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The Eaton Rack and Enclosures

Fundamentals Handbook
August 2015

Introduction 3
Rack types 4
Enclosure types 5
Rack and enclosure consideration 6
Typical application infrastructure requirements 7
Tips for cable management 8
Blanking panels: a best practice 9
Five fault areas of an enclosure 10
Rack hygiene 11
Nine benefits of rackmount PDUs 12
Sample configurations 14
What is converged infrastructure? 15
The truth about IT rooms 16
Step 1: Scouting out your IT room 17
Step 2: Rack-based refresh strategy 18
Step 3: Building out your network closet 19
Step 4: Getting back to business 20
Solution worksheet 21
Frequently asked questions 23
Rack accessory glossary 24
Commonly used acronyms 28
2014 seismic map 30
Organize manage protect 31

2 EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook

Store Protect Cool Power Manage Secure

Your critical IT equipment

Welcome to the Eaton Rack and Enclosures Fundamentals Handbook. This handbook is meant to help you choose, organize, and manage your
racks and enclosures. As such, we will refer to them only as racks and
Not so many years ago, network closets, server rooms and data centers
enclosures throughout. In an effort to help you make the best selection
were designed from a room to rack standpoint. Deciding specifically
for your requirements, well cover some of the components within racks
where to store your technology typically came later in the design process.
and enclosures as well as some tips on deploying them. Everything is
However, rapid technology refresh cycles, the need to rackmount more
interconnected, so the more you plan in advance, the better prepared you
equipment and the desire for increased cooling capacities in an enclosed
will be. For instance, it is important not to overlook power and data cables.
rack (known as an enclosure), have all begun to reverse that trend. Today,
Tangled cables can cause downtime or impede productivity, and the more
IT professionals are designing these critical workspaces with more of a
racks and enclosures you are deploying, the more important an effective
rack to room methodology.
cable management strategy becomes.
Traditionally, any structural support used to rackmount equipment was
Since racks and enclosures are among the first pieces of equipment
appropriately called a rack whether it was a two- or four-post structure.
you choose to deploy, we want to help you avoid any decisions that may
As time progressed and form factors of servers, network, storage, and
result in poor performance. Poor design can also result in overcrowded,
power equipment have changed, the terms enclosure and cabinet also
overheated and poorly organized network closets, server rooms or
came into the mix as four-post racks were enclosed with front and rear
data centersand the all-too-likely outcome of that is downtime for
doors and side panels.
your operation.

EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook 3

Rack types
Two-post, four-post, divider panels, baying or ganging, wallmount . . . There are so many items
to consider when choosing a rack or enclosure that it can be a bit overwhelming to decide
which solution is best for your IT environment.

Two-post rack Four-post rack

The two-post rack is the most simply The four-post rack is similar to the two-post
designed, featuring an open frame that rack with its open design, but it offers more
allows for vertical rackmounting of stability. The open frame allows air to flow in
equipment and offers full and easy and out of equipment freely. When shopping
access. As the name suggests, the rack for a four-post rack, look for one with labeled
is constructed of two vertical steel posts U spaces, which helps when you install
joined together by top and bottom cross servers, network equipment, cable
members, making installation and equipment management, rack power distribution
maintenance easy. The two-post rack fits units (PDUs) and other accessories.
in tight spaces and offers flexibility when Some highlights of the
reconfiguring equipment and cables. four-post rack include:
Cable management and security products
are available to help manage mounted Ease of installation
equipment. Most often this solution is used Increased stability
for organization and ease of access for voice,
data, and video (VDV) equipment. Equipment accessibility
One drawback is that with only two Increased load rating
posts, it isnt the most stable solution for Ideal for cable-dense
rackmounting a lot of equipment. However, networking equipment
most two-post racks include floor-anchoring
accessories, recommended because theyre
holding up mission-critical equipment that is
integral to your business operations.
Some highlights of the
two-post rack include:
Quick assembly M Y S EARCH F OR A
Ideal for network and
(VoIP) gear

4 EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook

Enclosure types
Enclosure Wallmount
Enclosures are essentially enclosed four-post If youre running a smaller operation and arent in need of a full-size rack or enclosure, a
racks with front and rear doors as well as wallmount enclosure may be an appropriate choice. This cost-effective and versatile solution
side panels. Using an enclosure increases provides secure storage of communications cabling, network gear, and related equipment
the security of your rackmount equipment. on a wallfreeing up valuable desktop or counter space. Oftentimes, your backbone
As you move from the network closet to equipment is placed in a more public spacerather than in a network closet, server room
server rooms and large data centers, or data centerso aesthetics and security can play larger roles. From an accessibility
enclosures are the primary rackmount standpoint, dual-hinged wallmount enclosures offer diagnostic, maintenance, and service
solution for servers, uninterruptible power access from both the front and rear.
supply (UPS) systems and networking Some highlights of wallmount
equipment. Removable side panels and enclosures include:
doors, as well as rackmount rail kits that
allow you to easily move equipment in and Protection from tampering
out of the enclosure, offer quick access and accidental unplugging
while also protecting equipment from Clear counters, desktops
unauthorized entry. Additionally, with and shelves
rapidly increasing power consumption and
escalating heat output from IT equipment, an Adequate ventilation to keep
enclosure platform provides more flexibility equipment cool
to contain and direct the heat through rack- Optional fan kits and intake
and aisle-based heat containment strategies air filters
including enclosure chimneys.
Ideal for manufacturing and
Some highlights of production environments,
enclosures include: small/remote offices, retail,
Enhanced security security offices, etc.
Controlled thermal
Aesthetic appeal
Broader range of
for accessories
Ideal for small server
rooms and large
enterprise data centers

If you are in a seismically active region, most racks

and enclosures are available in seismic configurations
or with appropriate accessories to meet local requirements.

EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook 5

Rack and enclosure
Racks and enclosures can be found
everywhere. They are in airports, stores,
healthcare facilities, manufacturing and
production environments, schools, and
enterprise data centers, to name a few.
They are available in different heights,
depths and widths, but one thing is certain:
there is a solution for whatever equipment
youre looking to store, protect, cool, power,
manage, and secure.
Whether youre building a new space
or optimizing and retrofitting an existing
one, answer these questions to Space and Equipment Other
determine the best solution for your
specific requirement. environment and cabling considerations
 Where do you need to secure What equipment will go in the Will you use rack power
equipment? (e.g., Is it in a separate rack(s)? distribution units?
room or an open area where many
people have access to it?) Will equipment be kept under lock Will you need back-up power
and key at the rack level? for your IT environmenteither
How much open space do you rackmount or free-standing?
have in this area? (Think in terms How wide, deep and tall (U height)
of width, depth and height as is the equipment going into the Do you have a way to remotely
that will impact your ultimate rack? monitor the environment and
solution.) temperature 24/7?
Do you anticipate adding more
What set-up do you have in mind? equipment in the future? Do you have power management
For example, do you want to place software to help monitor
How are you connecting the equipment and migrate virtual
multiple racks side-by-side? Or equipment together from a cabling
will they be stand-alone? machines in the event of an
perspective? extended power outage?
Will you need to easily move your Will you need to run cabling across
rack or enclosure or will it be in a How will you keep equipment at
multiple racks? If so, how do you an ideal temperature?
permanent location/layout? plan on doing that?
Are you in a location with Do you need airflow management
Will you need access to the rack accessories to accent what
significant vibrations (e.g., near from the bottom or top for cabling
When youre prepared to get an airport) or one thats prone youre already doing?
more technical, visit page 21 to earthquakes?
for the solution worksheet.

6 EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook

Typical application
infrastructure requirements
From the 1 kilowatt (kW) network closet in your local dentists office to todays large social
media and ecommerce companies that design and deploy web 2.0 megawatt (MW) data
centers, data center definitions vary as do the power protection solutions they deploy.
Heres how Eaton defines applications:

Network closet Small and medium business data center Large traditional data center Colocation data center

<15 kW 20 500 kW 500 kW 5 MW 1 MW 20 MW

G ateway to the Internet or internal N

 etworking, storage, Internet gateways are  isk adverse, highly redundant data centers Unpredictable power and cooling needs
data center common requirements High availability due to multiple customers
Typical IT equipment like servers, UPSs, Security generally at the facility level Security is a key concern at the cabinet
PDUs, switches/routers, patch panels or pod level
Focus on efficiency/power management
Wide range of IT equipment

1-10 racks 10-100 racks 100+ racks 100+ racks

T wo- or four-post racks for closet S mall enclosures (12U to 36U) 4 2U to 51U enclosures 4 2U to 51U enclosures
environments (equipment weight is a key Perforated doors to facilitate airflow Handle wide range of IT equipment Unpredictable power and cooling needs
criteria for selection) including servers, storage and power due to multiple customers
Supports power, backup and IT equipment
Wallmount enclosure for small installations needs Compatibility with rack- and aisle-based Security a key concern at the cabinet or
(generally 12U or smaller) containment often critical pod level
42U and taller racks for larger offices and
Cable management to get cabling to rack small data centers Security is generally via a key lock HFID locks often needed for access
Cable management in, above and below control
rack is key Compatibility with rack- and aisle-based
containment often critical
The partitioned nature of colocation data
centers often require data center cages
(find out more at Eaton.com/racks)

Interact with different environments by visiting:


EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook 7

Tips for cable
When the data and power cables in your Organization Documentation P
 roperly and securely install power cables
network or server rack look like tangled S
 tudy the different cable accessory L
 abel or tag your cables on both ends to to minimize arc flash risk.
vines, the lack of organization can lead to options to find out what will work with make troubleshooting easier. Make sure plugs are secure.
accidental disruption of service. An the equipment in your environment (cable
organized rack decreases human errors, B
 e consistent in your labeling or tagging E
 nsure cables are protected from sharp
trays vs. lacing bars vs. ring managers, methodology. objects.
increases efficiency and better protects etc.). View the glossary on page 24.
equipment by increasing effective airflow, G
 roup and color code your cables (servers S
 tudy industry standards and regulations
particularly in an enclosure. By using the If you have more than one rack or vs. routers, etc.). on designing, installing and testing
correct cable management accessories to enclosure, establish a standard for structured cable (e.g., TIA/EIA-568-B.1/2/3
organize, route and remove unnecessary uniformity to keep your operation running Document
 your methodology, inventory,
IP addresses, serial numbers and the bend radius standards).
stress on your cables, you can better and maintain your sanity.
ensure data integrity. roles of each device.
 se Velcro rather than zip ties when Industry standards and regulations
Racks and enclosures can become bundling cables. It will make removal of P
 ost diagrams on the side of each rack
or enclosure. can be found through the
disorganized quickly if cable management cables easier.
doesnt remain an ongoing priority. As a T
 ake front and back pictures of the A
 merican National Standards Institute
 eparate data and power cables to (ANSI)
critical point of interconnection within your minimize signal interference. equipment to help with over-the-phone
business, follow these tips to ensure troubleshooting. T
 elecommunications Industry
optimal performance of your mission-critical A
 void running cables across the inside of Association (TIA)
a rack or enclosure. Instead, bundle K
 eep electronic and hard copy versions
IT equipment.
cables, and run them vertically up the of your documentation. Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)
side of the rack or enclosure and across Safety E
 lectronic Components Industry
the top. This is where overhead cable Association (ECIA)
management options come into play. L
 imit employee access to racks and
enclosures (and even the room). International Organization for
 ake sure not to block any equipment, as Standardization (ISO)
this can hinder serviceability and cause If a cable isnt being used, have it
overheating and/or equipment damage. removed. Loose cables are a safety International Electro Technical
hazard. Commission (IEC)
 imit the length of cables (the longer the
cables, the greater the chaos).
 onsult your local or regional Authority
 void cables that dangle, which are a Having Jurisdiction (AHJ).
target for human error.
 void extensive bending of cables;
By employing some of these basic cable
management strategies, you will save
I S WING F ROM? I T'S A adhere to appropriate bend radius
yourself a lot of headaches when its time to
add, remove or revamp the equipment in
J UNGLE I N T HERE! your rack or enclosure.

8 EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook

Blanking panels:
a best practice
Todays rapid technology refresh rates result
in ever-increasing changes within racks and
enclosures. This can lead to open U-space
that allows re-circulation of hot exhaust air
to the equipment inlet, particularly in an
environment where enclosures are being
used. Blanking panels provide a quick, easy
and cost-effective solution to optimize air
circulation within an enclosure while also
maintaining a clean, uniform look within a
row of enclosures.
Blanking panels are available in a variety of S OMETIMES M Y
styles, with the most common being black
plastic or steel. However, there are other B RAIN F EELS L IKE A
options availablelike adjustable and cable
pass-through configurationsdepending on B LANKING PANEL.
your specific requirements.
In addition to sealing unused U-space in
the rack, there are at least five other fault
areas of an enclosure that can directly
affect airflow management and cooling
performance, as well as improve energy
Read more about these five fault areas in
the next section.

EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook 9

I N M Y DAY, Five fault areas
of an enclosure

With a goal of zero airflow leakage within an Todays wider racks (i.e., 800 mm) have an
enclosureparticularly in equipment-dense additional three inches on each side of the
applicationsit is important to know the 19" rails to provide space for cooling side-to-
most susceptible areas for the remixing of side switches or space for managing a high
cold air supply with hot air exhaust from volume of network cables. To get out to the 4 5
rackmount equipment. side or up to the top, cables are passed
through openings that are typically unsealed.
 ault area 1: Under the enclosure These openings should be covered with a
1 material that provides a seal around the
(external to enclosure)
cables to minimize air leakage.
The area under the rack, but above the floor
deck can be difficult to manage because the
height varies based on the size of rack 4 F
 ault areas 4 & 5: Above and
levelers or casters and the manufacturer. below the top and bottom
This space can contain a substantial amount 5 rackmount space (internal to rack)
of uncontrolled air--and can therefore yield a Areas above the top U space and below
large benefit if it's sealed appropriately. the bottom U space are also regions of
Typically, there's not a solid panel under the suspicious leakage. Typically, some amount
of space exists in these areas and varies per 2 2
enclosure due to the requirement for power
rack manufacturer. However, its not unusual
and network connectivity. That also makes
for this space to equal that of a missing 3 3
this is a potential leakage area because hot
air from below the enclosure can get blanking panel.
trapped and cold air from perforated floor This area is susceptible to hot air
tiles can bypass it. recirculation and is also more likely to allow
bypass of the cool air supply from CRACs.
2 F
 ault areas 2 & 3: Left and right
side of the front 19" vertical
3 mounting rail (internal to enclosure)
Because of customer demand for adjustable
front rails and cable pass-thru capability,
the areas to the left and right of the front
rails on most 19" enclosures are potential
leakage points. The space between the 4 5
side of the vertical rail and the side of the
enclosure frame or side panel is typically 1
wide open, allowing hot air to penetrate
or cold air to pass. This can severely
compromise a robust blanking panel

10 EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook

Rack hygiene Rack hygiene cuts
cooling costs and
protects your valuable
equipment against
over temperature
Watch Professor Wattsons lesson on
rack hygiene at: Switchon.eaton.com/power101

Racks and enclosures are more than a What is rack hygiene? Rack hygiene benefits Airflow problem areas
space to store high-performance servers,
Rack hygiene: the key to
To ensure sufficient device cooling, Adopting effective rack hygiene eliminates Blanking panels must be a best practice
storage and switches. They have become an predictable airflow management is essential, hot spots, which allows equipment to in your data center, but are only one
instrumental part of todays critical airflow and this means all potential airflow openings operate optimally, and helps match cooling component of rack hygiene. Addressing
management strategies in the data center.
As virtualization becomes a standard for efficient, effective cooling
must be controlled and managedwhich is
what rack hygiene is all about. Rack hygiene
supply and demand. This saves energy
and prevents the wasteful recirculation
the five typical fault areas can drive true
performance gains: optimized enclosures
businesses to reduce the operating costs includes identification, analysis, and repair of and bypass air streams associated with used as an integral element of airflow
associated with consolidation of server, Racks
hot air leakage paths and cold air bypass arent just convenient structures
additional chaotic for mounting
cooling equipment containment systems can reduce energy
storage and network devices, its further routes within and around racks.they are important airflow
Rack management
hygiene also helpsdevices. By thinking
to prevent aisle of themusage by as much as 35 percent.
driving the view of an enclosure as an and room overheating, a problem thats
airflow plenum.
in this way and taking steps to ensure rack hygiene
often rooted in ineffective rack-level
which includes
Rack hygiene in practice
minimising airflowairflow leakage it is possible
The amount of heat has increased within Implementing rack hygiene starts with
the enclosure and data center too, thanks to to significantly reduce cooling costs and to measurements to establish a baseline
eliminate thermal problems like hotspots.
new IT technology and smaller rackmount
equipment. Additionally, the number of 1. Identify and testing to identify problem areas.
Your goal should be zero airflow leakage.
cables within the enclosure has grown Implementing rack hygiene starts with
significantly, resulting in potential airflow 2. Analyze B ENCHMARK?
Virtualisation is being increasingly adopted, not least measurements to establish a baseline
blockages if they are not managed and because it allows cost-saving consolidation of server, and testing to identify problem areas. An
routed appropriately. 3. Repair storage and network devices. A consequence is that
power and cooling loads are condensed into a smaller
experienced team trained in containment
Ideally, cool supply air is drawn into the front footprint and vary dynamically with the processing load. strategies should analyze the test results
of the enclosure to cool equipment and 4. Quantify airflow B ENCH P RESS?
Legacy cooling architectures struggle to cope with this
because of inherent problems that include hot and cold
and provide detailed recommendations
for improvements.
exits via a rack-based chimney at the top
air mixing, air distribution compromised by cabling,
inability to react to dynamic heat load and oversupply of
rear of the enclosure or into a contained cold air. Containment of hot and cold air streams is the
hot aisle. solution and rack hygiene is at the heart of this strategy. No place for intuition
Equipment becomes less efficient when the
5. Benchmark Relying on intuition and creative problem-
hot air travels back to the front of the solving to achieve effective cooling is no
enclosure and remixes with cool supply air longer a viable approach. Rack hygiene is an
thats being pulled through the equipment. essential consideration for all future rack
The more equipment you store in your purchases. A smart containment strategy,
enclosure, the more you will need to which always begins with the rack, enables:
consider this type of inefficiency. E
 fficient utilization of existing physical
Airflow mismanagement can result in failing infrastructure and cooling capacity
hardware and unnecessary facility costs. A
 ctive control and normalization of supply
 oing more with less in a smaller
footprint with increasing heat loads
 limination of stranded physical,
electrical and mechanical capacity

EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook 11

Nine benefits of
rackmount PDUs
Rack power protection and control are key 2. T
 hey tell you where your energy
components of optimizing your rack, the is going.
room that it resides in and the business that Rack PDUs can provide energy monitoring
depends upon it. right down to socket level, if required,
Rack power distribution units (also known and they can measure energy usage with
as rack PDUs or Eaton ePDUs) are a key 1 percent billing grade accuracy. This
part of an integrated system that protects means users can quickly determine exactly
the equipment within the rack. The right where energy is being used and ensures
unit can allow you to monitor and control rogue hardware thats consuming more
the power at the individual outlet, switch energy than it should is quickly identified.
This hot-swappable meter board allows for
power on and off, remotely shut down Accurate metering also simplifies load
service with no interruption to the load.
the power during an emergency power balancing and reveals locations where
outage, or simply distribute power efficiently theres spare power capacity.
and safely. Rack PDUs can deliver the
customization and protection capabilities 3. They help cut your cooling costs.
you need within your rack.
The trend to use less cooling means higher
temperatures in the rack enclosure. Older
Here are nine benefits you may have not rack PDU systems may not be able to cope
known about rack PDUs. and make it necessary to provide additional
cooling, but new generation PDUs can
1. T
 hey enhance the reliability of your work continuously at up to 140F.
IT installation.
Even a sophisticated power infrastructure
designed to guard against unplanned
downtime and data loss can be threatened
with a simple accidental plug disconnect.
To guard against this, some rack PDU
suppliers have developed a plug retention
feature that takes up no extra space and
delivers maximum reliability
without the drawbacks
of older solutions.

12 EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook

4. T
 hey simplify maintenance and 5. They put you in control of your power. 6. T
 hey simplify administration of your 8. T
 hey provide you with on-the-spot
upgrades. With switched rack PDUs, users can power system. status information.
Older rack PDUs often get in the way remotely turn the power on and off to Todays rack PDUs support mass Rack PDUs have integrated displays that can
of other rackmount hardware, making it individual socket outlets. The switching configuration and updating, which keeps be rotated to suit the installation orientation
difficult, for example, to hot-swap server can be carried out manually or under the the time needed for power system and show key information, such as alarms,
components in order to maintain operational control of power management software. administration to a minimum. Changes, right on the device. This makes it possible
continuity or to install hardware upgrades. This makes it possible to disconnect which occur frequently in todays dynamic to check the operation of the power system
The latest PDUs have a low-profile design, non-essential loads in the event of mains IT environments, can be implemented at a glance, and is an important aid to rapid
which allows full access to all rackmount supply failure so UPS runtime is maximized. quickly, efficiently and with minimal detection and correction of faults.
equipment. In addition, they incorporate It also means individual servers can be risk of error.
hot-swappable components such as meter remotely restarted to help restore normal 9. They are convenient and flexible.
boards, which can be fitted or exchanged operation after a problem, and servers can 7. T
 hey save you money on network
without interrupting the supply to the loads. be completely shut down when the demand The best rack PDUs are easy to install and
components. offer a choice of mounting positions.
As an additional benefit, the best rack PDUs is light, outside normal working hours.
are color-coded so maintenance technicians Network connections are essential for all Theyre lightweight yet robust and their
can see at a glance which circuit breaker advanced rack PDUs to provide access to aluminum chassis dissipates heat efficiently
controls which socket. their control and monitoring functions. With and provides excellent ground conductivity.
older types, a separate network port is
needed for each PDU. This arrangement is
expensive and unwieldy, as administrators
have to deal with multiple IP addresses.
The latest rack PDUs reduce physical
infrastructure costs with daisy-chain
network connectivity, where a single port
and just one IP address can be used for
multiple PDUs.

Color-coded outlet sections:

This coding allows you to easily identify which circuit breaker feeds which
outlets, and prevents unbalanced loading that could trip a breaker.

Interact with a rack PDU by going to Eaton.com/epduG3

EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook 13
Sample configurations
Equipment configurations within racks vary, but the need for organization remains a
constant. Here are some examples worth referring back to.

Sample: 24" wide x 40" deep enclosure Patch panel: Horizontal management Vertical management Power cables and rack PDUs
The layout places five servers in the upper Following best practices, the 48 cables are The cable bundles are grouped by colors As shown in Figure 8, both rack PDUs are
half of this 45U enclosure and a 2U patch grouped by color to aid in identifying with simple Velcro straps. Cable rings mounted on the right-hand side of the
panel in the highest of U positions. On the specific cables as they run to the left-hand installed against the vertical lacing bar cabinet and leave ample space for the data
left side of the enclosure is a vertical run of side of the enclosure via a 2U horizontal ring support the bundles, as shown in Figure 4. cables while minimizing noise associated
48 cables that connect the equipment manager. The cables then transition into a This lacing bar is integrated into the frame with mixing power and data cables.
inside the enclosure to the patch panel. vertical run down the enclosures integrated of the enclosure and provides ample space The power cables are separated into red
lacing bar. for the support of any number of cable
Two rack PDU units are installed vertically and blue to facilitate easy identification of
onto the integrated vertical lacing bar on the This horizontal ring manager takes management tools and power components. the A and B power feeds and balancing the
right side of the enclosure. The input cords advantage of a simple cover to improve Its designed with a series of round holes electrical load.
for the rack PDUs extend up and out of the aesthetics inside the rack. used to secure cable management tools, as
top of the enclosure, which is typical for well as keyholes for tool-less installation of
installations that include an overhead the rackmount PDUs.
busway such as Eatons Pow-R-Flex. The
PDUs can also be mounted with the input
cords facing the bottom of the enclosure,
which is typical for installations that include
a rackmount UPS, such as the Eaton 9PX.
Horizontal strain relief bars support data and
power cables as they run from the sides of
the enclosure to the power/data ports on Figure 2. Cables organized through the use of colors
the servers. and groups

Figure 3. Careful use of covers improves aesthetics Figure 4. Cable rings Figure 5. Integrated
and Velcro straps help lacing bar
to secure cables

Figure 8. Eaton ePDUs for A and B power

Figure 6. Cable mounting Figure 7. Power
from the vertical connections to
Figure 1. Typical cable management inside
management raceway IT equipment
an Eaton cabinet
to IT equipment

14 EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook

What is converged infrastructure?
Converged infrastructure (CI), also referred to as an integrated IT stack, is rapidly gaining The term was coined to describe an IT capabilities become virtually useless unless
popularity by allowing IT managers to reconfigure and expand their operations quickly, solution that brings together storage, a UPS is present to facilitate the necessary
easily, and cost- effectively. network, compute, and software in a backup.
convenient pre-integrated, prepackaged 3. Power distribution that reduces energy
and centrally managed building block. consumption and increases reliability.
1 The main goal is to minimize compatibility
issues and simplify device management
Outlet level metering in rack PDUs reduces
energy consumption, which are ideally as
Network while reducing costs for cabling, cooling,
power, and floor space. One of the big
accurate as 1 percent.
benefits is when the time comes to expand Its not uncommon for
IT capacity, you'll just need more building plugs to get bumped
blocks, which are fast and straightforward loose, leading to
2 to deploy. unplanned and
uncontrolled server
Virtualization CIs are so inherently resilient that many IT
professionals mistakenly believe that the
shutdown, which
can be controlled
solutions can be safely operated without a with rack PDU outlet grips.
UPS backup. Unfortunately, that is a not the
3 case, and power should be considered the
fifth element of CI. When building your
Rack PDUs can also further reduce
cooling costs if they can operate in high
Compute solution, ensure you use a best-in-class
power management system to help you
temperatures (up to 140F). Some PDUs
monitor temperature in the racks, giving
save time and money and minimize you the information you need to identify
business risks. problems and further reduce cooling costs.
1. Secure racks with airflow 4. Rely on power management software
4 management. with integration into leading virtual
Storage A good power management system starts
with a reliable and safe environment for Integrated software can offer easy visibility
critical IT equipment. The role of a rack is of the entire solution through a single pane.
more than providing solid physical protection In other words, all UPSs and rack PDUs in
for equipment mounted in it; a good one the virtual network can be viewed and

5 also provides excellent airflow management.

This cuts cooling costs and eliminates
managed from the same virtualization
dashboard, together with network, servers,
Integrated hotspots that can potentially reduce the life
of the rackmount equipment.
and storage devices. This eliminates the
need for IT managers to run separate
power 2. Use highly efficient, network-
software to manage all their power devices
management connected UPSs.
seamlessly, saving time and reducing
Like all IT equipment, CIs are vulnerable to Eaton has worked hand-in-hand with CI
power spikes and other electrical architects including Cisco, EMC, NetApp
disturbances and is susceptible to serious and SimpliVity, to provide a powerful,
damage unless safeguarded by a UPS. integrated, and scalable solution for
During a power outage, network-connected power protection and centralized power
UPSs can provide that information by management. Our Intelligent Power
notifying downstream devices that power is Manager software and reliable UPSs let
not available. Without UPSs, technicians you view and manage your entire power
must initiate the VM transfer process system from your existing dashboard.
manuallywhich is much slower and far
Professor Wattson walks through converged less reliable. In addition, a CIs failover
infrastructure: Switchon.eaton.com/power101

EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook 15

The truth about

If you arent working in an enterprise-level data center, there is a chance you are working
out of a closet or a room that wasnt initially designed to house IT equipment. Even larger
businesses that have remote enterprise data centers are often functioning out of IT or
server rooms locally.
While you may not have much control over your building, the room still matters. Make the
most of the space youre given, and you will protect your company and customers from
unnecessary downtime.
Common challenges that are risking uptime:
 ack of security. Even if you have a room that has locks and alarms, is your company
using them to their potential and following procedures to monitor who goes in and out of
the room?
 ntrained staff. It isnt enough to just have one person in the company who is trained to
handle the equipment within your IT room. What if that person is unavailable or incapable
of coming in when a disaster strikes?
 other Nature. Whether or not youre in a seismic zone or another area prone to natural
disasters, you should consider the effects of storms and power outages can have on a
 norganized cabling and environmental hazards. Tangled cabling and unsafe rigging
of electrical equipment is commonly found and easy to remedy. It can take significant
time and effort, but the time and effort you will save on the backend will be well worth it.
Its also worth noting that you want customers and senior management who walk by the
area to be impressed by the organization and professionalism of the room.
Inadequate power infrastructure. Power protection is more than just a UPS, but its
common to see little to no protection for the IT equipment in your network environment,
which leaves the business with a very high risk of failure.
 imited management capability (both onsite and remote management). Lack of
visibility into what is going on in your closets can result in your network going down
Lets take a look at some steps to improve your network closet or server room.

16 EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook

Step 1: Scouting out your IT room
1. Location, location, location. 3. Seek higher ground. a slower pace compared to the temperature 8. Get fired up.
Determining the location of the server room The flooding threat posed by basement-level in the rack or enclosure. Humidity also poses While its likely that the building surrounding
within the building is the first consideration. server rooms was underscored by the a great risk to equipment. Relative humidity the server room is equipped with a fire
Oftentimes, room choices are limited, but extensive damage suffered by many facilities (rH) in server rooms should remain around detection and sprinkler system, the room
keep this in mind: Most IT professionals when Hurricane Sandy pummeled the East 50 percent with a 10 percent margin. itself should have its own protection that
agree that the room should not be Coast. For this reason, do not locate your 6. Play it safe. utilizes an alternative such as a clean agent
constructed against exterior walls of the server room in the basement. Instead, seek Dont overlook security concerns. If systemwhich extinguishes fires by
building, which are often damp. Furthermore, a higher and more central location that not possible, construct your server room with removing heator inert gases, which
exterior windows are susceptible to being only alleviates flooding concerns but can also no external entry points (windows or essentially suffocate the fire by depriving
blown in or out by storm winds. help minimize cable run distribution. additional doors) and make sure it remains it of oxygen.
2. Size does matter. 4. Avoid waterworks. under lock and key. 9. Leave some breathing room.
While its much easier to plan for an Unexpected storm flooding isnt the only 7. Have an exit strategy. Room for expansion isnt the only space
organizations current needs than to project water threat for server rooms. Never back Dont assume youll never need to remove consideration. If possible, allocate space
growth, failing to factor expansion into the your space up to a wet wall containing any or replace any equipment. Installing a both in front of and behind racks for easy
initial design is likely to cause problems pipes or plumbing, as breaks or leaks can regular-size door can make maintenance a maintenance access. If using enclosures,
down the road. Although projecting growth cause significant equipment damage. nightmare. Be sure the doorway will allow also consider split doors to minimize
is often highly speculative, enterprise 5. Keep cool. equipment of all sizes to enter without unnecessary blockage in the aisle when
architects recommend planning five years having to remove the door or frames. A the door is open.
out with a growth rate of 20 percent Make sure your server room is temperature-
controlled. Its generally recommended that 42-inch-wide by 84-inch-tall door should 10. Divide and conquer.
per year. accommodate most requirements.
temperature inside a rack doesnt exceed Whenever possible, keep your server rooms
23C (73F). Sensors are best located in the power supply and climate controls separate
server racks or enclosures rather than in the from the rest of the office space.
room, since ambient temperature will rise at

EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook 17

Step 2:
Now that weve walked through the rack youll have a better understanding of whats 3. Evaluate new IT equipment 4. Allocate the budget.
consideration checklist and room required, the potential cost for upgrades and deployment. Once youve calculated the total wattage
considerations, you have a better which equipment can still be utilized. If you have opted to stay on premise, how consumption for all planned devices in the
understanding of what you need to 2. Examine performance. many new servers will you be deploying? If new environment, you can now move on to
safeguard your IT investments. Next youre planning to migrate to the cloud, how selecting the right power protection solution,
up is how to refresh your rack-based Is your new deployment going to require any
upgraded components to connect to the many network switches require protection? which will include racks or enclosures, cable
infrastructure. With the right plan in place, Now that you have made the decision as to management, UPSs, PDUs and software.
you can avoid the chaos that many fall victim cloud? Are you planning on scaling out
storage over the next few years? Its the legacy equipment that will stay, as well Check with your facility or building manager
to and establish an orderly and scalable IT as the new IT equipment youll be deploying, to determine the available electrical options,
room with minimized risks. When it comes important to establish a standard now
(including UPS systems) to ease future you can make an intelligent decision on the as there may be some limitations that will
time to upgrade your IT infrastructure, most appropriate power protection strategy impact your decision. Next, examine
everything is connected. Here are some growth. Scaling has implications on
compatibility and power infrastructure for your new racks. Calculate the total required backup runtime, determine if
suggestions to getting the project underway. wattage consumption for all new devices network-ready is a requirement and consider
planning. Have you had any disruptions or
1. Take inventory. alarms within the past six months? This may and combine them with your previous legacy future expansion; then select accordingly.
When evaluating your power infrastructure, point to potential issues with your current calculation from step one, disregarding any
calculate the entire wattage consumption deployment. Verify your existing UPS model equipment thats been removed.
of your current environment prior to making and determine the age, efficiency, power
any changes. Are you replacing servers? factor, and the last time the batteries were
Are there any other pieces of ancillary replaced. Older UPSs may be costing you
equipment that will need to be upgraded? from an energy-consumption standpoint and
Then examine your current power aging batteries that need replacement may
infrastructure by seeing how many existing have you at risk for downtime.
UPSs and rack PDUs you have supporting
your equipment. Once inventory is complete,

18 EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook

Step 3: Building out your network closet
1. Dont trade long-term risk for short- 3. Select appropriate cable management
term savings. options.
For protection, you want to distribute and Velcro cable ties provide an affordable and
provide safe clean power to IT equipment reliable way of organizing your network
during power outages and surges. To cables and bundling them together. Vertical
provide maximum reliability, we suggest cable managers allow you to route cables
implementing redundant power solutions. down the side of the rack or enclosure and
Doing so will enable you to meet and then segment them off accordingly based on
maintain service level agreements with your the location of switches and servers within
manager or your customers. your rack or enclosure. Horizontal cable
Maintenance bypass is always management also enables you to manage
recommended for server-class solutions cables across the rack or enclosure to reach
and can easily double the reliability of a appropriate equipment. Combined, all three
system by providing a strategy for of these cable management accessories
unexpected downtime. help you to easily add and remove network
cables as required and are considered
If you currently have traditional power strips, mandatory at minimum.
replace them with rack PDUs so power can
be distributed intelligently and managed Other cable management options include
remotely. cable spools, strain relief bars, lacing bars
and waterfall devices to ensure appropriate
2. Determine the most effective way to cable bend radius.
mount and install your IT equipment.
4. Keep software in mind to optimize
For smaller installations with less equipment, your solution.
a wallmount rack or enclosure might fit the
bill from a security standpoint to keep out For management, you want to be able to
unauthorized personnel. Wall mounting view your power infrastructure and all
comes in handy when youre trying to equipment attached to it from your remote
elevate your equipment away from other or virtual machine console. This will allow
potential hazards or you have limited space. you to monitor the temperature and humidity
If space isnt an issue, you may want to of your network closet environment and
consider a two-post rack, four-post rack or receive instant alerts in the event of an
full-size enclosure. outage or environmental change. You can
also initiate virtual machine migration or
graceful shutdown in the event of an
extended outage.

"Getting the most out of the network closet" and our

entire white paper library: Eaton.com/pq/whitepapers

EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook 19

Step 4: Getting back to business
1. Discuss your plan with your team. 4. Consider presentation.
Make sure the entire IT team as well as Is it a customer-facing location? Presentation
senior management is on board. Open the should be considered regardless, but
conversation up to the group to ensure aesthetics may play a bigger role if you plan
there was nothing left off the list. Set to showcase your server room, network
expectations, establish responsibilities closet or data center to customers. You will
for the installation and thoroughly review want cables to be organized, equipment
safety methods. Start communicating the secure, and the surrounding area to be clean
importance of standardized work processes, and neat. The perception of your customer,
including cable management strategies and your boss or other non-technical people as
overall IT behavior, to the IT staff now. Make to how seriously youre handling their data
employees aware of the plan as well in case is crucially important.
they are affected by downtime. 5. Document everything.
2. Clear out the room and space. Label. Diagram. Photograph. These are
Keep the room as empty as possible during tactics you should become very familiar with
the entire process, removing packaging in the planning and deployment phase of
materials, tools, parts and unused your project. Date the files, but continue to
equipment. This is a good time to get exact update as you maintain the space. Make
dimensions of the space. Are there any sure you have serial numbers, warranty
physical obstacles, including structural information, product detail, and product
columns, pipes or doorways that need to roles documented with corresponding
be considered in your space planning? How pictures saved in digital and hard copy
will you get the equipment in and out? formats. Hard copy diagrams can be posted
If you arent building your rack out from close by to ease troubleshooting.
scratch, we suggest clearing the rack area 6. Minimize downtime.
of cluttered and tangled network cables, Removing old equipment is one of the
which will improve airflow and reduce riskiest steps. Downtime is expensive, so
cooling costs its important not to do anything that would
3. S
 ecure your IT equipment from risk it during regular operating hours. Do as
unauthorized access and unexpected much as you can during the day, but try to
incidents. switch over to the new equipment after
Whether its an unwanted visitor or other hours.
impeding equipment, make sure your IT The next time you walk into your network
equipment is secure. Enclosures are closet or are tasked with building out a
beneficial to keep out unauthorized new installation, consider organization,
personnel. Additionally, depending on your protection, and management and focus on
geographic location, you may need to the steps that make the most sense for you.
consider accessories such as anchor kits,
which can prevent accidents by securing
equipment in place in seismically designated

20 EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook

Solution worksheet
You should now have a clearer view of the type of solution you are interested
in, and perhaps be one step closer to making your final decision. When the time
comes, be prepared to get more technical. Keep this worksheet handy for any vendor
discussions so your ideal rack or enclosure solution can be configured to your specific

Features Requirements Features Requirements

Size: The most important attribute is how Height (U): Seismic: Does this enclosure require a Seismic: Yes / No
much rackmount space is required. The NEBS GR-63-Core seismic test
most common size is 42U (each U is 1.75" Width (24"/30"): certification? (Note: This is different from
and equipment is generally in multiples of Depth (in.): seismic anchorage. The weight loading in
U). Next is the width and the most these applications is generally between
common are 24" (or 600 mm) and 30" 800 and 1,300 lb.)
(800 mm). The depth is generally 34" and
deeper with 42" being the most common.
Front doors and locks: Do you need solid Solid or perforated?
or perforated front doors? Full or split front
Weight loading: An estimate of the Weight loading (lb.): doors? Full is most common on front doors. Full or split?
anticipated weight loading is key and Lock type (key / combo / HFID):
loading can vary widely depending on
the application. A networking application
is generally under 2,000 lb. A high-end Rear doors and locks: Do you need solid Solid or perforated?
switch configuration is between 1,500 or perforated rear doors? Full or split front
doors. Split is most common on rear doors. Full or split?
and 3,000 lb.
Lock type (key / combo / HFID):
Casters/levelers/anchorage: Are casters Casters: Yes / No
required? Generally, all enclosures come Top covers: Any special features required Top cover requirements?
with levelers regardless of whether there Anchor brackets: Yes / No on top cover? Brushes to ensure hot air is
contained in the enclosure? Networking Cable egress / brushes / networking cable
are casters or not. Will the enclosure be Anti-tip: Yes / No
anchored to the floor? Is an anti-tip feature cable cutouts for large quantities of cables? cutouts / troughs
required? Troughs on top to manage cabling on the
top of the enclosure?
End-of-row or bayed: Is the cabinet End or row: Yes / No Qty:
standalone (i.e., requires side covers), end Rails: Rails are generally available in two Square holes or tapped?
of row (side cover on one end), or bayed Bayed: Yes / No Qty: configurations: square holes for use with
cage nuts or tapped holes for direct For 30 wide: 19 or 23 mounting?
with adjacent cabinets (no side covers)? If bayed, dividers? Yes / No Qty:
If bayed, do you need a divider panel mounting. Square holes are the most
between adjacent enclosures for airflow Standalone: Yes / No common. If a 30" wide enclosure is
management and/or security? In a typical selected, please specify if 19" or 23"
installation, you may have some of each of mounting is needed.
these configurations.

EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook 21

Airflow management Cable management
Features Requirements Features Requirements

Hot aisle/cold aisle? Is the enclosure in a Hot aisle/cold aisle installation? Yes / No Front: What type of cabling is expected? If Describe number and type of cabling:
hot aisle/cold aisle installation? If yes, its low levels of cabling, then cable rings or a
important to make sure the area in front of lacing bar with Velcro straps is a good
the rails is closed off from the hot zone. solution. For high levels of cabling or fiber,
Gasketing options will be recommended. its important to specify the quantity and
type of cables. Based on requirements, we
will suggest options such as horizontal
Blanking panels: One of the most important Blanking panels: Yes / No Qty: managers, waterfalls, vertical cable
accessories for airflow management is managers, lacing bars, etc.
blanking panels, which are used to close up
unused U spaces. Specify the number of
anticipated unused spaces. Rear: What type of cabling is expected? If Describe number and type of cabling:
low levels of cabling, then cable rings or a
lacing bar with Velcro straps is a good
Floor grommets: Do you need access Floor grommets: Yes / No solution. For high levels of cabling or fiber,
through the white space floor? Grommets its important to specify the quantity and
allow cable egress/ingress but retain hot/ type of cables. Based on requirements, we
cold aisle separation. will suggest options such as horizontal
managers, waterfalls, vertical cable
Chimney: If hot air is to be ducted to an Chimney required: Yes / No managers, lacing bars, etc.
overhead plenum, a chimney is required
unless the enclosure is in a hot aisle Any special installation concerns
Inter-cabinet cabling: Will there be cabling Inter-cabinet cabling: Yes / No Qty:
configuration. Chimneys can solve thermal (e.g., low ceiling, overhead cabling) passing from cabinet to cabinet in the hot
issues on isolated enclosures. If a chimney zone (i.e., behind the rails)? Type of cabling:
is used, the rear door must be solid.

Cabling above the enclosure: Do you need Describe types of overhead cabling required:
cable management such as ladder racks or

Power flextray (wire basket) cable management

solutions above the rack?

Features Requirements

Rack PDUs: Specify the quantity and type Specify power distribution requirements:
of rack PDUs needed to power the
enclosure. Eaton has an extensive offering
of rackmount power distribution solutions.
Other considerations
Eatons options can be researched at
Eaton.com/epdu. Features Requirements

Certifications/compliance requirements Special requirements?

UPS: Is power backup needed? Specify power backup requirements: (e.g., UL, 2416; OSHPD)
Rackmount? Power and duration? For
details on the range of UPSs compatible
with data center enclosures, visit Special packaging needs: Reusable Define any special packaging needs:
Eaton.com/UPS. packaging? Heavy-duty packaging for
shipping integrated enclosures? Crate?

Management/monitoring: Is power Specify management/monitoring needs:

monitoring/management required?
Temperature/environmental monitoring?

22 EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook

asked 6. How much space should go between racks or enclosures?

Ideally, your racks and enclosures should be side by side and can be bolted together.
This is often called baying or ganging, and it allows you to maximize floor space and be
more efficient while servicing the equipment stored in them. Remember, space is an
invaluable resource in IT!
7. How maneuverable does the rack need to be?
This will depend on your space and the type of rack you deploy. Enclosures often
include casters for maneuverability, while two- and four-post racks are bolted to the
8. Does the rack need to be vendor-neutral?
No, but having a vendor-neutral rack will be more accommodating for most IT rooms.
1. How is vertical rack space measured? Technology is changing all the time and you dont want to feel pigeonholed into
a certain brand of equipment. We recommend the rack you choose be able to
Rack space is measured by rack units (U). Ideally, the rack you choose will have U
accommodate all TIA/EIA 310-D equipment.
spaces numbered. One U is 1.75 and the most common rack height is 42U, made to
fit 19 wide equipment. Measuring by vertical rack space allows you to plan by how 9.  What are the least expensive ways to organize cabling and equipment in my
much equipment the rack will hold. racks or enclosures?
2. For a smaller server rack, what are my options? Velcro straps for data and power cables and labels are the easiest and most affordable
way to organize your racks, at a base level, and will likely have the biggest impact from
Often a 42U enclosurewhich is the most commonis not required. Smaller options
an access and service standpoint.
such as 25U, 30U or 36U will provide more than enough rack mounting space for servers,
UPSs, rack PDUs, switches and other equipment. The smaller options enable you to use 10. How do I know how many cables to account for within the rack?
the space on top for monitors or other equipment. Features such as perforated doors, Establish the number and type of cables within each rack. Count the number of servers
adjustable rails, locks and casters are still available in these sizes. Wall mount enclosures and number of ports that will be utilized. Map cable destination points, too. The cable
can also be considered when a full-height rack or enclosure isnt necessary. routing established now will impact day-to-day operation and equipment serviceability.
3. Which matters more: internal or external dimensions of the rack? 11. Why shouldnt I run cables horizontally between racks and enclosures?
Correctly sizing your rack is important to the security and performance of your servers You can run cables horizontally between racks, but you must ensure youre using
and other equipment. Both internal and external size matter. The equipment thats the appropriate cable management devices to do so. If you simply run cables
housed within a rack needs to securely fit, and the rack itself needs to fit within directly acrossrather than up the side of the rack or enclosure to horizontal cable
doorways/elevators, etc. management devicesit will cause problems for you when you go to change out
4. How much weight will a rack or enclosure hold? or service equipment as well as if you need to move a rack or enclosure.
It depends on the size of the rack, but there are solutions that can store up to 3,000 12. What are some of the most common mistakes end users make when choosing
pounds of computer and networking equipment. a rack or enclosure?
5. Where in the room should I put my rack or enclosure? Its common that users dont factor in future growth, especially if facing budget
restrictions. Even if there are no upgrades planned for the future, design the room
A good rule of thumb is four feet of space, front and back, from the wall. Fire codes
as if there are. This is true for racks or enclosures as well. Consider a solution with
require three-foot walkways, but four feet will allow you to wheel a cart in the room
a higher weight capacity if you need to add servers down the line. A good rule of
safely and reduce human error overall. In the future, if you have equipment to install,
thumb is to plan five years out with 20 percent growth rate per year.
you may need two people in the space at a time lifting, and you want enough space
to comfortably get the work done. Otherwise, your rack location will be determined Another common issue is that users often do not consider ancillary equipment upfront.
by your unique space. It needs to be in a place that has the appropriate electrical For example, be sure you have your power infrastructure mapped out and look at PDU
requirements and ample space to run corresponding data and power cables. mounting options.

EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook 23

Rack accessory glossary
While the terminology can vary from Busway Cable managers
business to business, we tried to Provides flexible plug and play power A
 n easily installed device used to manage
consolidate the most commonly used distribution for a variety of applications and protect cables either horizontally or
terms and provide definitions. where change and adaptation are vertically.

Bayed racks V
 ertical managers are
Multiple racks of the same series, height available as single- or
and depth that are connected side by double-sided, and for
side. Also referred to as ganged. the full height of
the rack.
Blanking panels
Steel or plastic plates that are inserted in
empty U spaces at the front of a rack or
enclosure. They are used to improve
airflow for the installed equipment and to
reduce hot and cold air recirculation and
remixing within the rack. Also referred to
as filler panels. Cable egress
 n opening or available space for exiting Cable pass-through blanking panel
cables. P
 rovides aesthetic appeal and controlled
airflow management like solid blanking
panels, but cables can pass through the
Cable ingress
flexible brush strip.
An opening or available space for entering
Cable tray
 n overhead cable management solution
that provides a support system for cables
and raceways, guiding them from rack-to-
rack and over aisles. Available in solid
Brushes steel or wire basket.
Flexible brushes used in cutouts to create
airtight entries for data and power

24 EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook

Cages Divider panel Environmental rack monitor (ERM)
 odular wall systems that can be used A
 partition separating two racks or T
 his device continuously monitors
to partition white space environments, enclosures. environmental conditions at the rack
particularly in a colocation or multi-tenant level, providing an extra level of security
data center (MTDC). Double shelf for critical assets. Its most often found in
 sed to store non-rackmount monitors, high-density data centers and applications
laptops and other equipment. like healthcare, where the environment
must be maintained within acceptable

Casters A
 lso referred to as a hook, this cable
 wheel mounted to the bottom of a management accessory is a partially Finger bracket
larger object (e.g., UPSs, racks or enclosed ring used to hold data and U
 sed to manage high-
enclosures) to allow it to be moved power cables. Open rings allow for easy density cabling on the
in and out of place. access to cabling. rack and between racks.
Finger spacing should
Chimney align with rack units.
 structure, usually Its important that
vertical, containing a brackets comply with
passage or flue by TIA/EIA-568-B.1/2/3
which hot air is extracted bend radius standards.
out of an enclosure.
 steel or wire mesh cable management

Floor anchor brackets

 sed to securely fasten racks and
enclosures to the floor.

EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook 25

Floor grommets Horizontal lacing bars Power mounting bar
 sed in raised floor cutouts to allow the M
 anagement bar that mounts to rails for A
 llows you to mount power with keyhole
entry and exit of cabling from subfloor attaching/mounting cables and power mounting holes. Also see rear lacing
plenums while allowing maximum strips. The lacing bar is positioned bar.
pressure to be maintained in the data vertically and doesnt take up valuable
centers sub-floor when cables are U space. Rack PDU (or ePDU)
installed. R
 ack PDUs distribute power to 4 to 45
receptacles in high-density rack
environments. The plug-and-play
architecture organizes power distribution,
simplifies cable management, and lets
you add and change IT equipment
Ladder rack
without an electrician.
 adder-type cable runway for cabling
pathways that mounts to ceilings, walls,
floors, racks and enclosures.

 djustable feet that securely level the
Gasketing rack at the proper height.
 he act of using a material (e.g., rubber)
to make a joint or opening airtight.
Overhead cable management system
 verhead distribution of power and
High-density cable organizer network cables to reduce raised floor
 cable management solution that obstructions.
provides integrated bend radius support Rack power module (RPM)
for lateral transitions from switches to T
 his device has customizable input and
route cables front to rear. output configurations and voltages. Its
meant to simplify data center power
distribution by connecting directly from a
Hinged cable managers three-phase UPS or other utility source to
 easy cable access via: power secondary power distribution
Removable fingers for large cable bundle devices such as a rack PDU.
Cutouts and screw holes that are Rackmount UPS
compatible with cable management A
 UPS ranging in size, weight and
components capabilities that can be installed within
Tool-less adjustment a rack.
Pass-through partition
Velcro straps that can secure a cable
 n easily installed device used to manage
bundle to the finger for strain relief Rail-mount cable managers
and protect cables either horizontally or
vertically. E
 quipment is often placed on a rail so it
can be accessed without removing the
wall of an enclosure or cabinet used in
PDU mounting brackets conjunction with Velcro buckles and
 llow you to mount rack power straps and cable rings.
distribution units upright within a rack.

 oles typically on front and/or back rack
doors that provide visibility and

26 EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook

Rear lacing bars Strain relief bar Upper or lower transition tray Vertical lacing bars
 lexible management bar that mounts to A
 bar that mounts to the back of a rack to P
 rovides upper or lower bend radius C
 abling can be secured using Velcro
the middle-rear of an enclosure or support patch cables. Multiple depths are control for copper and fiber cables. straps. Can typically be mounted side-
extension frame for cables and power available to allow for transitioning of Important that the tray meets TIA/EIA by-side. Great for managing multiple large
strips. cables to different areas. 568-A bend radius standards. bundles of cabling.

Seismic Waterfall device

 f or relating to earthquakes or other P
 rovides a transition aid when routing
vibrations of the Earth and its crust. fiber and patch cords into an enclosure.
An ideal waterfall device will have
Side cable chase integrated standard Velcro strap slots.
 rovides a vertical plenum for
management of network cables, power
strips and power cords, routing them
away from the back of equipment to
optimize airflow.
U space
Solid or vented shelf O
 ne rack unit is 1.75" (44.45 mm) high.
 upports non- The size of a piece of rackmount
rackmount equipment is frequently described as a
equipment number in U.
within the rack. Velcro buckle strap
 rovides upper or lower bend radius
control for copper and fiber cables.
Important that the tray meets TIA/EIA
568-A bend radius standards.

Velcro buckle strap
 llows for mechanical fastening of straps I L IKE T HE S OUND
 rovides a means to manage excess
network or power cables with integrated
to multiple points in the enclosure.
Secures groups of cables into place and
bend radius support.
keeps racks organized. D EVICE.

EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook 27

Commonly used acronyms
UPS and electrical acronyms
AHJ Authority Having Jurisdiction
ANSI American National Standards Institute
CI Converged Infrastructure
CRAC Computer room air conditioning
CRAH Computer room air handlers
ECIA Electronic Components Industry Association
EIA Electronic Industries Alliance
HCI Hyperconverged Infrastructure
HFID High Frequency Identification
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
ISO International Organization for Standardization
kW Kilowatt
MW Megawatt
OSHPD Office of Statewide Health Planning &
PDU Power distribution unit
rH Rack height
RU Rack unit (also RMU)
TIA Telecommunications Industry Association
TIA/EIA-568-B.1/2/3 bend radius standards
UL Underwriters Laboratories, a safety
organization that sets standards and certifies
manufactured equipment
UPS Uninterruptible power system
VDV Voice, data and video
Hyperconverged infrastructures seamlessly integrate network, server, storage and virtualization components. Integrated power management
solutions like Eaton's provide the fifth element of CI and HCI solutions.

28 EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook

2014 seismic map
The United States Geological Surveys
(USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program has
put together maps and other resources to
raise awareness, improve monitoring and
reporting, and reduce risks related to
Earthquakes. According to their website:
 arthquakes pose significant risk to
75 million Americans in 39 states
 everal million earthquakes are estimated
to occur in the world each year
 any go undetected because they
occur in remote areas or have very small
 he USGS now locates about 50
earthquakes each day; 20,000 a year.
For data center design and everyday
IT operation, it is important to consider
earthquakes and the other environmental
hazards that could damage equipment
and threaten data security and business
According to USGS, this is a simplified
hazard map of 2014.

Find maps and more resources

at earthquake.usgs.gov/hazards

EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook 29

Free site
When it comes to IT equipment
and network closets, Eaton and our
resellers are experts. Call us today
for a free site evaluation. We'll provide
everything you need to organize,
protect and manage your IT equipment.
Contact 877.423.0065.
While youre at it, check out the
Eatons Site Assessment tool at

30 EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook

Organize Manage Protect
Racks M
 onitor and manage network closet Backup power (UPS)
Cable management remotely Power redundancy
Measure power consumption Rack power distribution
Monitor temperature/humidity Outlet level control
Integrate with virtualization platforms



EATON Eaton Racks and Enclosures Handbook 31

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