3% 99% 1% 95% 5%

5.3. Crossing Procedures

Four T or Empat T method is a method that socialized by the Directorate General of Land
Transportation regarding the procedures to be performed the students in the elementary school age to
do the crossing. Four T stands for Wait a minute (Tunggu sejenak), Look Right (Tengok kanan),,
Look Left (Tengok kiri), and Look Right again (Tengok kanan lagi),. The survey shows that 51%
of the total respondents do not know about the procedure of Four T and 32% gave the wrong answer.
This shows that the method of "Four T" in the crossing has not been known by the students of the
school which has already equipped with ZoSS facilities.

Understanding of "Empat T" Method

18%

51%

32%

right answer wrong answer do not know

Figure 2. Understanding of Empat T Method


National Roads Provincial Roads Kabupaten Roads

Figure 1
Layout of ZoSS for National Roads, Provincial Roads and Kabupaten Roads
5.3. Traffic Signs

Most of the signs posted on ZoSS not well understood by students, teachers and the other road users.
Signs are understood by more than 50% of respondents are traffic light warning sign (Table 4.c), 20
kph maximum speed command sign (Table 4.d) and no parking command (Table 4.e). Overall
understanding of the signs presented in the Table 2.

Table 2. Understanding of ZoSSs Traffic Signs

Traffic Signs Students Teachers Road Users


Right answer : 6 % Right answer : 9 % Right answer : 2 %
a. Wrong answer : 94 % Wrong answer : 91 % Wrong answer : 94 %
Right answer : 12 % Right answer : 23 % Right answer : 16 %
b. Wrong answer : 88 % Wrong answer : 77 % Wrong answer : 84 %
Right answer : 67 % Right answer : 68 % Right answer : 64 %
c. Wrong answer : 33 % Wrong answer : 32 % Wrong answer : 36 %
Right answer : 57 % Right answer : 82 % Right answer : 51 %
d. Wrong answer : 43 % Wrong answer : 18 % Wrong answer : 49 %

Right answer : 96 % Right answer : 98 % Right answer : 93 %


e. Wrong answer : 4 % Wrong answer : 2 % Wrong answer : 7 %
Right answer : 41 % Right answer : 45 % Right answer : 23 %
f. Wrong answer : 59 % Wrong answer : 55 % Wrong answer : 77 %
Right answer : 39 % Right answer : 60 % Right answer : 25 %
g. Wrong answer : 61 % Wrong answer : 40 % Wrong answer : 75 %

Right answer : 22 % Right answer : 38 % Right answer : 23 %


h. Wrong answer : 78 % Wrong answer : 62 % Wrong answer : 77 %

5.4. Road Markings

Red road marking or red carpet at ZoSS fairly well understood by all respondents, while the yellow
zig zag markings poorly understood by respondents. Understandings of these two markers are
presented in Table 3 and Table 4.
Table 3. Understanding of Red Carpet at ZoSS

Respondents Understand Not Understand


Students 70% 30%
Teachers 86% 14%
Road Users 80% 20%

Table 4. Understanding of Yellow Zig Zag Marking

Respondents Understand Not Understand


Students 48% 52%
Teachers 64% 36%
Road Users 65% 35%
5.5. The Drivers Compliance

Most drivers do not obey traffic signs and road markings installed in ZoSS. The attitudes of the driver
when he saw the students/teacher / road users crossing at the zebra cross are as follows:
43% of students stated that the vehicle driver slowed and stopped at the stop line, 24% stated
that the driver stopped the vehicle because auxiliary officers dismissed by the defector, 18%
stated that the vehicle driver slowed but not stopped at the stop line, 8% said that the driver of
the vehicle ignore the pedestrian and still run a vehicle with high speed and 7% did not answer
the question.
only 15% of teachers stated that the vehicle driver slowed and stopped at the stop line, 21%
stated that the driver stopped the vehicle because the officer dismissed by the helper The Spread,
29% stated that the vehicle driver slowed but not stopped at the stop line, 33% said that the
driver disregarded vehicle pedestrian and vehicle still running at high speed and 12% did not
answer the question.
only 21% of the introduction states that the vehicle driver slowed and stopped at the stop line,
18% stated that the driver stopped the vehicle because the officer dismissed by the helper The
Spread, 28% stated that the vehicle driver slowed but not stopped at the stop line, 28% said that
the driver disregarded vehicle pedestrian and vehicle still running at high speed and 5% did not
answer the questions.

5.6. Safety at ZoSS

Most of teachers and the road users (89%) stated that the presence of ZoSS make them feel more
secure when crossing in the zebra cross, 2% was still afraid to cross because there is no crossing guide,
4% was still afraid to cross because the vehicle going too fast and 5% did not answer the question.

6. EVALUATION RESULTS AND RECCOMENDATIONS

The evaluation results, improvement needed and recommendations of school zone implementation in
Indonesia are as follows:

Evaluation Results Improvement Needed Recommendation


ZoSS layout variations that ZoSS layout variations need propose six types of ZoSS
distinguish the long red carpet, to be adjusted with the according to road function, and
the presence of a yellow zig zag function of road road types
markings and APILL not
provide significant effectiveness
against the benefits ZoSS
ZoSS type determinants of road Installation ZoSS on the
traffic safety around schools are national road which is a
a function of the road, as they primary arterial road or
relate to the speed of the road collector 1 (KP1) is specifically
Type of plan. used for elementary schools
ZoSS that have been built on the
national road and there is no
alternative to moving the
entrance to the school to other
road.

The speed of the on the primary Primary School which is On local roads the road safety
local roads and secondary local located on a local road facilities required are zebra
roads are relatively low, which requires crossings facilities cross, crossing signs and signs
pedestrians can cross the street and its necessary signs, for many children.
safely require no special ZoSS.
Evaluation Results Improvement Needed Recommendation
The presence of the red carpet at The presence of red carpet
ZoSS effective in giving the is required with limited
impression to the driver length
The presence of the red carpet Based on the red carpet
disturbed by the overlay on a procurement cost
pavement considerations, the proposed
length of the red carpet is 25
meters (along the clearance
zone)
Related to the limited length
of red carpet, "ZONA
Road
SELAMAT SEKOLAH"
Markings text is not placed on the red
carpet.
Start and end points of ZoSS Start and end points of
poorly understood by the road ZoSS need to be marked
users. with a red line.

Zig zag yellow markers are not Zig zag yellow markers are
effective because it is not removed, replaced with "no
understood and not obeyed by stopping" signs.
road users.

The occurrence of boarding or Necessary signs "no Installation of signs "no


alighting of passengers on a stopping" in the crossing stopping" at a distance of 10 m
zebra cross, while the area. from the stop line.
pedestrians require space for
crossing activities.
Signs "parking prohibited" tends Necessary parking spaces If necessary, the area of ZoSS
to be violated by the driver due especially for schools that can be used as parking space
Traffic to limited parking space in the do not have a parking space except at the crossing area.
Markings school yard and no on street in the school yard.
parking space available.

The driver was not aware of the Necessary repetition of Installation of warning signs
existence of ZoSS ZoSS signs, particularly on will enter ZoSS repeated every
roads with high design 50 m
speed.
Traffic lights 'push button' tend Installation of traffic lights Traffic lights may be omitted.
not to be obeyed by drivers at ZoSS is not effective.
Traffic
Lights The driver will stop at the zebra ZoSS must be equipped ZoSS must be equipped with
cross when stopped by a with crossing guides. crossing guides.
crossing guide
Figure 3. Lay Out of ZoSS Recommendation for Primary Arterial and Collector Roads

Figure 4. Lay Out of ZoSS Recommendation for Secondary Arterial and Collector Roads

REFERENCES

Ministry of Transportation. (2006). School Zones Guidelines (Pedoman Teknis Zona Selamat
Sekolah/ZoSS), Jakarta.
Oregon Department of Transportation (2006), a Guide to School Area Safety, Oregon
Traffic Safety Division Queensland Transport (2005), School Environment Safety Guidelines,
Queensland