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Chapter 1

Bacteriology

QUESTIONS
Select the best answer.
The next two questions are linked.

1 A 67-year-old diabetic woman is hospitalized with a


3-day history of fever, headache, diarrhea, dyspnea,
and a cough productive of scant sputum. A chest
radiograph reveals patchy, multilobar consolidation.
No organisms are seen on sputum Gram stain; how-
ever, culture of sputum and blood on buffered char-
coal yeast extract agar and blood agar are shown in the
photograph. Bacteria from the colonies, stained with
basic fuchsin, are also shown. Direct fluorescent anti-
body staining of cultured bacteria leads to a defini-
tive diagnosis. With which organism is this woman
infected? (A) Actinomyces israelii
(B) Corynebacterium diphtheriae
(C) Haemophilus influenzae
(D) Legionella pneumophila
(E) Nocardia asteroides

2 What is the source of infection for the patient in the


above question?
(A) Aerosolized spores from soil
(B) Aerosols from contaminated water
(C) Colonization of the upper airways
(D) Inapparent carrier of the organism
(E) Person with the same disease

3 A 5-year-old child died from severe septic shock,


disseminated intravascular coagulation, and cardiac
insufficiency following a sudden onset of fever, severe
headache, and vomiting. The causative agent, a
Gram-negative diplococcus, was isolated from blood
and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on ThayerMartin agar
and was also identified in CSF by latex agglutination.
What is the most important virulence factor involved
in disease production by the etiologic agent in this
case?

1
2 Chapter 1
(A) Exotoxin production (A) Capsule
(B) Flagella (B) H antigen
(C) Lipooligosaccharide (C) Hemolysin
(D) Pili (D) Lipid A
(E) Polysaccharide capsule (E) Lipoteichoic acid

4 Vaccination against which bacterial species has been The next two questions are linked.
most successful at reducing the number of cases of
invasive diseases, including meningitis? 7 Infected pressure sores were observed on the buttock
(A) Escherichia coli K1 of an elderly, bedridden patient recently treated for a
(B) Haemophilus influenzae b malignancy of the rectum. Some of the lesions are con-
(C) Listeria monocytogenes spicuously necrotic, exceptionally painful to the touch,
(D) Neisseria meningitidis and readily give off a musty sweet odor. Moreover,
(E) Streptococcus pneumoniae these lesions seem to have developed overnight. A
Gram stain of the watery discharge from one of the
5 A 56-year-old renal transplant patient was hospitalized lesions reveals an abundance of bacteria (shown in the
following an abrupt onset of high fever (39.6 C), con- photograph). What is the most likely diagnosis?
fusion, headache, diarrhea, a cough productive of scant
sputum, and shortness of breath. His chemistry profile
revealed hyponatremia. A chest radiograph showed lobar
infiltrates. Gram stain of sputum showed numerous neu-
trophils but failed to show any organisms. A urine anti-
gen test was positive for the causative agent. What is the
major virulence factor of the causative agent?
(A) Antiphagocytic capsule
(B) Cord factor
(C) Exotoxin production
(D) Intracellular growth
(E) Pyocyanin

6 A steer dies on a ranch in North Dakota and a vet-


erinarian is consulted. Histological sections of the
spleen from the deceased animal show evidence of a
bacterial causative agent (shown in the photograph).
The bacterium was also cultured aerobically on blood
agar. Which of the following substances is associated
with increased virulence of this isolate, and if detected,
would alarm the state health officials and result in a
more extensive investigation at the national level? (A) Clostridial gas gangrene
(B) Pseudomonas ecthyma gangrenosum
(C) Staphylococcal cellulitis
(D) Staphylococcal pyomyositis
(E) Streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis

8 Which virulence factor is most important when con-


sidering the pathology of this case?
(A) -Toxin (lecithinase)
(B) Enterotoxin
(C) Pyocyanin
(D) Pyrogenic exotoxin A
(E) Streptolysin S
Bacteriology 3
9 While planting a tree, a man punctured his foot
through his tennis shoe with the prongs of a rake.
He was not initially concerned with the wound and
washed it only superficially. At 4:00 AM, he awak-
ened with excruciating pain in the foot and sought
medical care at the emergency department. The lesion
was cleaned and excised of devitalized tissue and an
IV b-lactam antibiotic was administered, which sub-
sequently cleared the infection. A Gram stain of an
anaerobic culture taken from wound secretions is
shown. Of the following microbial groups, which is
most compatible with this case?

(A) b-lactamase
(B) Catalase
(C) Coagulase
(D) Staphylokinase
(E) Streptokinase

11 Of the following organisms, what is the patient most


likely infected with?
(A) Clostridium sp.
(B) Enterococcus
(C) Group A Streptococcus
(D) Meningococcus
(E) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA)

(A) Actinomycetes 12 Based on these initial findings, what is the best antibi-
(B) Clostridia otic choice for the patient in the above case?
(C) Pseudomonads (A) Amoxicillin/clavulanate
(D) Staphylococci (B) Cephalexin
(E) Streptococci (C) Dicloxacillin
(D) Polymyxin B
The next three questions are linked. (E) Trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole (TMPSMZ)
10 A patient injured herself at home in the garden, and 13 A pediatric patient with a persistent cough is evalu-
after several days, the resulting skin lesion became ated for sinopulmonary disease. History and physical
infected and intensely painful and she sought medi- examination determines that the child suffers from
cal help. Culture of the wound grew Gram-positive nasal polyps and, possibly, chronic airway obstruc-
cocci that were b-hemolytic on blood agar. On nutri- tion. A sputum sample produces several bacterial spe-
ent agar, the organism produced effervescence when cies, including Haemophilus influenzae and a mucoid
hydrogen peroxide was added to the colonies (shown variety of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Which of the fol-
in the photograph). What is the enzyme responsible lowing is the most likely diagnosis?
for this bubbling?
(A) Bronchiolitis
(B) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
(C) Cystic fibrosis
(D) Interstitial pneumonia
(E) Sarcoidosis
4 Chapter 1
14 During a medical mission to tropical Latin America, a 16 With regard to the above case, which laboratory
woman presents with a chronic infection of her foot results would be most useful in confirming the clini-
as seen in the accompanying photograph. Secretions cal diagnosis?
from the lesions, upon Gram staining, clearly reveal (A) Intracytoplasmic inclusions in McCoy tissue
the presence of filamentous Gram-positive cells. culture cells
Which bacterial species is descriptive of the offending (B) Positive bacterial growth on selective and
agent? differential media
(C) Twofold increase in a WeilFelix Proteus OX-19
titer
(D) Type-specific latex agglutination antibody titer
of 1:64
(E) Visualization of bacteria in the tissue by means
of Gram stain

17 A Peace Corps agricultural advisor, who is stationed


on an island in the eastern Indian Ocean, becomes ill
with headache, fever, and respiratory symptoms. At
the local clinic, a prominent eschar on the abdomen
just below the beltline is detected. Local physicians
easily make a clinical diagnosis of an illness carried by
rodents and transmitted by mites. Doxycycline ther-
apy is empirically administered and the patient makes
an uneventful recovery. What is the name of the ill-
ness and the etiologic agent?
(A) Actinomyces israelii
(A) BrillZinsser disease/Rickettsia rickettsiae
(B) Blastomyces dermatitidis
(B) Endemic typhus/Rickettsia typhi
(C) Clostridium perfringens
(C) Epidemic typhus/Rickettsia prowazeki
(D) Mycobacterium leprae
(D) Q fever/Coxiella burnetii
(E) Streptococcus pyogenes
(E) Scrub typhus/Orientia tsutsugamushi
The next two questions are linked.
The next two questions are linked.
15 In early July, a middle-aged African-American male
18 Physicians and state epidemiologists investigate a
from rural southwestern Missouri is brought to regional
cluster of acute diarrheal cases in children who attend
urgent care facility. He has been vomiting most of the
a preschool in a small Midwestern town. The chil-
night and is currently febrile. Furthermore, he complains
dren presented with fever, acute episodes of bloody
of achy muscles and a throbbing headache. Rales are
diarrhea, and petechial rash or purpura. Two of the
detected on auscultation. Physical examination reveals
children have scanty urine output and are showing
a petechial rash on the forearms, and an engorged tick
signs of renal failure. Fecal leukocytes and parasites
is removed from the groin area. Considering the par-
are absent in microscopic smears, and no obvious
ticulars of this case, which of the following is the most
pathogens are identified using standard microbiologic
crucial action that should be taken for successful man-
media. What is the most common infectious agent
agement and a positive outcome?
consistent with this clinical picture?
(A) Aggressive management of fluid intake to
(A) Bacillus cereus
prevent rehydration
(B) Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)
(B) Chest radiographic study to rule out interstitial
(C) Salmonella typhi
pneumonia
(D) Shigella flexneri
(C) Gram stain clean-catch urine sample for
evidence of a urinary tract infection (UTI) (E) Yersinia enterocolitica
(D) Immediate initiation of doxycycline
19 The preschool in the above case only serves pasteur-
(E) Submit a blood sample for immunodiagnosis to
ized milk and packaged cookies to the children and
the lab
epidemiologists quickly rule out a food source as the
risk factor. With this in mind, which of the follow-
ing is the most plausible means by which the children
were infected?
Bacteriology 5
(A) Contagious transmission from an infected child The next three questions are linked.
(B) Drinking water of the preschool is contaminated
with the microbe 23 During the summer in western Massachusetts, a
(C) Failure to wash hands after visiting a petting zoo teenager complains of aching muscles and joints and
(D) Fecaloral transmission, most likely from the mild fever. He notices a rash on the side of his upper
restroom leg (shown in the photograph), which prompts his
(E) Visiting the elderly in an assisted-living or mother to take him to the clinic. What is the most
nursing home facility likely etiology and route of transmission?

The next three questions are linked.

20 Medical outreach physicians, working in a refugee


camp in central Africa, are concerned with the number
of young children presenting with high fever, bloody
diarrhea, and dehydration. The crowded living condi-
tions of the camp suggest person-to-person contact,
but because of the remoteness of the site only limited
laboratory studies are available. The suspected culprit
is described as a nonmotile, Gram-negative bacillus
that does not produce lactose-positive colonies on
selective media. Based on these findings, which dis-
ease is more likely?
(A) Bacillary dysentery
(B) Campylobacteriosis
(C) Cholera (O:1 classic biotype)
(D) Nontyphoidal salmonellosis
(E) Staphylococcal food poisoning (A) Borrelia burgdorferi/tick bite
(B) Ehrlichia chaffeensis/tick bite
21 A major virulence factor of the etiologic agent in the (C) Francisella tularensis/deer fly bite
above question is a toxin. What is the role of this toxin (D) Leptospira interrogans/rodent bite
in disease production? (E) Necrotic arachnidism/spider bite
(A) Acts as a superantigen thereby inducing
inflammation 24 How would the physician determine the diagnosis in
(B) Blocks protein synthesis causing intestinal cell the above case?
death (A) CBC assessment and visualization of the
(C) Increases cAMP concentration within intestinal microbe from the lesion by dark field
cells microscopy
(D) Increases cGMP concentration within intestinal (B) History and clinical presentation of the patient
cells plus elevated liver function tests
(E) Suppresses cytokine secretion by immune cells (C) History and clinical presentation of the patient
alone
22 What is the proper course of action the physicians (D) Culture of the organism from blood and synovial
should take with regard to the management of the fluid
outbreak described in the above case? (E) Serologic tests to detect antibodies in the patient
(A) Advise patients to increase their vitamin intake serum against the organism
due to the effects of diarrhea
(B) Avoid antibiotics and allow the symptoms to 25 With regard to the above case, what is the drug of
abate naturally choice?
(C) Avoid contact with animal reservoirs to prevent (A) Ceftriaxone
reintroduction of the organism into the community (B) Chloramphenicol
(D) Prescribe antimotility drugs to reduce transmission (C) Doxycycline
(E) Treat affected patients with antibiotics (D) Metronidazole
(E) Streptomycin
6 Chapter 1
26 A 7-year-old female child is taken to an urgent care The next two questions are linked.
facility because of fever and periodic incontinence.
29 A 78-year-old hospitalized male with an indwelling cath-
The physician suspects a urinary tract infection. What
eter develops a new onset of fever. The urine sample has
is the most likely etiology of this childs infection?
an alkaline pH. The bacterium isolated from the urine is a
(A) Escherichia coli
urease-producing, highly motile, Gram-negative bacillus.
(B) Proteus mirabilis What is the most likely complication of this infection?
(C) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (A) Deposition of antigenantibody complexes in
(D) Staphylococcus saprophyticus the glomeruli
(E) Ureaplasma urealyticum (B) Development of epididymitis
(C) Development of prostatitis
The next two questions are linked.
(D) Formation of struvite kidney stones
27 During a gynecologic office visit, a positive leukocyte (E) Rapid dissemination throughout the body
esterase test of the urine along with a voiding symp- 30 What is the pathogen most likely involved in the
tom prompts the physician to order a urine culture. above case?
The bacterium, which was isolated in clinically signifi- (A) Escherichia coli
cant numbers, grows profusely on MacConkey agar, as
(B) Proteus mirabilis
shown in the accompanying photograph, and ferments
(C) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
lactose. Which of the following cellular attributes is
most important in determining virulence and classify- (D) Staphylococcus saprophyticus
ing this microbe as a uropathogen? (E) Ureaplasma urealyticum

The next two questions are linked.


31 An 85-year-old male nursing home patient with a his-
tory of alcoholism suddenly developed a flu-like illness.
He complained of chills and fever and had frequent
coughing spells productive of thick, bloody sputum.
The attending physician diagnosed bronchopneumonia
and prescribed antibiotics, but regrettably the patient
died within a week. What is the most likely cause of the
patients pneumonia?
(A) Haemophilus influenzae
(B) Klebsiella pneumoniae
(C) Legionella pneumophila
(D) Mycoplasma pneumoniae
(E) Streptococcus pneumoniae
32 A bacterium, cultured on MacConkey agar (shown in the
photograph), was isolated from sputum and blood of the
(A) -lactamase
patient in the above case. What is the primary function of
(B) Fimbriae the pathogenicity determinant depicted in this photo?
(C) Flagella
(D) Glycocalyx
(E) Urease

28 With reference to the above case, what is the most


likely source and mode of transmission for this urinary
bacterial isolate?
(A) Contamination with perianal and bowel flora
(B) Hematogenous spread from the kidneys
(C) Inadvertent inoculation with commensal
organisms on skin
(D) Transmission from an uncircumcised sexual
partner
(E) Waterborne spread
Bacteriology 7
(A) Antiphagocytic, unless opsonization occurs 37 A previously healthy woman became nauseated and
(B) Degrades secretory IgA on mucosal surfaces vomits 12 hours after eating home-pickled eggs. Within
(C) Inhibits the function of complement 24 hours, she developed a diffuse flaccid paralysis and
(D) Lyses neutrophils and macrophages respiratory impairment, necessitating hospitalization
(E) Protease activity and disrupts membranes and mechanical ventilation. Other symptoms included
diplopia and dysarthria. What is the most likely
diagnosis?
33 A bacterium was isolated from the central nervous sys-
(A) Botulism
tem of a newborn that died of meningitis. The vagina
of the mother was colonized with the same isolate as (B) Brucellosis
determined by the capsular antigen. The microbe grew (C) Gastrointestinal anthrax
well on standard blood and MacConkey agar at ambi- (D) Legionellosis
ent atmospheric conditions. What is the most likely (E) Meningococcal disease
etiologic agent?
(A) Escherichia coli K1 The next three questions are linked.
(B) Group B Streptococcus type III capsule
(C) Haemophilus influenzae type b 38 A 52-year-old woman presented with indigestion
(D) Neisseria meningitidis serogroup b and heartburn occurring shortly after meals which
(E) Streptococcus pneumoniae (encapsulated variety) she treated with over-the-counter antacids. Physical
examination revealed mild epigastric tenderness. A
34 An adult tourist visiting a remote area of Guatemala radiolabeled-urea breath test is positive. What is the
developed fever, prostration, malaise, dysentery, and most probable etiologic agent?
dehydration. Based on current epidemiologic data of (A) Campylobacter jejuni
the region, a local physician reported that the causative (B) Clostridium difficile
agent was probably a diarrheogenic strain of Escherichia (C) Helicobacter pylori
coli and did not prescribe antibiotic therapy. Presuming (D) Shigella dysenteriae
the Guatemalan doctor to be correct, which type of viru- (E) Yersinia enterocolitica
lent E. coli is most consistent with this clinical picture?
(A) Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) 39 What cancer is the patient in the above case at risk for
(B) Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) as a consequence of this infection?
(C) Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) (A) Pancreatic cancer
(D) Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (B) Gastric adenocarcinoma
(E) Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (C) Hepatoma
(D) Colon cancer
The next two questions are linked. (E) Esophageal cancer

35 A 40-year-old man presented with a rubeola-like rash 40 What virulence factor of the organism may be associ-
on the extremities, chills, fever, myalgia, and malaise ated with induction of this cancer?
5 days after returning from a June fishing trip in (A) cagA
Arkansas. A history of tick bites is noted and Rocky (B) Heat shock protein B
Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is suspected. What is (C) Mucinase
the etiologic agent of this disease? (D) Urease
(A) Babesia microti (E) Vacuolating cytotoxin
(B) Orientia tsutsugamushi
(C) Rickettsia prowazeki 41 Hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and
(D) Rickettsia rickettsii thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura are clinical
(E) Rickettsia typhi manifestations of which bacterial species?
(A) Campylobacter jejuni
36 With reference to the above question, which antimi- (B) Escherichia coli O157:H7
crobial agent should be employed? (C) Shigella flexneri
(A) Chloramphenicol (D) Vibrio cholerae
(B) Ciprofloxacin (E) Yersinia enterocolitica
(C) Doxycycline
(D) Penicillin G
(E) TMPSMZ
8 Chapter 1
42 Over the course of a summer, several patients present
to hospitals in the northwestern United States with
complaints of fever, chills, headache, and other viral-like
symptoms. Reportedly, with many of these patients, the
fever subsides only to return with a vengeance later. Of
significance is that spirochetes are observed in peripheral
blood smears. Another common denominator is that all
patients are outdoor enthusiasts and frequently engage
in activities like camping, fishing, and hiking in moun-
tainous areas. What is the most likely etiologic agent?
(A) Borrelia hermsii
(B) Treponema pallidum
(C) Rickettsia rickettsiae
(D) Proteus vulgaris
(E) Vibrio vulnificus
(A) Bacteriologic culture
The next three questions are linked. (B) Giemsa-stained histological section
(C) Gram-stained smear
43 A 23-year-old male presents with ulcerated lesions on (D) Growth in cell culture
the penis as shown in the accompanying photograph
(E) Specific antibody test
as well as marked unilateral inguinal lymphadenopa-
thy. The lymph node, however, is not particularly 45 Assuming that the patient in the above case has no drug
painful to the touch. The patient denies abnormal dis- allergies, which antibiotic would be the best choice for
charge and any discomfort during intercourse. He is treatment?
presently afebrile. Consistent with the presentation,
(A) Ciprofloxacin
what is the probable causative etiology?
(B) Doxycycline
(C) Metronidazole
(D) Penicillin
(E) TMPSMZ

46 A 5-day postoperative patient develops a high fever.


An IV catheter is removed and culture of the tip reveals
Gram-positive cocci believed to be Staphylococcus
aureus. Which of the following laboratory test results
would further support this belief?
(A) a-Hemolysis on blood agar
(B) Bacitracin sensitivity
(C) Coagulase positivity
(D) Lactose fermentation
(E) Urea hydrolysis

(A) Chlamydia trachomatis 47 A high school student who was appropriately immu-
(B) Haemophilus ducreyi nized with the diphtheriatetanusacellular pertussis
(C) Neisseria gonorrhoeae (DTaP) series by kindergarten, but who had received
(D) Treponema pallidum no additional boosters since, stepped on a nail while
(E) Trichomonas vaginalis walking barefoot. The nail was easily removed and
the lesion freely bled. What should the student be
44 The 20-year-old pregnant partner of the above patient given?
presented with a 2-week history of flu-like symptoms. (A) Equine tetanus antitoxin
Physical examination reveals a generalized nontender (B) Human tetanus immune globulin
lymphadenopathy and numerous discrete cutaneous (C) Prophylactic antibiotic treatment for Clostridium
hyperpigmentations on the soles of the feet as shown tetani
in the accompanying photograph. Which of the fol- (D) No treatment
lowing laboratory procedures would give you a defini- (E) Tetanus toxoid
tive diagnosis?
Bacteriology 9
The next two questions are linked. (A) Atrophic vaginitis
(B) Bacterial vaginosis
48 The Gram-stained smear of urethral exudate from a male (C) Gonorrhea
(shown in the photo) is diagnostic for which disease? (D) Group B strep colonization
(E) Trichomonas vaginalis infection

51 A tube dilution panel for a particular antibiotic gives


results as illustrated in the accompanying photograph.
With regard to the sensitivity of this particular bacte-
rial isolate to the antibiotic tested, which statement
is true?

(A) Chancroid
(B) Gonorrhea
(C) Lymphogranuloma venereum
(D) Nongonococcal urethritis
(E) Primary syphilis

49 What is the appropriate therapy for the patient in the


above case, assuming no further tests were conducted?
(A) Ceftriaxone
(B) Ceftriaxone plus azithromycin
(C) Ciprofloxacin
(A) Results reflect the bacteriostatic properties of the
(D) Penicillin antibiotic
(E) Tetracycline (B) The antibiotic is bactericidal at all tube dilution
concentrations
50 A 24-year-old woman presents with a vagina discharge
(C) The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is
that is characterized by a thin milky appearance, a
8 mcg/mL
marked amine odor, and a pH of 4.5. A Gram-stain
(D) The MIC is >32 mcg/mL
of the vaginal discharge is shown in the photograph.
What is the most likely diagnosis? (E) The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)
is 16 mcg/mL

52 A preschool-aged child from Georgia is hospitalized


because of edema and hematuria. Of note is that the
child was recently successfully treated for a pyoderma
(see photo). Which microbe is likely associated with
this childs condition?
10 Chapter 1
55 Which of the following bacterial agents has the lowest
infective dose for producing gastrointestinal disease
in the human host?
(A) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
(B) Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
(C) Salmonella (nontyphoid serotypes)
(D) Shigella flexneri
(E) Vibrio cholerae

56 Intestinal infection with which of the following organ-


isms should not be treated with antibiotics?
(A) Clostridium difficile
(B) Escherichia coli O157:H7
(C) Salmonella typhi
(D) Shigella sonnei
(E) Vibrio cholera
(A) Acid-fast Nocardia asteroides complex 57 Fimbriae-mediated adherence to intestinal epithelial
(B) Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus cells, type III secretion system-mediated endocytosis
(C) Escherichia coli or related Gram-negative enteric and transport to the lamina propria to elicit a local-
(D) Group A Streptococcus ized inflammatory response are descriptive of the
(E) Pseudomonas aeruginosa infectivity and pathogenesis of which diarrheogenic
agent?
The next two questions are linked. (A) Campylobacter jejuni
(B) Clostridium difficile
53 A 37-year-old man presented with a 2 day history of (C) Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
low grade fever, abdominal cramps diarrhea, nausea, (D) Salmonella sp.
and vomiting. One day prior to the onset of symptoms,
(E) Vibrio cholerae
six family members had eaten at an all-you-can-eat
fried chicken buffet. Two other members of his fam-
58 A critically ill patient, who has a Foley catheter, devel-
ily (his 82-year-old mother and a 14-month-old son)
ops a serious UTI. The organism is identified as a
had similar symptoms. Examination of a fecal smear
motile, nonurease-producing, Gram-negative enteric
from the patient revealed abundant fecal leukocytes.
bacillus with a high degree of antibiotic resistance that
Which of the following laboratory profiles is consist-
rarely causes disease in immune competent people.
ent with the most likely microbial cause of this mans
The agent formed pigments on nutrient agar cultivated
condition?
at room temperature, as shown in the photograph.
(A) Aerobic, -hemolytic, spore-forming Gram-
What is the etiology of this patients UTI?
positive rod
(B) Bacitracin-sensitive, Gram-negative cocci
(C) Coagulase-negative, Gram-positive cocci
(D) Nonlactose fermenting, Gram-negative bacilli
(E) Oxidase-positive, motile, curved, Gram-positive
bacilli

54 Which of the following medications, if taken by the


man in the above case, could have increased his sus-
ceptibility to the infection he developed?
(A) Acetaminophen
(B) Antacids
(C) -Blockers
(D) Ibuprofen
(E) Statins
Bacteriology 11
(A) Escherichia coli (A) A change in the terminal pentapeptide from
(B) Klebsiella pneumoniae D-ala-D-ala to D-ala-D-lac
(C) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (B) A mutation in the penicillin-binding protein
(D) Proteus mirabilis (C) A mutation in the porin protein
(E) Serratia marcescens (D) The acquisition of an efflux pump
(E) The secretion of -lactamase
59 A 3-year-old female child presented with a febrile
headache, vomiting, and a swollen right knee that was 63 A 47-year-old woman in India is becoming blind due
exquisitely painful upon motion. Physical examination to repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.
revealed a petechial rash on the skin. Gram stain of the What is seen in the pus draining from her eyes and
synovial fluid revealed the presence of Gram-negative stained by immunofluorescence?
diplococci and culture suggested a strict aerobe that (A) Elementary bodies
fermented glucose and maltose. Capsule antigens were (B) Inclusion bodies
also detected by serology. Which one of the following (C) Negri bodies
is most likely the causative agent of the disease? (D) Gram-negative diplococci
(A) Escherichia coli (E) Gram-positive diplococci
(B) Neisseria meningitidis
(C) Neisseria gonorrhoeae 64 A new rapid diagnostic test for strep throat was under-
(D) Staphylococcus aureus going clinical trials. Among 500 culture-positive
(E) Haemophilus influenzae b individuals with sore throat, 500 were positive by
the test. Among 500 culture-negative individuals
The next two questions are linked. without sore throat, 200 were negative by the test.
Describe the sensitivity and specificity of this test.
60 An 18-month-old male presents with fever, lethargy, (A) High sensitivity; high specificity
malaise, productive coughing, and vomiting. Culture (B) High sensitivity; low specificity
of cerebral spinal fluid samples with Staphylococcus (C) Low sensitivity; high specificity
aureus on blood agar reveals the presence of satel-
(D) Low sensitivity; low specificity
lite colonies. Serology has indicated that the organ-
ism is polyribitol phosphate (PRP) positive. Gram
stain of the colonies indicates the presence of a The next two questions are linked.
Gram-negative coccobacillus. Which one of the fol-
lowing organisms is most likely responsible for the 65 An 8-year-old girl presents to the urgent care facil-
disease? ity with 1 day history of fever, sore throat, malaise,
and headache. Physical examination reveals a tem-
(A) Bordetella pertussis
perature of 39 C, cervical lymphadenopathy, and
(B) Campylobacter jejuni
a whitish tonsillar exudate. A rapid diagnostic
(C) Escherichia coli
test is negative; however, culture of the exudate
(D) Haemophilus influenzae b grew Gram-positive cocci in chains that caused
(E) Pasteurella multocida b-hemolysis on blood agar. What complication is
prevented by appropriate antibiotic therapy for this
61 How could the infection in the above case have been infection?
avoided? (A) Bacteremia
(A) Improved community sanitation (B) Carditis
(B) Avoidance of infants with similar symptoms (C) Encephalitis
(C) Avoidance of day care facilities or other crowded (D) Hepatitis
situations (E) Meningitis
(D) Use of 10% bleach solution to clean toys shared
with other infants 66 What is the basis of serotyping of the pathogen in the
(E) Vaccination of the infant above question?
(A) Capsular antigens
62 A 78-year-old man developed endocarditis due to a (B) Cell wall antigens
vancomycin-resistant strain of Enterococcus faecalis. (C) Flagellar antigens
What is the molecular basis of resistance of this organ-
(D) O antigens
ism to vancomycin?
(E) M antigens
12 Chapter 1
67 A resident in his first week of outpatient clinic 70 A 20-year-old male is brought to the emergency depart-
work prescribes erythromycin for the treatment of ment with a 1-day history of delirium. He has had a sus-
a urinary tract infection, presumably a simple case tained fever of up to 40 C and a history of progressive
of Escherichia coli. The attending physician coun- headache, myalgia, and constipation which began 10
termands the residents order and prescribes TMP days previously as he was returning to the United States
SMZ. Why is the therapeutic choice by the attending from a trip to visit relatives in India. Physical exami-
more appropriate? nation revealed hepatosplenomegaly, diffuse abdomi-
(A) Bacterial glycocalyx impedes the absorption of nal tenderness, and red spots on the chest and neck.
erythromycin Colonies of a Gram-negative bacillus that produced a
(B) Erythromycin is likely to be inactivated by characteristic fish-eye growth (lactose nonfermenter
transpeptidases with sulfur reduction) are isolated on Hektoen agar
(C) Macrolides are principally secreted in the feces from blood and stool samples as shown in the photo-
(D) Macrolides promote Candida overgrowth in graph. What is the most likely diagnosis?
women
(E) Oral macrolides are linked to StevensJohnson
syndrome

The next two questions are linked.

68 A 10-month-old male child presents with episodes


of repetitive coughing with intermittent large gasps
of air as well as some vomiting. Parents indicate that
the child has been suffering from this condition for
about 1 week. Incidentally, the previous week he
was reported to have a coldlike illness with a fever
and sneezing. A white blood cell count shows 65%
lymphocytes and 30% neutrophils. An oxidase-pos-
itive, Gram-negative coccobacillus is grown from a
nasopharyngeal swab plated on ReganLowe char-
coal agar. Which one of the following organisms is
most likely responsible for this disease? (A) Cholera
(A) Bordetella pertussis (B) Hemolytic uremic syndrome
(B) Corynebacterium diphtheriae (C) Shigellosis
(C) Haemophilus influenzae (D) Tularemia
(D) Mycoplasma pneumoniae (E) Typhoid fever
(E) Streptococcus pneumoniae
71 A 35-year-old male became ill with watery diarrhea
due to a bacterial infection while on a trip to South
69 What are the virulence factors of the organism in the America. Which of the following is the key event that
above question that enable it to adhere to and kill cili- promotes the development of watery diarrhea?
ated respiratory epithelial cells?
(A) Decreased activity of adenylate cyclase
(A) Capsular polysaccharide and diphtheria toxin
(B) Increase in the intestinal epithelial cell levels of
(B) M protein and pneumolysin cAMP
(C) Pertactin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and (C) Increase in the levels of intracellular chloride
tracheal cytotoxin (D) Movement of water from the intestinal lumen
(D) P-pili and lecithinase into the epithelial cells.
(E) Polyribitol phosphate capsule and colonization (E) Movement of ions such as potassium and
factor sodium into the intestinal epithelial cells

72 A 47-year-old male is diagnosed with peptic ulcer dis-


ease. Treatment includes antibiotics for infection of
the stomach with Helicobacter pylori. Which enzyme
is secreted by this organism and enables it to survive
in the acid environment of the stomach?
Bacteriology 13
(A) Catalase (A) Enterobacter cloacae
(B) Oxidase (B) Klebsiella pneumoniae
(C) Protease (C) Proteus vulgaris
(D) Transpeptidase (D) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
(E) Urease (E) Serratia marcescens

73 A 15-year-old boy presents with diarrhea, malaise, fever, 76 Five adults and seven children in a village in South
and abdominal pain. The stools were positive for occult Africa present over several days to a local clinic with
blood and fecal leukocytes. Microscopy of the stool also voluminous watery diarrhea containing flecks of
reveals the presence of curved bacilli that moved about mucus. They show signs of severe dehydration and are
on a slide in a darting motion. The etiologic agent, a treated with oral fluids and electrolytes. Stool cultures
Gram-negative, curved rod, grew on specialized medium grew yellow colonies on thiosulfate citrate bile salt
in microaerophilic conditions. Which one of the follow- (TCBS) media. What is the etiology of this outbreak?
ing organisms is most likely responsible for the disease? (A) Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli
(A) Campylobacter jejuni (B) Salmonella typhi
(B) Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (C) Shigella dysenteriae
(C) Salmonella sp. (D) Vibrio cholerae
(D) Shigella sonnei (E) Yersinia enterocolitica
(E) Vibrio cholerae
77 An outbreak of pneumonic plague occurs in the
74 A 3-year-old girl develops a wound infection on her Democratic Republic of the Congo killing over half
hand following a cat bite. Culture of wound exudate of the affected individuals. How is this form of plague
on blood agar grew a Gram-negative coccobacillus transmitted?
that is a normal flora of the cat oropharynx. What is (A) Bite of infected flea
the most likely etiologic agent? (B) Direct skin contact with bubos
(A) Bacteroides fragilis (C) Ingestion of contaminated water
(B) b-Hemolytic Streptococcus (D) Inhalation of aerosolized bacteria
(C) Capnocytophaga canimorsus (E) Introduction of bacteria into wounds while
(D) Moraxella catarrhalis butchering infected animals
(E) Pasteurella multocida
78 A 35-year-old man developed a flu-like illness that
75 A 27-year-old male was hospitalized suffering third- lasted 3 days and was followed by apparent recovery.
degree burns over 50% of his body from a house fire. Within days, he suffered a recurrence of illness with
After 6 days in the hospital, he becomes septic and symptoms of meningitis and oliguria. He was hospi-
the burn wounds show tissue necrosis in several areas. talized and diagnosed with Weil disease. Which of the
Blood and wound cultures grew an oxidase-positive, following organisms is the cause?
Gram-negative bacillus resistant to aminopenicil- (A) Bartonella quintana
lins, macrolides, and first-generation and second- (B) Chlamydia psittaci
generation cephalosporins. The organism growing on (C) Leptospira interrogans
nutrient agar is shown in the photograph. What is the (D) Mycobacterium leprae
etiology of this mans burn infection?
(E) Ureaplasma urealyticum

79 A 26-year-old man presents with a painless ulcer on


the penis from which spiral-shaped bacteria could be
visualized on dark-field microscopy. If left untreated,
which of the following would be expected to occur
within 6 weeks to 6 months?
(A) Ataxia
(B) Dementia
(C) Disseminated rash
(D) Kidney failure
(E) Meningitis
14 Chapter 1
80 A 27-year-old woman presented with a 2-week history 85 A 61-year-old dialysis patient develops Pseudomonas
of low grade fever, chills, myalgia, headache, and non- septicemia for which she is given a -lactam antibi-
productive cough. She was treated with an antibiotic otic with activity exclusively against aerobic, Gram-
that inhibits cell wall synthesis but did not improve negative bacteria. Which antibiotic is she given?
because the causative agent lacks a cell wall. With (A) Aztreonam
which organism was she infected? (B) Ceftriaxone
(A) Chlamydophila pneumoniae (C) Cephalexin
(B) Coxiella burnetii (D) Gentamicin
(C) Ehrlichia chaffeensis (E) Imipenem
(D) Legionella pneumoniae
(E) Mycoplasma pneumoniae 86 A 67-year-old moderately obese man presents with
fever and an erythematous, swollen, tender, warm
81 A 24-year-old woman was diagnosed with pelvic calf. He is diagnosed clinically with cellulitis and
inflammatory disease. The infection was found to be catalase-negative, b-hemolytic Gram-positive cocci
polymicrobial and included a Gram-negative anaero- are isolated from blood cultures. Which virulence
bic rod. Identify the most likely anaerobe involved in factor of the causative organism enabled it to cause
the infection. this invasive disease?
(A) Actinomyces israelii (A) An A-B exotoxin
(B) Bacteroides fragilis (B) Lipopolysaccharide
(C) Chlamydia trachomatis (C) P fimbriae
(D) Neisseria gonorrhoeae (D) Streptokinase
(E) Treponema pallidum (E) Yops proteins

82 A 12-year-old girl develops a low-grade fever, malaise, 87 A 22-year-old woman is admitted to the hospital with
and tender lymphadenopathy in her right axial area. pelvic inflammatory disease. Her empiric antibiotic
On her right hand are the scratches she received 10 regimen requires coverage for anaerobes. Which anti-
days previously from her kitten. What is the most biotic would provide appropriate anaerobic coverage?
likely bacterial cause of this lymphadenopathy? (A) Azithromycin
(A) Actinomyces israelii (B) Ceftriaxone
(B) Bartonella henselae (C) Gentamicin
(C) Chlamydia psittaci (D) Linezolid
(D) Francisella tularensis (E) Metronidazole
(E) Yersinia pestis
88 A 37-year-old male is seen at a sexually transmitted
83 A 25-year-male presented with fever, dry cough, and
disease clinic for treatment of gonorrhea. Prior treat-
dyspnea. A sputum sample was induced but it failed to
ments for this disease have successfully eradicated
reveal organisms on Gram stain. The sputum also failed
the organism; however, the man has not changed his
to grow organisms when cultured on a variety of agars;
behavior and has been repeatedly reinfected. What is
however, bacteria were isolated in cultured eukaryotic
the most important strategy the organism employs
cells. What is the cause of this mans disease?
which enables it to cause repeated infections?
(A) Chlamydophila pneumoniae
(A) Antigenic variation
(B) Legionella pneumophila
(B) Induction of immune suppression
(C) Mycobacterium intracellulare
(C) Intracellular growth in alveolar macrophages
(D) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
(D) Polysaccharide capsule
(E) Mycoplasma pneumoniae
(E) Secretion of IgG protease
84 A 23-year-old female is treated for uncomplicated
pyelonephritis with an antibiotic that inhibits bacte- 89 A 76-year-old man receiving chemotherapy for can-
rial DNA gyrase. Which antibiotic did she receive? cer developed an abrupt onset of fever, chills, head-
(A) Ampicillin ache, nonproductive cough, and diarrhea. A chest
(B) Ceftriaxone radiograph suggested a diagnosis of pneumonia. The
organism, isolated from sputum and blood culture, is
(C) Ciprofloxacin
an aquatic saprophyte that infects amoebas outside of
(D) Gentamicin
the body and macrophages following infection. What
(E) TMPSMZ
is this organism?
Bacteriology 15
(A) Chlamydia pneumoniae 94 What is the major virulence factor of the organism in
(B) Legionella pneumophila the above case?
(C) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (A) Biofilm production
(D) Mycoplasma pneumoniae (B) PantonValentine leukocidin
(E) Streptococcus pneumoniae (C) Pyrogenic exotoxin
(D) Streptokinase
90 A 7-year-old child develops impetigo involving large (E) Vancomycin resistance
areas of his body. He is given an antibiotic that inhibits
cell wall synthesis. Which is the most likely antibiotic The next two questions are linked.
this child would have received?
(A) Ampicillin 95 A 5-year-old girl from an orphanage in Ukraine was
(B) Cephalexin about to leave for the United States with her adop-
(C) Ciprofloxacin tive parents when she developed a fever, sore throat,
cough, and malaise. A few days later, she was brought
(D) Clindamycin
to the emergency room in respiratory distress.
(E) Erythromycin
Physical examination revealed pronounced, bilateral
cervical lymphadenopathy, inflamed pharyngeal area,
91 A 64-year-old woman is hospitalized with communi- and a thick, grayish, leathery exudate on the tonsils
ty-acquired pneumonia. Empiric antibiotic treatment as shown in the photograph. Part of the exudate had
consists of a drug that inhibits bacterial protein syn- become loose revealing bleeding of the underlying
thesis by binding to the 50 S subunit of the bacterial mucosal tissue. The etiologic agent was isolated on
ribosome and a b-lactam antibiotic. With which of the tellurite medium. What virulence factor accounts for
following should she be treated? the pathogenesis of this infection?
(A) Ampicillin plus gentamicin
(B) Azithromycin plus ceftriaxone
(C) Imipenem plus cilastatin
(D) Piperacillin plus tazobactam
(E) Trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole

92 A 34-year-old woman presents with fever, nausea,


severe abdominal cramping, and bloody diarrhea
that was fecal leukocyte-positive. A few days pre-
viously, she had eaten undercooked chicken. Of
the following, which is the most likely etiologic
agent?
(A) Campylobacter jejuni
(B) Clostridium perfringens
(C) Salmonella typhi
(D) Shigella dysenteriae (A) Immune evasion following production of IgA
(E) Yersinia enterocolitica protease
(B) Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation
The next two questions are linked. (C) M protein-mediated resistance to phagocytosis
(D) Secretion of coagulase to facilitate invasion into
93 A 48-year-old man has been hospitalized in intensive mucosa
care for 3 weeks following an automobile accident. He (E) Toxin-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis
develops a fever due to colonization of an intravenous
line with Gram-positive cocci that are catalase-posi- 96 Ten days after the onset of illness, the patient in the
tive and coagulase-negative. What is the most likely above case deteriorated and she subsequently died
cause of this mans fever? from a complication of her infection. What was the
(A) Enterococcus faecalis most likely cause of her death?
(B) Staphylococcus aureus (A) Encephalitis
(C) Staphylococcus epidermidis (B) Kidney failure
(D) Streptococcus mutans (C) Myocarditis
(E) Streptococcus pyogenes (D) Pneumonia
(E) Sepsis
16 Chapter 1
97 Blood and urine cultures are taken from a 73-year-old
man hospitalized with suspected Escherichia coli uro-
sepsis. Which culture medium would allow selective
growth of Gram-negative enterics while suppressing
the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, Haemophilus
and Neisseria?
(A) Blood agar
(B) Buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar
(C) Chocolate agar
(D) MacConkey agar
(E) ThayerMartin agar

98 A 3-year-old boy developed bloody diarrhea after eat-


ing a poorly cooked hamburger. A few days later, he
was hospitalized with oliguria and hypertension. With
which organism is he most likely infected? (A) Group B Streptococcus
(A) Clostridium perfringens (B) Haemophilus influenzae b
(B) Salmonella typhi (C) Listeria monocytogenes
(C) Enteroinvasive E. coli (D) Neisseria meningitidis
(D) Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (E) Streptococcus pneumoniae
(E) Yersinia enterocolitica
102 How could the infection in the above case have best
99 A surgery patient at risk for Gram-negative sepsis is been prevented?
part of a research project to prevent endotoxic shock (A) Improved sanitation within the dormitory
using monoclonal antibodies to inhibit the endotoxin (B) Hand washing and use of hand sanitation gel
molecule. What is the active component of the endo- (C) Prophylactic g-globulin
toxin molecule against which the monoclonal anti- (D) Prophylactic ribavirin
body would most likely be directed? (E) Vaccination
(A) Core polysaccharide
(B) Lipid A
(C) N-acetylmuramic acid 103 What is the drug of choice for treating the young
(D) O side chain woman in the above case?
(E) Teichoic acid (A) Azithromycin
(B) Aztreonam
100 A 47-year-old man had a serious skin infection due (C) Cefazolin
to Staphylococcus aureus. He was unable to receive (D) Imipenem
-lactam antibiotics due to a history of penicillin-in- (E) Penicillin
duced anaphylaxis. Which of the following antibiotics
could he be given?
104 An outbreak of watery diarrhea due to Shigella occurred
(A) Ampicillin
in several day care centers in a Midwestern city. Which
(B) Aztreoman Shigella sp. is most likely involved?
(C) Cefazolin (A) S. boydii
(D) Clindamycin (B) S. dysenteriae
(E) Meropenem (C) S. enterica
(D) S. flexneri
The next three questions are linked. (E) S. sonnei

101 A 22-year-old female college dorm resident presents


with a sudden onset of fever of 104 F and a severe
headache. Nuchal rigidity and papilledema are seen
on physical examination. Gram stain of the cerebral
spinal fluid is shown in the accompanying photo-
graph. What is the etiology of her infection?
Bacteriology 17
The next two questions are linked. 106 Which of the following is an important virulence fac-
tor of the organisms in the above question?
105 While on vacation, a 68-year-old man develops fever, (A) Dextran production
chills, night sweats, and malaise that began insidiously (B) Hyaluronidase
and progressed over several days. He sought care at an (C) Lipopolysaccharide
urgent care facility and was diagnosed clinically with
(D) Pyrogenic exotoxins
the flu. He cuts his vacation short and returns home
(E) Exfoliative toxins
with the same symptoms plus weakness and dyspnea.
He sees his primary care physician who hears a new
107 A homeless man who is known to be HIV positive
onset of murmur on auscultation and admits the man to
unexpectedly dies in a dormitory of a congregate
the hospital. Blood cultures grow the catalase-negative
nighttime shelter. A roommate states that during the
organism shown in the accompanying photographs.
night, he complained of periods of shaking chills and
What is the cause of this mans infection?
fever and appeared to be coughing up blood. An acid-
fast stain slide of tissue from the lungs is shown in
the photograph. Which statement best describes the
disease process that is visible in the stained slide?

(A) Cytoplasmic inclusions associated with


Chlamydia
(B) Legionella within alveoli indicating atypical
pneumonia
(C) Mycobacteria overwhelming alveolar macro-
phages
(D) Pseudomonas microcolonies within lung
parenchyma
(E) Signs of consolidation linked to typical pneumonia

The next two questions are linked.


(A) Group A Streptococcus pyogenes
(B) Group B Streptococcus agalactiae 108 A 6-year-old boy in Pakistan presents to a local hos-
(C) Staphylococcus aureus pital with involuntary limb movements. He also com-
(D) Staphylococcus epidermidis plains of pain and swelling in several joints including
(E) Viridans group streptococci the wrists, elbows, knees, and ankles as well as weak-
ness and shortness of breath. About 2 weeks earlier,
he had been ill with fever and sore throat. A throat
culture for group A Streptococcus was negative. What
other test result would indicate a recent infection with
this organism?
18 Chapter 1
(A) Elevated C-reactive protein 112 Vaccination with Bacille Calmette-Gurin (BCG) has
(B) Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate been shown to provide protection against tubercu-
(C) Positive antistreptolysin O antibodies losis by inducing cell-mediated immunity. What is
(D) Positive Lancefield agglutination test the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing pulmonary
(E) Positive Rheumatoid factor test infection?
(A) 10%
109 With regard to the above question, what is the major (B) 25%
virulence factor of this organism that plays a role in (C) 50%
the pathogenesis of the boys illness? (D) 75%
(A) Capsule (E) 90%
(B) M protein
113 A 32-year-old woman presents to an urgent care facil-
(C) Phage-associated toxin
ity with severe vomiting. She claims that several other
(D) Secretion of dextran
people who ate at the church picnic 4 hours earlier
(E) Streptococcal superantigen
are also sick with the same symptoms. She is clini-
cally diagnosed with food poisoning. A health depart-
The next two questions are linked. ment investigation reveals that all affected individuals
had eaten the ham salad. What is the bacterial agent
110 A 74-year-old woman is hospitalized with communi- responsible for the signs and symptoms?
ty-acquired pneumonia. Blood and sputum cultures (A) Campylobacter jejuni
grew the a-hemolytic catalase-negative, bile-soluble, (B) Clostridium perfringens
optochin-sensitive organism shown in the photograph. (C) Bacillus cereus
It showed an intermediate degree of resistance to peni- (D) Salmonella sp.
cillin. What are the other important virulence factors of (E) Staphylococcus aureus
this organism?
114 A 76-year-old hospitalized male being treated suc-
cessfully with vancomycin for hospital-acquired
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacter-
emia develops a new onset of fever. A urinary tract
infection is suspected and a Gram stain of unspun
urine reveals neutrophils and Gram-positive cocci.
Antibiotic sensitivity results of the organism cultured
from the urine reveal resistance to cephalosporins,
TMPSMZ, aminoglycosides, and vancomycin.
Which bacteria is the most likely cause of his urinary
tract infection?
(A) Enterococcus faecalis
(B) Group B Streptococcus
(C) Peptostreptococcus
(D) Staphylococcus saprophyticus
(E) Streptococcus pyogenes
(A) Capsule and pneumolysin
(B) Filamentous hemagglutinin and superantigen 115 A 4-year-old boy is being worked up for severe acute
(C) Neuraminidase and hemagglutinin rhinosinusitis. Culture from material obtained from
(D) Pyocyanin and endotoxin the maxillary sinus grew aerobic, oxidase-positive,
(E) Tracheal cytotoxin and pertactin and Gram-negative diplococci. How should this infec-
tion be treated?
111 What is the molecular basis of resistance to penicillin (A) Ampicillin
shown by the organism in the above question? (B) Amoxicillinclavulanate
(A) Altered penicillin-binding proteins (C) Cephalexin
(B) Efflux pump (D) Dicloxacillin
(C) Mutation of ribosomal binding site (E) Vancomycin
(D) Mutated porin proteins
(E) Production of -lactamase
Bacteriology 19
116 A 34-year-old woman in her third trimester of preg- 118 A 7-year-old boy presents to the emergency depart-
nancy delivers a stillborn infant. Her history is sig- ment with fever, abdominal pain, and tenderness in
nificant for a febrile illness with headache, back pain, the right lower quadrant. A white blood cell count
and diarrhea prior to going into premature labor. A reveals leukocytosis. Suspecting appendicitis, the
Gram-positive motile coccobacillus was isolated from child is taken to surgery; however, the removed
blood and tissue samples of the mother and the infant appendix is grossly and histologically normal. The
cultured at 4 C. How did the mother acquire this bacterial cause for the boys symptoms was subse-
infection? quently identified as a Gram-negative rod after cold
(A) Acquisition of a respiratory pathogen that spread enrichment of fecal cultures. What is the etiology of
hematogenously this infection?
(B) Contamination of genital tract with normal (A) Campylobacter jejuni
intestinal flora (B) Clostridium difficile
(C) Ingestion of contaminated food (C) Salmonella typhi
(D) Overgrowth of normal vaginal flora (D) Vibrio parahaemolyticus
(E) Sexual transmission (E) Yersinia enterocolitica

117 A 54-year-old HIV-infected male with a CD4 cell 119 A 60-year-old man with a history of chronic liver
count of 45/cmm presents with fever, shortness of disease develops fever, cellulitis, and bullous skin
breath, diarrhea, fatigue, night sweats, weight loss, lesions after spending 6 hours in flood waters follow-
and right upper quadrant abdominal pain of 2 weeks ing a hurricane that affected his residence along the
duration. He has refused antiretroviral therapy for the Mississippi coast. Upon admission to the hospital, he
past 2 years due to debilitating side effects. Physical is septic and hypotensive and dies the following day.
examination reveals a pale, ill appearing, cachectic Blood cultures grown on blood agar supplemented
male with hepatosplenomegaly. Lab tests reveal ele- with 1% sodium chloride grew a curved, motile,
vated transaminase and alkaline phosphatase levels. Gram-negative rod. What is the etiology of this mans
Blood cultures grew acid-fast bacilli. With which disease?
antibiotic regimen should this patient be treated? (A) Clostridium perfringens
(A) Clarithromycin plus ethambutol plus rifabutin (B) MRSA
(B) Isoniazid plus rifampin (C) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
(C) Piperacillin plus tazobactam (D) Streptococcus pyogenes
(D) Trimathoprim plus sulfamethaxazole (E) Vibrio vulnificus
(E) Vancomycin plus dalfopristin