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Chapter 2

Locomotion and Support


2.1 SUPPORT AND
LOCOMOTION IN
HUMANS AND ANIMALS
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals
Importance of support and locomotion
Search for food
Provide protection by escaping from enemies
or avoiding danger
Search for more conducive living environment
Find mates for reproduction
Avoid overcrowding which enables the
offspring to move to another place
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Human skeletal system
Consist of two main part; axial skeleton and
appendicular skeleton
Human Parts
skeleton
Axial skeleton 1. Skull Cranium, bones of the face, jaw
2. Vertebral column Cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae,
(the backbone) lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx
3. Ribcage Sternum and ribs
Appendicular 1. Pectoral girdle Scapula and clavicle
skeleton 2. Arm (forelimbs) Humerus, ulna, radius, carpals,
metacarpals, phalanges
3. Pelvic girdle Ischium, pubis, ischium
4. Leg (hind limbs) Femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals.
phalanges
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Skull
Cranium enclose and
protect the brain
Facial bones and jaw
Protect the eyes and ears
Upper jaw is fixed
Skull is joined to the
vertebral column at the base
of cranium
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Rib
Twelve pairs of ribs
Articulate with thoracic cavity
dorsally, and sternum ventrally
Sternum is the front part
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Vertebral column
Consists of 33 vertebrae, joined but separated
by discs of cartilage
Five types of vertebrae
1. Cervical vertebrae (7)
2. Thoracic vertebrae (12)
3. Lumbar vertebrae (5)
4. Sacral vertebrae (5)
5. Coccyx
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)

Neural arch
Forms neural
canal

Neural spine
Muscle
attachment

Centrum
Gives support

Neural canal
Protects spinal
cord
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Support head and
neck

Sentrum is short
and thick

Large and thick


sentrum
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Appendicular skeleton
Consists of
1. Pectoral girdles and forelimbs (arms)
2. Pelvic girdle and hind limbs (legs)
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Arms
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Legs Pelvic
girdle
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Joints
Place where two bones
meet
Bones are held together by
ligaments
Sinovial joints joints
that contains a cavity filled
with fluid
End of bones are covered
with cartilage.
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Joints
Various types of joints
1. Hinge joint
Allow movement in one plane
2. Ball-and-socket joint
Allow movement in all directions
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Movement in a limb
Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons.
Movements of cause by antagonistic movement
of muscles:
One muscles is contracted, another is relaxed
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Structure of a muscle
Muscle fibre single, long cylindrical cell that contains
many nuclei
Myofibrils smaller units that made up muscle fiber
Interaction of actin and myosin will cause muscle
contraction
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Locomotion of earthworm
Earthworms have a hydrostatic skeleton (the
force of contraction is applied to a coelum(fluid
filled chamber).
Coelom is surrounded by two antagonistic muscle
circular muscles surround the chamber
longitudinal muscles extend from one end to the other.
Thinner and longer: When circular muscle contract
and the longitudinal muscle relax. (and vice verca)
The muscles contract rhythmically to
produce peristaltic waves which begins at the front
and move towards the end of the body.
Earthworm has chaetae (bristles) which
anchor parts of the body to the ground so that other
parts can be pulled towards it.
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Locomotion of grasshopper
The flexor and extensor (antagonistic) muscles are
attached to the internal surface of the exoskeleton.
Flexor muscles bend a joint.
Extensor muscles straighten it.
The rear legs of a grasshopper are long and muscular
and is adapted for hopping.
Sitting position: When the flexor muscle contracts,
the lower leg is pulled towards the body. The hind leg
is folded in a Z shape and ready for a jump.
Jump: When the extensor muscle contracts, the leg
jerks backwards, propelling the grasshopper forward
and upward into the air.
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Locomotion of grasshopper
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Locomotion of grasshopper
The flexor and extensor (antagonistic) muscles are
attached to the internal surface of the exoskeleton.
Flexor muscles bend a joint.
Extensor muscles straighten it.
The rear legs of a grasshopper are long and muscular
and is adapted for hopping.
Sitting position: When the flexor muscle contracts,
the lower leg is pulled towards the body. The hind leg
is folded in a Z shape and ready for a jump.
Jump: When the extensor muscle contracts, the leg
jerks backwards, propelling the grasshopper forward
and upward into the air.
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Locomotion of fish
Fish has streamlined body shape
Scales that overlap one another, with free ends
pointing backwards to reduce friction
Fish have W-shaped muscles called myotome
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Locomotion of fish
Fish move forward
from the
contraction and
relaxation
(antagonistic) of
myotome on either
side of the body
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Locomotion of fish
Function of fins in fish balance the body
Pectoral fins for steering
Pelvic fins for balance, to prevent diving and
rolling
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Locomotion of bird
Bird can fly either by flapping their wings or
gliding
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Locomotion of bird
When wings move down
Pectoralis major contracts
Wings are pulled down
When wings move up
Pectoralis minor contracts
2.1 Support and Locomotion in
Humans and Animals (contd)
Locomotion of bird
During gliding, wings
are spread act as
aerofoil
Bernoulli principle
provide upward
thrust
2.3 SUPPORT SYSTEM
IN PLANTS
2.3 Support Systems in Plants
Support in plants is necessary to:
Stay upright
Obtain sufficient sunlight
Bear the weight the plant
Provide strength to withstand wind
ressistance
2.3 Support Systems in Plants
(contd)

Plants
Aquatic Terrestrial

Submerged Floating Herbaceous Woody


2.3 Support Systems in Plants
(contd)
Submerged plants
Hydrilla sp.
Have thin, narrow and
flexible leaves provide
little ressistance
Air sacs inside the
leaves and stems - keep
the plant floating close
to the surface to obtain
maximum sunlight.
2.3 Support Systems in Plants
(contd)
Floating plants
Lotus plant
Have broad leaves that are firm but flexible
enough to resist tearing by wave action.
Aerenchyma tissues (spongy tissues with large
air spaces between the cells) in the stems and
leaves provide buoyancy so that the plants can
float on the surface of the water
2.3 Support Systems in Plants
(contd)
Herbaceous plant
Support provided by the turgidity of the
parenchyma and collenchyma cells.
Turgor pressure of the fluid content in
the central vacuole pushes the cell
membrane and the cell contents
against the cell wall, creating support for
the stem, root and leaves.
The thickening of the cell walls with
cellulose and pectin in collenchyma cells
provide additional mechanical strength
2.3 Support Systems in Plants
(contd)
Woody plants
Support provided through tissue
modification
Xylem tissues
Strenghtened by lignin
Lignin tough, not elastic and nor permeable
to water
Parenchyma tissues
Store starch, sugars and water
It become turgid give support
2.3 Support Systems in Plants
(contd)
Woody plants
Collenchyma tissues
Thickened with cellulose and pectin
Sclerechyma tissues
Thickened with lignin