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CAESAR II

User's Guide

Version 2014, Service Pack 1 (7.00.01)

October 2014

DICAS-PE-200104E
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2 CAESAR II User's Guide


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CAESAR II User's Guide 3


4 CAESAR II User's Guide
Contents
What's New in CAESAR II ......................................................................................................................... 19

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 23
About the CAESAR II Documentation .................................................................................................. 24
Software Support/User Assistance ....................................................................................................... 24
Software Revision Procedures.............................................................................................................. 25
Updates and License Types ................................................................................................................. 27

Getting Started ........................................................................................................................................... 29


Starting CAESAR II ............................................................................................................................... 29
Understanding Jobs .............................................................................................................................. 30
Basic Operation..................................................................................................................................... 30
Create a new job ............................................................................................................................ 30
Piping Input generation................................................................................................................... 31
Model Error Checking ..................................................................................................................... 34
Building Load Cases....................................................................................................................... 35
Run a static analysis....................................................................................................................... 36
Static Output Review ...................................................................................................................... 36
Main Menu ............................................................................................................................................ 37
File Menu ........................................................................................................................................ 37
Input Menu ...................................................................................................................................... 40
Analysis Menu ................................................................................................................................ 40
Output Menu ................................................................................................................................... 41
Language Menu .............................................................................................................................. 41
Tools Menu ..................................................................................................................................... 42
Diagnostics Menu ........................................................................................................................... 42
ESL Menu ....................................................................................................................................... 43
View Menu ...................................................................................................................................... 43
Help Menu ...................................................................................................................................... 43

Configuration and Environment .............................................................................................................. 45


CAESAR II Configuration File Generation ............................................................................................ 45
Computational Control .......................................................................................................................... 47
Convergence Tolerances ............................................................................................................... 47
Input Spreadsheet Defaults ............................................................................................................ 49
Miscellaneous ................................................................................................................................. 51
Database Definitions ............................................................................................................................. 53
Databases ...................................................................................................................................... 54
ODBC Settings ............................................................................................................................... 58
FRP Pipe Properties ............................................................................................................................. 59
Material Properties ......................................................................................................................... 60
Settings ........................................................................................................................................... 62
Geometry Directives ............................................................................................................................. 63
Bends.............................................................................................................................................. 63
Input Items ...................................................................................................................................... 65
Graphic Settings.................................................................................................................................... 66

CAESAR II User's Guide 5


Contents

Advanced Options .......................................................................................................................... 67


Background Colors ......................................................................................................................... 68
Component Colors .......................................................................................................................... 69
Marker Options ............................................................................................................................... 70
Miscellaneous Options ................................................................................................................... 71
Output Colors ................................................................................................................................. 75
Text Options ................................................................................................................................... 76
Visual Options ................................................................................................................................ 77
Miscellaneous Options .......................................................................................................................... 79
Input Items ...................................................................................................................................... 80
Output Items ................................................................................................................................... 82
System Level Items ........................................................................................................................ 83
SIFs and Stresses ................................................................................................................................. 84
Advanced Settings .......................................................................................................................... 85
Code-Specific Settings ................................................................................................................... 86
General Settings ............................................................................................................................. 89
Legacy Settings .............................................................................................................................. 95
Set/Change Password .......................................................................................................................... 96
New Password ................................................................................................................................ 97
Access Protected Data ................................................................................................................... 97
Change Password .......................................................................................................................... 97
Remove Password ......................................................................................................................... 97

Piping Input Reference ............................................................................................................................. 99


Classic Piping Input Dialog Box .......................................................................................................... 100
Navigating the Classic Piping Input Dialog Box using the Function Keys .................................... 101
Help Screens and Units ................................................................................................................ 101
Node Numbers ............................................................................................................................. 101
Deltas............................................................................................................................................ 103
Pipe Sizes ..................................................................................................................................... 106
Operating Conditions .................................................................................................................... 110
Component Information ................................................................................................................ 114
Boundary Conditions .................................................................................................................... 149
Loading Conditions ....................................................................................................................... 186
Materials ....................................................................................................................................... 192
Material Elastic Properties ............................................................................................................ 216
Densities ....................................................................................................................................... 218
Line Number ................................................................................................................................. 222
Available Commands .......................................................................................................................... 222
File Menu ...................................................................................................................................... 223
Edit Menu ..................................................................................................................................... 227
Model Menu .................................................................................................................................. 235
Environment Menu ....................................................................................................................... 279
Global Menu ................................................................................................................................. 321
Options Menu ............................................................................................................................... 328
View Menu .................................................................................................................................... 333
Tools Menu ................................................................................................................................... 351
3D Modeler.......................................................................................................................................... 360
3D Graphics Configuration ........................................................................................................... 363
Changing the Model Display ........................................................................................................ 365
Manipulating the Toolbar .............................................................................................................. 366
Highlighting Graphics ................................................................................................................... 366

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Contents

Updating Properties from the 3D Model ....................................................................................... 369


Displaying Displacements, Forces, Uniform Loads, and Wind/Wave Loads ............................... 369
Performing Block Operations ....................................................................................................... 371
Limiting the Display ...................................................................................................................... 372
Saving an Image for Later Presentation ....................................................................................... 373
Walking Through the Model ......................................................................................................... 375
Moving Elements .......................................................................................................................... 375
S3D/SPR Model View ......................................................................................................................... 379
Load S3D/SPR Model .................................................................................................................. 379
Show/Hide S3D/SPR Model ......................................................................................................... 383
Dim S3D/SPR Model .................................................................................................................. 384
S3D/SPR Visibility Options ........................................................................................................... 384

Structural Steel Modeler ......................................................................................................................... 387


Structural Steel Model Basics ............................................................................................................. 387
Structural Steel Graphics .................................................................................................................... 392
CAESAR II Structural Input ................................................................................................................. 393
Create a model using the Structural Steel Wizard ....................................................................... 394
Structural Steel Input Examples .......................................................................................................... 397
Structural Steel Example #1 ......................................................................................................... 397
Structural Steel Example #2 ......................................................................................................... 407
Structural Steel Example #3 ......................................................................................................... 417
Insert Menu ......................................................................................................................................... 424
Before Current Element ................................................................................................................ 424
After the Current Element ............................................................................................................. 424
At End of Model ............................................................................................................................ 424
Commands Menu ................................................................................................................................ 424
Node ............................................................................................................................................. 424
NFill............................................................................................................................................... 425
NGen ............................................................................................................................................ 426
Fix ................................................................................................................................................. 428
Elem.............................................................................................................................................. 431
EFill ............................................................................................................................................... 432
EGen............................................................................................................................................. 434
EDim ............................................................................................................................................. 438
Angle............................................................................................................................................. 440
Unif ............................................................................................................................................... 441
Orient ............................................................................................................................................ 443
Load .............................................................................................................................................. 445
Wind Loads ................................................................................................................................... 446
GLoads ......................................................................................................................................... 448
MatId ............................................................................................................................................. 448
SecId............................................................................................................................................. 450
Free End Connections - FREE ..................................................................................................... 452
Beams........................................................................................................................................... 454
Braces........................................................................................................................................... 457
Columns ....................................................................................................................................... 459
Default .......................................................................................................................................... 462
Comment ...................................................................................................................................... 462
Vertical .......................................................................................................................................... 463
Unit ............................................................................................................................................... 464
List Options ................................................................................................................................... 464

CAESAR II User's Guide 7


Contents

Structural Databases .......................................................................................................................... 465


AISC 1977 Database .................................................................................................................... 465
AISC 1989 Database .................................................................................................................... 472
Australian 1990 Database ............................................................................................................ 478
German 1991 Database ............................................................................................................... 480
South African 1992 Database ...................................................................................................... 482
Korean 1990 Database................................................................................................................. 483
UK 1993 Database ....................................................................................................................... 484

Buried Pipe Modeler ................................................................................................................................ 485


Buried Pipe Modeler Window .............................................................................................................. 487
From Node .................................................................................................................................... 488
To Node ........................................................................................................................................ 488
Soil Model No. .............................................................................................................................. 489
From/To End Mesh ....................................................................................................................... 489
User-Defined Lateral "K" .............................................................................................................. 490
Ultimate Lateral Load ................................................................................................................... 490
User-Defined Axial Stif ................................................................................................................. 490
Ultimate Axial Load....................................................................................................................... 491
User-Defined Upward Stif ............................................................................................................. 491
Ultimate Upward Load .................................................................................................................. 491
User-Defined Downward Stif ........................................................................................................ 491
Ultimate Downward Load ............................................................................................................. 492
Soil Models .......................................................................................................................................... 492
CAESAR II Basic Model ............................................................................................................... 493
American Lifelines Alliance Soil Model ......................................................................................... 494
Basic Soil Modeler Dialog Box ..................................................................................................... 498
Model an underground piping system ................................................................................................. 505
Buried Pipe Example .......................................................................................................................... 506

Static Analysis ......................................................................................................................................... 513


Static Analysis Overview ..................................................................................................................... 513
Error Checking .............................................................................................................................. 513
Static Load Case Editor ................................................................................................................ 515
Building Static Load Cases .......................................................................................................... 516
Providing Wind Data ..................................................................................................................... 526
Providing Wave Data .................................................................................................................... 527
Execution of Static Analysis ......................................................................................................... 528
Definition of a Load Case ............................................................................................................. 530
Controlling Results ....................................................................................................................... 534
Static Analysis Dialog Box .................................................................................................................. 534
Load Case Editor Tab (Static Analysis Dialog Box) ..................................................................... 536
Load Case Options Tab (Static Analysis Dialog Box) .................................................................. 539
Wind Loads Tab (Static Analysis Dialog Box) .............................................................................. 545
Wave Loads Tab (Static Analysis Dialog Box .............................................................................. 561

Static Output Processor ......................................................................................................................... 567


Work with Reports ............................................................................................................................... 568
Filter Reports ................................................................................................................................ 569
Print or Save Reports to File Notes .............................................................................................. 570
Report Options .................................................................................................................................... 571

8 CAESAR II User's Guide


Contents

Displacements .............................................................................................................................. 572


Restraints ..................................................................................................................................... 573
Restraint Report - In Local Element Coordinates ......................................................................... 574
Restraint Summary ....................................................................................................................... 576
Nozzle Check Report.................................................................................................................... 577
Flange Reports ............................................................................................................................. 577
Global Element Forces ................................................................................................................. 579
Local Element Forces ................................................................................................................... 579
Stresses ........................................................................................................................................ 580
Stress Summary ........................................................................................................................... 581
Code Compliance Report ............................................................................................................. 582
Cumulative Usage Report ............................................................................................................ 583
General Computed Results ................................................................................................................. 583
Load Case Report ........................................................................................................................ 584
Hanger Table with Text ................................................................................................................ 585
Input Echo .................................................................................................................................... 586
Miscellaneous Data ...................................................................................................................... 587
Warnings ...................................................................................................................................... 588
Output Viewer Wizard ......................................................................................................................... 589
Report Template Editor ....................................................................................................................... 590
Available Commands .......................................................................................................................... 592
View Menu .................................................................................................................................... 593
Options Menu ............................................................................................................................... 597
Plot Options Menu ........................................................................................................................ 604
Plot View Menu ............................................................................................................................. 610
Event Viewer Dialog Box .............................................................................................................. 612

Dynamic Analysis .................................................................................................................................... 615


Dynamic Loads in Piping Systems...................................................................................................... 615
Random ........................................................................................................................................ 617
Harmonic ...................................................................................................................................... 617
Impulse ......................................................................................................................................... 619
Model Modifications for Dynamic Analysis ......................................................................................... 621
Dynamic Analysis Workflow ................................................................................................................ 622
The Dynamic Analysis Window........................................................................................................... 623
Modal Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 624
Harmonic Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 626
Earthquake Response Spectrum Analysis ................................................................................... 626
Relief Loads and Water Hammer/Slug Flow Spectra Analysis .................................................... 626
Time History Analysis ................................................................................................................... 627
Excitation Frequencies Tab ................................................................................................................ 627
Starting Frequency ....................................................................................................................... 628
Ending Frequency ........................................................................................................................ 628
Increment ...................................................................................................................................... 628
Load Cycles .................................................................................................................................. 629
Harmonic Forces Tab ......................................................................................................................... 629
Force............................................................................................................................................. 631
Direction ....................................................................................................................................... 631
Phase............................................................................................................................................ 631
Start Node .................................................................................................................................... 631
Stop Node ..................................................................................................................................... 632
Increment ...................................................................................................................................... 632

CAESAR II User's Guide 9


Contents

Harmonic Displacements Tab ............................................................................................................. 633


Displacement ................................................................................................................................ 634
Direction ....................................................................................................................................... 634
Phase............................................................................................................................................ 634
Start Node .................................................................................................................................... 635
Stop Node ..................................................................................................................................... 635
Increment ...................................................................................................................................... 635
Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab .............................................................................................. 636
Name ............................................................................................................................................ 637
Range Type .................................................................................................................................. 638
Ordinate Type ............................................................................................................................... 639
Range Interpol .............................................................................................................................. 639
Ordinate Interpol ........................................................................................................................... 639
Examples ...................................................................................................................................... 639
Spectrum/Time History Load Cases Tab ............................................................................................ 641
Spectrum/Time History Profile ...................................................................................................... 643
Factor............................................................................................................................................ 643
Dir. ................................................................................................................................................ 643
Start Node .................................................................................................................................... 644
Stop Node ..................................................................................................................................... 646
Increment ...................................................................................................................................... 646
Anchor Movement ........................................................................................................................ 646
Force Set # ................................................................................................................................... 646
Force Sets Tab ............................................................................................................................. 647
Examples ...................................................................................................................................... 652
Static/Dynamic Combinations Tab ...................................................................................................... 657
Load Case .................................................................................................................................... 658
Factor............................................................................................................................................ 658
Examples ...................................................................................................................................... 658
Lumped Masses Tab .......................................................................................................................... 662
Mass ............................................................................................................................................. 662
Direction ....................................................................................................................................... 662
Start Node .................................................................................................................................... 663
Stop Node ..................................................................................................................................... 663
Increments .................................................................................................................................... 663
Snubbers Tab...................................................................................................................................... 664
Stiffness ........................................................................................................................................ 664
Direction ....................................................................................................................................... 664
Node ............................................................................................................................................. 664
CNode........................................................................................................................................... 664
Control Parameters Tab...................................................................................................................... 665
Analysis Type (Harmonic/Spectrum/Modes/Range/TimeHist) ..................................................... 667
Static Load Case for Nonlinear Restraint Status .......................................................................... 678
Max. No. of Eigenvalues Calculated ............................................................................................ 679
Frequency Cutoff (HZ) .................................................................................................................. 681
Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) ....................................................... 682
Load Duration (DSRSS) (sec) ...................................................................................................... 683
Damping (DSRSS) (ratio of critical) .............................................................................................. 683
ZPA (Reg. Guide 1.60/UBC - g's) <or> # Time History Output Cases......................................... 684
Re-use Last Eigensolution (Frequencies and Mode Shapes) ...................................................... 688
Spatial or Modal Combination First .............................................................................................. 688
Spatial Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) ................................................................................... 689
Modal Combination Method (Group/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS) ................................................... 689

10 CAESAR II User's Guide


Contents

Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N) .................................................... 692


Include Missing Mass Components .............................................................................................. 693
Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Comb. Method (SRSS/ABS) .................................................. 695
Missing Mass Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) ........................................................................ 695
Directional Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) ............................................................................. 695
Mass Model (LUMPED/CONSISTENT) ....................................................................................... 696
Sturm Sequence Check on Computed Eigenvalues .................................................................... 696
Advanced Tab ..................................................................................................................................... 697
Estimated Number of Significant Figures in Eigenvalues ............................................................ 697
Jacobi Sweep Tolerance .............................................................................................................. 698
Decomposition Singularity Tolerance ........................................................................................... 698
Subspace Size (0-Not Used) ........................................................................................................ 698
No. to Converge Before Shift Allowed (0 - Not Used) .................................................................. 699
No. of Iterations Per Shift (0 - Pgm computed) ............................................................................ 699
% of Iterations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization ....................................................................... 700
Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N) ...................................................................... 700
Use Out-of-Core Eigensolver (Y/N) .............................................................................................. 700
Frequency Array Spaces .............................................................................................................. 700
Directive Builder .................................................................................................................................. 701
Enter/Edit Spectrum Data ................................................................................................................... 702
Range ........................................................................................................................................... 702
Ordinate ........................................................................................................................................ 703
DLF/Spectrum Generator .................................................................................................................... 703
Spectrum Name............................................................................................................................ 703
Spectrum Type ............................................................................................................................. 704
Generate Spectrum ...................................................................................................................... 712
Relief Load Synthesis ......................................................................................................................... 713
Relief Load Synthesis for Gases Greater Than 15 psig ............................................................... 713
Relief Load Synthesis for Liquids ................................................................................................. 716
Example Output - Gas Relief Load Synthesis .............................................................................. 719
Example Output - Liquid Relief Load Synthesis ........................................................................... 723
Analysis Results .................................................................................................................................. 725
Modal ............................................................................................................................................ 726
Harmonic ...................................................................................................................................... 727
Spectrum ...................................................................................................................................... 727
Time History ................................................................................................................................. 728

Dynamic Output Processing .................................................................................................................. 729


Dynamic Output Window .................................................................................................................... 729
Open a Job ................................................................................................................................... 731
Enter a Report Title ...................................................................................................................... 731
View Load Cases .......................................................................................................................... 732
Send Reports to Microsoft Word .................................................................................................. 732
View Reports ................................................................................................................................ 733
Dynamic Output Animation Window ................................................................................................... 744
Save Animation to File.................................................................................................................. 745
Animation of Static Results -Displacements................................................................................. 745
Animation of Dynamic Results Modal/Spectrum ........................................................................ 746
Animation of Dynamic Results Harmonic .................................................................................. 746
Animation of Dynamic Results Time History ............................................................................. 746
Relief Load Synthesis Results ............................................................................................................ 747

CAESAR II User's Guide 11


Contents

Generate Stress Isometrics Overview ................................................................................................... 749


Add input feature information .............................................................................................................. 750
Add output feature information ............................................................................................................ 752
Add custom annotations for nodal features ........................................................................................ 753
Add custom annotations for elemental features ................................................................................. 755
Set Project Information ....................................................................................................................... 757
Configure annotation preferences....................................................................................................... 758
Configure isometric drawing split points ............................................................................................. 760
Create a drawing using the default style ............................................................................................. 762
Create a drawing using an existing style ............................................................................................ 763
Create a drawing using a new style .................................................................................................... 764
Create and save an annotation template ............................................................................................ 766
Apply a Template ................................................................................................................................ 766
Stress Isometric Tutorials ................................................................................................................... 767
Tutorial A - Creating a stress isometric drawing using the default drawing style ......................... 767
Tutorial B - Adding annotations for Input and Output features ..................................................... 770
Tutorial C - Adding custom annotations and configure annotations preferences ........................ 772
Tutorial D - Creating and applying a stress iso template ............................................................. 776

Equipment Component and Compliance .............................................................................................. 781


Intersection Stress Intensification Factors .......................................................................................... 782
Intersection Type .......................................................................................................................... 785
Piping Code ID ............................................................................................................................. 785
Header Pipe Outside Diameter .................................................................................................... 786
Header Pipe Wall Thickness ........................................................................................................ 786
Branch Pipe Outside Diameter ..................................................................................................... 786
Branch Pipe Wall Thickness ......................................................................................................... 787
Branch Largest Diameter at Intersection ...................................................................................... 787
Pad Thickness .............................................................................................................................. 787
Intersection Crotch Radius ........................................................................................................... 787
Intersection Crotch Thickness ...................................................................................................... 788
Extrusion Crotch Radius ............................................................................................................... 788
Weld Type .................................................................................................................................... 788
Ferritic Material ............................................................................................................................. 788
Design Temperature ..................................................................................................................... 788
Bend Stress Intensification Factors .................................................................................................... 788
Bend Tab ...................................................................................................................................... 790
Trunnion Tab ................................................................................................................................ 794
WRC 107/297 Vessel/Nozzle Stresses .............................................................................................. 796
WRC Bulletin 107(537) ................................................................................................................. 798
WRC Bulletin 297 ......................................................................................................................... 802
Flange Leakage/Stress Calculations .................................................................................................. 802
Flange Tab ................................................................................................................................... 804
Bolts and Gasket Tab ................................................................................................................... 807
Material Data Tab ......................................................................................................................... 816
Loads Tab ..................................................................................................................................... 819
Flange Rating ............................................................................................................................... 820
Pipeline Remaining Strength Calculations (B31G) ............................................................................. 822
Data Tab ....................................................................................................................................... 824
Measurements Tab....................................................................................................................... 826
Expansion Joint Rating ....................................................................................................................... 827
Geometry ...................................................................................................................................... 831

12 CAESAR II User's Guide


Contents

Displacements and Rotations ....................................................................................................... 832


Allowables .................................................................................................................................... 832
Structural Steel Checks - AISC ........................................................................................................... 832
Global Input .................................................................................................................................. 835
Local Member Data Tab ............................................................................................................... 837
NEMA SM23 (Steam Turbines) .......................................................................................................... 840
NEMA Turbine Example ............................................................................................................... 842
NEMA Input Data Tab .................................................................................................................. 845
API 610 (Centrifugal Pumps) .............................................................................................................. 848
Input Data Tab .............................................................................................................................. 854
Suction Nozzle Tab ...................................................................................................................... 857
Discharge Nozzle Tab .................................................................................................................. 858
API 617 (Centrifugal Compressors) .................................................................................................... 860
API 617 Input Tab......................................................................................................................... 861
Suction Nozzle Tab ...................................................................................................................... 863
Discharge Nozzle Tab .................................................................................................................. 864
Extraction Nozzle #1 Tab ............................................................................................................. 865
Extraction Nozzle #2 Tab ............................................................................................................. 867
API 661 (Air Cooled Heat Exchangers) .............................................................................................. 869
Input Data Tab .............................................................................................................................. 871
Inlet Nozzle Tab............................................................................................................................ 873
Outlet Nozzle Tab ......................................................................................................................... 874
Heat Exchange Institute ...................................................................................................................... 875
HEI Nozzle .................................................................................................................................... 877
API 560 (Fired Heaters for General Refinery Services)...................................................................... 878
API 560 Input Data Tab ................................................................................................................ 880

Technical Discussions ............................................................................................................................ 883


Rigid Element Application ................................................................................................................... 883
Rigid Weight ................................................................................................................................. 883
Fluid Weight in Rigid Elements .................................................................................................... 884
Insulation Weight on Rigid Elements ............................................................................................ 884
In-Line Flange Evaluation ................................................................................................................... 885
Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method ........................................................................................... 885
ASME NC-3658.3 Calculation Method for B16.5 Flanged Joints with High
Strength Bolting ............................................................................................................................ 885
Cold Spring ......................................................................................................................................... 886
Expansion Joints ................................................................................................................................. 888
Effective ID ................................................................................................................................... 890
Hanger Sizing Algorithm ..................................................................................................................... 890
Spring Design Requirements ....................................................................................................... 891
Restrained Weight Case............................................................................................................... 891
Pre-Selection Load Case 2 Setting Hanger Deflection through the Operating
Case ............................................................................................................................................. 892
Post-Selection Load Case (Optional) Setting the Actual Installed (Cold) Load ........................ 892
Create Spring Load Cases ........................................................................................................... 893
Constant Effort Support ................................................................................................................ 894
Including the Spring Hanger Stiffness in the Design Algorithm.................................................... 894
Other Notes on Hanger Sizing ..................................................................................................... 894
Class 1 Branch Flexibilities ................................................................................................................. 895
Modeling Friction Effects ..................................................................................................................... 897
Nonlinear Code Compliance ............................................................................................................... 898

CAESAR II User's Guide 13


Contents

Sustained Stresses and Nonlinear Restraints .................................................................................... 899


Notes on Occasional Load Cases ................................................................................................ 901
Static Seismic Inertial Loads ............................................................................................................... 902
Wind Loads ......................................................................................................................................... 903
Elevation ....................................................................................................................................... 905
Hydrodynamic (Wave and Current) Loading ...................................................................................... 905
Ocean Wave Particulars ............................................................................................................... 906
Applicable Wave Theory Determination ....................................................................................... 907
Pseudo-Static Hydrodynamic Loading ......................................................................................... 908
Airy Wave Theory Implementation ............................................................................................... 909
STOKES 5th Order Wave Theory Implementation ...................................................................... 909
Stream Function Wave Theory Implementation ........................................................................... 910
Ocean Currents ............................................................................................................................ 910
Technical Notes on CAESAR II Hydrodynamic Loading .............................................................. 910
Input: Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters in CAESAR II ........................................................ 914
Current Data ................................................................................................................................. 915
Wave Data .................................................................................................................................... 915
Seawater Data .............................................................................................................................. 916
Piping Element Data ..................................................................................................................... 917
References ................................................................................................................................... 917
Evaluating Vessel Stresses ................................................................................................................ 918
ASME Section VIII Division 2-Elastic Nozzle Comprehensive Analysis (pre-2007) .................... 918
Elastic Analyses of Shells near Nozzles Using WRC 107 ........................................................... 920
Description of Alternate Simplified ASME Section VIII Division 2 Elastic Nozzle
Analysis pre-2007 ......................................................................................................................... 921
ASME Section VIII Division 2-Elastic Nozzle Simplified Analysis pre-2007 ................................. 922
Inclusion of Missing Mass Correction ................................................................................................. 922
Maximum Stress Versus Extracted Loads ................................................................................... 926
Fatigue Analysis Using CAESAR II..................................................................................................... 927
Fatigue Basics .............................................................................................................................. 927
Fatigue Analysis of Piping Systems ............................................................................................. 928
Static Analysis Fatigue Example .................................................................................................. 929
Fatigue Capabilities in Dynamic Analysis ..................................................................................... 936
Creating the .FAT Files................................................................................................................. 937
Calculation of Fatigue Stresses .................................................................................................... 938
Pipe Stress Analysis of FRP Piping .................................................................................................... 940
Underlying Theory ........................................................................................................................ 940
FRP Analysis Using CAESAR II ................................................................................................... 954
Code Compliance Considerations ...................................................................................................... 961
General Comments on Configuration Settings' Effect on Piping Code Calculations ................... 961
Code-Specific Notes ..................................................................................................................... 966
Local Coordinates ............................................................................................................................. 1001
Other Global Coordinate Systems .............................................................................................. 1003
The Right Hand Rule .................................................................................................................. 1003
Pipe Stress Analysis Coordinate Systems ................................................................................. 1005
Defining a Model ......................................................................................................................... 1008
Using Local Coordinates ............................................................................................................ 1010
CAESAR II Local Coordinate Definitions.................................................................................... 1010
Applications Using Global and Local Coordinates ..................................................................... 1013
Restraint Data in Local Element Coordinates ............................................................................ 1019
Transforming from Global to Local ............................................................................................. 1019
Frequently Asked Questions ...................................................................................................... 1020

14 CAESAR II User's Guide


Contents

Miscellaneous Processors ................................................................................................................... 1023


Accounting ........................................................................................................................................ 1023
Accounting System Activation .................................................................................................... 1025
Batch Stream Processing ................................................................................................................. 1028
Define Jobs to Run ..................................................................................................................... 1028
Analyze Specified Jobs .............................................................................................................. 1028
CAESAR II Fatal Error Processing ................................................................................................... 1028
Units File Operations ........................................................................................................................ 1029
Create/Review Units ................................................................................................................... 1030
Change Model Units ................................................................................................................... 1032
Material Database ............................................................................................................................. 1033
Material Number ......................................................................................................................... 1034
Material Name ............................................................................................................................ 1035
Applicable Piping Code .............................................................................................................. 1035
Material Density .......................................................................................................................... 1035
Minimum Temperature Curve (A-D) ........................................................................................... 1035
Eff, Cf, z ...................................................................................................................................... 1036
Cold Elastic Modulus .................................................................................................................. 1036
Poisson's Ratio ........................................................................................................................... 1036
FAC............................................................................................................................................. 1036
Laminate Type ............................................................................................................................ 1037
Eh / Ea ........................................................................................................................................ 1037
Temperature ............................................................................................................................... 1037
Exp. Coeff. .................................................................................................................................. 1037
Allowable Stress ......................................................................................................................... 1038
Elastic Modulus .......................................................................................................................... 1038
Yield Stress ................................................................................................................................ 1038
Ult Tensile Stress ....................................................................................................................... 1038
Weld Strength Reduction Factor (W) ......................................................................................... 1038
Add a new material to the database ........................................................................................... 1039
Delete a material from the database .......................................................................................... 1040
Edit a material in the database ................................................................................................... 1040

External Interfaces ................................................................................................................................ 1043


CAESAR II Neutral File ..................................................................................................................... 1044
Version and Job Title Information ............................................................................................... 1045
Control Information ..................................................................................................................... 1045
Basic Element Data .................................................................................................................... 1046
Auxiliary Element Data ............................................................................................................... 1048
Miscellaneous Data Group #1 .................................................................................................... 1057
Units Conversion Data................................................................................................................ 1061
Nodal Coordinate Data ............................................................................................................... 1062
CAESAR II Data Matrix ..................................................................................................................... 1062
Data Export Wizard ........................................................................................................................... 1063
CAESAR II Input and Output Files Dialog Box ........................................................................... 1065
CAESAR II Input Export Options Dialog Box ............................................................................. 1067
CAESAR II Output Report Options Dialog Box .......................................................................... 1089
AFT IMPULSE................................................................................................................................... 1098
How to Use the AFT IMPULSE Interface ................................................................................... 1098
PIPENET ........................................................................................................................................... 1099
Technical Discussion of the PIPENET Interface ........................................................................ 1099
How to Use the CAESAR II / PIPENET Interface ...................................................................... 1099

CAESAR II User's Guide 15


Contents

LIQT .................................................................................................................................................. 1100


Technical Discussion of LIQT Interface...................................................................................... 1100
How to Use the LIQT Interface ................................................................................................... 1101
Example 1 ................................................................................................................................... 1102
Example 2 ................................................................................................................................... 1104
Pipeplus ............................................................................................................................................ 1106
How to Use the Pipeplus Interface ............................................................................................. 1106
FlowMaster ........................................................................................................................................ 1110
How to Use The Flowmaster Interface ....................................................................................... 1111
Intergraph CADWorx Plant ............................................................................................................... 1111
Intergraph Smart 3D PCF ................................................................................................................. 1112
Intergraph PDS ................................................................................................................................. 1112
File Name ................................................................................................................................... 1113
Browse ........................................................................................................................................ 1113
Minimum Anchor Node ............................................................................................................... 1113
Maximum Anchor Node .............................................................................................................. 1113
Start Node .................................................................................................................................. 1113
Increment .................................................................................................................................... 1113
Filter Out Elements Whose Diameter is Less Than ................................................................... 1114
Remove HA Elements ................................................................................................................ 1114
Force Consistent Bend Materials ............................................................................................... 1114
Include Additional Bend Nodes .................................................................................................. 1114
Enable Advanced Element Sort ................................................................................................. 1114
Model TEES as 3 Elements ....................................................................................................... 1114
Model Rotation ........................................................................................................................... 1114
Neutral File Weight Units ............................................................................................................ 1115
Neutral File Insulation Units ....................................................................................................... 1115
Data Modification and Details ..................................................................................................... 1115
Example Neutral File from PDS ................................................................................................. 1116
Intergraph Data After Element Sort ............................................................................................ 1123
Intergraph Data After TEE/Cross Modifications ......................................................................... 1124
Intergraph Data After Valve Modifications .................................................................................. 1125
Intergraph Data After Bend Modifications .................................................................................. 1128
CADPIPE .......................................................................................................................................... 1134
CADPIPE Example Transfer ...................................................................................................... 1137
General Notes ............................................................................................................................ 1140
Error Code Statements ............................................................................................................... 1141
CADPIPE LOG File Discussion .................................................................................................. 1141
Section 1 - Entity Information ..................................................................................................... 1142
Section 2-Segment Information .................................................................................................. 1143
Section 3-Final CAESAR II Data ................................................................................................ 1144
Checking the CADPIPE/CAESAR II Data Transfer .................................................................... 1146
Import PCF ........................................................................................................................................ 1147
PCF Interface Custom Attributes ................................................................................................ 1147
How to Use the PCF Interface .................................................................................................... 1162
Data Export to ODBC Compliant Databases .................................................................................... 1171
DSN Setup .................................................................................................................................. 1171
Controlling the Data Export ........................................................................................................ 1174

File Sets .................................................................................................................................................. 1175


CAESAR II File Guide ....................................................................................................................... 1175
Required Program Files .................................................................................................................... 1176

16 CAESAR II User's Guide


Contents

Required Error Data Files ................................................................................................................. 1178


Required Data Sets ........................................................................................................................... 1178
Required Printer/Listing Files ............................................................................................................ 1182
Dynamics Files .................................................................................................................................. 1184
Auxiliary Sets .................................................................................................................................... 1185
Structural Data Files ......................................................................................................................... 1186
Example Files.................................................................................................................................... 1186
External Interface Files ..................................................................................................................... 1188
CAESAR II Operational (Job) Data ................................................................................................... 1189

Update History ....................................................................................................................................... 1193


CAESAR II Initial Capabilities (12/84) ............................................................................................... 1194
CAESAR II Version 1.1S Features (2/86) ......................................................................................... 1194
CAESAR II Version 2.0A Features (10/86) ....................................................................................... 1195
CAESAR II Version 2.1C Features (6/87) ......................................................................................... 1196
CAESAR II Version 2.2B Features (9/88) ......................................................................................... 1196
CAESAR II Version 3.0 Features (4/90) ........................................................................................... 1197
CAESAR II Version 3.1 Features (11/90) ......................................................................................... 1198
CAESAR II Version 3.15 Features (9/91) ......................................................................................... 1198
Flange Leakage and Stress Calculations ................................................................................... 1199
WRC 297 Local Stress Calculations .......................................................................................... 1199
Stress Intensification Factor Scratchpad .................................................................................... 1199
Miscellaneous ............................................................................................................................. 1199
CAESAR II Version 3.16 Features (12/91) ....................................................................................... 1200
CAESAR II Version 3.17 Features (3/92) ......................................................................................... 1200
CAESAR II Version 3.18 Features (9/92) ......................................................................................... 1201
CAESAR II Version 3.19 Features (3/93) ......................................................................................... 1202
CAESAR II Version 3.20 Features (10/93) ....................................................................................... 1203
CAESAR II Version 3.21 Changes and Enhancements (7/94) ......................................................... 1204
CAESAR II Version 3.22 Changes & Enhancements (4/95) ............................................................ 1206
CAESAR II Version 3.23 Changes (3/96) ......................................................................................... 1207
CAESAR II Version 3.24 Changes & Enhancements (3/97) ............................................................ 1208
CAESAR II Version 4.00 Changes and Enhancements (1/98) ......................................................... 1210
CAESAR II Version 4.10 Changes and Enhancements (1/99) ......................................................... 1210
CAESAR II Version 4.20 Changes and Enhancements (2/00) ......................................................... 1211
CAESAR II Version 4.30 Changes and Enhancements (3/01) ......................................................... 1211
CAESAR II Version 4.40 Changes and Enhancements (5/02) ......................................................... 1212
CAESAR II Version 4.50 Changes and Enhancements (11/03) ....................................................... 1213
CAESAR II Version 5.00 Changes and Enhancements (11/05) ....................................................... 1214
CAESAR II Version 5.10 Changes and Enhancements ( 9/07) ........................................................ 1214
CAESAR II Version 5.20 Changes and Enhancements (4/09) ......................................................... 1215
CAESAR II Version 5.30 Changes and Enhancements (11/10) ....................................................... 1216
CAESAR II Version 5.31 Changes and Enhancements (5/12) ......................................................... 1217
CAESAR II Version 6.10 Changes and Enhancments (10/13) ......................................................... 1217

Index ....................................................................................................................................................... 1221

CAESAR II User's Guide 17


Contents

18 CAESAR II User's Guide


What's New in CAESAR II
The latest CAESAR II release delivers a number of significant new and extended capabilities in
response to current market requirements, as well as direct feedback from the growing CAESAR
II user community. The following changes have been made to CAESAR II:
CAESAR II 2014, Version 7.00

Piping Code and Material Database Updates


Updated to support the 2012 Edition of the ASME B31.1 code. This work included material
property updates.
Updated to support the 2012 Edition of the ASME B31.3 code. This work included a new
equation for calculating expansion stress cases with new SIF and index values.
Updated to support the 2012 Edition of the ASME B31.8 code.
Updated the ASME B31.8 code interpretation to use either of the two combined biaxial
stress equations for restrained pipe, as referred to in Paragraph 833.4, instead of using the
maximum of the two. You can specify this using the Yield Stress Criterion configuration
setting in the SIFs and Stresses section of the Configuration Editor.
Updated to support the 2013 Edition of the ASME B31.5 code.
Updated to support the 2012 Edition of the EN 13480 code. This work included addressing
bend pressure stiffening and changes to the longitudinal pressure stress equation, among
other revisions.
Updated the Material database, as required for piping code updates.
Updated the flange rating for in-line flange checks per EN 1092-1:2013 and ANSI B16.5
2009.
Added support for ANSI 16.5 2009 metric flange ratings.
Added fatigue curves as indicated in the 2013 Edition of ASME Section VIII, Div. 2.
Extended the content for the ASME B31.3 code update and B163 to 1400F.

Modeling and User Interface


Enabled quick global property changes (such as for temperature and pressure) from the
Legend dialog box in the 3D model.

Enhanced the Distance command to measure between two points in the 3D model without
requiring the input of node numbers.
Added a new Global menu in piping input, which includes the Block commands. These
commands are also accessible through the Block Operations toolbar and the right-click
context menu from the List>Elements dialog box.
Enhanced the Structural Steel Wizard to display units for various input fields, added more
tool bar icons and enhanced input grid usability.
Addressed graphics issues.

CAESAR II User's Guide 19


What's New in CAESAR II

Completed minor usability enhancements based on customer feedback.

Static and Dynamic Analysis


Revised the Static Analysis (Load Case Editor) to automatically recommend Expansion
(EXP) stress range load cases for better coverage of multiple operating conditions.
Provided an option for users to select the allowable corresponding to temperature for that
particular Occasional (OCC) load case for B31.3 jobs.
Added support for in-line flange check evaluations for MAX and ABS load case
combinations.

Interoperability
Added the ability to import multiple supports at the same location from the Import PCF or
Intergraph Smart 3D PCF interfaces.
Enhanced the hanger table for support design with LISEGAs LICAD software in the Data
Export Wizard (Export to MS Access)

Post-Processing
Added output filters for flanges so that you can identify the most overstressed flanges.
Updated the software to show the actual Stress Indices (I) that are used for sustained and
occasional static load cases for ASME B31.3 code.
Updated the Generate Stress Isometrics (CAESAR II Isogen module) with I-Configure
2014 (5.0).

Documentation/Help
Updated the Quick Reference Guide with dates and information for all piping code updates
made in CAESAR II 2014.
Updated the F1 help in the Static Output Processor.

Technical Changes
The following technical changes were made for this release, which may affect the numeric
results:
Added a new equation for calculating expansion stress cases with new SIF and index values
to support the 2012 Edition of the ASME B31.3 code.
Addressed bend pressure stiffening and changed the longitudinal pressure stress equation,
among other revisions to support the 2012 Edition of the EN 13480 code.
Updated the minimum wall thickness equation for ASME B31.8 Chapter VIII to consider the
longitudinal joint efficiency (using Eff input box).
Updated the ASME B31.8 code interpretation to use either of the two combined biaxial
stress equations for restrained pipe, as referred to in Paragraph 833.4, instead of using the
maximum of the two. You can specify this using the Yield Stress Criterion configuration
setting in the SIFs and Stresses section of the Configuration Editor.
Revised the calculations for SIFs in non-corroded conditions when the CODETI piping code
is selected, based on clarification from French Code Committee.

20 CAESAR II User's Guide


What's New in CAESAR II

Revised the Static Analysis (Load Case Editor) to automatically recommend Expansion
(EXP) stress range load cases for better coverage of multiple operating conditions.
Provided an option for users to select the allowable corresponding to temperature for that
particular Occasional (OCC) load case for B31.3 jobs.
Added support for in-line flange check evaluations for MAX and ABS load case
combinations.
Resolved an issue in Structural Input where the software did not process UNIF values as
gravitational multipliers (G loads) after you added the GLOAD command into the input
stream. The software uses the gravitational multiplier (G load) value for all UNIF values
when you add the GLOAD command into the input stream.

CAESAR II User's Guide 21


What's New in CAESAR II

22 CAESAR II User's Guide


SECTION 1

Introduction
CAESAR II is a PC-based pipe stress analysis software package that is developed, marketed
and sold by Intergraph CAS. This software is an engineering tool used in the mechanical design
and analysis of piping systems. Use CAESAR II to create a model of the piping system
represented by simple 3D beam elements and to define the loading conditions imposed on the
system.
With this input, CAESAR II produces results in the form of displacements, loads, and stresses
throughout the system. Additionally, CAESAR II compares these results to limits specified by
recognized codes and standards.

What are the Applications of CAESAR II


CAESAR II is most often used for the mechanical design of new piping systems. Loads,
displacements, and stresses can be estimated through analysis of the piping model in CAESAR
II. CAESAR II incorporates many of the limitations placed on these systems and their attached
equipment. These limits are typically specified by engineering bodies (such as the ASME B31
committees, ASME Section VIII, and the Welding Research Council) or by manufacturers of
piping-related equipment (API, NEMA, or EJMA).
Hot piping systems present a unique problem to the mechanical engineer. These irregular
structures experience great thermal strain that must be absorbed by the piping, supports, and
attached equipment. These structures must be stiff enough to support their own weight but
flexible enough to accept thermal growth.
CAESAR II is not limited to thermal analysis of piping systems. CAESAR II also has the
capability of modeling and analyzing the full range of static and dynamic loads which can be
imposed on the system. Because of this, CAESAR II is not only a tool for new design. It is also
valuable in troubleshooting or redesigning existing systems. You can determine the cause of
failure or evaluate the severity of unanticipated operating conditions such as fluid to piping
interaction or mechanical vibration caused by rotating equipment.

Why is CAESAR II from other Pipe Stress Software


Our staff of experienced pipe stress engineers are involved in day-to-day software development,
program support, and training. This approach has produced software that most closely fits the
requirements of todays pipe stress industry. Data entry is simple and straight-forward through
dialog boxes. CAESAR II provides the widest range of modeling and analysis capabilities
without becoming too complicated for simple system analysis. You can tailor your CAESAR II
installation through default settings and customized databases. Comprehensive input graphics
confirm the model construction before the analysis is made. The software's interactive output
processor presents results on the monitor for quick review or sends complete reports to a file or
printer. CAESAR II uses standard analysis guidelines and provides the latest recognized
opinions for these analyses.
CAESAR II also offers seamless interaction with Intergraph CADWorx Plant, which is an
AutoCAD-based design and drafting system for creating orthographic, isometric, and 3D piping
drawings. The two-way-link automatically generates stress analysis models of piping layouts or
creates spectacular stress isometrics in minutes from CAESAR II models.

CAESAR II User's Guide 23


Introduction

CAESAR II is a field-proven engineering analysis program. It is a widely recognized product with


a large customer base and an excellent support and development record.

In This Section
About the CAESAR II Documentation ........................................... 24
Software Support/User Assistance ................................................ 24
Software Revision Procedures ...................................................... 25
Updates and License Types .......................................................... 27

About the CAESAR II Documentation


The supporting software documentation is organized in the following manuals:
CAESAR II User's Guide - Describes the basic operation and flow of the commands found in
CAESAR II. This manual gives an overview of the software capabilities and introduces model
creation, analysis, and output review. It explains the function of, input for, and output from each
module of the program. This manual also explains much of the theory behind CAESAR II
calculations. It is intended as a general road map for the software.
CAESAR II Application Guide - Provides examples of how to use CAESAR II. These examples
illustrate methods of modeling individual piping components as well as complete piping systems.
This document contains tutorials on system modeling and analysis. The CAESAR II Application
Guide is a reference providing quick "how to" information on specific subjects.
CAESAR II Quick Reference Guide - Provides version and technical change details in addition
to installation and commonly used information. This document also lists the currently
implemented piping codes (with publication and revision dates) and related stress and allowable
equations.
You can view and print any of the manuals by clicking Help > Online Documentation on the
CAESAR II Main menu.

Software Support/User Assistance


Intergraph CAS understands that CAESAR II is a complex analysis tool. While the
documentation is intended to explain piping analysis, system modeling, and results
interpretation, you may have additional questions.
We understand the engineers need to produce efficient, economical, and expeditious designs.
To that end, we have a staff of helpful professionals ready to address any CAESAR II and piping
issues raised by you. CAESAR II support is available by telephone, e-mail, fax, and the Internet.
We provide this service at no additional charge to you for questions focused on the current
version of the software.
Formal training in CAESAR II and pipe stress analysis is also available from Intergraph CAS.
We schedule regular training classes in Houston and provide in-house and open attendance
training around the world. These courses focus on the expertise available for modeling, analysis,
and design.
To aid internet users when contacting technical support, Intergraph CAS has added an option
that generates an e-mail template with the basic computer and CAESAR II version details. This

24 CAESAR II User's Guide


Introduction

information is typically what is needed to resolve technical support issues. To use this option,
click Help > Email CAESAR II Support.
This command starts the default e-mail client and populates an e-mail with the default
information.
The e-mail is addressed to Technical Support and contains all the information relevant to your
CAESAR II installation. Type the problem description at the Type Message Here prompt and
attach any necessary files.
You can contact Intergraph CAS Technical Support or Sales:
ICAS Dealer Support (http://www.coade.com/Support/Dealers.shtml ) or ICAS General
Support (http://support.intergraph.com/Default.asp)
Technical Support E-mail: ppmcrm@Intergraph.com
Phone: 1-800-766-7701 (CAESAR II Direct), 280-890-4566 (General)
Fax: 281-890-3301
Sales E-mail: sales.icas@intergraph.com
Knowledge-based Articles/Tutorials (US and Canada only):
https://smartsupport.intergraph.com (https://smartsupport.intergraph.com)

Software Revision Procedures


CAESAR II is updated continually to reflect engineering code addenda, operational
enhancements, your requests, operating system modifications, and corrections. New versions
are planned and targeted for a specific release date. However, there may be corrections
necessary to the current version before the next version can be released. When this occurs, a
correction to the current version is made. This correction is referred to as a "build."
A build is finalized, announced, and posted to the web site. All maintenance builds for new
releases contain all previous builds. This increases the download size and time required to
obtain the build, but only one build is required at any given time.

Identifying Builds
When posted on the web site, builds are identified with the program identifier and the date the
build was generated, as in C2YYY-YYMMDD.exe.

Can Builds be Applied to Any Version?


No. As new versions are released, additional input items become necessary and must be stored
in the software data files. In addition, file formats and databases change. A build is intended for
one specific version of the software. Using a build on a different version without specific advice
from Intergraph CAS Support is a sure way to cripple the software.

Obtaining Builds
Builds are available for download at our website (http://www.coade.com) and are arranged in
sub-folders by program. Each file contained in the folder includes a description , its size, and the
creation date.

CAESAR II User's Guide 25


Introduction

What is Contained in a Specific Build?


Each build contains a file named BUILD.TXT containing a description of all corrections and
enhancements in the current build. When necessary, additional usage instructions can be found
in this file.

Installing Builds
Builds distributed for Windows-based applications use a Windows installation procedure with a
standard SETUP.EXE program to actually install the build. This procedure ensures that the
necessary files are registered with the system and that the uninstall utility can perform its task.

Detecting/Checking Builds
When a build is ready to be released, Help > About CAESAR II is revised to reflect the build
level. To see which program modules have been modified, you can run an Intergraph CAS utility
program from within the program folder.
Diagnostics > Build Version scans each of the .EXE modules in the program folder and lists
the size, memory requirements, and build level for each file. A sample display from this utility is
shown below.

Archiving and Reinstalling an Older, Patched Version


When a new version of the software is released, what should be done with the old, existing
version? The distribution disks sent from Intergraph CAS should be saved. Additionally, any
builds obtained should be archived. This allows full usage of this version at some later time, if it
becomes necessary.

26 CAESAR II User's Guide


Introduction

To reinstall an older version of the software, first install the software from the Intergraph CAS
CDs. Then, install the latest build. Each build includes the modifications made in all prior builds.

Updates and License Types


You can identify CAESAR II update sets by their version number. The current release is Version
2014 (7.0) . Intergraph CAS schedules and distributes these updates periodically, depending on
their scope and necessity. The type of CAESAR II license that you have determines whether
you receive these updates. There are three types of CAESAR II licenses:
Full Run - Provides unlimited access to CAESAR II. Updates, maintenance, and support are
available on an annual basis.
Lease - Provides unlimited access to CAESAR II with updates, maintenance, and support
provided as long as the lease is in effect.
Limited Run - Provides 50 static or dynamic analyses of piping system models over an
unlimited period of time, but does not include program updates. Your license is upgraded, if
necessary, whenever you purchase a new set of 50 runs.
Intergraph CAS only ships the current version of CAESAR II, no matter which type of license
you purchase. Updates will be delivered on request to lease users and to full run users who
have a current support/maintenance contract.

CAESAR II User's Guide 27


Introduction

28 CAESAR II User's Guide


SECTION 2

Getting Started
This section explains the CAESAR II basic operation, and steps you through a quick static
piping analysis.
The main steps required to perform a static analysis are:
1. Starting CAESAR II (on page 29)
2. Create a new job (on page 30)
3. Piping Input generation (on page 31)
4. Model Error Checking (on page 34)
5. Building Load Cases (on page 35)
6. Run a static analysis (on page 36)
7. Static Output Review (on page 36)
A complete tutorial is provided in the CAESAR II Applications Guide.

In This Section
Starting CAESAR II ........................................................................ 29
Understanding Jobs ....................................................................... 30
Basic Operation ............................................................................. 30
Main Menu ..................................................................................... 37

Starting CAESAR II
1. Click Start > All Programs > Intergraph CAS > CAESAR II > CAESAR II. You may
also have a CAESAR II icon on your desktop that you can use to start CAESAR II.
The main CAESAR II window displays.

This window contains the main menu and toolbar from which you select jobs and analysis
types, start analysis, and review output.

CAESAR II User's Guide 29


Getting Started

2. Click File > Set Default Data Directory.


The Default Data Directory Specification dialog box displays.
3. Define the folder to save your jobs and other CAESAR II data files. The default folder is
C:\ProgramData\Intergraph CAS\CAESAR II\version\Examples.
4. From the Language menu, select your language for the interface.
5. In Windows Explorer, go to C:\ProgramData\Intergraph CAS\CAESAR II\version\System.
6. Using a text editor, open Company.txt and specify your company name on the first line.
This will place your company name is the header of CAESAR II calculations.

Understanding Jobs
All CAESAR II analyses require a job name for identification purposes. All subsequent input,
analysis, or output reviews reference the job specified. You create a new job by selecting File >
New or by clicking New on the main toolbar. You open an existing job by selecting File >
Open or by clicking Open on the main toolbar.
After you have created or opened a job, the job name displays in the title bar of the main
CAESAR II window. Use the commands on the Input, Analysis, and Output menus to define,
analyze, and review your data.

Basic Operation
To help you get familiar with CAESAR II, we will step through a basic piping analysis.

Topics
Create a new job ............................................................................ 30
Piping Input generation .................................................................. 31
Model Error Checking .................................................................... 34
Building Load Cases ...................................................................... 35
Run a static analysis ...................................................................... 36
Static Output Review ..................................................................... 36

Create a new job


1. Click Start > All Programs > Intergraph ICAS > CAESAR II > CAESAR II .
The CAESAR II main window displays.
2. Click File > New.
The New Job Name Specification dialog box displays.
3. In the Enter the name for the NEW job file box, type MyFirstPipingModel.
4. Select the Piping Input option.
5. In the Enter the data directory box, type C:\temp\CAESAR II.

30 CAESAR II User's Guide


Getting Started

You can put your job file in another folder if you want, just remember where and
substitute that folder for C:\temp\CAESAR II when needed.
6. Click OK.
The job is created and the job name displays in the main window title bar.

Next, the Review Current Units dialog box displays.


7. Review the units listed in the dialog box, and then click OK.
The Piping Input window displays.
You can use Input > Piping to activate the Piping Input window.

Piping Input generation


Model input generation consists of describing the piping elements and any external influences
(boundary conditions or loads) acting on those elements. Two node numbers identify each pipe
element end. Every pipe element also requires the specification of geometric, cross sectional,
and material data. One method of data entry is the Piping Spreadsheet.
You define a piping element on its own spreadsheet. Some data, when defined on a piping
element, is automatically duplicated by CAESAR II to subsequent piping spreadsheets. This
means that for many elements you only have to confirm the node numbers and enter the
delta-dimensions, and then CAESAR II automatically duplicates from the previous element the
other data such as pipe diameter, operating temperatures, material type, and so forth. You can
always enter specific data to override the duplicated data in the piping spreadsheet for an
element.
The menus, toolbars, and accelerators offer a number of additional commands to enter auxiliary
processors or use special modelers or databases. The commands and general input instructions
of the piping spreadsheet are discussed in detail in Piping Input Reference (on page 99).
1. In the DX box, type 10-0 (which is 10 ft).
2. In the Diameter box, type 8 (8-in. nominal).
CAESAR II automatically converts this value to the actual diameter.

CAESAR II User's Guide 31


Getting Started

3. In the Wt/Sch box, type S (standard schedule pipe wall).


CAESAR II automatically converts this to wall thickness.
4. In the Temp 1 box, type 600 (degrees Fahrenheit).
5. In the Pressure 1 box, type 150 (psig).
6. Double-click the Bend check box.
The Bends tab displays.
This adds a long radius bend at the end of the element, and adds intermediate nodes 18
and 19 at the near weld and mid-points of the bend, respectively (node 20 physically
represents the far weld point of the bend).

7. Double-click the Restraint check box.


The Restraint tab displays.

32 CAESAR II User's Guide


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8. In the first Node box, type 10, and then select ANC from the first Type drop list.

9. Select A106 B from the Material drop list.


This selection fills in the material parameters such as density and modulus elasticity.
10. Double-click the Allowable Stress check box.
The Allowable Stresses tab displays.
11. Select the B31.3 code from the Code drop list.
Allowable stresses for the given material, temperature, and code display automatically.
12. In the Fluid Den 1 box, type 0.85SG (0.85 specific gravity).
The software automatically converts this value to density.
13. After you finish defining the first element, you need to move to the next element. You can do
this by pressing Alt-C, by clicking Continue , or by selecting Edit > Continue from the
menu.
Node numbers are automatically generated in the From and To boxes and data is carried
forward from the previous element.
14. In the DY box, type 10-0 (10 feet).
15. Double-click the Restraint check box.
16. In the first Node box, type 30, and then select ANC from the first Type drop list.
The two-element model (a well-defined configuration anchored at each end) is complete.

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Getting Started

The piping input preprocessor has an interactive graphics and a list view function to make model
editing and verification easier. You can verify your model using the Graphics or List utilities,
although a combination of both modes is recommended. By default, the graphics screen
displays to the right of the input spreadsheet. You can click the small pin in the upper-left corner
to collapse the input spreadsheet to provide maximum graphic space.

Model Error Checking


When you are finished modeling, you must run File > Error Check before you can run an
analysis.
The two main functions of this error check are to verify your input data by checking each
individual piping element for consistency and to build the execution data files used by the
analysis and review processes.
Errors that will prevent the analysis from running (such as a corrosion allowance greater than
the wall thickness) are flagged as fatal errors and display in red text. Unusual items (such as a
change of direction without a bend or intersection) are flagged as warnings and display in green
text. Other informational messages that may show intermediate calculations or general notes
display in blue text. All messages display in the Errors and Warnings tab next to the model
graphics.

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When you double-click an error or warning message, CAESAR II displays the spreadsheet of
the associated element and highlights the element in the graphic display. You can sort error
messages by clicking the column titles. Use File > Print to print the entire error report or
selected sections. Use the options arrow on the Error Check icon to display only fatal errors or
all errors.
If there is a fatal error, you must return to the input module to make corrections. Click the
Classic Piping Input tab or double-click the row number for the error message.
If the error check process completes without fatal errors, a center of gravity report displays, the
analysis data files are generated, and the solution phase can commence. If fatal errors do exist,
the analysis data files are not generated and the solution phase cannot begin. You must make
corrections and rerun the Error Checker until successful before analysis is permitted.

Building Load Cases


After the analysis data files have been created by the error checker, you can run a static
analysis. The first step of a static analysis is to define the load cases. For new jobs (there are no
previous solution files available), the static analysis module recommends load cases to you
based on the load types encountered in the input file. These recommended load cases are
usually sufficient to satisfy the piping code requirements for the Sustained and Expansion load
cases. If the recommended load cases are not satisfactory, you can modify them.

1. From the Piping Input window, select Edit > Edit Static Load Cases .
The Static Analysis dialog box displays.
2. You can build loads two ways:
Combine the load components defined in the input (weight, displacements, thermal
cases, and so forth) into load cases (basic cases), or
Combine pre-existing load cases into new load cases (combination cases).
3. Build the basic cases by selecting one or more load components in the Loads Defined in
Input list and then dragging and dropping them to the Load Cases list to the right. You can
also type on any of the individual load case lines. Stress types (indicating which code
equations should be used to calculate and check the stresses) are selected from the Stress
Type list.
Combination cases, if needed, must follow the basic cases. You can build combination
cases by selecting one or more load components and the dragging and dropping the basic
load cases from earlier in the load case list to combine cases (or blank load cases) later in
the list.
You can have a maximum of 999 static load cases. For more information, see Static
Analysis Dialog Box (on page 534).

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Getting Started

Run a static analysis


After the load cases are defined, you can run the analysis.
1. Select File > Batch Run to run the actual finite element solution.
The analysis creates the element stiffness matrices and load vectors and solves for
displacements, forces and moments, reactions, and stresses. The analysis also performs
the design and selection of spring hangers and iterative stiffness matrix modifications for
nonlinear restraints. Finally, the Static Output Processor window displays.

Static Output Review


When the analysis is finished, you can review the results using the Static Output Processor
window.
1. On the main CAESAR II window, select Output > Static.
The Static Output Processor window displays.
2. In the Load Case Analyzed list, select one or more load cases for which to review results.
3. In the Standard Reports list, select one or more reports to review.
4. Click --> Add.
5. Select where you want to view the results: the screen, Microsoft Word or Excel, the printer,
or an ASCII file.
6. Click Finish to view the reports.
7. Click Options > Graphical Output to review the analytic results in graphics mode, which
can produce displaced shapes, stress distributions, and restraint actions.
The actual study of the results depends on the purpose of each load case and the reason for the
analysis. Usually the review checks that the system stresses are below their allowables,
restraint loads are acceptable, and displacements are not excessive. Additional post processing
(such as equipment, nozzle, and structural steel checks) might be required depending on the
model and type of analysis.
After you finish reviewing the output, return to the main window by exiting the output review
module.

36 CAESAR II User's Guide


Getting Started

Main Menu
After starting CAESAR II, the main menu and toolbar appear. Keep this window as small as
possible to conserve screen space.

Topics
File Menu ....................................................................................... 37
Input Menu ..................................................................................... 40
Analysis Menu ............................................................................... 40
Output Menu .................................................................................. 41
Language Menu ............................................................................. 41
Tools Menu .................................................................................... 42
Diagnostics Menu .......................................................................... 42
ESL Menu ...................................................................................... 43
View Menu ..................................................................................... 43
Help Menu...................................................................................... 43

File Menu
The File menu is used to create and save piping and structural jobs.

Topics
Set Default Data Directory ............................................................. 38
New ................................................................................................ 38
Open .............................................................................................. 39

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Getting Started

Set Default Data Directory


Sets the default data (project) directory without selecting a specific job file. Some CAESAR II
options do not require that a job be selected but must know in which directory to work. All
CAESAR II generated data files are written to this directory. Click File > Set Default Data
Directory on the main menu to activate the Default Data Directory Specification dialog box.
Click Examples to set the default data directory to the examples directory delivered with
CAESAR II.

The data directory specification is very important because any configuration, units, or
other data files found in that directory are considered to be local to that job.

New
Starts a new piping or structural job. Click File > New on the main menu to activate the New
Job Name Specification dialog box.

New Job Name Specification Dialog Box


Controls parameters for creating a new CAESAR II job.
Enter the name for the NEW job file - Specifies the job name.
Piping Input - Indicates that the job is a piping job.
Structural Input - Indicates that the job is a structural job.
Enter the data directory - Specifies the location of the job file. You can type the directory into
the field, or click the browse button to browse to the directory.

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Open
Opens an existing piping or structural job. Click File > Open on the main menu to activate
the Open dialog box. Use the Open dialog box to browse to and select the job file to open. Click
System to jump to the CAESAR II system folder. Click Example to jump to the CAESAR II
delivered example jobs folder.
You can also roll-back to a previous revision of a piping input job using the Open dialog box.
CAESAR II saves the last 25 revisions, deleting the oldest revision when necessary.
1. Click File > Open.
2. Browse to and then select the piping input job to roll-back.
3. In the Previous Revisions list in the bottom-right corner of the Open dialog box, select the
revision to rollback to.

4. Click Open.
The software asks you to confirm restoring the selected backup.
5. Click Yes to restore the previous revision.

CAESAR II User's Guide 39


Getting Started

Input Menu
The Input menu is used to select the modules to define the job input parameters. Piping and
Underground are available for piping jobs. Structural Steel is available for structural jobs.
Piping - Defines piping job parameters. For more information, see Piping Input Reference
(on page 99).
Underground - Converts an existing piping model to buried pipe. For more information, see
Buried Pipe Modeler (on page 485).
Structural Steel - Defines structural steel for the job. For more information, see Structural
Steel Modeler (on page 387).

Analysis Menu
The Analysis menu displays the available calculations in CAESAR II.

Statics - Performs Static analysis of pipe or structure. The command is available after error
checking the input files. For more information, see Static Analysis Dialog Box (on page 534).
Dynamics - Performs Dynamic analysis of pipe or structure. The command is avail\-able
after error checking the input files. For more information, see Dynamic Analysis (on page 615).
Intersection SIF Scratchpad - Displays scratch pads used to calculate stress intensification
factors at tee intersections. For more information, see Intersection Stress Intensification Factors
(on page 782)
Bend SIF Scratchpad - Displays scratch pads used to calculate stress intensification factors
at bends. For more information, see Bend Stress Intensification Factors (on page 788).
WRC 107(537)/297 - Calculates stresses in vessels due to attached piping. For more
information, see WRC 107 Vessel Stresses (see "WRC Bulletin 107(537)" on page 798).
Flanges - Performs flange stress and leakage calculations. For more information, see Flange
Leakage/Stress Calculations (on page 802).
B31.G - Estimates pipeline remaining life. For more information, see Pipeline Remaining
Strength Calculations (B31G) (on page 822).
Expansion Joint Rating - Evaluates expansion joints using EJMA equations. For more
information, see Expansion Joint Rating (on page 827).
AISC - Performs AISC code check on structural steel elements.
NEMA SM23 - Evaluates piping loads on steam turbine nozzles.
API 610 - Evaluates piping loads on centrifugal pumps.
API 617 - Evaluates piping loads on compressors.
API 661 - Evaluates piping loads on air-cooled heat exchangers.
HEI Standard - Evaluates piping loads on feedwater heaters.
API 560 - Evaluates piping loads on fired heaters.

40 CAESAR II User's Guide


Getting Started

Output Menu
The Output menu lists all available output of piping or structural calculations that can be
selected for review.

Static - Displays the results of a static analysis. For more information, see Static Output
Processor Window (see "Static Output Processor" on page 567).
Harmonic - Displays Harmonic Loading results.
Spectrum Modal - Displays Natural Frequency/Mode Shape calculations or Uniform/Force
Spectrum Loading results.
Time History - Displays Time History Load Simulation results.
Animation - Displays Animated Graphic simulations of any of the above results. Click to view
any of the following simulations:
Mode Shapes
Harmonic
Time History
Static

Language Menu
CAESAR II supports multiple languages. To select the language, click Language on the
CAESAR II main menu, and then select the language you prefer. Many of the CAESAR II
modules are available in English and Japanese, such as the Main Menu, the Classic Piping
Input dialog box, the Static Load Case Editor, and the Static Output Processor. Additionally,
significant portions of the documentation, including the various guides and F1 Help information,
are translated.
English (United States) - Identifies that the current language is English, which is the default
language.
Japanese - Changes portions of the CAESAR II program text to Japanese.
Future releases of CAESAR II will include support for new languages in the product and
documentation.

CAESAR II User's Guide 41


Getting Started

Tools Menu
The Tools menu activates various CAESAR II supporting utilities.
Configure/Setup - The CAESAR.cfg configuration file contains directives that dictate how
CAESAR II will operate on a particular computer and how it will perform a particular analysis.
Each time that you open the software, it searches for this configuration file in the current data
folder. If the configuration file is not found in the current data folder, the software then searches
the CAESAR II system folder. If the configuration file is not found in either location, a fatal error
is generated and CAESAR II exits. For more information, see Configuration and Environment
(on page 45).
Calculator - Launches an on-screen calculator.
Create/Review Units - Creates custom sets of units or lets you review the units configuration.
For more information, see Create/Review Units (on page 1030).
Change Model Units - Converts an existing input file to a new set of units. For more
information, see Change Model Units (on page 1032).
Material Database - Edits or adds to the CAESAR II Material Database. For more information,
see Material Database (on page 1033).
Accounting - Activates or customizes job accounting or generates accounting reports. For more
information, see Accounting (on page 1023).
Multi-Job Analysis - Enables the user to run a stream of jobs without operator intervention. For
more information, see Batch Stream Processing (on page 1028).
External Interfaces - Displays the interfaces to and from third party software (both CAD and
analytical). For more information, see External Interfaces (on page 1043).
ISOGEN Isometrics - Starts CAESAR II Isometrics. For more information, see Generate Stress
Isometrics (see "Generate Stress Isometrics Overview" on page 749).
I-Configure - Starts I-Configure.
Explore System Folder - Opens the CAESAR II System folder.
Reset Layouts to Default - Restores all CAESAR II window layouts to the default positions. In
addition, all toolbar customizations are reset to the default state and your video driver is to
OpenGL.

Diagnostics Menu
The Diagnostics menu activates utilities to help troubleshoot problem installations.
CRC Check - Verifies program files are not corrupted.
Build Version - Determines the build version of CAESAR II files.
Error Review - Reviews description of CAESAR II errors.

42 CAESAR II User's Guide


Getting Started

ESL Menu
The ESL menu accesses utilities that interact with the External Software Lock (ESL). These
commands are disabled if you are using SmartPlant License Manager.
Show Data - Displays data stored on the ESL.
Access Codes - Allows runs to be added or other ESL changes, to be made either through Fax
or E-mail (in conjunction with option below).
Authorization Codes - See the Access Codes option.
Check ESL Driver - Verifies the location and version of the ESL.
Install ESL Driver - Installs the ESL Drivers.

View Menu
The View menu is used to enable and customize the status bar and all toolbars.
Toolbar - Displays or hides toolbars and allows you to customize toolbars.
Status Bar - Displays or hides the status bar at the bottom of the window.

Help Menu
The Help menu displays the available CAESAR II documentation.
Online Documentation - Displays CAESAR II documentation in HTML or PDF format.
Desktop (Online) Help - Launches Intergraph CAS online technical support.
Online Registration - Enables you to register electronically with Intergraph CAS. An active
internet connection is required.
Information - Provides information on the best ways to contact Intergraph CAS personnel for
technical support and provides internet links for Intergraph CAS downloads and information.
Check for Upgrades - Enables you to verify the most current version of CAESAR II is installed.
About CAESAR II - Displays CAESAR II version and copyright information.
Throughout CAESAR II context-sensitive, on-screen help is available by clicking ? or pressing
[F1] while the cursor is in any input field. A help screen displays showing a discussion and the
required units, if applicable.

CAESAR II User's Guide 43


Getting Started

44 CAESAR II User's Guide


SECTION 3

Configuration and Environment


This section discusses the configuration options that are available.

In This Section
CAESAR II Configuration File Generation ..................................... 45
Computational Control ................................................................... 47
Database Definitions ...................................................................... 53
FRP Pipe Properties ...................................................................... 59
Geometry Directives ...................................................................... 63
Graphic Settings ............................................................................ 66
Miscellaneous Options ................................................................... 79
SIFs and Stresses ......................................................................... 84
Set/Change Password ................................................................... 96

CAESAR II Configuration File Generation


The CAESAR.cfg configuration file contains instructions that dictate how CAESAR II operates
on a particular computer and how it performs a particular analysis. Each time that you open the
software, it searches for this configuration file in the current data directory and uses it to perform
the analysis.
If the configuration file is not found in the current data directory, the software then
searches the installation folder. If the configuration file is not found in either location, a fatal error
is generated and CAESAR II exits.
The CAESAR.cfg file may vary from computer to computer, and many of the
configuration spreadsheet values modify the analysis. To produce identical results between
computers, use the same configuration file. Make a copy of the setup file to be archived with
input and output data so that identical reruns can be made. The units file, if it is modified, must
also be identical if the same results are to be produced.

View the current CAESAR.cfg file


1. To display the CAESAR.cfg file, click Tools > Configure/Setup.
Alternatively, you can click Configure on the toolbar.
The CAESAR II Configuration Editor window displays. The attributes for Computational
Control display.
In the left-hand pane, the configuration spreadsheets categories display.
In the right-hand pane, the configuration spreadsheet values for that category display.
The Data Directory displays the path where the current configuration file is stored.
2. Click the title in the Categories pane to navigate to the appropriate configuration
spreadsheets.

CAESAR II User's Guide 45


Configuration and Environment

3. Click the X in the right-hand corner to exit.

Create a new CAESAR.cfg file


1. Click Tools > Configure/Setup to display the CAESAR.cfg file.
Alternatively, you can click Configure on the toolbar.
The CAESAR II Configuration Editor window displays. The attributes for Computational
Control display.
2. Click Save and Exit located in the top-left corner of the Configuration Editor window.

Change the current CAESAR.cfg file for this computer


1. To display the CAESAR.cfg file, click Tools > Configure/Setup.
Alternatively, you can click Configure on the toolbar.
The CAESAR II Configuration Editor window displays. The attributes for Computational
Control display.
2. Click the description to change a value for a configuration attribute,
A drop-down menu which contains the possible values for the attribute displays.
3. Select a new value.
The new value displays in bold text.
4. Continue changing values until you are finished.
5. Click Save and Exit located in the top-left corner of the Configuration Editor window.

Reset the current CAESAR.cfg file to the default settings

Click Alt D to reset an individual field value in the current configuration file to its default
value.
Click Reset All -> Set Current Defaults to reset all the values for the current configuration
file to the default values.
1. Click Tools > Configure/Setup to display the CAESAR.cfg file.
Alternatively, you can click Configure on the toolbar.
The CAESAR II Configuration Editor window displays. The attributes for Computational
Control display.
2. Click the Reset All drop-down menu.
The various default file options display.
3. Select a default file.
The values in left-hand pane change to the default values. Values change to normal text
from bold text.
4. Save the changes.
The following section explains each of the CAESAR II configuration file Category options.

46 CAESAR II User's Guide


Configuration and Environment

Computational Control
The Computational Control category provides access to the following groups of configuration
settings:
Convergence Tolerances (on page 47)
Input Spreadsheet Defaults (on page 49)
Miscellaneous (on page 51)

Figure 1: Computation Control Configuration Settings

Convergence Tolerances
Topics
Decomposition Singularity Tolerance ............................................ 48
Friction Angle Variation .................................................................. 48
Friction Normal Force Variation ..................................................... 48
Friction Slide Multiplier ................................................................... 48
Friction Stiffness ............................................................................ 49
Rod Increment (Degrees) .............................................................. 49
Rod Tolerance (Degrees) .............................................................. 49

CAESAR II User's Guide 47


Configuration and Environment

Decomposition Singularity Tolerance


Defines the value used by the software to check the ratio of off-diagonal to on-diagonal
coefficients in the row. The default value is 1.0 e+10. If this ratio is greater than the
decomposition singularity tolerance, then a numerical error may occur. This problem does not
have to be associated with a system singularity. This condition can exist when very small, and/or
long pipes are connected to very short, and/or large pipes. These solutions have several general
characteristics:
When computer precision errors of this type occur, they are very local in nature. They
typically affect only a single element or very small part of the model and are readily
noticeable upon inspection.
The 1E10 limit can be increased to 1E11 or 1E12 and still provide a reasonable check on
solution accuracy. Any solution computed after increasing the limit should always be
checked closely for reasonableness. At 1E11 or 1E12, the number of significant figures in
the local solution is reduced to two or three.
Although the 1E10 limit can be increased to 1E20 or 1E30 to get the job to run, it is
important to remember that the possibility for a locally errant solution exists when stiffness
ratios are allowed to get this high. Solutions should be carefully checked.

Friction Angle Variation


Specifies the friction sliding angle variation. The default value is 15-degrees.
This parameter had more significance in software versions prior to 2.1. It is currently only
used in the first iteration when a restraint goes from the non-sliding to sliding state. All
subsequent iterations compensate for the angle variation automatically.

Friction Normal Force Variation


Defines the amount of variation in the normal force that is permitted before an adjustment is
made in the sliding friction force. The default value is 0.15, or 15 percent. Normally, you should
not adjust this value.

Friction Slide Multiplier


Specifies the internal friction sliding force multiplier.
You should never adjust this value unless you are instructed to do so by Intergraph
CAS Support.

48 CAESAR II User's Guide


Configuration and Environment

Friction Stiffness
Specifies the friction restraint stiffness.
The default value for the friction restraint stiffness is 1.0E+06 lb/in.
If the structural load normal to a friction restraint is less than the restraint load multiplied by the
coefficient of friction, the pipe will not move at this support this restraint node is "non-sliding."
To model the non-sliding state, stiffnesses are inserted in the two directions perpendicular to the
restraint's line of action to oppose any sliding motion.
Nonlinear convergence problems may be alleviated by reducing the friction restraint stiffness.
Lower friction stiffness will more readily distribute friction loads throughout the system and allow
nonlinear convergence. However, this lower stiffness affects the accuracy of the results. Lower
stiffness values permit more "non-sliding" movement, but given the indeterminate nature of the
friction problem in general, this error may not be crucial.

Rod Increment (Degrees)


Specifies the maximum amount of angular change that any one support can experience
between iterations. For difficult-to-converge problems, values of 0.1 have proven effective.
When small values are used, you should be prepared for a large number of iterations. The total
number of iterations can be estimated from the following:
Estimate number of Iterations = 1.5(x)/(r)/(Rod Increment)
Where:
x = maximum horizontal displacement at any one rod
r = rod length at that support

Rod Tolerance (Degrees)


Specifies the angular plus-or-minus permitted convergence error. Unless the change from
iteration n to iteration n+1 is less than this value, the rod will not converge. The default value is
1.0 degree.
For systems subject to large horizontal displacements, values of 5.0 degrees for
convergence tolerances have been used successfully.

Input Spreadsheet Defaults


Topics
Alpha Tolerance ............................................................................. 50
Coefficient of Friction (Mu) ............................................................. 50
Default Rotational Restraint Stiffness ............................................ 50
Default Translational Restraint Stiffness ....................................... 50
Hanger Default Restraint Stiffness ................................................ 50
Minimum Wall Mill Tolerance (%) .................................................. 50
New Job Ambient Temperature ..................................................... 51
New Job Bourdon Pressure ........................................................... 51

CAESAR II User's Guide 49


Configuration and Environment

Alpha Tolerance
Indicates the breakpoint at which CAESAR II decides that the entry in the Temp fields on the
input spreadsheet is a thermal expansion coefficient or a temperature. The default value is 0.05.
Any entry in the Temp fields whose absolute magnitude is less than 0.05 is taken to be a
thermal expansion coefficient in terms of inches per inch (dimensionless).

Coefficient of Friction (Mu)


Specifies the value that is applied by default as the coefficient of friction to all translational
restraints. If you enter 0, which is the default value, no friction is applied.

Default Rotational Restraint Stiffness


Defines the value used for non-specified rotational restraint stiffnesses. By default this value is
assumed to be (1.0E12 in-lb/deg).

Default Translational Restraint Stiffness


Defines the value used for non-specified translational restraint stiffnesses. By default this value
is assumed to be (1.0E12 lb./in).

Hanger Default Restraint Stiffness


Defines the value used for computing the hanger restrained weight loads. Where hangers are
adjacent to other supports or are themselves very close, such as where there are two hangers
on either side of a trunnion support, the CAESAR II hanger design algorithm may generate
poorly distributed hot hanger loads in the vicinity of the close hangers. Using a more flexible
support for computing the hanger restrained weight loads often allows the design algorithm to
more effectively distribute the systems weight. A typical entry is 50,000 lbs/in.; the default value
is (1.0E12 lb/in).

Minimum Wall Mill Tolerance (%)


Specifies the default percentage of wall thickness allowed for mill and other mechanical
tolerances.
For most piping codes, this value is only used during the minimum wall thickness
computation. Mill tolerance is usually not considered in the flexibility analysis.
The default value is 12.5, corresponding to a 12.5% tolerance. To eliminate mill tolerance
consideration, set Minimum Wall Mill Tolerance (%) to 0.0.

50 CAESAR II User's Guide


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New Job Ambient Temperature


Represents the installed, or zero expansion, strain state. The default ambient temperature for all
elements in the system is 70F/21C.
This value is only used to initialize the ambient temperature input field for new jobs.
Changing this configuration value will not affect existing jobs. To change the ambient
temperature for an existing job, use the Ambient Temperature (on page 288) field in the Piping
Input Special Execution Parameters dialog box.

New Job Bourdon Pressure


Specifies the type of Bourdon pressure effect used. The Bourdon effect causes straight pipe to
elongate and bends to open up translationally along a line connecting the curvature end points.
If the Bourdon effect is disabled, there will be no global displacements due to pressure.
None - Disables the Bourdon effect. There will be no global displacements due to pressure.
Trans Only - Includes only translation effects (Bourdon Pressure Option #1).
Trans + Rot - Includes translational and rotational effects on bends. This option may apply
for bends that are formed or rolled from straight pipe, where the bend-cross section will be
slightly oval due to the bending process. (Bourdon Pressure Option #2)

For straight pipe, Bourdon Pressure Option #1 is the same as Bourdon Pressure Option #2.
For elbows, Bourdon Pressure Option #1 should apply for forged and welded fittings where
the bend cross-section can be considered essentially circular.
The Bourdon effect (Trans only) is always considered when FRP pipe is used, regardless
of the actual setting of the Bourdon flag.

Miscellaneous
Topics
Bend Axial Shape .......................................................................... 52
Ignore Spring Hanger Stiffness...................................................... 52
Include Insulation in Hydrotest....................................................... 52
Include Spring Stiffness in Hanger OPE Travel Cases ................. 52
Incore Numerical Check ................................................................ 52
Missing Mass ZPA ......................................................................... 52
Use Pressure Stiffening on Bends ................................................. 53
WRC-107 Interpolation Method ..................................................... 53
WRC-107(537) Version ................................................................. 53

CAESAR II User's Guide 51


Configuration and Environment

Bend Axial Shape


Controls whether the displacement mode is ignored. For bends 45-degrees or smaller, a major
contributor to deformation can be the axial displacement of the short-arched pipe. With the axial
shape function disabled, this displacement mode is ignored and the bend will be stiffer.

Ignore Spring Hanger Stiffness


Indicates whether the software uses the stiffness of spring hangers in the analysis. The default
setting is False, meaning that the software does not ignore the stiffness of spring hangers.
Setting this option to True is consistent with hand computation methods of spring hanger
design, which ignores the effects of the springs.
Intergraph CAS recommends that you never change this value.

Include Insulation in Hydrotest


Controls whether the weight of any insulation and cladding will be considered in the hydrotest
case. To ignore the insulation and cladding in the hydrotest case, select False (the default
setting). To include the weight of insulation and cladding in the hydrotest case, select True.

Include Spring Stiffness in Hanger OPE Travel Cases


Controls how the software handles spring hangers. If you select True, the software places the
designed spring stiffness into the Hanger Operating Travel Case and iterates until the system
balances. This iteration scheme therefore considers the effect of the spring hanger stiffness on
the thermal growth of the system (vertical travel of the spring). If this option is used, it is very
important that the hanger load in the cold case (in the physical system) be adjusted to match the
reported hanger cold load.
If you select False, spring hangers are designed the traditional way.

Incore Numerical Check


Enables the incore solution module to test the solution stability for the current model and
loadings. This option, if selected, adds the solution of an extra load case to the analysis.

Missing Mass ZPA


Indicates which spectrum value CAESAR II uses. If you select Extracted (the default setting),
the software will use the spectrum value at the last "extracted" mode. Changing this value to
Spectrum instructs CAESAR II to use the last spectrum value as the ZPA for the missing mass
computations.

52 CAESAR II User's Guide


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Use Pressure Stiffening on Bends


Controls whether CAESAR II includes pressure stiffening effects in those codes that do not
explicitly require its use. In these cases, pressure stiffening effects will apply to all bends,
elbows, and both miter types. In all cases, the pressure used is the maximum of all pressures
defined for the element.
Pressure stiffening effects are defined in Appendix D of B31.1 and B31.3.
When set to Default, the software considers the pressure stiffening of bends according to the
active piping code.

WRC-107 Interpolation Method


Specifies the interpolation method used by the software. The curves in WRC Bulletin 107 cover
typical applications of nozzles in vessels or piping; however, should any of the interpolation
parameters, such as U, Beta, and so forth, fall outside the limits of the available curves, then
CAESAR II uses the last curve value in the appropriate WRC table.

WRC-107(537) Version
Sets the version of the WRC-107(537) bulletin used in the computations. Valid options are:
Aug'65 - August 1965
Mar'79 - March 1979
March '79 1B1/2B1 - March 1979 with the 1B1-1 and 2B-1 off axis curves. This is the
default setting.
In 2010, WRC Bulletin 537 was released. According to the foreword of WRC Bulletin
537, "WRC 537 provides exactly the same content in a more useful and clear format. It is not an
update or a revision of 107." CAESAR II uses the graphs from Bulletin 107. Bulletin 537 simply
provides equations in place of the curves found in Bulletin 107.

Database Definitions
The Database Definitions category provides access to the following groups of configuration
settings:
Databases (on page 54)

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Configuration and Environment

ODBC Settings (on page 58)

Databases
Topics
Alternate CAESAR II Distributed Data Path .................................. 544
Default Spring Hanger Table ......................................................... 56
Expansion Joints ............................................................................ 56
Load Case Template ..................................................................... 56
Piping Size Specification ............................................................... 56
Structural Database ....................................................................... 56
Units File Name ............................................................................. 56
User Material Database File Name ............................................... 57
Valve/Flange Data File Location .................................................... 58
Valves and Flanges ....................................................................... 58

Alternate CAESAR II Distributed Data Path


Specifies which system folder CAESAR II users to run the software. Select a folder in the list.
Because the software writes the configuration file (CAESAR.cfg) to the local data folder, you
can configure different data folders to reference different system folders. All of the system
folders contain formatting files, units files, text files, and other user-configurable data files. Some

54 CAESAR II User's Guide


Configuration and Environment

of these formatting files are language or code-specific. Therefore, you may want to switch
between system folders depending on the current job.

Use Multiple System Folders in the Same Location


You can create multiple system folders in the same location to provide different options for
different projects. System folder names must use the following naming convention:
SYSTEM.xxx, where .xxx, is a three-character suffix identifying the folder. You can create as
many system folders as needed below the CAESAR II installation program folder, as long as
you follow the required naming convention. CAESAR II uses the system folder you indicate in
the configuration settings.
For example, you could set up system folders specified for each of the piping codes
configurations you need, such as:
System.STM (Stoomwezen code system configuration)
System.ANC (ASME NC code system configuration)
System.313 ASME B31.3 code system configuration)
You could also set up system folders that are customized specific projects.
Browse and locate any system folders named using the SYSTEM.xxx format from the Alternate
CAESAR II Distributed Data Path configuration setting. Then, you can select one and save the
configuration.

Use System Folders in Varying Locations


You can create system folders that reside in other locations, such as somewhere on your
network. This allows you to share the settings from the System folder with others. However, you
must copy the System folder and other necessary program folders to the secondary location.
You must also copy the LIB_I, LIB_M, and Spec folders (found in the Program folder
along with the System folder) to each new system folder location. You can leave the Backup,
Examples, and Temp folders in the original program folder location, as shown in the example
below.
The file name requirements mentioned in the previous section apply for system folders on a
network or in a secondary location as well. In addition, you can set up network system files that
apply at a project level.

There must be a primary system folder, named System, in which the software can place
accounting, version, and diagnostic files that it creates during execution. The location of the
primary system folder is dependent on the specific edition of the Windows operating system, as
follows:
Windows 7 and later
"C:\ProgramData\INTERGRAPH CAS\CAESAR II\x.xx\System"
The x.xx in each of the above sample path represents the CAESAR II version number.

CAESAR II User's Guide 55


Configuration and Environment

Default Spring Hanger Table


Defines the value of the default spring hanger table, which is referenced during the spring
hanger design stage of the solution. The software includes tables from more than 30 different
vendors.

Expansion Joints
Specifies which expansion joint database the software should reference during subsequent input
sessions. Available databases provided include Pathway, Senior Flexonics, IWK, Piping
Technology, and China.

Load Case Template


Specifies which load case template is active. The software uses the active template file to
recommend load cases.
LOAD.TPL (default) Select this option to include additional Expansion (EXP) stress range
load cases for better coverage of multiple operating conditions.
LOAD_BASIC.TPL Select this option if you do not need additional EXP stress range load
cases.

Because the software writes the CAESAR.cfg file to the local data folder, you can configure
different data directories to reference different template files.

Piping Size Specification


Specifies the piping specification standard. Select one of the following standards: ANSI
(American National Standard), JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard), or DIN (German Standard).
By default, the software uses the ANSI pipe size and schedule tables in the input processor.

Structural Database
Specifies which database file is used to acquire the structural steel shape labels and cross
section properties. Select one of the following: AISC 1977, AISC 1989, German 1991, South
African 1991, Korean 1990, Australian 1990, United Kingdom, or China.

Units File Name


Specifies which of the available units files is active. The active units file is used for new job
creation and all output generation.

Because the CAESAR.cfg file is written to the local data directory, you can configure
different data directories to reference different units files.
The software first searches for units files in the local data directory, followed by the active
System directory.

56 CAESAR II User's Guide


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User Material Database File Name


Specifies which user material database (UMD) file the software will access. By default, when
you add to or modify the supplied material database, the changes are saved to a file named
umat1.umd, which is located in the \System folder.
Versions of CAESAR II prior to 5.30 used the name umat1.bin. This file can be copied,
then renamed, if necessary, to umat1.umd.
In some cases, it may be necessary to manipulate several UMD files. This can occur if UMD
files are acquired from different sources. Because a specific file name can only be used once, it
will be necessary to rename any additional UMD files. As long as the file suffix is UMD, and the
file resides in the \System folder, the various CAESAR II modules will be able to access them.
Material database files are accessed as described below:
Piping Input and Analysis
The CAESAR II supplied material database (cmat.bin) is read.
The specified user material database (UMD) is read. Updated materials in the UMD file are
used in place of those from the CAESAR II supplied database.
The Material Database Editor
The CAESAR II supplied material database (cmat.bin) is read.
The specified user material database (UMD) is read. Updated materials in the UMD file are
used in place of those from the CAESAR II supplied database.
Any changes or additions are saved to the specified user material database (UMD).

Create a New UMD File


1. Open the Configuration Editor and click Database Definitions.
2. In User Material File Name, type in a new name.

The UMD suffix should not be changed.


The file name plus the period plus the UMD suffix should not exceed 15 characters.
Do not use spaces (blanks) in the file name.
3. Before exiting the Configuration Editor, click Save and Exit to save the modified
configuration.
4. When you open the Piping Input or the Material Database Editor, the new UMD file will be
created.

CAESAR II User's Guide 57


Configuration and Environment

Valve/Flange Data File Location


Defines where CAESAR II looks for the valve/flange data file. The possible settings for this
directive are:
CAESARII Directory - Directs the software to look for the valve/flange data files in the
CAESAR II folders below %allusersprofile%.
Specs in CII, Data in CW - Directs the software to look for the specification files in the
CAESAR II folders below %allusersprofile%, but to look for the actual data files in the
CADWorx folders.
CADWorx Directory - Directs the software to look for the valve/flange data files in the
CADWorx folders.

Valves and Flanges


Specifies which valve/flange database should be referenced by CAESAR II during subsequent
input sessions. The available databases are:
GENERIC.VHD - Reference a generic database.
CRANE.VHD - Reference the Crane database.
NOFLANGE.VHD - Reference a database (generic) without attached flanges.
CADWORKX.VHD - Reference the CADWorx Plant database.

ODBC Settings
Topics
Append Reruns to Existing Data.................................................... 58
Enable Data Export to ODBC-Compliant Databases .................... 59
ODBC Compliant Database Name ................................................ 59

Append Reruns to Existing Data


Controls how the software handles data from multiple runs.
False - Overwrite data from previous runs in the ODBC database. This is the default setting.
True - Add new data to the database, thus storing multiple runs of the same job in the
database.

58 CAESAR II User's Guide


Configuration and Environment

Enable Data Export to ODBC-Compliant Databases


Turns on or off the capability to create ODBC-compliant databases for static output.

ODBC Compliant Database Name


Enter the name of the ODBC project database. All jobs run in this data folder will write their
output to the database specified here.

FRP Pipe Properties


The FRP Properties category provides access to the following groups of configuration settings:
Material Properties (on page 60)
Settings (on page 62)

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Configuration and Environment

Material Properties
Topics
Axial Modulus of Elasticity ............................................................. 60
Axial Strain: Hoop Stress (Ea/Eh*Vh/a) ......................................... 60
FRP Alpha (xe-06) ......................................................................... 60
FRP Density ................................................................................... 60
FRP Laminate Type ....................................................................... 61
FRP Property Data File .................................................................. 61
Ratio Shear Modulus: Elastic Modulus .......................................... 62

Axial Modulus of Elasticity


Displays the axial elastic modulus of fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe. This is the default value
used to set the data in the input processor. When necessary, you may override this value.

Axial Strain: Hoop Stress (Ea/Eh*Vh/a)


Displays the product of the ratio of the axial to the hoop elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio,
which relates the strain in the axial direction to a stress in the hoop direction.
Ea - Elastic modulus in the axial direction.
Eh - Elastic modulus in the hoop direction.
Vh/a - Poisson's ratio relating the strain in the axial direction due to a stress in the hoop
direction.

FRP Alpha (xe-06)


Enter the thermal expansion coefficient for the fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used (multiplied
by 1,000,000). For example, if the value is 8.5E-6 in/in/deg, you will enter 8.5. The exponent
(E-6) is implied.
If a single expansion coefficient is too limiting for your application, the actual thermal
expansion may always be calculated at temperature in inches per inch (or mm per mm) and
entered directly into the Temperature field on the Pipe spreadsheet.

FRP Density
Displays the weight of the pipe material on a per unit volume basis. This field is used to set the
default weight density of FRP materials in the piping input module.

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FRP Laminate Type


Specifies the default laminate type as defined in the BS 7159 code for the fiberglass reinforced
plastic pipe. Valid laminate types are:
CSM and Woven Roving - Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR)
construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer.
CSM and Multi-filament - Chopped strand mat and multi-filament roving construction with
internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer.
CSM - All chopped strand mat construction with internal and external surface tissue
reinforced layer.
The software uses this entry to calculate the flexibility and stress intensity factors of bends;
therefore, this default entry may be overridden using the Type field on the bend auxiliary dialog
boxes.

FRP Property Data File


Select the file from which the software will read the standard FRP material properties. After the
file is selected, the software will give you the option of reading in from that file.
You may create FRP material files as text files with the .frp extension; these files should be
stored in the CAESAR\System sub-folder. The format of the files must adhere to the format
shown in the following sample FRP data file:

The data lines must exactly follow the order shown in the above sample FRP data file.
The four data lines defining the UKOOA envelope are intended for future use and may be
omitted.

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Configuration and Environment

Ratio Shear Modulus: Elastic Modulus


Enter the ratio of the shear modulus to the modulus of elasticity (in the axial direction) of the
fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used. For example, if the material modulus of elasticity (axial)
is 3.2E6 psi, and the shear modulus is 8.0E5 psi, the ratio of these two, 0.25, should be entered.

Settings
Topics
BS 7159 Pressure Stiffening.......................................................... 62
Exclude F2 from UKOOA Bending Stress ..................................... 62
Use FRP Flexibilities ...................................................................... 62
Use FRP SIF .................................................................................. 63

BS 7159 Pressure Stiffening


Displays the method used to calculate the effect of pressure stiffening on the bend SIFs. The BS
7159 code explicitly requires that the effect of pressure stiffening on the bend SIFs be calculated
using the design strain (this is based upon the assumption that the FRP piping is fully
pressurized to its design limit). This is the default method for CAESAR II.
When the piping is pressurized to a value much lower than its design pressure, it may be more
accurate to calculate pressure stiffening based on the actual pressure stress, rather than its
design strain.
This alternative method is a deviation from the explicit instructions of the BS 7159 code.

Exclude F2 from UKOOA Bending Stress


Modifies the UKOOA requirements for axial bending stress. Some sources, such as Shell's DEP
31.40.10.19-Gen. (December 1998) and ISO/DIS 14692 suggest that, when using the UKOOA
code, the axial bending stress should not be multiplied by the Part Factor f2 (the System Factor
of Safety) prior to combination with the longitudinal pressure stress.
True - Modify the UKOOA requirements for axial bending stress.
False - Use the UKOOA exactly as written.

Use FRP Flexibilities


Controls the fitting flexibility factor used by the software.
True - Set the fitting flexibility factor to 1.0 when FRP pipe is selected (Material #20). This is
the default setting.
False - Apply the standard "code" flexibility factor equations to all FRP fittings.
If the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes are in effect, code flexibility factors will always be used,
regardless of the setting of this directive.

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Use FRP SIF


Controls the SIF used by the software.
True - Set the fitting SIF to 2.3 when FRP pipe is selected (Material #20). This is the default
setting.
False,- Apply the standard "code" SIF equations to all FRP fittings. Optionally, you can
manually enter an alternative value.
If the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes are in effect, code SIFs will always be used, regardless
of the setting of this directive.

Geometry Directives
The Geometry Directives category provides access to the following groups of configuration
settings:
Bends (on page 63)
Input Items (on page 65)

Bends
Topics
Bend Length Attachment Percent .................................................. 64
Maximum Allowable Bend Angle ................................................... 64
Minimum Allowable Bend Angle .................................................... 64
Minimum Angle to Adjacent Bend.................................................. 64

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Configuration and Environment

Bend Length Attachment Percent


Controls the amount of accuracy included in the system dimensions around bends. The default
attachment is 1.0 percent.
Whenever the element leaving the tangent intersection of a bend is within (n)% of the bend
radius on either side of the weldline, CAESAR II inserts an element from the bend weldline to
the To node of the element leaving the bend. The inserted element has a length equal to exactly
(n)% of the bend radius. You can use Bend Length Attachment Percent to adjust this
percentage to reduce the error due to the inserted element; however, the length tolerance for
elements leaving the bend will also be reduced.

Maximum Allowable Bend Angle


Specifies the maximum angle CAESAR II will accept for a bend. The default value is
95-degrees.
Very large angles, short radius bends can cause numerical problems during solution. When you
have a reasonable radius and a large angle, problems rarely arise. However, if the large angle
bend plots well when compared to the surrounding elements, then the bend can probably be
used without difficulty. Well-proportioned bends up to 135-degrees have been tested without a
problem.

Minimum Allowable Bend Angle


Specifies the minimum angle CAESAR II will accept for a bend angle. The default value is 5.0
degrees.
Very small angles, short radius bends can cause numerical problems during solution. When you
have a reasonable radius and a small angle, problems rarely arise. However, if the small angle
bend is grossly small compared to the surrounding elements, then a different modeling
approach is recommended so that the bend is not used.

Minimum Angle to Adjacent Bend


Controls the CAESAR II error checking tolerance for the "closeness" of points on the bend
curvature. The default value is 5.0-degrees.
Nodes on a bend curvature that are too close together can cause numerical problems during
solution. Where the radius of the bend is large, such as in a cross-country pipeline, it is not
uncommon to find nodes on a bend curvature closer than 5-degrees.

64 CAESAR II User's Guide


Configuration and Environment

Input Items
Topics
Auto Node Number Increment ....................................................... 65
Connect Geometry Through CNodes ............................................ 65
Horizontal Thermal Bowing Tolerance .......................................... 65
Loop Closure Tolerance ................................................................ 66
New Job Z-Axis Vertical ................................................................. 66

Auto Node Number Increment


Sets the value for the Automatic Node Numbering routine. Any non-zero, positive value that you
enter is used to automatically assume the To node value on the piping input spreadsheets. The
new To node number is determined as:
"To Node" = "From Node" + Auto Node Number Increment
If this value is set to 0.0, automatic node numbering is disabled.

Connect Geometry Through CNodes


Controls whether each restraint, nozzle, or hanger exists at the same point in space as its
connecting node.
Restraints, flexible nozzles, and spring hangers may be defined with connecting nodes. By
default, CAESAR II ignores the position of the restraint node and the connecting node. They
may be at the same point, or they may be hundreds of feet apart. In many cases, enabling this
option will cause "plot-wise" disconnected parts of the system to be re-connected and to appear
as-expected in both input and output plots.

Horizontal Thermal Bowing Tolerance


Specifies the maximum slope of a straight pipe element for which thermal bowing effects will be
considered.
Thermal bowing is usually associated with fluid carrying horizontal pipes in which the fluid does
not fill the cross section. In these cases, there is a temperature differential across the cross
section. You can use Horizontal Thermal Bowing Tolerance to define the interpretation of
"horizontal." By default, the software uses a value of 0.0001 as the horizontal threshold value. If
a pipe elements pitch is less than this tolerance, the element is considered to be horizontal, and
thermal bowing loads can be applied to it. An elements pitch is computed using the following
formula:
PITCH = | DY | / ( DX2 + DY2 + DZ2 )1/2

CAESAR II User's Guide 65


Configuration and Environment

Loop Closure Tolerance


Sets the loop closure tolerance used by CAESAR II for error checking. You can set this value
interactively for each job analyzed, or you can enter the loop closure tolerance using this option
and override the software default value of 1.0 in without distraction.

New Job Z-Axis Vertical


Controls in which plane the Z-axis lies. By default, CAESAR II assumes the Y-axis is vertical
with the X- and Z-axes in the horizontal plane.
False - Place the Z-axis in the horizontal plane. This is the default setting.
True - Make the Z-axis vertical. The X- and Y-axes will be in the horizontal plane.
This setting applies only to jobs created after this setting is changed.

Graphic Settings
The Graphics Settings category provides access to configuration settings that used to set the
different plot option colors, font characteristics, and the view options.
Advanced Options - Contains options that should only be used by graphics experts. For
more information, see Advanced Options (on page 67).
Background Colors - Contains options that define the color of the plot window. For more
information, see Background Colors (on page 68).
Component Colors - Contains options that define the color for various components in the
plot. For more information, see Component Colors (on page 69).
Marker Options - Contains options that set the node marker color and size. For more
information, see Marker Options (on page 70).
Miscellaneous Options - Contains options that determine how graphics are displayed
either by default or when using the Reset Plot option. For more information, see
Miscellaneous Options (on page 71).
Output Colors - Contains options that set the colors used when plotting code stress in
output. For more information, see Output Colors (on page 75).
Text Options - Contains options for defining font, font style, font size, and color. Scripts are
supported. For more information, see Text Options (on page 76).
Visual Options - Contains options that control general plotting visibility. For more
information, see Visual Options (on page 77).

66 CAESAR II User's Guide


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To change a color, click it once and then click the ellipses button that appears to the right.
Select a color in the dialog box that appears, and then click OK. To save the color settings, click
Save and Exit before closing the Configuration Editor.

Advanced Options
Topics
Backplane Culling .......................................................................... 68
Culling Maximum Extent ................................................................ 68
Use Culling Frustrum ..................................................................... 68

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Configuration and Environment

Backplane Culling
This setting should only be used by graphics experts. If you are experiencing difficulties with
your graphics, contact Intergraph CAS Support for assistance.

Culling Maximum Extent


This setting should only be used by graphics experts. If you are experiencing difficulties with
your graphics, contact Intergraph CAS Support for assistance.

Use Culling Frustrum


This setting should only be used by graphics experts. If you are experiencing difficulties with
your graphics, contact Intergraph CAS Support for assistance.

Background Colors
Topics
Bottom ............................................................................................ 68
Top ................................................................................................. 68
Use Uniform Background Color ..................................................... 68

Bottom
Sets the color for the bottom of the plot window.

Top
Sets the color for the top of the plot window.

Use Uniform Background Color


Controls the background color. Set this option to True if you want the plot background to be one
uniform color instead of blending between the top and bottom colors.

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Configuration and Environment

Component Colors
Topics
Anchor CNode ............................................................................... 69
Anchors .......................................................................................... 69
Expansion Joints ............................................................................ 69
Flange ............................................................................................ 69
Hanger CNode ............................................................................... 69
Hangers ......................................................................................... 70
Nozzles .......................................................................................... 70
Pipes .............................................................................................. 70
Restraint CNode ............................................................................ 70
Restraints ....................................................................................... 70
Rigids ............................................................................................. 70
SIFs/Tees....................................................................................... 70
Steel ............................................................................................... 70

Anchor CNode
Sets the color of Cnode anchors when displayed in the graphics.

Anchors
Sets the color of anchors when displayed in the graphics.

Expansion Joints
Sets the color of expansion joints when displayed in the graphics.

Flange
Sets the color of all flanges when displayed in the graphics.

Hanger CNode
Sets the color of Cnode hangers when displayed in the graphics.

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Configuration and Environment

Hangers
Sets the color of the spring hangers (and spring cans) when displayed in the graphics.

Nozzles
Sets the color of all nozzles when displayed in the graphics.

Pipes
Sets the color of all pipe elements when displayed in the graphics.

Restraint CNode
Sets the color of the restraint Cnode when displayed in the graphics.

Restraints
Sets the color of all restraints (except for anchors and hangers) when displayed in the graphics.

Rigids
Sets the color of all rigid elements when displayed in the graphics.

SIFs/Tees
Sets the color of all tees when displayed in the graphics.

Steel
Sets the color of all structural steel elements in both the structural steel plot and the piping plot
when structural steel is included.

Marker Options
Topics
Marker Color .................................................................................. 71
Marker Size .................................................................................... 71

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Configuration and Environment

Marker Color
Sets the color of the node markers shown in the graphics.

Marker Size
Sets the size of the node markers shown in the graphics.

Miscellaneous Options
These options determine how graphics display by default or how they display when you use the
Reset Plot option while in the graphics.

Topics
Default Operator ............................................................................ 71
Default Projection Mode ................................................................ 71
Default Render Mode ..................................................................... 72
Default View ................................................................................... 72
Disable Graphic Tooltip Bubble ..................................................... 72
Force Black and White Printing ..................................................... 73
Idle Processing Count .................................................................... 73
Optimal Frame Rate ...................................................................... 73
Restore Previous Anchor Size ....................................................... 73
Restore Previous Hanger Size ...................................................... 73
Restore Previous Operator ............................................................ 73
Restore Previous Projection Mode ................................................ 74
Restore Previous Render Mode .................................................... 74
Restore Previous Restraint Size .................................................... 74
Restore Previous View .................................................................. 74
Video Driver ................................................................................... 74

Default Operator
Controls the initial display of graphics. Available options are Zoom to Window, Annotate,
Orbit, Pan, Restore Previous, Select, and Zoom with Mouse. The default setting is Zoom to
Window.

Default Projection Mode


Specifies the projection of graphics in the software. You can select Orthographic, Perspective,
or Stretched. The default projection setting is Orthographic.

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Default Render Mode


Specifies the render mode. Available options are Phong Shading, Centerline, Flat, Gouraud
Shading, Silhouette, Triangulated, and Wireframe, either with or without hidden lines. The
default render mode setting is Phong Shading.
Centerline and Silhouette are the fastest render modes and less memory intensive for
your computer graphics card.

Default View
Specifies the graphical view. Available options are SE Isometric, SW Isometric, NW Isometric,
NE Isometric, Top, Bottom, Front, Back, Left, Right, and Restore Previous. The default
view setting is SE Isometric.

Disable Graphic Tooltip Bubble


Enables or disables the tooltip bubble that displays information about the element that you
mouse over in the graphics view.
True - Tooltip bubble does not display.
False - Tooltip bubble displays.

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Force Black and White Printing


Controls printing output of graphics. If set to True, graphics are printed using only black and
white.

Idle Processing Count


Controls the number of objects the software is allowed to draw during a single idle cycle.
CAESAR II draws the model whenever your machine becomes idle, that is, whenever any
interaction between you and the computer ceases. For example, there may three or four idle
messages between keystrokes. On slower machines, it may increase performance to lower this
value, and vice versa.

Optimal Frame Rate


Determines how many times per second the software will re-draw the piping display when it is
being manipulated, such as when you are zooming, panning, or rotating the display. If you
experience graphics problems such as sluggishness during operations or large boxes being
drawn instead of the piping system display, lower this number.

Restore Previous Anchor Size


Returns the anchor size to its previous setting.
True - Restore the anchor size to its previous setting.
False - Use the default setting.

Restore Previous Hanger Size


Returns the hanger size to its previous setting.
True - Restore the hanger size to its previous setting.
False - Use the default setting.

Restore Previous Operator


Returns the operator to its previous setting.
True - Restore the operator to its previous setting.
False - Use the default setting.

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Restore Previous Projection Mode


Returns the projection mode to its previous state. Projection mode is either isometric or
orthographic.
True - Restore the projection mode to its previous setting.
False - Use the default setting.

Restore Previous Render Mode


Returns the render mode to its previous state.
Four render modes are available in CAESAR II: solids, wireframes, silhouette, and
centerline.
True - Restore the render mode to its previous setting.
False - Use the default setting.

Restore Previous Restraint Size


Returns the restraint size to its previous setting.
True - Restore the restraint size to its previous setting.
False - Use the default setting.

Restore Previous View


Returns the standard view to its previous setting.
The standard views are Front, Back, Top, Bottom, Left, Right, SW Isometric, SE
Isometric, NW Isometric and NE Isometric.
True - Restore the standard view to its previous setting.
False - Use the default setting.

Video Driver
Determines the video driver used in plotting. Select OpenGL, Direct 3D, or Windows Basic
Video.

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Output Colors
Topics
Actual Stress Settings .................................................................... 75
Displaced Shape ............................................................................ 75
Percent Stress Settings ................................................................. 75

Actual Stress Settings


Assigns a color to a specific level of stress. When plotting code stress in output, the software will
color the elements in terms of actual stress. The levels are currently set as follows:

Level Actual Stress

Level 1 <10,000 psi

Level 2 10,000 to 15,000 psi

Level 3 15,000 to 20,000 psi

Level 4 20,000 to 25,000 psi

Level 5 25,000 to 30,000 psi

Level 6 > 30,000 psi

When plotting code stress in output, the software can also color elements in terms of
percent of code allowable. For more information, see Percent Stress Settings (on page 75).

Displaced Shape
Sets the color of the Displaced Shape option when displayed in output graphics.

Percent Stress Settings


Assigns a color to a specific level of stress. When plotting code stress in output, the software will
color the elements in terms of the percent of code allowable. The levels are currently set as
follows:

Percent (of Code Allowable)


Level
Stress

Level 1 < 20%

Level 2 20 to 40%

Level 3 40 to 60%

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Configuration and Environment

Percent (of Code Allowable)


Level
Stress

Level 4 60 to 80%

Level 5 80 to 100%

Level 6 >100%

When plotting code stress in output, the software can also color elements in terms of
actual stress. For more information, see Actual Stress Settings (on page 75).

Text Options
You can use these options to select font, font style, and font size and color. Scripts are
supported. The different plot texts are node numbers and names, annotation, and legends.

Topics
Annotation Text .............................................................................. 76
Legend Text ................................................................................... 76
Node Text ...................................................................................... 76
Output Text .................................................................................... 77
Rendered Mode Text Always Visible ............................................. 77
Silhouette Mode Text Always Visible ............................................. 77

Annotation Text
Defines the font, font size, and color of annotation text.

Legend Text
Sets the text color and font style settings of all legends, such as displacements, temperatures,
and so forth, when displayed in the graphics.

Node Text
Determines the color and font style settings of node numbers and node names when displayed
in the graphics.

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Output Text
Defines the font, font size, and color of output text.

Rendered Mode Text Always Visible


Controls the display of rendered text. By default, the software will not draw text that is occluded
by anything else, including other text. For example, if a pipe is in front of text, the text will not be
drawn. If some text overlaps other text, the text that is further back will be hidden. To override
this behavior so that all text is shown, set RenderedModeTextAlwaysVisible to True.

Silhouette Mode Text Always Visible


Controls the display of silhouette text.

Visual Options
These options control general plotting visibility.

Topics
Always Use System Colors ............................................................ 77
Always Use System Fonts ............................................................. 77
Axis Mode ...................................................................................... 78
Fixed Size Restraint Size ............................................................... 78
Hide Overlapping Text ................................................................... 78
Restraint Helix is a Line ................................................................. 78
Shadow Mode ................................................................................ 78
Show Bounding Box ...................................................................... 78
Smooth Transitions ........................................................................ 79
Use Fixed Size Restraints ............................................................. 79
Visibility % ...................................................................................... 79

Always Use System Colors


Stores the colors the software uses to display the model in the registry.

Always Use System Fonts


Stores the fonts that the software uses to display the model in the registry.

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Configuration and Environment

Axis Mode
Turns on and off the display of the axes in the plot. By default, the axes displays in the lower left
corner of the plot.

Fixed Size Restraint Size


Controls the restraint size. By default, the software draws restraints relative to the size of the
pipe to which they are attached. For example, the symbol is larger on a 12-inch pipe than on a
2-inch pipe. You can override this behavior so that the software uses the same size restraint
everywhere by setting Use Fixed Size Restraints (on page 79) to True and defining a Fixed
Size Restraint Size value.

Hide Overlapping Text


Hides node text that is overwritten by other text. This makes reading the plot easier, but
eliminates some node text.

Restraint Helix is a Line


Controls how the software draws a restraint helix.
By default, a restraint with a variable retention is drawn with a small spring to indicate that it is
not fixed. If this property is set to True (the default setting), the software draws the spring as a
line; otherwise, the software draws the spring as a coiled cylinder.
If drawing the restraint helix as a line degrades plot performance, set Restraint Helix is a
Line to False.

Shadow Mode
Defines the shadow mode. Select Hard, Soft, or None. The default setting is None.

Show Bounding Box


Controls whether a bounding box appears around the model when it is being manipulated--for
example, rotated or panned-- with the mouse.
True - Display a bounding box.
False - Suppress the display of a bounding box.

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Smooth Transitions
Specifies whether graphics have a smooth transition when the view is changed.
True - Enable smooth transition.
False - Change the view instantly. This option reduces the video card memory
requirements.

Use Fixed Size Restraints


Controls the size of the restraint. When it is set to True, this property draws restraints based on
the value defined by the property Fixed Size Restraint Size (on page 78).

Visibility %
Determines the percentage of incident light that passes through an element volume when using
the Translucent Objects or Hidden Lines option in the graphics. Setting this to zero makes all
elements completely opaque while a setting of 100% renders all elements transparent. The
default setting is 50%.

Miscellaneous Options
The Miscellaneous Options category provides access to the following groups of configuration
settings:
Input Items (on page 80)
Output Items (on page 82)

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Configuration and Environment

System Level Items (on page 83)

Input Items
Topics
Autosave Time Interval .................................................................. 81
Disable "File Open" Graphic Thumbnail ........................................ 81
Disable Undo/Redo Ability ............................................................. 81
Dynamic Example Input Text ......................................................... 81
Enable Autosave ............................................................................ 81
Prompted Autosave ....................................................................... 82

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Autosave Time Interval


Sets the time interval used to perform the auto-save function. Type a value in minutes.

Disable "File Open" Graphic Thumbnail


Controls whether the graphic thumbnail plot in the Open dialog box (accessed by clicking File >
Open in the software) is displayed. The graphics thumbnail plots a small image of the model as
a single line drawing. On some slower, memory limited processors, or when scanning very large
models, this thumbnail graphic may take a few seconds to plot the model.
True - Turn on the display of thumbnail graphics.
False - Turn off the display of thumbnail graphics.

Disable Undo/Redo Ability


Controls the Undo/Redo feature of the input module. On some installations, it may be useful to
disable the Undo/Redo feature of the input module. With Undo/Redo enabled, CAESAR II can
process a job approximately one-half the size of that which can be processed when Undo/Redo
is disabled (for similar memory settings). Likewise, with Undo/Redo enabled, the input module
speed may be reduced.

Dynamic Example Input Text


Controls how much example text is placed in new dynamic input files. By default, the software
places example text and spectrum definitions in the input stream of new dynamic input files.
After you are familiar with the input, this example text may be unnecessary. Select from the
following options to vary how much of this example text is incorporated in the input:
MAX - Place all of the examples and spectrum definitions in the input stream of new
dynamic input files.
NONE -Eliminate all the example text and all the built-in spectrum definitions. This setting is
intended for experienced users.
SPEC - Eliminate all of the example text, but leaves the predefined spectrum definition. This
means that the built-in spectrum definitions (El Centro, and so forth) will still be defined and
available for use.

Enable Autosave
Controls whether CAESAR II will automatically save the piping input at specified intervals.
True - Turn on autosave.
False - Turn off autosave.

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Prompted Autosave
Controls whether the software prompts you at the specified time interval to save the input. You
must also set Enable Autosave to True.
True - Prompt before performing the autosave
False - Perform the autosave without prompting.

Output Items
Topics
Displacement Reports Sorted by Nodes ....................................... 82
Output Reports by Load Case ....................................................... 82
Output Table of Contents ............................................................... 82
Time History Animation .................................................................. 83

Displacement Reports Sorted by Nodes


Turns on and off nodal sort. By default, the software sorts the nodes in ascending order during
the force/stress computations. This produces a displacement output report in which the nodes
are ordered in increasing magnitude. Select False to turn off this nodal sort. The resulting
displacement reports will be produced in the order the nodes were entered during model
building.

Output Reports by Load Case


Controls how output reports are sorted. By default, the software generates output reports sorted
by load case. Select False to turn off this option, which causes output reports to be sorted by
type. For reports by type, all displacement reports will be generated, then all restraint reports,
then all force reports, and so on.

Output Table of Contents


Controls the generation of a table of contents, which is normally produced after a static or a
dynamic output session.
True - Generate a table of contents upon exit. This is the default setting.
False - Suppress generation of a table of contents.

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Time History Animation


Controls the creation of the file used to animate the time history displacement of the piping
system. By default, this setting is turned on, which instructs CAESAR II to generate a file of
displacements, <jobname>.XYT, for every time step. This file is used in subsequent interactive
animation sessions by the user. The size of this file is dependent on the size of the model and
the number of time steps analyzed. Consequently, it may be advantageous from a disk usage
point of view not to create this file.
True - Generate the displacement file. This is the default setting.
False - Suppress generation of the displacement file.

System Level Items


Topics
Compress CAESAR II Files ........................................................... 83
Memory Allocated (Mb) .................................................................. 84
User ID ........................................................................................... 84

Compress CAESAR II Files


Controls the compression of CAESAR II files.
True - Compress all of the CAESAR II job files into an archive named <jobname>.c2, when the
job is not active. After the software creates the archive, it deletes the component files (_a, _j, _p,
_7, _s, and so forth).
False - Leave the component files in the data directory and do not create the c2 archive.
The advantages and disadvantages to using the compressed c2 archive are outlined
follows:
Advantages
Only one job file exists in the data directory.
The job and all related data are easily archived.
The job and all related data can be transmitted in its entirety.
Disadvantages
The archive makes it difficult to get to the component files.
The archive is big, because it contains all component files. Therefore, saving or
transmitting takes more resources than manipulating a single component file.
For larger jobs, the compression/decompression activity slows down file access.

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Memory Allocated (Mb)


Modifies the Windows registry to increase the amount of RAM available to CAESAR II. Setting
this option to a number greater than the available RAM will cause Windows to use Virtual
Memory (hard disk space to be used as RAM). Because doing this may slow the software, it is
usually recommended only for very large piping models.

User ID
Creates a control file for a specific computer. Enter a three-character user ID for each user, or
more exactly, each workstation.
When multiple workstations attempt to access CAESAR II data in the same directory
simultaneously, the control file in the data directory becomes corrupted, which may cause
abnormal software execution. In situations where there may be more than one concurrent user
running CAESAR II in a given data directory, you can use this option to create a separate
control file for each computer, thus allowing simultaneous access of the CAESAR II data within
the same directory.
This user ID is not a password and is specific to the computer requiring access and not to
the user.

SIFs and Stresses


The SIFs and Stresses category provides access to the following groups of configuration
settings:
Advanced Settings (on page 85)
Code-Specific Settings
General Settings (on page 89)

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Legacy Settings (on page 95)

Advanced Settings
Topics
Class 1 Branch Flexibility ............................................................... 85
Use Schneider ............................................................................... 86
Use WRC 329 ................................................................................ 86

Class 1 Branch Flexibility


Activates the Class 1 flexibility calculations. By default, this setting is False.
The appearance of this parameter in the configuration file will completely change the modeling
of intersections in the analysis. For intersections not satisfying the reduced branch rules that d/D
0.5 and that D/T100, the branch will start at the surface of the header pipe. A perfectly rigid
junction between the center\-line of the header and surface will be formed automatically by
CAESAR II using the element offset calculations. SIFs act at the surface point for the branch.
When the reduced branch rules are satisfied, the local flexibility of the header is also inserted at
this surface point. Intersections not satisfying the reduced intersection rules will be stiffer and
carry more loads, while intersections satisfying the reduced intersection rules will be more
flexible and will carry less load. All changes to the model are completely transparent to the user.
In systems where the intersection flexibility is a major component of the overall system stiffness,

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Configuration and Environment

you are urged to run the analysis both with and without the Class 1 Branch Flexibility active to
determine the effect of this modeling on the analysis.

Use Schneider
Activates the Schneider reduced intersection assumptions. By default, this setting is False.
It was because of observations by Schneider that much of the work on WRC 329 was started.
Schneider pointed out that the code SIFs could be in error when the d/D ratio at the intersection
was less than 1.0 and greater than 0.5. In this d/D range, the SIFs could be in error by a factor
as high as 2.0. Using the Schneider option in CAESAR II results in a multiplication of the out of
plane branch stress intensification by a number between 1 and 2 when the d/D ratio for the
inter\-section is between 0.5 and 1.0. For B31.1 and other codes that do not differentiate
between in and out-of-plane SIFs, the multiplication will be used for the single stress
intensification given.

Use WRC 329


Activates the WRC329 guidelines for all intersections, not just for reduced intersections. By
default, this setting is False.
The recommendations made by Rodabaugh in section 5.0 of WRC329 will be followed exactly in
making the stress calculations for intersections. Every attempt has been made to improve the
stress calculations for all codes, not just the four discussed in Rodabaughs paper. Throughout
this document, WRC330 and WRC329 are used synonymously (330 was the draft version of
329). When finally published, the official WRC designation was 329.

Code-Specific Settings
Topics
B31.1 Reduced Z Fix ..................................................................... 87
B31.1/B31.3 Verified Welding and Contour Tees .......................... 87
B31.3 Implement Appendix P ........................................................ 87
EN-13480/CODETI Use In-Plane/Out-Plane SIF .......................... 87
Ignore B31.1/B31.3 Wc Factor ...................................................... 87
No RTF/WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs ........................................... 88
Occasional Load Factor ................................................................. 88
Pressure Variation in EXP Case .................................................... 88
Reduced Intersection ..................................................................... 88

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B31.1 Reduced Z Fix


Makes the correction to the reduced branch stress calculation that existed in the 1980 through
1989 versions of B31.1. This error was corrected in the 1989 version of B31.1.
True - Turn on the correction. This is the default setting.
False - Turn off the correction.

B31.1/B31.3 Verified Welding and Contour Tees


Controls the assumption that the geometry of B31.3 welding and contour insert tees
(sweepolets) meets the dimensional requirements of the code and can be classified as B16.9
tees.
True - Assume that the fitting geometry meets the requirements of Note 11, introduced in
the A01 addendum, and a flexibility characteristic of 4.4*T/r will be used.
False - Use a flexibility characteristic of 3.1*T/r, as per the A01 addendum. This is the
default setting.
In order to match runs made with CAESAR II prior to Version 4.40, set this option to
True. Prior to Version 4.40, CAESAR II always used a flexibility characteristic of 4.4*T/r.

B31.3 Implement Appendix P


Controls the implementation of the alternate rules in B31.3 Appendix P. This option produces a
code compliance operating load case, with allowable stress values.

EN-13480/CODETI Use In-Plane/Out-Plane SIF


Controls the use of in-plane and out-of-plane SIFs. The EN-13480 piping code (and other
European piping codes) defaults to the use of a single SIF, applied to the SRSS of all three
bending moments. Optionally, you can utilize distinct in-plane and out-of-plane SIF values for
in-plane and out-of-plane moments.
To use distinct in-plane and out-of-plane SIFs, select True.

Ignore B31.1/B31.3 Wc Factor


Controls the application of the circumferential weld strength reduction factor, which is now an
option in B31.1 and B31.3.
True - Suppress the application of a weld strength reduction factor.
False - Apply the weld strength reduction factor at all bends, tees, and reducers for
temperatures greater than the starting creep temperature, as defined in the code.

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No RTF/WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs


Controls whether welding tees and reinforced tees are included in the SIFs for reduced fittings.
Part of the discussion centers around just what should be considered a reduced fitting. The
CAESAR II default (False) is to assume that welding tees and reinforced fabricated tees are
covered by the reduced fitting expressions, even though the reduced fitting expressions do not
explicitly cover these intersection types. If you want to leave welding tees and rein\-forced tees
out of this definition, set this option to True.

Occasional Load Factor


Specifies the occasional load factor. The default value of 0.0 tells CAESAR II to use the value
that the active piping code recommends. B31.1 states that the calculated stress may exceed the
maximum allowable stress from Appendix A, (Sh), by 15% if the event duration occurs less than
10% of any 24-hour operating period, and by 20% if the event duration occurs less than 1% of
any 24 hour operating period. The default for B31.1 applications is 15%. If 20% is more suitable
for the system being analyzed, then this option can be used to enter the 20%.
B31.3 states, "The sum of the longitudinal stresses due to pressure, weight, and other sustained
loadings (S1) and of the stresses produced by occasional loads such as wind or earthquake
may be as much as 1.33 times the allowable stress given in Appendix A. Where the allowable
stress value exceeds 2/3 of yield strength at temperature, the allowable stress value must be
reduced as specified in Note 3 in 302.3.2." The default for B31.3 applications is 33%. If this is
too high for the material and temperature specified, then a smaller occasional load factor could
be input.
This configuration option is used to seed new job files. After the static load cases have
been defined, changing this directive will have no effect for static analysis. For existing static
load case definitions, the occasional load multiplier can be changed on the Load Case Options
tab. Dynamic analyses will always reference this configuration option.

Pressure Variation in EXP Case


Controls whether any pressure variation between the referenced load cases will be considered
in the resulting expansion case. When set to Default, the software considers the pressure
variation according to the active piping code.

Reduced Intersection
Defines the code rules for reduced intersection. Select one of the following options:
B31.1 (Pre 1980) - Use the pre-1980 B31.1 code rules used for reduced intersection. These
rules did not define a separate branch SIF for the reduced branch end. The branch stress
intensification factor will be the same as the header stress intensification factor regardless of
the branch-to-header diameter ratio.
B31.1 (Post 1980) - Use the post-1980 B31.1 code rules for reduced intersections. The
reduced intersection SIF equations in B31.1 from 1980 through 1989 generated
unnecessarily high SIFs because of a mistake made in the implementation. (This is
according to WRC329.) For this reason, many analysts opted for the pre-1980 B31.1 SIF
calculation. CAESAR II corrects this mistake by automatically setting B31.1 Reduced Z Fix
to True (the default setting). You can vary the status of this flag in the CAESAR II

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Configuration and Environment

configuration file to generate any interpretation of B31.1 that you want. The default for a new
job is for B31.1(Post 1980) and for B31.1 Reduced Z Fix to be set to True.
The No RFT/WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs (see "No RTF/WLT in Reduced Fitting
SIFs" on page 88) option also affects the SIF calculations at reduced intersections.
WRC 329 - Use the recommendations of WRC329 for reduced intersections. A reduced
intersection is any intersection where the d/D ratio is less than 0.975. The WRC329
recommendations result in more conservative stress calculations in some instances and less
conservative stress calculations in others. In all cases, the WRC329 values should be more
accurate and more in-line with the respective codes intent.
ASME Sect. III - Use the 1985 ASME Section III NC and ND rules for reduced intersections.
Schneider - Activate the Schneider reduced intersection stress intensification factor
multiplication. Has the same effect as Use Schneider (on page 86).

General Settings
Topics
Add F/A in Stresses ....................................................................... 89
Add Torsion in SL Stress ............................................................... 90
All Cases Corroded ........................................................................ 90
Allow User's SIF at Bend ............................................................... 90
Base Hoop Stress On (ID/OD/Mean/Lam) .................................. 90
Default Piping Code ....................................................................... 91
New Job Liberal Expansion Stress Allowable ............................... 92
Use PD/4t....................................................................................... 92
Yield Stress Criterion ..................................................................... 92

Add F/A in Stresses


Specifies whether the axial stress term is included in the code stress computation.
If you select Default in this configuration setting, the software uses whatever the currently active
piping code recommends. Only the process piping codes (except for B31.3), or codes where the
sustained stress equation is not explicitly given, have the F/A stresses included in the sustained
and occasional stress equations. The power piping codes (such as B31.1) do not include the
F/A stresses because the equations given explicitly in the code do not include them. To force
CAESAR II to include the axial stress term in those codes that do not include it already by
default, select Yes.
The F/A stresses discussed here are not due to longitudinal pressure. These are the F/A
stresses due to structural loads in the piping system itself.

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Add Torsion in SL Stress


Controls how the software handles the torsion term in those codes that do not include it already
by default.
If you select Default in this configuration setting, the software uses whatever the currently active
piping code recommends. The power piping codes (such as B31.1) include torsion in the
sustained and occasional stresses by explicitly including it in the stress equation (B31.1). The
process piping codes (except for B31.3) do not include torsion in the sustained and occasional
stresses by implicitly calling for longitudinal stresses only. To force CAESAR II to include the
torsion term in those codes that do not include it already by default, select Yes.
In a sustained stress analysis of a very hot piping system subject to creep, it is
recommended that you include torsion in the sustained stress calculation using this parameter in
the setup file.

All Cases Corroded


Controls whether CAESAR II uses corroded section modulus in stress calculations.
A recent version of the B31.3 piping code mentioned reducing the section modulus for sustained
or occasional stress calculations by the reduction in wall thickness due to corrosion. Some have
interpreted this to mean that the reduced section modulus should be used for all stress
calculations, including expansion. This option allows you to apply this conservative interpretation
of the code. Enabling All Cases Corroded causes the software to use the corroded section
modulus for the calculation of all stress types. This method is recommended as conservative,
and probably more realistic as corrosion can significantly affect fatigue life, or expansion. If,
however, you disable this option, the software will strictly follow the piping code
recommendations. That is, depending on the active piping code, some load cases will consider
corrosion and some will not.

Allow User's SIF at Bend


Controls the stress intensification factor for bends. Previously this was not permitted, and the
code-defined SIF was always used. To override the codes calculated SIF for bends, select
True. The user-defined SIF acts over the entire bend curvature and must be specified at the To
end of the bend element. The default setting is False.

Base Hoop Stress On (ID/OD/Mean/Lam)


Indicates how the value of hoop stress should be calculated. The default is to use the ID of the
pipe. Most piping codes consider the effects of pressure in the longitudinal component of the
CODE stress. Usually, the value of the hoop stress has no bearing on the CODE stress, so
changing this directive does not affect the acceptability of the piping system.
If necessary, you may change the way CAESAR II computes the hoop stress value. Available
options are:
ID - Compute hoop stress according to Pd/2t, where d is the internal diameter of the pipe.
OD - Compute hoop stress according to Pd/2t, where d is the outer diameter of the pipe.
Mean - Compute hoop stress according to Pd/2t, where d is the average or mean diameter
of the pipe.

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Lam - Compute maximum hoop stress according to Lam's solution: s =


P(Ro2+Ri2)/(Ro2-Ri2).

Default Piping Code


Specifies the piping code that you design to most often. This code will be used as the default if
no code is specified in the problem input. The default piping code is B31.3, the chemical plant
and petroleum refinery code. Valid entries are:
B31.1
B31.3
B31.4
B31.4 Chapter IX
B31.5
B31.8
B31.8 Chapter VIII
B31.11
ASME-NC(Class 2)
ASME-ND(Class 3)
NAVY505, Z662
Z662 Chapter 11
BS806
SWEDISH1
SWEDISH2
B31.1-1967
STOOMWEZEN
RCCM-C
RCCM-D
CODETI
Norwegian
FDBR
BS-7159
UKOOA
IGE/TD/12
DNV
EN-13480
GPTC/Z380
PD 8010-1

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Configuration and Environment

PD 8010-2
ISO-14692
HPGSL
JPI

New Job Liberal Expansion Stress Allowable


Instructs the software to default new jobs to use the liberal expansion stress allowable. This
allowable adds the difference between the hot allowable stress and the sustained stress to the
allowable expansion stress range if it is allowed by the particular code in use. To instruct the
software to default new jobs to not use this allowable, select False.

Use PD/4t
Instructs the software to use the simplified form of the longitudinal stress term when computing
sustained stresses. Some codes permit this simplified form when the pipe wall thickness is thin.
This option is used most often when you are comparing CAESAR II results to older pipe stress
program results. The more comprehensive calculation--the default--is recommended.

Yield Stress Criterion


Specifies the method the software uses to calculate maximum stress. CAESAR II can calculate
this maximum stress (which is not a code stress) according to either the von Mises Theory or
the Maximum Shear Theory.
Code stress refers to a stress calculated by an equation provided by the code. For more
information on code-defined stresses, see the CAESAR II Quick Reference Guide.
The Stresses Extended output report produced by CAESAR II contains a value representative of
the maximum stress state through the cross section, calculated according to the indicated yield
criteria theory.

Configuration
Failure Theory Calculated Stress
Setting

Max3D Shear Maximum Shear Stress Maximum Stress Intensity

Maximum Energy of
von Mises Octahedral Shearing Stress
Distortion

CAESAR II computes the selected stress at four points along the axis normal to the plane of
bending (outside top, inside top, inside bottom, outside bottom), and includes the maximum
value in the stresses report. The equations used for each of these yield criteria are listed below.
If von Mises Theory is used, the software computes the octahedral shearing stress, which differs
from the von Mises stress by a constant factor.
For codes B31.4 Chapter IX, B31.8, B31.8 Chapter VIII, and DnV, this setting controls
which equation the software uses to compute the equivalent stress. For these codes, the
software uses the equations shown in the piping code to determine the yield stress criterion in
the Stresses Extended output report.

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Stress Formulation
CAESAR II reports the largest stress using four calculation points through the pipe cross
section, as show in the following figure.

The four points are established by a line perpendicular to the bending moment acting on the
pipe (shown in red). Points 1 and 4 are on the outside surface of the pipe, where radial stress is
zero. Point 1 is in bending tension and Point 4 is in bending compression. Points 2 and 3 are on
the inside surface of the pipe where radial stress is compressive (negative) pressure.
Longitudinal stress (Sl), hoop stress (Sh), radial stress (Sr) and shear stress (St) are calculated
at each position using the appropriate formulas.

Radial
Shear
Stress
Position Longitudinal Stress (Sl) Hoop Stress (Sh) Stress (St)
(Sr)

The table formulas assume that this is a B31.3-style stress equation with Lam hoop
stress.
These stresses are translated into the principal stresses S1, S2, and S3. The following shows a
graphical representation of a typical calculation of the four position points.

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Configuration and Environment

Determine the principal stress using the longitudinal stress (Sl), the hoop stress (Sh), and the
sheer stress (St)which sets the red line. The principal stress refers to the points where the red
circle crosses the normal stress axis (shear stress equals zero). Place the radial stress (Sr)
(which has a shear stress of zero) on the same axis. The largest intersection point is S1 and the
smallest is S3.

Equivalent Stress, Octahedral Shearing Stress, von Mises Stress:

Use the S1, S2, and S3 values in the equation above to determine the octahedral shearing
stress at each position. CAESAR II reports the largest of these four values.

3D Maximum Shear Stress Intensity (S.I.):


S.I. = S1-S3
When you configure CAESAR II to report 3D maximum shear stress intensity, the software
reports the largest intensity (S1-S3).

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Legacy Settings
Topics
B31.3 Use SL Formulation Para 320 (2010) ................................. 95
Include Axial Force in Expansion Stress ....................................... 95
SIF Multiplier for Sustained Stress Index ...................................... 955

B31.3 Use SL Formulation Para 320 (2010)


Controls what formula CAESAR II uses for computing longitudinal stress for sustained loads
(SL) for the B31.3 code. The 2010 Edition of B31.3 code introduced a specific formula for
computing SL. This code formula was previously optional and referred to as B31.3 Code Case
178.
The software defaults to automatically computing sustained loads using this formula. You can
change the B31.3 Use SL Formulation Para 320 (2010) configuration setting in the
Configuration Editor > SIFs and Stresses to False if you do not want CAESAR II to use this
formula, for example in the case of pre-2010 Edition jobs.
CAESAR II sets this configuration setting to True by default, which means the software
overrides the directives for F/A and torsion and uses this formula to calculate sustained case
stresses.

Include Axial Force in Expansion Stress


Enables the software to include calculated axial force in the expansion stress (SE). Choose one
of the following settings:
No - Exclude axial forces from the (Expansion) Displacement Stress Range value. (This is
Se in Eq. (17) of B31.3.)
|Sa| + Se - Include the absolute value of the axial force to the (Expansion) Displacement
Stress Range, and report the sum as the (Expansion) Displacement Stress Range, Se. This
selection is more conservative than (|Sa| + Sb)2.
(|Sa| + Sb)2 - Include the absolute value for the axial force to the bending term in the
(Expansion) Displacement Stress Range equation (Se, Eq (17) in B31.3). This selection is
less conservative than |Sa| + Se. This option more closely follows theory.
Default Follow the recommended setting for the axial force in expansion stress based on
the piping code you specified for the job. (For example, the B31.3 piping code recommends
to use the (|Sa| + Sb)2 equation for axial force. So, when you set this configuration setting to
Default, if the job uses the B31.3 piping code, the software uses the (|Sa| + Sb)2 option for
calculating axial force in the expansion stress.)

SIF Multiplier for Sustained Stress Index


Modifies the stress index for sustained loads and occasional loads. The default setting is
0.0000, which indicates that the software uses whatever the currently active piping code
recommends for the SIF/Index multiplier. For example, if this configuration setting is set to
0.000, when you select B31.3 on the job, the B31.3 code recommends to set the SIF multiplier
to 0.7500. The software uses that value in the calculation.

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Configuration and Environment

With the release of CAESAR II 2014 and the implementation of B31.3 2012, the internal
interpretation of this existing configuration setting was changed. B31.3 2012 defines the SIF
multiplier value as 0.75. Other codes similar to B31.3 do not address this value. The default
value of this configuration setting was changed to 0.0000. This change enables CAESAR II to
internally set the multiplier to 0.7500 for B31.3 and to 1.0000 for other similar codes. The
following table summarizes these settings.

Option Configuration Sustained Moment


SIF Multiplier Setting Multiplier (I)

B31.3 Code Codes similar to B31.3


(such as: JPI, B31.5)

Option 1 0.0000 I = 0.75i I = i (similar to Option 4)


(default)

Option 2 0.0001 I = 1.0 I = 1.0

Option 3 0.7500 I = 0.75i I = 0.75i

Option 4 1.0000 I=i I=i

This change does not affect all piping codes.


The following interpretations apply to B31.3 code prior to the 2010 Edition, so they are only
applicable if you need to analyze older jobs to the older code addenda:
B31.3 Interpretation 1-34 (February 23, 1981) File: 1470-1 states that for sustained and
occasional loads, you can use an SIF of 0.75i, but not less than 1.0. To comply with this
interpretation (1-34), enter 0.7500.
B31.3 Interpretation 6-03 (December 14, 1987) File B31-87-022 permits you to ignore the
stress intensification for sustained and occasional loads. To comply with this interpretation
(6-03), enter 0.0001.

Set/Change Password
The Security command provides you with the option of using a password protection scheme for
the configuration file. By setting a password on the primary configuration file (done by setting the
default data folder to the CAESAR II software folder), a corporate standard can be enforced
throughout the network. Subsequent use of the configuration module in other data folders will
allow only modification of display or other environment directives that do not affect calculated
results.
When you click the Security command, a menu displays with the following four options:
New Password (on page 97)
Access Protected Data (on page 97)
Change Password (on page 97)
Remove Password (on page 97)

96 CAESAR II User's Guide


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New Password
Enter a password. After entering a password, you have the ability to change configuration
settings from the program folder, or alter or remove the password.

Initially, New Password is the only option available.


When entering a new password, you are prompted for the new password a second time to
ensure the password was typed as expected the first time.

Access Protected Data


Allows you to modify protected options. This option is accessible only after a password exists.
The use of this option is not necessary if there is no previously specified password. If no
password has been set, you can modify all configuration settings.

Change Password
Allows you to change your current password. You must first enter the correct existing password.
The current password may be changed at any time by anyone who has authorization to do so.
After a password has been set, all computation controls, stress options, and any other
configuration options, which could affect the CAESAR II computations are disabled and cannot
be changed.
All protected option labels, edit boxes, and default buttons are grayed out when disabled.

Remove Password
Deletes the current password. Anyone with authorization can remove the current password by
entering the correct existing password for this option. After a password is removed, all options
that appear in the Configuration Editor can be modified from any folder where you have
read/write access rights.

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Configuration and Environment

98 CAESAR II User's Guide


SECTION 4

Piping Input Reference


This section describes how to specify job parameters through the menus, boxes, and
commands of the software.
To edit a piping model, open a piping file from the CAESAR II main menu. Then, click Input >
Piping. The CAESAR II Classic Piping Input dialog box displays.

This dialog box describes the piping on an element-by-element basis. It consists of menus and
toolbars which perform a number of supporting operations, and data fields that contain
information about each piping element. A graphic representation of the model displays
automatically. This model updates as you add new elements.

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Piping Input Reference

In This Section
Classic Piping Input Dialog Box ..................................................... 100
Available Commands ..................................................................... 222
3D Modeler .................................................................................... 360
S3D/SPR Model View .................................................................... 379

Classic Piping Input Dialog Box


Data boxes are grouped into blocks of related data on the left side of the screen. Double click >>
in the upper right corner of any group to display an expanded set of boxes in a dialog box. You
can arrange these dialog boxes to meet your needs.
The right side of the screen offers an auxiliary area with tabs that support items entered through
check boxes. Press F12 to display the various auxiliary tabs.

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Navigating the Classic Piping Input Dialog Box using the


Function Keys
Function keys help you to quickly type data without using the mouse to move to various input
boxes. By default, when you place the cursor inside a box on the Classic Piping Input dialog
box, pressing a function key on the keyboard moves the cursor to the beginning of a block of
input data according to the list below.

Function Key Destination

F2 From Node

F3 DX

F4 Diameter

F5 Temp 1

F6 Material

F7 Elastic Modulus (c)

F8 Refractory Thickness

F9 Line number

Help Screens and Units


Press the question mark key ? or the F1 function key while the cursor is in any of the input data
cells to display interactive help text for that item. Hover the cursor over a box to display a tool tip
indicating the current units.

Node Numbers
Each element is identified by its end node number. Because each input screen represents a
piping element, you must specify the element end points - the From node and To node. These
points are used as locations at which information can be entered or extracted. The From node
and To node are both required.
CAESAR II generates both values if the AUTO_NODE_INCREMENT option is set to a
value other than zero using the Tools > Configure/Setup command on the main menu.

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Double-click >> to display the Edit Node Numbers dialog box.

From
Specifies the node number for the starting end of the element. Node numbers must be numeric,
ranging from 1 to 32000. Normally, the From node number is automatically generated by
CAESAR II from the preceding element. You can change the node numbers, but be careful not
to use the same node number more than once in a model.

To
Specifies the node number for the end of the element. Node numbers must be numeric, ranging
from 1 to 32000. You can change the node numbers, but be careful not to use the same node
number more than once in a model.

Name
Assigns nonnumeric names to node points. Double-click the Name check box to display an
auxiliary dialog box where you can assign names of up to 10 characters to the From and To
nodes. These names display instead of the node numbers in graphic plots and reports.
Nonnumeric names can be truncated in 80 column reports.

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Deltas
Type element lengths as delta dimensions according to the X, Y, and Z rectangular coordinate
system established for the piping system. The Y-axis represents the vertical axis in CAESAR II.
CAESAR II treats each element as a vector. The vector length is equal to the element length.
The vector direction points from the From node to the To node.
The delta dimensions DX, DY, and DZ, are the measurements along the X, Y, and Z-axes
between the From node and the To node. In most cases you only need to use one of the three
options, because the piping usually runs along the global axes. Where the piping element is
skewed, you must make two or three entries. You must define at least one option for all
elements except zero-length expansion joints.
When you are using feet and inches for compound length and length units, valid entries
include formats such as: 3-6, 3 ft. -6 in, and 3-6-3/16.
You can use offsets to modify the stiffness of the current element by adjusting its length and the
orientation of its neutral axis in 3-D space.
Double-click >> to display the Edit Deltas dialog box.

DX
Specifies the X component of the element.
CAESAR II accepts [compound length]-[length]-[fraction] formats (such as feet - inch - fraction or
meter - decimal - centimeters) as valid input values in most cells. You can use simple forms of
addition, multiplication, and division as well as exponential format.
Optionally, use a tic mark ( ' ) instead of the first dash ( - ), to indicate feet in this field.

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Piping Input Reference

DY
Specifies the Y component of the element.
CAESAR II accepts [compound length]-[length]-[fraction] formats (such as feet - inch - fraction or
meter - decimal - centimeters) as valid input values in most cells. You can use simple forms of
addition, multiplication, and division as well as exponential format.
Optionally, use a tic mark ( ' ) instead of the first dash ( - ), to indicate feet in this field.

DZ
Specifies the Z component of the element.
CAESAR II accepts [compound length]-[length]-[fraction] formats (such as feet - inch - fraction or
meter - decimal - centimeters) as valid input values in most cells. You can use simple forms of
addition, multiplication, and division as well as exponential format.
Optionally, use a tic mark ( ' ) instead of the first dash ( - ), to indicate feet in this field.

Offsets
Indicates whether the software corrects modeled dimensions of an element back to its actual
dimensions. Double-click the Offsets check box on the Classic Piping Input dialog box to
select or clear this option.
Specify the distances from the position of the From node in 3-D space to the actual From end of
the element.
Specify the distances from the position of the To node in 3-D space to the actual To end of the
element.
If you leave any offset direction distances blank, the software defaults them to zero.
Thermal expansion is 0 for the offset portion of an offset element. No element flexibility is
generated for the offset portion of the element. The following figure shows a common usage for
the offset element.

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Length
Specifies the distance between the To node and the From node.
Optionally, use a tic mark ( ' ) instead of the first dash ( - ), to indicate feet in this field.

Direction Cosines
Specifies the X, Y, and Z components or element direction cosines.
For an element aligned with the X-axis,
Cos X ..... 1.0
Cos Y ..... <Blank>

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Piping Input Reference

Cos Z ..... <Blank>


For an element aligned with the Y-axis,
Cos X ..... <Blank>
Cos Y ..... 1.0
Cos Z ..... <Blank>
For an element aligned with the Z-axis,
Cos X ..... <Blank>
Cos Y ..... <Blank>
Cos Z ..... 1.0

Pipe Sizes
Type the dimensions for the element. Plus mill tolerance is used only for the IGE/TD/12 piping
code. Seam weld is used only for the IGE/TD/12 piping code. These options carry forward from
one element to the next during the design session so you only need to type values for those
elements at which a change occurs. You can specify nominal pipe sizes and schedules.
CAESAR II converts these values to actual outside diameter and wall thickness. Outside
diameter and wall thickness are required data inputs.
Nominal diameters, thicknesses, and schedule numbers are a function of the pipe size
specification. Click Tools > Configure/Setup on the main menu or click CAESAR II
Configuration on the CAESAR II Tools toolbar to select ANSI, JIS, or DIN as the piping
size specification.
Double-click >> to display the Edit Pipe Sizes dialog box.

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Diameter
Specifies the pipe diameter. Normally, you should type the nominal diameter and CAESAR II
converts it to the actual outer diameter necessary for the analysis. There are two ways to
prevent this conversion:
Use a modified UNITS file with the Nominal Pipe Schedules turned off,
Specify diameters whose values are off slightly from a nominal size (in English units the
tolerance on diameter is 0.063 in.).
Use F1 to obtain additional information and the current units for this input box. Available nominal
diameters are determined by the active pipe size specification, set by the configuration software.
The following are the available nominal diameters.
ANSI Nominal Pipe ODs, in inches (file ap.bin)
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 42
JIS Nominal Pipe ODs, in millimeters (file jp.bin)
15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650
DIN Nominal Pipe ODs, in millimeters (file dp.bin)
15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200

Wt/Sch
Specifies the thickness of the pipe. Normal input consists of a schedule indicator (such as S,
XS, or 40), which is converted to the proper wall thickness by CAESAR II. If actual thickness is
entered, CAESAR II accepts it as entered. Available schedule indicators are determined by the
active piping specification, set by the configuration software.

ANSI B36.10 Steel Nominal Wall Thickness Designation:


S - Standard
XS - Extra Strong
XXS - Double Extra Strong

ANSI B36.10 Steel Pipe Numbers:


10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

ANSI B36.19 Stainless Steel Schedules:


5S 10S 40S 80S

JIS PIPE SCHEDULES


1990 Steel Schedules:
10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

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Piping Input Reference

1990 Stainless Steel Schedules:


5S 10S 40S

DIN PIPE SCHEDULES


None
Only the s (standard) schedule applies to wall thickness calculations for DIN.

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Seam Welded
Indicates whether the piping element is seam welded

B31.1 / B31.3
If the B31.1 or B31.3 piping codes are active, select the Seam-welded check box to activate the
Wl box. Wl (the weld strength reduction factor) is used by the software to determine the
minimum wall thickness of the element.

IGE/TD/12
If the IGE/TD/12 piping code is active, select the Seam welded check box when straight pipes
are seam welded. This option affects the stress intensification factor calculations for that pipe
section due to seam welded fabrication.

WI Factor
Specifies the WI factor.

+Mill Tol %; Wl
Specifies the positive mill tolerance. This option is only enabled when IGE/TD/12 is active. It is
used when the Base Stress/Flexibility On option of the Special Execution Options is set to
Plus Mill Tolerance. In that case, piping stiffness and section modulus is based on the nominal
wall thickness increased by this percentage. You can change this value on an
element-by-element basis.
If the B31.3 piping code is activated, this box specifies the weld strength reduction factor (W l), to
be used in the minimum wall calculation for straight pipe.

-Mill Tol %
Displays the negative mill tolerance. This value is read from the configuration file and used in
minimum wall thickness calculations. Also, for IGE/TD/12, this value is used when the Base
Stress/Flexibility On option of the Special Execution Options is set to Plus Mill Tolerance.
In that case, piping stiffness and section modulus is based on the nominal wall thickness,
decreased by this percentage. You can change this value on an element-by-element basis.

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Corrosion
Specifies the corrosion allowance used to calculate a reduced section modulus. There is a
configuration option available to consider all stress cases as corroded. For more information,
see All Cases Corroded (on page 90).

Pipe Density
Displays the pipe density value. The appropriate pipe density is filled in automatically when you
provide a proper material number. You can override this value at any time. The software then
duplicates the value through the rest of the input.

Fluid Density
Displays the fluid density. Specify the fluid density when the internal fluid the piping system
transports significantly affects the weight loads. When the specific gravity of the fluid is known,
you can type that instead of the density. For example, you could type 0.85SG. Specific gravities
are converted to the appropriate densities immediately on input. To type specific gravity, follow
the numeric value with the letters SG (no spaces). The software automatically converts this
value to density.
In the default ENGLISH units system, densities are typed in pounds per cubic inch.

Propagate Properties
Indicates whether to propagate the property changes. Clear this check box to indicate that
properties apply to the current element only.

Operating Conditions
You can specify up to nine temperatures and ten pressures (one extra for the hydrostatic test
pressure) for each piping element. The temperatures are actual temperatures, not changes from
the ambient temperature. CAESAR II uses these temperatures to obtain the thermal strain and
allowable stresses for the element from the Material Database. As an alternative, you can
directly specify the thermal strains. For more information, see Alpha Tolerance (on page 50).
Thermal strains have absolute values on the order of 0.002, and are unitless. Pressures are
typed as gauge values and cannot be negative. Each temperature and each pressure that you
typed creates a loading for you to use when building load cases. Both thermal and pressure
data carries forward from one element to the next until changed. Typing a value in the Hydro
pressure box causes CAESAR II to build a hydro case in the set of recommended load cases.
CAESAR II uses an ambient temperature of 70F, unless changed using the Special
Execution Parameters option. For more information, see New Job Ambient Temperature (on
page 51).

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Double-click >> to display the Edit Operating Conditions dialog box.

Temperatures
Specifies operating temperatures. There are nine temperature boxes to allow up to nine different
operating cases. The error checker validates temperature values to insure that they are within
the code allowed ranges. You can exceed the ranges by typing the expansion coefficient in the
temperature box in units of length/length. When you are using material 21 (user-defined
material), type a thermal expansion coefficient instead of a temperature.
Values, whose absolute values are less than the Alpha Tolerance, in the temperature box are
taken to be thermal expansion coefficients. The Alpha Tolerance is a configuration file
parameter and is taken to be 0.05 by default. For example, if you wanted to type the thermal
expansion coefficient equivalent to 11.37in./100ft., the calculation would be:
11.37in./100ft. * 1 ft./ 12in. = .009475 in./in.
Type this into the appropriate Temperature box.
A cut short does no more than reduce the length of a pipe element to zero. For example;
if you wanted 8.5 cm of cold spring you could put in an 8.5 cm long element and then thermally
shrink its length to zero. This allows the cold spring to be manipulated as an individual thermal
case rather than as a concentrated force.

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Piping Input Reference

Access to operating conditions 4 through 9 is granted through the Extended Operating


Conditions dialog box, accessible by clicking the >> button in the upper right corner of the
frame surrounding the standard Temperature and Pressure input boxes. You can keep this
dialog box open or closed for your convenience.

CAESAR II automatically suggests load cases according to IGE/TD/12 Appendix 7. Use the
following conventions for the specification of the operating conditions.
T1 Maximum Temperature
T2 Minimum Temperature
T3 Minimum Summer Temperature
T4 Maximum Winter Temperature
T5 Maximum Temperature (flow induced) (optional)
T6 Minimum Temperature (flow induced) (optional)
P1 Maximum Incidental Pressure
P2 Maximum Operating Pressure
P3 Compressor Operation
P4 Demand Pressure
HP Hydrotest Pressure

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Thermal Expansion
Displays thermal expansion coefficients. CAESAR II displays the corresponding thermal
expansion coefficients in the fields when you enter operating temperatures in the temperature
fields. When the thermal expansion coefficients are not in the material database, you can enter
thermal expansion coefficients in the temperature field if the absolute values are less than the
Alpha Tolerance in the configuration. The Alpha Tolerance is 0.05 by default. For more
information, see Alpha Tolerance (on page 50). You can enter up to nine thermal expansion
coefficients in units of length/length in the temperature field on the Extended Operating
Conditions dialogue box. CAESAR II displays these values in the Thermal Expansion boxes.

Pressures
Specifies operating pressures. There are ten pressure boxes to allow up to nine operating, and
one hydrotest, pressure cases. When you type multiple pressures, be careful with the setup of
the analysis load cases. Inspect the software's recommendations carefully before proceeding.
Access to operating pressures 3 through 9 is granted through the Extended Operating
Conditions dialog box, accessible by using the >> button in the upper right corner of the frame
surrounding the standard Temperature and Pressure input boxes. You can leave this dialog
box open or closed for your convenience.
Type a value in the HydroPress box to signal CAESAR II to recommend a Hydrotest load case.
Type the design gage pressure (that is, the difference between the internal and external
pressures).
The Bourdon effect (pressure elongation) is disabled by default because it is assumed to
be non-conservative. If you want to enable the Bourdon effect, you can do so by using the
Special Execution options. For more information, see New Job Bourdon Pressure (on page
51).
The Bourdon effect is always considered in the analysis of fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe,
which is Material id=20.
CAESAR II automatically suggests load cases according to IGE/TD/12 Appendix 7. You must
use the following conventions for the specification of the operating conditions.
T1 Maximum Temperature
T2 Minimum Temperature
T3 Minimum Summer Temperature
T4 Maximum Winter Temperature
T5 Maximum Temperature (flow induced) (optional)
T6 Minimum Temperature (flow induced) (optional)
P1 Maximum Incidental Pressure
P2 Maximum Operating Pressure
P3 Compressor Operation
P4 Demand Pressure
HP Hydrotest Pressure

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Component Information
Special components (such as bends, rigid elements, expansion joints, and tees) require
additional information. You can define this information by selecting the component check box,
and then typing data in the auxiliary dialog box.

Bend
Double-click Bend if the active element ends in a bend, elbow or mitered joint. This displays the
auxiliary dialog box on the right side of the screen. CAESAR II usually assigns three nodes to a
bend to define the near, mid, and far nodes on the bend. For more information, see Bends (on
page 115).

Rigid
Double-click Rigid if the active element is much stiffer than the connecting pipe, such as a
flange or valve. This displays the auxiliary dialog box to collect the component weight. For more
information, see Rigid (on page 120).
For rigid elements, CAESAR II follows these rules:
When the rigid element weight is defined as a value other than zero, CAESAR II computes
any extra weight due to insulation and contained fluid. The software then adds that value to
the defined weight value.
The weight of fluid added to a non-zero weight rigid element is equal to the same weight that
would be computed for an equivalent straight pipe. The weight of insulation added is equal
to the same weight that would be computed for an equivalent straight pipe multiplied by
1.75.
If the weight of a rigid element is zero or blank, CAESAR II assumes that the element is an
artificial construction element rather than an actual piping element. In this case, the software
does not calculate an insulation or fluid weight for that element.
The stiffness of the rigid element is relative to the diameter wall thickness. Make sure that
the diameter on a rigid element indicates the rigid stiffness to generate.

Expansion Joint
Double-click Expansion Joint if the active element is an expansion joint. This displays the
auxiliary dialog box used to collect stiffness parameters and effective diameter. For more
information, see Expansion Joints (on page 120).
Expansion joints can be modeled as zero-length (with all stiffnesses acting at a single point) or
as finite-length (with the stiffnesses acting over a continuous element). In the single-point case,
you must type all stiffness. In the continuous element case, you must omit either the lateral or
angular stiffness.

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SIF & Tees


Double-click SIF & Tees if the active element has special stress intensification factors (SIFs).
CAESAR II automatically calculates these factors for each component. For more information,
see SIFs & Tees (on page 125).
Bends, rigids, and expansion joints are mutually exclusive. For more information, see
Rigid (on page 120) and Expansion Joints (on page 120).

Bends
Indicates that the element is entering a bend. Select or clear this option by double-clicking the
Bend check box on the Classic Piping Input dialog box.
You can place Intermediate node points at specified angles along the bend, or at the bend
mid-point (M).

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Radius
Displays the bend radius. CAESAR II assumes a long radius by default. You can override this
value. Alternatively, select a value from the list.
Long - Indicates a long radius bend. The radius is equal to 1.5 times the nominal diameter.
Short - Indicates a short radius bend. The radius is equal to the nominal pipe diameter.
3D - Indicates a 3D bend. The radius is equal to 3 times the nominal diameter.
5D - Indicates a 5D bend. The radius is equal to 5 times the nominal diameter.

Type
Specifies the bend type. For most codes, this refers to the number of attached flanges and can
be selected from the list. If there are no flanges on the bend, leave Type blank. A bend should
be considered flanged if there is any heavy or rigid body within two diameters of the bend that
significantly restricts the bends ability to ovalize.
When using the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes with Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) pipe, this
entry refers to the material laminate type and may be 1, 2, or 3. These laminate types are
All chopped strand mat (CSM) constructing with internal and external surface tissue
reinforced layer.
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external
surface tissue reinforced layer.
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multi-filament roving construction with internal and external
surface tissue reinforced layer.
The laminate type affects the calculation of flexibility factors and stress intensification factors for
the BS 7159 and UKOOA Codes only.
For ISO 14692, only type 3 filament-wound laminate is considered.

Angle
Displays the angle to a point on the bend curvature. You can place additional nodes at any point
on the bend curvature provided the added nodes are not within five degrees of each other. You
can change the 5 node-spacing limit by using the configuration. For more information, see
Minimum Angle to Adjacent Bend (on page 64).
The element To node is always physically located at the far end of the bend. By default,
CAESAR II places a node at the midpoint of the bend (designated by the letter M in this box) as
well as at the zero degree position (start) of the bend, if possible.

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Node
Displays the node number associated with the extra point on the bend. CAESAR II places
unique node numbers in these boxes whenever you initiate a bend. New, unique node numbers
must be assigned to the points whenever you add points on the bend curvature. If numbering by
fives and the To node number for the bend element is 35, a logical choice for the node number
for an added node at 30 degrees on the bend would be 34. You can treat the added nodes on
the bend like any other nodes in the piping system. Nodes on the bend curvature may be
restrained, displaced, or placed at the intersection of more than two pipes. Nodes on a bend
curvature are most commonly used as an intersection for a dummy leg or for the location of a
restraint. All nodes defined in this manner are plotted at the tangent intersection point for the
bend.

Miter Points
Displays the number of cuts in the bend if it is mitered. When you type a number, CAESAR II
checks if the mitered bend input is closely or widely spaced. If the bend is determined to be
widely spaced, and the number of miter cuts is greater than one, the bend should be broken
down into n single cut widely spaced miters, where n is the total number of cuts in the bend.
The number of cuts and the radius of the bend are all that is required to calculate the SIFs and
flexibilities for the bend as defined in the B31 codes. The bend radius and the bend miter
spacing are related by the following equations:
Closely Spaced Miters
R = S / (2 tan )
q = Bend Angle / (2 n) where n = number of miter cuts
Widely Spaced Miters
R = r2 (1.0 + cot q) / 2.0
r2 = (ri + ro) / 2.0
= Bend Angle / 2.0

Fitting Thickness
Specifies the thickness of the bend if that thickness is different than the thickness of the
matching pipe. If the thickness is greater than the matching pipe wall thickness, then the inside
diameter of the bend is smaller than the inside diameter of the matching pipe. CAESAR II
calculates section modulus for stress computations based on the properties of the matching pipe
as defined by the codes.
The pipe thickness is used twice when calculating SIFs and flexibility factors; once as Tn, and
once when determining the mean cross-sectional radius of the pipe in the equation for the
flexibility characteristic (h):
h = (Tn)(R) / (r2)
Tn = Thickness of bend or fitting
R = Bend radius

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r = Mean cross-sectional radius of matching pipe


= (OD - WT) / 2
OD = Outside Diameter of matching pipe
WT = Wall Thickness of matching pipe
Most codes use the actual thickness of the fitting (this entry) for Tn, and the wall thickness of the
matching pipe for the calculation of the mean cross-sectional radius of the pipe (the WT value).
More specifically, the individual codes use the two wall thicknesses as follows:

Code For Tn: For Mean Radius Calculation:

B31.1 Fitting Fitting

B31.3 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.4 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.5 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.8 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.8 Ch VIII Fitting Matching Pipe

SECT III NC Fitting Matching Pipe

SECT III ND Fitting Matching Pipe

Z662 Matching Pipe Matching Pipe

NAVY 505 Fitting Fitting

B31.1 (1967) Fitting Fitting

SWEDISH Fitting Matching Pipe

BS 806 N/A N/A

STOOMWEZEN N/A N/A

RCC-M C/D Matching Matching Pipe


Pipe

CODETI Fitting Fitting

NORWEGIAN Fitting Fitting

FDBR Fitting Fitting

BS 7159 Fitting Fitting

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UKOOA Fitting Fitting

IGE/TD/12 Fitting Fitting

EN-13480 Fitting Matching Pipe

GPTC/Z380 Fitting Matching Pipe

The bend fitting thickness (FTG) is always used as the pipe thickness in the stiffness matrix
calculations. However, the thickness of the matching pipe (WT) is always used in the bend
stress calculations.

K-Factor
Specifies the bend flexibility factor. CAESAR II calculates the factor according to the current
piping code. You can type a value to override this calculation.

Seam-Welded
Indicates that the bend is seam welded.
B31.3
If the B31.3 piping code is active, the Seam Welded check box is used to activate the Wl
box for bends. The Wl box is the weld strength reduction factor used to determine the
minimum wall thickness of the bend element.
IGE/TD/12
Used by IGE/TD/12 to calculate the stress intensification factors due to seam welded elbow
fabrication as opposed to extruded elbow fabrication. This option is only available when
IGE/TD/12 is active.

Wl for Bends
B31.1 / B31.3 - Defines the weld strength reduction factor (W l) for bend elements. This value is
used in the minimum wall thickness calculations.
ISO 14692 - Replaces this box with EPTp/(EbTb) where Ep and Eb are the axial modulus of the
attached pipe and the bend respectively, T p and Tb are the average wall thickness of the
attached pipe and the bend respectively. If these values are omitted, the software uses a default
value of 1.0. This value affects the calculation of the flexibility factor for bends.

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Rigid
Indicates that you are supplying rigid element data. Select or clear this option by double-clicking
the Rigid check box on the Classic Piping Input dialog box.
Type a value for Rigid Weight. This value should always be zero or positive and should not
include the weight of any insulation or fluid. If you type no weight, then CAESAR II models the
element as a weightless construction element.
Rigid weights are defined automatically if you use the Valve and Flange database.

CAESAR II automatically includes 1.0 times the fluid weight of equivalent straight pipe and 1.75
times the insulation weight of equivalent straight pipe.
Rigid elements with zero weight are considered to be modeling constructs and do not have fluid
or insulation weight added.
The rigid element stiffness is proportional to the matching pipe. For example, a 13 in. long 12 in.
diameter rigid element is stiffer than a 13 in. long 2 in. diameter rigid element. This fact should
be observed when modeling rigid elements that are part of a small pipe/large vessel, or small
pipe/heavy equipment model. The stiffness properties are computed using 10 times the
thickness of the rigid element. For additional details, see Technical Discussions (on page 883).
Enter the rigid element in the DX, DY, and DZ boxes.
See Valve (on page 238) for automatic input for these types of components.

Expansion Joints
Indicates that you are supplying expansion joint data. Select or clear this option by
double-clicking Expansion Joint on the Classic Piping Input dialog box.
This auxiliary dialog box tab controls options for expansion joint stiffness parameters and
effective diameter. For a non-zero length expansion joint, you must omit either the transverse or
the bending stiffness.
Setting the effective diameter to zero deactivates the pressure thrust load. Use this
method in conjunction with setting a large axial stiffness to simulate the effect of axial tie-rods.

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Zero Length Expansion Joints


Specifies zeros in the DX, DY, and DZ fields (or leave the fields blank) for hinged and gimball
joints. Use 1.0 to define completely flexible stiffness and 1.0E12 to define completely rigid
stiffness. You must type all stiffnesses.

Finite Length Expansion Joints


Specifies the expansion joint vector in the DX, DY, and DZ boxes. Because the transverse
stiffness is directly related to the bending stiffness for finite length expansion joints, type only
one of these stiffnesses. CAESAR II calculates the other stiffness automatically based on
flexible length, effective ID, and the other stiffness. In general, type the transverse stiffness and
leave the bending stiffness blank.

Bellows Stiffness Properties


Specifies the expansion joint parameters.
If the element length is zero, then you should define all of the stiffnesses. If the element length is
not zero, then you should leave blank either the Bending Stif or the Trans Stif box. CAESAR II
automatically calculates the stiffness that you did not type. You can type all stiffnesses for
rubber expansion joints
If the torsional stiffness value is not specified, CAESAR II uses a default value of 0.10000E+06.
Bending STIFFNESSES from EJMA (and from most expansion joint manufacturers) that are
used in a finite length expansion joint model should be multiplied by four before being used in
any piping software. Bending STIFFNESSES from EJMA (and from most expansion joint
manufacturers) that are used in a ZERO length expansion joint model should be used without
modification.
Use 1.0 for bellows stiffnesses that are completely flexible.
Use 1.0E12 for rigid bellows stiffnesses.
Zero length expansion joints can be used in many modeling applications, such as defining struts
or hinged ends. The orientation of zero length expansion joints is taken from the element that
precedes the expansion joint if the To node of the preceding element is equal to the From node
on the expansion joint element. If the preceding element does not go into the expansion joint,
then the orientation is taken from the element that follows the expansion joint if it properly leaves
the joint.

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Effective ID
Specifies the effective inside diameter for pressure thrust from the manufacturer's catalog. For
all load cases, including pressure, CAESAR II calculates the pressure thrust force tending to
blow the bellows apart. If left blank, or zero, then no axial thrust force due to pressure is
calculated. Many manufacturers give the effective area of the expansion joint: A eff. The Effective
ID is calculated from the effective area by:
Effective ID = (4Aeff / )1/2

Reducer
Indicates that you are supplying reducer data. Select or clear this option by double-clicking
Reducer on the Classic Piping Input dialog box.

Specifies the Diameter 2, Thickness 2, and Alpha values at the To node of the reducer. The
diameter and wall thickness at the From node of the reducer element are taken from the current
piping element data.
CAESAR II constructs a concentric reducer element made of ten pipe cylinders, each of a
successively larger or smaller diameter and wall thickness over the element length. CAESAR II
calculates SIFs according to the current piping code (for more information, see Code
Compliance Considerations (on page 961)) and applies these internally to the Code Stress
Calculations. These SIFs are dependent on the slope of the reducer transition (among other
code-specific considerations), Alpha. If Alpha is left blank, then the software calculates this
value based on the change in pipe diameter over 60% of the element length. If specified,
Diameter 2 and Thickness 2 are carried forward when the next pipe element is created as

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Diameter and Wt/Sch. If not specified, Diameter 2 and Thickness 2 are assumed to be equal
to Diameter and Wt/Sch on the following element dialog box.

If there is no value for Alpha is specified on the dialog box, CAESAR II reports the alpha value
in the Errors and Warnings dialog box.

Diameter 2
Specifies the diameter at the To of the reducer element. The value carries forward as the
diameter of the following element. Nominal values are converted to actual values if that feature
is active. If left blank, CAESAR II uses the diameter from the following element as Diameter 2.

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Thickness 2
Specifies the wall thickness at the To node of the reducer element. The value carries forward as
the wall thickness of the following element. Nominal values are converted to actual values if that
feature is active. If this option is left blank, CAESAR II uses the thickness from the following
element as Thickness 2.

Alpha
Specifies the slope, in degrees, of the reducer transition. If left blank, CAESAR II assumes the
slope equal to the arc tangent 1/2(the change in diameters) / (length of sloped portion of
reducer).
TD/12. This entry is a required input for IGE/TD/12.

Because all reducers are different, the actual length of sloped portion of reducer is unknown
unless you define it. Because of this, if Alpha is not specified, CAESAR II makes an assumption
that the length of sloped portion of reducer is equal to 60% of the total reducer length. If you
leave the Alpha value blank, then CAESAR II defaults to arc tangent 1/2(the change in
diameters) / (0.60 x element length).

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R1
Specifies the transition radius for the large end of the reducer as shown in Appendix 4, Table 8
of IGE/TD/12 Code. This option is enabled only when IGE/TD/12 is active.

R2
Specifies the transition radius for the small end of the reducer as shown in Appendix 4, Table 8
of IGE/TD/12. This option is enabled only when IGE/TD/12 is active.

SIFs & Tees


Indicates that you are supplying SIF and tee data. Select or clear by double-clicking the SIFs &
Tees check box on the Classic Piping Input dialog box.

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This auxiliary dialog box tab controls options for stress intensification factors (SIFs), or fitting
types, for up to two nodes per element. If you select components from the list, CAESAR II
automatically calculates the SIF values according to the applicable code unless you override this
behavior. Certain fittings and certain codes require additional data. Boxes display as appropriate
for the selected fitting.

There are two basic component types:


Three element intersection components
Two element joint components
A fully defined intersection model requires that three pipes frame into the intersection node and
that two of them are co-linear. Partial intersection assumptions are made for junctions where
you have coded one or two pipes into the intersection node, but these models are not
recommended. Two element joint components can be formed equally well with one or two
elements framing into the node.

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You only need to type the intersection or joint type and properties on one of the elements going
to the junction. CAESAR II duplicates the intersection characteristics for all other pipes framing
into the intersection.
Fully review the warning messages coming from CAESAR II during error checking. These
messages detail any assumptions made during the assembly and calculation of the intersection
SIFs.
The available intersections and joint types, along with the other parameters that can affect the
stress intensification factors for the respective component, are shown in the table that follows.

Input Items Optionally Affecting SIF Calculations (Except for ISO 14692)*

1 REINFORCED FABRICATED TEE PAD THK FTG RO CROTC


H

2 UNREINFORCED FABRICATED FTG RO CROTC


TEE H

3 WELDING TEE FTG RO CROTC


H

4 SWEEPOLET CROTC
H

5 WELDOLET CROTC
H

6 EXTRUDED WELDING TEE FTG RO CROTC


H

7 GIRTH BUTT WELD WELD D OR ID

8 SOCKET WELD (NO UNDERCUT) FILLET

9 SOCKET WELD (AS WELDED) FILLET

10 TAPERED TRANSITION WELD D

11 THREADED JOINT

12 DOUBLE WELDED SLIP-ON

13 LAP JOINT FLANGE (B16.9)

14 BONNEY FORGE SWEEPOLET

15 BONNEY FORGE LATROLET WELD ID

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16 BONNEY FORGE INSERT


WELDOLET

17 FULL ENCIRCLEMENT TEE FTG RO WELD ID

*This list does not include input items effecting SIF calculations for ISO 14692. For more
information on ISO 14692, see Input Items Optionally Affecting SIF Calculations For ISO 14692
(on page 136).

Node
Specifies the node number where the stress intensification exists. CAESAR II displays the To
node of the current element by default. You can type any node in the system, but it is most often
at a pipe intersection or joint.
If the node is at an intersection, CAESAR II calculates SIFs for all pipes going to the intersection
if the intersection Type is specified. You only need to type the intersection type once. CAESAR
II finds all other pipes framing into the intersection and applies the appropriate SIFs.
If the node is at a two-pipe joint, such as a butt weld, CAESAR II calculates SIFs for the two
pipes going to the joint node if the joint Type is specified. You only need to specify the joint type
once. CAESAR II finds the other pipe completing the joint and applies the appropriate SIFs.
If the node is not at an intersection or a joint then, leave the Type box blank and type user
defined SIFs in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) boxes. Entries in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) boxes only apply to
the element on which they are defined.
User defined stress intensification factors must be greater than or equal to one.
CAESAR II calculates and displays code-defined SIFs in the Intersection SIF scratchpad.
Access this scratchpad from the Classic Piping Input dialog box by clicking Environment >
Review SIFs at Intersection Nodes or Intersection SIF scratchpad on the Input Tools
toolbar. You can modify parameters used in the scratchpad so that you can observe the effects
of different geometries and thicknesses. Most changes made in the scratchpad can be
automatically transferred back into the model.
If the node is on any part of the bend curvature then the following applies:
1. You cannot override code calculated SIFs for bends by default. A configuration option exists
to override this default. For more information, see Allow User's SIF at Bend (on page 90). If
you set Allow User's SIF at Bend to True, then you can specify SIFs for bend To nodes.
The SIFs specified in this way apply for the entire bend curvature.
2. CAESAR II applies user-defined SIFs to straight pipe going to points on a bend curvature
regardless of any parameter in the setup file. This option is commonly used to intensify
injector tie-ins at bends, or dummy legs, or other bend attachment-type of supports.

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Type
Specifies the type of tee or joint.
For non-FRP piping codes, there are six types of tees and ten types of joints. These
elements correspond to 1 to 6 and 7 to 16 in the previous table. For more information, see
Input Items Optionally Effecting SIF Calculations (see "Input Items Optionally Affecting SIF
Calculations (Except for ISO 14692)*" on page 127).
For BS 7159 and UKOOA, there are two types of tees: Moulded and Fabricated. Moulded
tee corresponds to either the Welding (3) or Extruded (6) welding tee Type. Fabricated tee
corresponds to a tee Type of Reinforced (1).
For ISO 14692, there are three types of tee and joints: Tee (1), Qualified Tee (3), and Joint
(2).
ASME NC and ND piping codes do not include equations for SIFs with a tee Type of
Sweepolet (4), Weldolet (5), or Extruded (6). When you specify one of these tee types,
CAESAR II uses B31.1 equations.

In-Plane SIF (ii)


Indicates the in-plane stress intensification factors (SIFs) for a bend or an intersection.
Specify this value for any point in the piping system by selecting the SIFs & Tees check box on
the Classic Piping Input dialog box. Enter the node number to which the stress applies. Then,
specify the In-Plane SIF (ii) value on the SIFs/Tees tab.
If you do not specify a value in the In-Plane SIF (ii) and Out-Plane SIF (io) boxes,
CAESAR II performs code-related calculations.
For more information on stress intensification factors (SIFs) in CAESAR II, see Stress
Intensification Factors Details.

In-Plane Index (Ii)


Indicates the in-plane sustained stress index (Ii) value.
Specify this value for any point in the piping system by selecting the SIFs & Tees check box on
the Classic Piping Input dialog box. Enter the node number to which the stress index applies.
Then, specify the In-Plane (Ii) value on the SIFs/Tees tab.
If you do not specify a value in the In-Plane Index (Ii) box, CAESAR II sets the value to
the greater value of either 0.75 multiplied by the In-Plane SIF value (ii) or 1.0.
For more information on stress intensification factors (SIFs) in CAESAR II, see Stress
Intensification Factors Details.

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Out-Plane SIF (io)


Indicates the out-of-plane stress intensification factors (SIFs) for a bend or intersection.
Specify this value for any point in the piping system by selecting the SIFs & Tees check box on
the Classic Piping Input dialog box. Enter the node number to which the stress applies. Then,
specify the Out-Plane SIF (io) value on the SIFs/Tees tab.
If you do not specify a value in the In-Plane SIF (ii) and Out-Plane SIF (io) boxes,
CAESAR II performs code-related calculations.
For more information on stress intensification factors (SIFs) in CAESAR II, see Stress
Intensification Factors Details.

Out-Plane Index (Io)


Indicates the out-of-plane sustained stress index (Io) value.
Specify this value for any point in the piping system by selecting the SIFs & Tees check box on
the Classic Piping Input dialog box. Enter the node number to which the stress index applies.
Then, specify the Out-Plane Index (io) value on the SIFs/Tees tab.
If you do not specify a value in the Out-Plane Index (Io) box, CAESAR II sets the value
to the greater value of either 0.75 multiplied by the Out-Plane SIF value (io) or 1.0.
For more information on stress intensification factors (SIFs) in CAESAR II, see Stress
Intensification Factors Details.

Torsion SIF (it)


Indicates the torsional SIF (it) value for a bend or an intersection.
Specify this value for any point in the piping system by selecting the SIFs & Tees check box on
the Classic Piping Input dialog box. Enter the node number to which the stress index applies.
Then, specify the Torsion SIF (it) value on the SIFs/Tees tab.
If you do not specify a value in the Torsion SIF (it) box, CAESAR II sets the value to 1.0
by default.
For more information on stress intensification factors (SIFs) in CAESAR II, see Stress
Intensification Factors Details.

Torsion Index (It)


Indicates the sustained torsional moment index (It). You can use this index value (along with the
torsional moment due to sustained loads) to determine the amount of stress that is due to
sustained torsional moment.
Specify this value for any point in the piping system by selecting the SIFs & Tees check box on
the Classic Piping Input dialog box. Enter the node number to which the stress index applies.
Then, specify the Torsion Index (It) value on the SIFs/Tees tab.
If you do not specify a value in the Torsion Index (It) box, CAESAR II sets the value to
1.0 by default.
For more information on stress intensification factors (SIFs) in CAESAR II, see Stress
Intensification Factors Details.

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Axial SIF (ia)


Indicates the longitudinal (axial) SIF (ia) value on a bend or at an intersection.
Specify this value for any point in the piping system by selecting the SIFs & Tees check box on
the Classic Piping Input dialog box. Enter the node number to which the SIF applies. Then,
specify the Axial SIF (ia) value on the SIFs/Tees tab.
The B31.3 code indicates that, in the absence of more applicable data, the Axial SIF (ia)
value is 1 for elbows, pipe bends, and miter bends. The ia value is the same as the Out-Plane
SIF (io) value for all other components.
For more information on stress intensification factors (SIFs) in CAESAR II, see Stress
Intensification Factors Details.

Axial Index (Ia)


Indicates the sustained longitudinal (axial) force index (I a). You can use this index value (along
with the longitudinal force due to sustained loads and the dimensions of a cross-sectional area
of the pipe) to determine the amount of stress that is due to sustained longitudinal force.
Specify this value for any point in the piping system by selecting the SIFs & Tees check box on
the Classic Piping Input dialog box. Enter the node number to which the stress index applies.
Then, specify the Axial Index (Ia) value on the SIFs/Tees tab.
If you do not specify a value in the Axial Index (Ia) box, CAESAR II sets the value to 1.0
by default.
For more information on stress intensification factors (SIFs) in CAESAR II, see Stress
Intensification Factors Details.

Pressure SIF (ip)


Indicates the pressure SIF (ip) value for a bend or an intersection.
Specify this value for any point in the piping system by selecting the SIFs & Tees check box on
the Classic Piping Input dialog box. Enter the node number to which the stress pressure
applies. Then, specify the Pressure SIF (ip) value on the SIFs/Tees tab.
If you do not specify a value in the Pressure SIF (ip) box, CAESAR II sets the value to
1.0 by default.
For more information on stress intensification factors (SIFs) in CAESAR II, see Stress
Intensification Factors Details.

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Pressure Index (Ip)


Indicates the sustained pressure index (Ip).
Specify this value for any point in the piping system by selecting the SIFs & Tees check box on
the Classic Piping Input dialog box. Enter the node number to which the stress index applies.
Then, specify the Pressure Index (ip) value on the SIFs/Tees tab.
If you do not specify a value in the Pressure Index (Ip) box, CAESAR II sets the value to
1.0 by default.
For more information on stress intensification factors (SIFs) in CAESAR II, see Stress
Intensification Factors Details.

Pad Thk
Specifies the thickness of the reinforcing pad for reinforced fabricated or full encirclement tees
(intersection type #1 and #17, respectively). The pad thickness is only valid for these
intersection types. If the thickness of a type #1 or type #17 intersection is left blank or the value
entered is zero, the software uses the SIFs for an unreinforced fabricated tee.
In most piping codes, the beneficial effect of the pad thickness is limited to 1.5 times the nominal
thickness of the header. This factor does not apply in BS 806 or Z184, and is 2.5 in the Swedish
piping code.

Ftg Ro
Specifies the fitting outside radius for branch connections. This option is used for reduced
branch connections in the ASME and B31.1 piping codes, Bonney Forge Insert Weldolets, and
for WRC 329 intersection SIF calculations. Configuration options exist to invoke the WRC 329
calculations and to limit the application of the reduced branch connection rules to unreinforced
fabricated tees, sweepolets, weldolets, and extruded welding tees. If omitted, Ftg Ro defaults to
the outside radius of the branch pipe.

CROTCH R
Specifies the crotch radius of the formed lip on an extruded welding tee, intersection type 6. This
is also the intersection weld crotch radius for WRC329 calculations. Specifying this value can
result in a 50% reduction in the stress intensification at the WRC 329 intersection. If you attempt
to reduce the stress riser at a fabricated intersection by guaranteeing that there is a smooth
transition radius from the header to the branch pipe, then you may reduce the resulting stress
intensification by a factor of 2.0.

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WELD (D)
Specifies the average circumferential weld mismatch measured at the inside diameter of the
pipe. This value is used for Butt Welds and Tapered transitions. This is the average; not the
maximum mismatch. You must verify that any maximum mismatch requirements are satisfied for
your particular code.

FILLET
Specifies the fillet leg length. This option is used only in conjunction with a socket weld
component. This value is the length of the shorter leg for an unequal leg fillet weld. If a fillet leg
is given, both socket weld types result in the same SIF. See appendix D of the B31 piping codes
for further clarification.

Weld ID
Specifies the weld ID value. The following values are valid.
0 or BLANK - As Welded
1 - Finished/Ground Flush
Used for:
BONNEY FORGE SWEEPOLETS
BONNEY FORGE INSERT WELDOLETS
BUTT WELDS IN THE SWEDISH PIPING CODE
If this value is 1 then the weld is considered to be ground flush on the inside and out and the SIF
is taken as 1.0.
For more information on how input parameters are used to compute SIFs for girth butt welds,
see WELD (D) (on page 133).

B1; Wc
Specifies values that depend upon the code that you are using.

ASME Class 2 and ASME Class 3


Defines the primary stress index used for the given node on the current element.
Unless you otherwise over ride this value, the following values are applied for ASME Class 2
and Class 3 piping:

Straight Pipe: B1 = 0.5 B2 = 1.0

Curved Pipe: B1 = -0.1 + 0.4h; but not <0 or >0.5


B2 = 1.30/h**2/3 but not <1.0; h = tR/ rm**2

Intersections: B1 = 0.5

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Butt Welded Tees: B2b = 0.4(R/T)**2/3 but not < 1.0


B2r = 0.5(R/T)**2/3 but not < 1.0

Branch Connections: (r < 0.5R)


B2b = 0.50 C2b but not < 1.0
B2r = 0.75 C2r but not < 1.0
C2b = 3(R/T)**2/3 (r/R)**1/2 (t/T)(r/FTG ro) but not < 1.5
C2r = 1.15(r/t)**1/4 but not < 1.5

B31.1 / B31.3
Defines the weld strength reduction factor (W c) used to reduce the allowable stress for the
sustained load case.

BS-7159 and UKOOA


Defines the pressure stress multiplier (m) if it is different than the code requirements. For
straight pipe, m = 1.0; for bends and tees, m is defined in Figures 7.1 and 7.12 of the BS 7159
Code.

IGE/TD/12
Override the cyclic pressure stress intensification factor Ip(Cyc) if it is different than the code
calculations (calculated according to Table 9, Figure 5, and Figure 7 of the code).

B2
Specifies the primary stress index for the given node on the current element. This entry is only
applicable for ASME Class 2 and 3 piping.
If omitted, B1 and B2 are defaulted as follows:

Straight Pipe: B1=0.5 B2=1.0

Curved Pipe: B1=-0.1+0.4h; but not <0 or >0.5


B2=1.30/h2/3; but not <1.0; h=tR/rm 2

Intersections: B1=0.5

Butt-Welded Tees: B2b=0.4(R/T)2/3 but not <1.0


B2r=0.5(R/T)2/3 but not <1.0

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Branch Connections: (r<0.5R)


B2b=0.50 C2b but not <1.0
B2r=0.75 C2r but not <1.0
C2b=3(R/T)2/3 (r/R)1/2 (t/T)(r/FTG ro) but not <1.5
C2r=1.15(r/t)1/4 but not <1.5

You can use the SIF(IN) and SIF(OUT) boxes to override the CAESAR II calculated values for
any intersection. Override values only apply for the single element on which they are defined.
SIFs can be calculated for partial intersections and dummy legs.
When IGE/TD/12 is active, the SIF/TEE dialog box changes its appearance to
accommodate specialized SIF parameters. Refer to the supplementary IGE/TD/12
documentation for further information.

Code Options (B31.1 & B31.8)

B31.1:
Indicates that the tee meets the dimensional criteria of Figure D1 as well as Notes 6a, 6c, 6d,
6e, and 6f. This allows the software to use the branch equation when determining the SIF value
for the tee. Note that this option relies on the setting of the Configuration Options Reduced
Intersection and No RFT / WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs.

B31.8:
Indicates that the software should use B31.8 Notes 6, 9, or 10, as applicable, when determining
the SIF value for the tee.

ASME NC and ND:


Indicates that the tee meets the dimensional criteria of Figure 3673.2(b)-2 as well as Notes 10
and 11. This allows the software to use the branch equation when determining the SIF value for
the tee. Note that this option relies on the setting of the Configuration Options Reduced
Intersection and No RFT / WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs.

ASME NC/ND 3673.2(b)-1 Note 3


Indicates that the material for this tee is ferrous, which enables the software to compute the Y
value based on the highest temperature value specified.

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Input Items Optionally Affecting SIF Calculations For ISO 14692


When you select SIF & Tees on the Classic Piping Input dialog box, the Auxiliary panel for
SIFs/Tees becomes active. The Type box indicates what type of tee or joint to use for the piping
code specified. The software uses this input in the same way for most piping codes. However,
there are only a few tee and joint types for ISO 14692.

1 Tee

2 Joint

3 Qualified Tee

Specifying a tee, a qualified tee, or a joint in the Type box allows CAESAR II to perform the
correct allowable stress calculations.
Select 1 - Tee for the software to use the method specified in the ISO 14692 code for
non-qualified tees.
Select 2 - Joint for CAESAR II to use the calculations specified in the code for joints and
fittings.
Select 3 - Qualified Tee for the software to use the code-specified calculation for qualified
service stress for tees (including the pressure stress multiplier, mpst).

User-Defined SIFs Anywhere in the Piping System


SIFs for non-intersection points are normally taken to be 1.0 unless the piping element is a
bend. If the SIF should be greater than (1.0), then you can type the non-unity SIF in the
Intersection Auxiliary box without specifying the intersection type. A user-defined SIF only acts
at the node on the current element.

Stress Intensification Factors and Stress Indices Details


CAESAR II calculates SIFs automatically for bends and defined intersections as specified by the
applicable piping code. You can type a user-defined SIF for any point in the piping system by
activating the SIFs & Tees check box on the Classic Piping Input dialog box. Type the node
number where the stress is to be intensified in the first available Node box. Type the in-plane
and out-plane stress intensification factors in the In-Plane SIF (ii) and the Out-Plane SIF (io)
boxes. Specify any axial and torsion index values on the elements on the Axial Index (Ia) and
Torsion Index (It) boxes.
You cannot specify SIFs for bend elements unless the Allow User's SIF at Bend option
is set to True in the configuration file. For more information, see Allow User's SIF at Bend (on
page 90). Code defined SIFs always apply.
CAESAR II does not allow user-defined stress intensification factors to be less than 1.0.
The node to be intensified must be the To or the From node on the current element.

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Stresses are only intensified at the element end going to the specified node. For example, if two
pipes frame into node 10, one going from 5 to 10, and the other from 10 to 15 and a stress
intensification factor of 2.0 for node 10 is defined on the element from 5 to 10, then the 10 end of
the element from 5 to 10 has a stress intensification of 2.0 and the 10 end of the element from
10 to 15 has a stress intensification of 1.0.
You can use user-defined stress intensification factors to override code calculated values for
nodes at intersections. For example, let node 40 be an intersection defined by an unreinforced
fabricated tee. The header pipes framing into the intersection go from 35 to 40 and from 40 to
45. The branch pipe framing into the intersection goes from 175 to 40. The code-calculated
values for the stress intensification factors in the header pipes are:
SIF (ii) = 4.50
SIF (io) = 3.75
and in the branch pipe are
SIF (ii) = 6.70
SIF (io) = 5.58
Also assume that finite element analysis of the intersection showed the header stress
intensification factors to be 2.3 and 1.87 respectively and the branch stress intensification
factors to be equal to the code recommended value, that is 6.70 and 5.58. To properly override
the code-calculated stress intensification factors for the header pipes, two pipe elements must
be modified:

35 to 40 Node 40
Type:
SIF (ii): 2.3
SIF (io): 1.87

40 to 15 Node 40
Type:
SIF (ii): 2.3
SIF (io): 1.87

The stress intensification for the branch pipes can be calculated according to the code, so part
of the branch pipe data might appear:

175 to 40 NODE 40
Type: 2 - Unreinforced
SIF (ii):
SIF (io):

If either of the SIF boxes for the header elements going to 40 were left blank, the
code-calculated value would be used in its place. This is only true where code-calculated values
exist along with user-specified values.
If the element from 110 to 115 needs the stress intensification factors for each of its ends is 2.0,
then a part of that element data might appear:

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Piping Input Reference

110 to 115 Node 110


Type:
SIF (ii): 2.0
SIF (io):
Node: 115
Type:
SIF (ii): 2.0
SIF (io):

Leaving the out-of-plane stress intensification factor blank implies that it is equal to the in-plane
stress intensification factor. There are no code-calculated values to override these user-input
values.
If you do not specify Torsion SIF (it), Axial SIF (ia), and Pressure SIF (ip), CAESAR II
calculates the values as 1.
The ASME B31.3 code update also introduced using the stress indices in sustained stress
equations.
If you do not specify the In-Plane Index (Ii), then CAESAR II uses the greater value of either
0.75 multiplied by the In-Plane SIF value (ii) or 1.0.
If you do not specify the Out-Plane Index (Io), then CAESAR II uses the greater value of either
of 0.75 multiplied by the Out-Plane SIF (io) or 1.
If you do not specify the Torsion Index (It), Axial Index (Ia), and Pressure Index (Ip),
CAESAR II sets these values to 1.
Currently, the software does not use the Pressure SIF (ip) or Pressure Index (Ip) in the
calculation.
You are not permitted to override code-calculated stress intensification factors for bend
elements unless the Allow User's SIF at Bend option is set to True in the configuration file.
Additionally, bend stress intensification factors supersedes any code-calculated intersection
stress intensification factors for the same node. This characteristic allows you to apply
code-calculated intersection stress intensification factors to dummy legs without disturbing the
normal bend stress intensification factors. The node on the dummy leg, which is also on the
bend curvature, is defined as an intersection on the Intersection SIF Scratchpad. The
intersection stress intensification factors are calculated and can be applied to the dummy leg
end that connects to the bend. Bend stress intensification factors are unchanged.
Stress intensification factors can be calculated for intersections having one, two, or three pipes
framing into it. Where two pipes form a partial intersection, CAESAR II assumes that the larger
pipe is the header and the smaller the branch.
Where one pipe forms a partial intersection, CAESAR II assumes that the intersection is full
sized.
CAESAR II does not calculate stress intensification factors for intersections having more than
three pipes framing into it (for example, a cross, and for non 90-degree branches, such as
lateral intersections).

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SIF Scratchpad
View the stress intensification factors calculated by CAESAR II interactively from the Classic
Piping Input dialog box by clicking Environment > Review SIFs at Intersection Nodes or
Intersection SIF scratchpad on the Input Tools toolbar.
View the stress intensification factors at bends from the Classic Piping Input dialog box by
clicking Environment > Review SIFs at Bends or Bend SIF scratchpad on the Input
Tools toolbar.
The SIF scratchpads display after you type in the node number to review when prompted. The
node must be a valid bend node when reviewing SIFs at bends.

You can interactively change any of the data and recalculate the SIFs. This allows you to see
the effect of changing geometries and properties on code stress intensification factors.
CAESAR II allows you to transfer data from the scratchpad back to the actual model.

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IGE\TD\12 Requirements
IGE\TD\12 requires different information than the other codes used in CAESAR II. When
IGE\TD\12 is active, the SIFs/Tees Auxiliary field changes to accommodate specialized SIF
parameters. For more information regarding the specialized parameters refer to the text and
figures at the end of this section.

Node
Specifies the node number where the stress intensification exists. CAESAR II displays the To
node of the current element by default. You can type any node in the system, but it is most often
at a pipe intersection or joint.
If the node is at an intersection, CAESAR II calculates SIFs for all pipes going to the intersection
if the intersection Type is specified. You only need to type the intersection type once. CAESAR
II finds all other pipes framing into the intersection and applies the appropriate SIFs.
If the node is at a two-pipe joint, such as a butt weld, CAESAR II calculates SIFs for the two
pipes going to the joint node if the joint Type is specified. You only need to specify the joint type
once. CAESAR II finds the other pipe completing the joint and applies the appropriate SIFs.

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If the node is not at an intersection or a joint then, leave the Type box blank and type user
defined SIFs in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) boxes. Entries in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) boxes only apply to
the element on which they are defined.
User defined stress intensification factors must be greater than or equal to one.
CAESAR II calculates and displays code-defined SIFs in the Intersection SIF scratchpad.
Access this scratchpad from the Classic Piping Input dialog box by clicking Environment >
Review SIFs at Intersection Nodes or Intersection SIF scratchpad on the Input Tools
toolbar. You can modify parameters used in the scratchpad so that you can observe the effects
of different geometries and thicknesses. Most changes made in the scratchpad can be
automatically transferred back into the model.
If the node is on any part of the bend curvature then the following applies:
1. You cannot override code calculated SIFs for bends by default. A configuration option exists
to override this default. For more information, see Allow User's SIF at Bend (on page 90). If
you set Allow User's SIF at Bend to True, then you can specify SIFs for bend To nodes.
The SIFs specified in this way apply for the entire bend curvature.
2. CAESAR II applies user-defined SIFs to straight pipe going to points on a bend curvature
regardless of any parameter in the setup file. This option is commonly used to intensify
injector tie-ins at bends, or dummy legs, or other bend attachment-type of supports.

Type
Specifies the type of tees or joints.

Do/r3
Specifies the following terms for each component type:
Forged Tee to BS 1640 - Specifies the Do value. For more information on Do, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Weldolet - Specifies the r3 value. For more information on r3, see IGE\TD\12 Reference (on
page 144).
Drawn/Extruded Tee - Specifies the Do value. For more information on Do, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Weldoflange - Specifies the r3 value. For more information on r3, see IGE\TD\12 Reference
(on page 144).

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T/Th/T'b
Specifies the following terms for each component type:
Forged Tee to BS 1640 - Specifies the T value. For more information on T, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Weldolet - Specifies the theta value. For more information on theta, see IGE\TD\12 Reference
(on page 144).
Drawn/Extruded Tee - Specifies the T value. For more information on T, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Weldoflange - Specifies the theta value. For more information on theta, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).

Te/Tb
Specifies the following terms for each component type:
Fabricated Tee with Pad - Specifies the Te value. For more information on Te, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Forged Tee to BS 1640 - Specifies the Tb value. For more information on Tb, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Weldolet - Specifies the Tb value. For more information on Tb, see IGE\TD\12 Reference (on
page 144).
Drawn/Extruded Tee - Specifies the Tb value. For more information on Tb, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Full Encirclement Tee - Specifies the Te value. For more information on Te, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Long Weldneck Flange - Specifies the Tb value. For more information on Tb, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Weldoflange - Specifies the Tb value. For more information on Tb, see IGE\TD\12 Reference
(on page 144).

rp/do
Specifies the following terms for each component type:
Fabricated Tee - Specifies the rp value. For more information on rp, see IGE\TD\12 Reference
(on page 144).
Forged Tee to BS 1640 - Specifies the do value. For more information on do, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Weldolet - Specifies the rp value. For more information on rp, see IGE\TD\12 Reference (on
page 144).
Drawn/Extruded Tee - Specifies the do value. For more information on do, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).

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Long Weldneck Flange - Specifies the rp value. For more information on rp, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Weldoflange - Specifies the rp value. For more information on rp, see IGE\TD\12 Reference
(on page 144).

r2/rc
Specifies the following terms for each component type:
Fabricated Tee - Specifies the r2 value. For more information on r2, see IGE\TD\12 Reference
(on page 144).
Forged Tee to BS 1640 - Specifies the rc value. For more information on rc, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Sweepolet - Specifies the rc value. For more information on rc, see IGE\TD\12 Reference (on
page 144).
Weldolet - Specifies the r2 value. For more information on r2, see IGE\TD\12 Reference (on
page 144).
Drawn/Extruded Tee - Specifies the rc value. For more information on rc, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Long Weldneck Flange - Specifies the r2 value. For more information on r2, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Weldoflange - Specifies the r2 value. For more information on r2, see IGE\TD\12 Reference
(on page 144).

r1/Tc/Lh
Specifies the following terms for each component type:
Fabricated Tee - Specifies the r1 value. For more information on r1, see IGE\TD\12 Reference
(on page 144).
Forged Tee to BS 1640 - Specifies the Tc value. For more information on Tc, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Sweepolet - Specifies the r1 value. For more information on r1, see IGE\TD\12 Reference (on
page 144).
Weldolet - Specifies the r1 value. For more information on r1, see IGE\TD\12 Reference (on
page 144).
Drawn/Extruded Tee - Specifies the Lh value. For more information on Lh, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Long Weldneck Flange - Specifies the r1 value. For more information on r1, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Weldoflange - Specifies the r1 value. For more information on r1, see IGE\TD\12 Reference
(on page 144).

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L1/Lb
Specifies the following terms for each component type:
Fabricated Tee - Specifies the L1 value. For more information on L1, see IGE\TD\12 Reference
(on page 144).
Weldolet - Specifies the L1 value. For more information on L1, see IGE\TD\12 Reference (on
page 144).
Drawn/Extruded Tee - Specifies the Lb value. For more information on Lb, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Long Weldneck Flange - Specifies the L1 value. For more information on L1, see IGE\TD\12
Reference (on page 144).
Weldoflange - Specifies the L1 value. For more information on L1, see IGE\TD\12 Reference
(on page 144).

IGE\TD\12 Reference
Use the figures below to identify the specialized parameters.

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Forged Tee

Weldolet

CAESAR II User's Guide 145


Piping Input Reference

Drawn/Extruded Tee

Weldoflange

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Full Encirclement Tee

Long Weldneck Flange

CAESAR II User's Guide 147


Piping Input Reference

Sweepolet

Fabricated Tee

Fabricated Tee with Pad

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Weld ID
Specifies the weld ID value. The following values are valid.
0 or BLANK - As Welded
1 - Finished/Ground Flush
Used for:
BONNEY FORGE SWEEPOLETS
BONNEY FORGE INSERT WELDOLETS
BUTT WELDS IN THE SWEDISH PIPING CODE
If this value is 1 then the weld is considered to be ground flush on the inside and out and the SIF
is taken as 1.0.
For more information on how input parameters are used to compute SIFs for girth butt welds,
see WELD (D) (on page 133).

Stress Concentration Factors


Overrides the stress concentration factors calculated according to the IGE/TD/12 Code
equations. Any values typed here apply only to the element on which they have been specified
except when entered on a bend node. In that case, they apply throughout the bend.
For branches of tees, any bending SCFs specified here must include the "w" term.

Fatigue Class
Overrides the fatigue class calculated according to the IGE/TD/12 Code equations. Any values
selected here apply only to the element on which they have been specified except when entered
on a bend node. In that case, they apply throughout the bend.

Boundary Conditions
The checkboxes in this block open the auxiliary dialog box tabs to collect information on items
which restrain (or impose movement on) the pipe. These items include restraints, hangers,
flexible nozzles or displacements. Though not required, it is recommended that you define such
information on the dialog box which has that point as the From node or To node. This is of
benefit if the data must be located for modification. The auxiliary dialog box tabs allow you to
specify up to four restraints (devices which in some way modify the free motion of the system),
one hanger, one nozzle, or two sets of nodal displacements per element. If needed, you can
define additional conditions for any node on other elements.

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Restraints
Indicates that you are supplying restraint data. Select or clear this option by double-clicking the
Restraints check box on the Classic Piping Input dialog box.
This auxiliary dialog box tab controls data for up to four restraints for each element. Node
number and restraint types are required. All other information is optional. If you omit the
stiffness, entry defaults to rigid.
You can specify skewed restraints by typing direction cosines with the type, such as X
(1,0,1) for a restraint running at 45 in the X-Z plane.

You can specify as many as four restraints for an element. If you need to specify more than four
restraints on one element, you can place the additional restraints on any other element.
Do not use restraints in the following three situations:
1. Imposed Displacements - Specify displacements for the point using the Displacement
Auxiliary box.
2. Flexible Nozzles - Use the Nozzles Flex check box to open the Nozzles Auxiliary Data
box to input the vessel or tank characteristics required by WRC 297, PD 5500, or API 650 to
calculate local nozzle flexibilities. After these flexibilities have been calculated, CAESAR II
automatically inserts the necessary restraints and flexibilities into the piping model.

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3. Hangers program designed or pre-defined spring hangers - Use the Hangers check
box to open the Hanger Auxiliary Data box.

Node
Specifies the node number where the restraint is to act. The node number does not have to be
on the current element.

CNode
Specifies the connecting node. Restraints with connecting nodes can be used to tie one node in
the piping system to any other node in the system. If left blank then the restraint node is tied by
the restraint stiffness to a fixed point in space. If the connecting node is specified then the
restraint node is tied by the restraint stiffness to the connecting node.
In all cases, CNodes associate nodal degrees of freedom. Additionally, CNodes can be used to
geometrically connect different parts of a model graphically. This option is controlled by the
configuration option Connect Geometry through CNodes (on page 65).

Type
Specifies the restraint type. You can select a restraint from the list in the Restraint Auxiliary
box. For more information, see Section 3 of the CAESAR II Applications Guide.

Restraint Type Abbreviation

Anchor ANC

Translational Double Acting X, Y, or Z

Rotational Double Acting RX, RY, or RZ

Guide, Double Acting GUIDE

Double Acting Limit Stop LIM

Translational Double Acting Snubber XSNB, YSNB, ZSNB

Translational Directional +X, -X, +Y, -Y, +Z, -Z

Rotational Directional +RX, -RX, +RY, etc.

Directional Limit Stop +LIM, -LIM

Large Rotation Rod XROD, YROD, ZROD

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Translational Double Acting Bilinear X2, Y2, Z2

Rotational Double Acting Bilinear RX2, RY2, RZ2

Translational Directional Bilinear -X2, +X2, -Y2, etc.

Rotational Directional Bilinear +RX2, -RX2, +RY2, etc.

Bottom Out Spring XSPR, YSPR, ZSPR

Directional Snubber +XSNB, -XSNB, +YSNB, etc.

Anchor
Specifies an anchor restraint. This type of restraint is defined for all degrees of freedom at the
node.

X, Y, or Z
Specifies translational restraints which can be preceded by a (+) or (-). If you type a sign, it
defines the direction of allowed free displacement along the specified degree-of-freedom. For
example, a +Y restraint is a restraint against movement in the minus -Y direction. It is free to
move in the plus Y direction.

X (cosx, cosy, cosz) or X (vecx, vecy, vecz)


Specifies translational skewed restraints. These values can be preceded by a (+) or (-). If you
type a direction vector such as vecx, vecy, or vecz, CAESAR II converts the direction vector into
the corresponding cosines.

RX, RY, or RZ
Specifies rotational restraints which can be preceded by a (+) or (-). If you type a sign, it defines
the direction of allowed free displacement along the specified degree-of-freedom.

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Guide
Specifies a transverse restraint that can be skewed.

LIM
Specifies limit stops. These are axial restraints that can be preceded by a (+) or (-). If you type a
sign, it defines the direction of allowed free displacement along the element longitudinal axis.

XROD, YROD, ZROD


Specifies translational, large rotation, rod, or hanger-type restraints. These values can be
preceded by a (+) or (-) sign to indicate the orientation of the pivot point about which the rod
swings. A (+) is assumed. In the case of a YROD, this implies that the pivot point is above the
pipe. The rod or hanger length is also required.

XROD (COSX, COSY, COSZ) or XROD (VECX, VECY, VECZ)


Specifies translational skewed, large rotation rod, or hanger type restraints.

X2, Y2, Z2
Specifies bilinear restraints. These are restraints that have two different stiffnesses associated
with them. The stiffness is dependent upon the loading on the restraint. Bilinear restraints can
be preceded by a (+) or a (-).

RX (cosx, cosy, cosz) or RX (vecx, vecy, vecz)


Specifies rotational skewed restraints.

XSPR, YSPR, ZSPR


Specifies spring supports. These values can be preceded by a (+) or a (-).
A bottom out spring requires additional input. The additional input includes the spring rate,
allowed travel, and initial load. If the allowed travel in the direction of support is exceeded, the
spring bottoms-out.

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XSNB, YSNB, ZSNB


Specifies snubbers, which are restraints that engage only during quick movements such as
those induced by a shock. They only act on the piping system in the occasional load case.
Snubbers can be preceded by a (+) or a (-).
Because CAESAR II cannot perform load stepping, static analysis with snubbers requires a
preliminary manual analysis to determine thermal movements. Here is the procedure.
1. Analyze a hot operating case without your occasional loads.
2. Take the displacements from this analysis at the snubbers and put them back into the input.
3. At the location where the snubbers are defined, define a CNODE and put these
displacements on the CNODE.
4. For your real analysis, apply these displacements to all load cases. Because they are on the
far side of the snubber, they won't affect anything unless the load case is called OCC, which
activates the snubber stiffness.
So:
When you run your standard OPE case (W+T1+P1+D1), the snubber node displaces as
before. There are no restraints because the load case is OPE, not OCC.
When you run the operating + occasional case (W+T1+P1+D1+WIND1), the snubber
node displaces along with its CNODE. There is a difference in these two displacements
due to the WIND1 load and the snubber stiffness, because the case is now set as OCC.

K2
Specifies the yield stiffness of a bilinear restraint. When the load on the restraint exceeds Fy, the
stiffness on the restraint changes from K1 to K2. CAESAR II treats K2 values of zero as rigid.
Type a value of 1.0 for very small stiffnesses.

Gap
Specifies the following values:

TYPE = X Y Z GUI LIM RX RY RZ


GAP - Specifies the distance along the restraint line of action that the restrained node can travel
before resistance to movement begins. The gap value must be positive. The gap is given in
degrees for rotational restraints. If the translational restraint is not preceded by a sign, then the
restraint is double acting and the gap exists for both positive and negative displacements along
the line of action. For example, if a 0.25 in. gap is specified at a +Y restraint, then the restrained
node can move freely 0.25 in. in the minus Y direction before restraint occurs. The gap
specification does not affect the amount of free displacement that can occur along the positive Y
direction in this example.
You can enter two restraints having the same line of action but with different signs at the same
node when you define windows of allowed movement. Be careful to remember to form the
window with signs on restraints rather than with signs on gaps. A gap is a measure of length in
CAESAR II. A gap is always positive.

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Examples:
TYPE GUI GAP 1/4 ... One quarter in. gap on either side of the guided restraint.
TYPE +Y GAP 3.0 ... Three in. gap below the support that must be closed before the +Y
support begins acting.
TYPE RX GAP 5.0 ... Five degree gap about the X axis about which the pipe may rotate
freely before rotational restraint occurs.
TYPE = XROD YROD ZROD
Len - Specifies the swinging length of the rod or hanger. This is the distance along the restraint
line of action from the restrained node to the pivot point. The restraint swings about the pivot
point. If a CNODE is defined then the restraint swings about the CNODE. Len is a required
entry.
TYPE = X2 Y2 Z2 RX2 RY2 RZ2
K2 - Specifies the yield stiffness of a bilinear restraint. When the load on the restraint exceeds
Fy, the stiffness on the restraint changes from K1 to K2. Type a negative value to model shallow
trench or groove-type pipeline supports. CAESAR II treats K2 values of zero as rigid. Type 1.0
for very small stiffnesses.
TYPE = XSPR YSPR ZSPR
"x" - Specifies the distance traveled along the spring axis before bottom-out occurs. In the case
of a typical YSPR, this is the movement in the negative Y direction before the spring bottoms
out.
TYPE = XSNB YSNB ZSNB

Stif
Specifies stiffness associated with any support, guide, limit stop, rod, or spring that can be
defined as a restraint. If you leave this option blank then the defined restraint is considered rigid.
The default rigid restraint stiffness is 1.0E12.
K1 is the initial stiffness of a bilinear restraint (for example, X2). If the restraint is not rigid, then
you can type any positive stiffness.
Avoid stiffnesses greatly in excess of 1.0E15. If a stiffness value is specified for an anchor, the
stiffness applies for all six degrees of freedom at the anchored node.

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Mu
Specifies the following values:

TYPE = X Y Z GUI LIM


MU - Specifies the static friction coefficient. Friction provides resistance to movement along the
direction normal to the restraint line of action. The magnitude of the friction force is equal to MU
* Fn, where Fn is the normal force on the restraint. You can automatically assign a friction
coefficient to every new translational restraint by assigning a value to the Coefficient of
Friction box in the configuration. For more information, see Coefficient of Friction (Mu) (on page
50).

TYPE = XROD YROD ZROD


Fi - Specifies the initial spring load. Leave this box blank for a rigid YROD. If you use YROD to
model a spring hanger, type the hanger stiffness into the STIF box. Type the initial cold load on
the hanger.

TYPE = X2 Y2 Z2 RX2 RY2 RZ2


Fy - Specifies the yield load. If the load on the support is less than Fy then the initial stiffness K1
is used. If the load on the support is greater than Fy then the second stiffness K2 is used.

TYPE = XSPR YSPR ZSPR


F - Specifies the initial spring cold load. This input is required and is almost always positive.

TYPE = XSNB YSNB ZSNB


na - Not Applicable. This box is not used when the restraint TYPE is snubber.

Hangers
Indicates that you are supplying hanger data. Select or clear this option by double-clicking
Hangers on the Classic Piping Input dialog box.
This auxiliary dialog box controls options for hanger installations. You can fully define the hanger
data, or the hanger can be designed by CAESAR II. In this case, two special load cases are run
and the results are used as design parameters to select the springs from the user-specified
catalog.

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CAESAR II provides catalogs for over 25 different spring hanger vendors.

Node
Specifies the node number to which the hanger is connected.

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CNode
Specifies the connecting node number. This value is used only when the other end of the
hanger is to be connected to another point in the system, such as another pipe node.

Design Data
There are two sections on the Hanger auxiliary dialog box.
Design Data - Specifies the hanger data if you need CAESAR II to design the hanger for you.
Predefined Hanger Data - Specifies the hanger data if you know the hanger information.

Hanger Table
Specifies the active hanger table.
The following spring tables are currently included in CAESAR II:

1. Anvil 2. Bergen Power

3. Power Piping 4. NPS Industries

5. Lisega 6. Fronek

7. Piping Technology 8. Capitol

9. Piping Services 10. Basic Engineers

11. Inoflex 12. E. Myatt

13. SINOPEC 14. BHEL

15. Flexider 16. Carpenter & Paterson

17. Pipe Supports Ltd. 18. Witzenmann

19. Sarathi 20. Myricks

21. China Power 22. Pipe Supports USA

23. Quality Pipe Supports 24. PiHASA

25. Binder 26. Gradior

27. NHK 28. PSSI GmbH

29. Seonghwa 30. Mitsubishi

31. Yamashita 32. Sanwa Tekki

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33. Techno Industries

Additional design options are invoked if you use the following check boxes.
Extended Range
Cold Load
Hot load centered (if possible)
The Hanger Design Control Data dialog box defaults to the hanger table-specified in the
configuration file.
Extended Load Range Springs - CAESAR II includes the maximum load range to permit the
selection of less expensive variable support hangers in place of constant effort supports when
the spring loads are just outside the manufacturers recommended range. Extended load ranges
are the most extreme ranges on the spring load table. Some manufacturers build double-spring
supports to accommodate this range. Others adjust the top or bottom travel limits to
accommodate either end of the extended table. Make sure that the manufacturer can supply the
spring before you use the maximum ranges. Use of the extended range often eliminates the
need to go to a constant effort support.
Lisega springs do not support an extended range. If you select Extended Range for
a hanger with Lisega springs, CAESAR II returns the standard Lisega spring table and
ranges.
Cold Load Spring Hanger Design - Cold load spring hanger design is a method of designing
the springs in which the hot (or operating) load is supported in the cold (or installed) position of
the piping. This method of spring design offers several advantages over the more usual hot load
design:
Hanger stops are easier to remove.
There is no excessive movement from the neutral position when the system is cold or when
the stops are removed.
Spring loads can be adjusted before the system is brought up to temperature.
Some feel that the cold load approach yields a much more dependable design.
Operating loads on connected equipment are lower in some system configurations. A hot
vertical riser anchored at the bottom turning horizontally into a nozzle connection is a typical
configuration resulting in this load-reduction. The spring to be designed is at the elbow
adjacent to the nozzle. Operating loads are lower because the difference between the hot
and cold loads counters the moment produced by the vertical thermal expansion from the
anchor.
The disadvantages to cold load design are:
In some systems, the loads on rotating equipment may be increased by a value proportional
to the spring rate times the travel in the hot condition.
Most installations are done on a hot load design basis.
Middle of the Table Hanger Design (Hot Load Centered) - Many designers prefer that the hot
load be centered as closely as possible to the middle of the spring table. This provides as much
variability as possible in both directions before the spring bottoms out when the system is hot.
This design was necessary prior to effective computer modeling of piping systems, when the
weights at hangers were approximated by chart methods or calculated by hand. Activating this
option does not guarantee that spring hot loads are at the middle of the spring table, but

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CAESAR II makes every effort to move the hot load to this position. The CAESAR II design
algorithm goes to a higher size spring if the design load is closer to the middle of the larger
spring's range, but never switches spring types. This option, when it is effective, can only result
in a one-size larger spring. CAESAR II attempts to move the hot load to the next higher spring
when it is within 10% of the maximum travel range for the spring. If the new spring is not
satisfactory, then CAESAR II uses the old one.

Available Space (neg. for can)


Specifies the amount of room above or below the pipe where you can install the hanger or can.
If the value is negative, then CAESAR II assumes that a can is to be installed. If the value is
positive, then CAESAR II assumes that a hanger is to be in installed. Hangers or cans are
selected for a particular location only if they can be installed in the space allotted. The precise
definition of available space varies with the manufacturer. Drawings and tables for each
manufacturer are shown at the end of this section.
This is the available vertical clearance for the hanger or can:

Leave the box blank or set to zero if the Available Space is not an important design criteria.
When the available space is the governing factor in a hanger design, several smaller springs are
typically chosen in place of one large spring.

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Allowable Load Variation (%)


Specifies the limit on the allowed variation between the hot and cold hanger loads. If this value
is not specified, the only limit on load variation is that inherent in the spring table. This is
approximately 100% when the hot load is smaller than the cold load and 50% when the hot load
is larger than the cold load. Hot loads are smaller than cold loads whenever the operating
displacement in the Y direction is positive. The default value for the load variation is 25%.
The Allowable Load Variation value is the percentage variation from the hot load:

or as may be more familiar:

The Allowable Load Variation value is typed as a percentage. For example, type twenty five
percent as 25.0.

Rigid Support Displacement Criteria


Specifies the minimum amount of travel for hanger design. This is a cost saving feature that
replaces unnecessary springs with rigid rods.
The hanger design algorithm operates by first running a restrained weight case. The load to be
supported by the hanger in the operating condition is determined from this case. After the
hanger design load is known, the software runs an operating case with the hot hanger load
installed. This analysis determines the travel at the hanger location. If this determined hanger
travel is less than the Rigid Support Displacement Criteria, then a rigid Y-support is selected
instead of a spring for the location.
The software does not apply the criteria if you leave the Rigid Support Displacement Criteria
box blank or zero.
A typical value is 0.1 in.
You should insert a single directional restraint instead of a rigid rod in some cases.
Rigid rods are double-acting restraints. In some cases these can develop large hold down forces
that do not really exist because the support has lifted off, or because the rigid rod has bowed
slightly. When this condition develops, you should rerun the hanger design inserting single
directional restraints where rigid rods were put in by CAESAR II.
Do not replace hangers with rigid rods in very stiff parts of the piping system. These parts are
usually associated with rotating equipment or vessel nozzles that need to be protected.

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Maximum Allowed Travel Limit


Specifies the maximum amount of travel for hanger design. CAESAR II selects a constant effort
support if the design operating travel exceeds this limit, even though a variable support from the
manufacturer table would have been satisfactory in every other respect.
You can design a constant effort hanger by specifying a very small number for the Maximum
Allowed Travel Limit. A value of 0.001 typically forces CAESAR II to select a constant effort
support for a particular location.

No. Hangers at Location


Specifies the number of hangers at a location.
Type a positive number to indicate the exact number of hangers at that location.
Leave the box blank to indicate that CAESAR II can place as many hangers as necessary to
make the installation work.
Type a negative number to indicate the maximum number of hangers that you accept. For
example, if you want to use as few springs as possible, yet are willing to use as many as 5
springs if necessary, type -5 in the No. of Hangers at Location box.

Allow Short Range Springs


Indicates that hanger design allows short range springs.
CAESAR II gives you the option of excluding short range springs from consideration from the
selection algorithms. Short range springs are considered specialty items in some instances and
are not used unless their shorter length is required for clearance reasons. Clear this check box
in this case.
If this option is not selected, CAESAR II selects a mid-range spring over a short-range spring,
assuming that they are more standard, readily available, and in general cheaper than their
short-range counterparts.
If the default should be that short range springs are used wherever possible, then check the box
on the Hanger Design Control Data dialog box.

Operating Load (Total at Loc.)


Overrides the operating load that CAESAR II is calculating.
This value is normally specified when you think that loads on a piece of equipment are reduced
if a hanger in the vicinity of the equipment is artificially caused to carry a proportionately larger
part of the total load. This operating load is the hot load that the hanger is designed to support
after it undergoes any travel due to the thermal expansion of the piping. CAESAR II's calculated
hanger operating loads may be read from the hanger table printed in the output processor. The
column is titled HOT LOAD. The value also appears in this table. Type the total operating load
that you want to use at the location. For example, if there are two hangers specified at the
location and each should carry 500 lb., then the operating load specified should be 1,000 lb.

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Hanger Hardware Weight


Specifies any additional weight that must be supported by the hanger that exists between the
hanger and the pipe. This weight could affect the hanger design if the magnitude of this weight
is great enough.

Multiple Load Case Design Option


Specifies the load case for hanger design. You can base the spring selection algorithm on one
or more operating conditions. A two-pump installation where only one pump operates at a time
is a good application for multiple load case hanger design.
There are currently thirteen different multiple load case design algorithms available:
Design spring per operating case #1.
Design spring per operating case #2.
Design spring per operating case #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, and #9.
Design spring for maximum operating load.
Design spring for maximum travel.
Design spring for average load and average travel.
Design spring for maximum load and maximum travel.
You can specify the Multiple Load Case Design option at the global level on the Hanger
Design Control Data dialog box. The globally specified option applies for all hanger design
locations unless overridden on a specific hanger design dialog box.
Type the number of operating thermal cases to consider when sizing springs for this system on
the Hanger Design Control Data dialog box. This value defaults to 1.0. Also type the Multiple
Load Case Design option to be the default value unless the design option is to be specified
individually for each hanger to be designed in the system.

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Example Problem: Multiple Load - Case Spring - Hanger Design


This example illustrates the different hanger designs that can result from the use of different
multiple load case design options.

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Multiple Load Case Design Option for Hanger Design

Hanger A

Multiple Load Case Design Hanger Travel Design Hanger Load


Design Option

1 0.752 in 730.0 lb

2 0.029 in 560.0 lb

10 0.752 in 730.0 lb

11 0.752 in 730.0 lb

12 0.3905 in 645.0 lb

13 0.752 in 730.0 lb

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Hanger B

Multiple Load Case Design Hanger Travel Design Hanger Load


Design Option

1 0.032 in 592.0 lb

2 0.733 in 587.0 lb

10 0.032 in 592.0 lb

11 0.733 in 587.0 lb

12 0.3825 in 589.5 lb

13 0.733 in 592.0 lb

Free Restraint at Node


Specifies the node number for the equipment where the restraint is freed. You can also specify
the corresponding free code to tell CAESAR II which of the restraint or anchor directions to free.
For nozzles that are further removed from the hanger usually only the Y direction should be
freed. Anchors or restraints simulating equipment connections that are in the immediate vicinity
of the hanger are usually freed during the hanger design restrained weight run so that loads
normally going to the equipment nozzle are carried by the hanger.
Hangers are commonly used around equipment nozzles to support the weight of the pipe as it
thermally expands away from the nozzle. The hanger can usually be designed to take almost
the full weight of the pipe between the anchor and the hanger if the anchor is freed when making
the restrained weight calculation. The pipe going to the anchor is treated just like a free end, but
only for the hanger weight calculation only.
The Free Restraint at Node box works in conjunction with the Free Code box. If the Free Code
is not specified for an anchor, then the software assumes that the anchor is completely free for
the restrained weight run.

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The restrained Weight hanger design pass is the first analysis step in the hanger design. It is run
automatically by CAESAR II. The following steps comprise the restrained weight run:
1. Putting rigid Y restraints at each hanger location.
2. Removing anchors and restraints that are to be freed.
3. Running the weight analysis to find the hot hanger loads.
Nonlinear restraints are not freed during hanger design.

Free Code
Specifies the directions in which the anchor or restraint is released. When an anchor or restraint
should be released for the restrained weight run, type the node number for that anchor in the
Free Restraint at Node box and specify the free code describing the directions to be released
in the Free Code box on the same hanger dialog box. The available free codes are as follows:
Free the anchor or restraint in the Y direction only.
Free the anchor or restraint in the Y and X directions only.
Free the anchor or restraint in the Y and Z directions only.
Free all translational degrees of freedom for the anchor or restraint. (X,Y, and Z)
Free all translational and rotational degrees of freedom for the anchor or restraint. (X, Y, Z,
RX, RY, and RZ)
The last option usually results in the highest adjacent hanger loads, but you should only use that
option when the horizontal distance between the hanger and the anchor is within about 4 pipe
diameters.

Predefined Hanger Data


Specifies predefined hanger data. When you use the Predefined Hanger Data section on the
hanger dialog box and there is more than one hanger at the location, use the No. of Hangers at
Location box in the Design Data section to specify the number of hangers. Then, type the
spring rate and pre-load applicable to a single hanger. There is no reason to try to compute the
equivalent spring rates or theoretical loads.
Pre-defined hanger data can be specified in one of two ways:
Specify all information for the hanger.
Specify only the spring rate for the hanger.
If you specify all of the information, and the restraint configuration for the node is completely
defined, then it is not included in the hanger design algorithm.
For a position to be completely pre-defined, one of the following conditions must apply:
Spring rate and theoretical cold load
Constant effort support load

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Spring Rate
Specifies the spring rate.

Theoretical Cold (Installation) Load


Specifies the cold load for the hanger. If you type both the spring rate and the cold load, the
hanger location is completely predefined and CAESAR II does not perform analysis level design
for the hanger.

Resetting Loads on Existing Spring Hangers


If only the spring rate is given, CAESAR II assumes that you want to rerate the spring at the
given location. The software reads the old spring rate from the existing hanger and inputs it
directly to CAESAR II. Leave the Theoretical Cold Load box blank for the rerate. If more than a
single spring exists at the location, then type the total number of springs in the No. of Hangers
at Location box in the Design Data section. CAESAR II assumes that the load is distributed
evenly among multiple springs at the same point.
CAESAR II goes through its normal hanger design procedure to calculate the load and travel for
all proposed hanger locations including the location with springs to be reset. The stiffness of the
reset springs is not used for this redesign. After CAESAR II sizes the springs, it makes a
comparison with the user-defined spring rates. If the selected spring rate is within 5% of your
existing spring rate, CAESAR II lists the spring's figure number and size in the output report. If
the selected spring rate is more than 5% of your value, no manufacturer's data is listed. In either
case, CAESAR II uses the spring rate that you typed in all following analyses. It is up to you to
confirm that the new hot and cold loads are within the existing spring's working range.
The primary use of the rerate capability is to find new installed loads for old springs. Springs
might be rerated after the shutdown of a unit that has been operating continuously for a long
period, or after mechanical or process changes are made to a piping system.

Constant Effort Support Load


Specifies the support load for the constant effort hanger.

Nozzles
Indicates that you are supplying nozzle data. Select or clear this option by double-clicking
Nozzle Flex on the Classic Piping Input dialog box.
This auxiliary dialog box tab controls options for flexible nozzle connections. When you type
values in this dialog box tab, CAESAR II automatically calculates the flexibilities and adds them
to the active element. CAESAR II calculates nozzle loads according to WRC 297, API 650 or BS
5500 criteria.

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WRC 297
Performs nozzle flexibility calculations according to WRC 297.

When you type a nozzle node number, CAESAR II scans the current input data for the node and
fills the corresponding diameter and wall thickness in the Nozzle Outer Diameter and Nozzle
Wall Thickness boxes.
Current nozzle flexibility calculations are in accordance with the Welding Research Council
Bulletin No. 297, issued August 1984 for cylinder-to-cylinder intersections.
A valid nozzle node has the following properties:
Only a single element connects to the nozzle node.
The nozzle node is not restrained and does not have displacements specified for any of its
degrees of freedom.
Computed nozzle flexibilities are automatically included in the piping system analysis through
software-generated restraints. This generation is completely automatic. Six restraints are
established for each flexible nozzle input.

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If you define a vessel node number, then the vessel node acts like a connecting node for each
of the six restraints. Vessel nodes are subject to the same restrictions shown above for nozzle
nodes.
You should not put a restrainer on an element between the nozzle node and any
specified vessel node. CAESAR II creates the required connectivity from the nozzle flexibility
data and any user-generated stiffnesses between these two points erroneously add to the
nozzle stiffnesses.
After the error checking, CAESAR II displays all useful WRC curve data on the Errors and
Warnings dialog box. You can use these values to define the illustrated nozzles in the WRC
297 bulletin. It is sometimes helpful to know just how close a particular nozzle is to one of the
several asymptotic limits, or to a curve boundary.

You can see the WRC 297 computed data only during the error checking process.

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Nozzle Node
Specifies the node number located at the nozzle intersection with the vessel shell. There should
only be a single piping element connected to this node. There should be no restraints acting on
the node. The nozzle element must be perpendicular to the vessel shell.
You can model hillside nozzles and latrolets. To do this, the first (and possibly very short) nozzle
element that comes from the vessel must be perpendicular to the vessel to keep the local
stiffness properly oriented. The second, longer nozzle element can then go off on the true
centerline of the nozzle.

Vessel Node (Optional)


Specifies the node number on the vessel surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the
vessel shell. This is optional. If you do not specify this value, then the nozzle node is connected
by the stiffnesses to a point fixed rigidly in space. If you specify this value, then the nozzle node
is connected by the stiffnesses to the vessel node. Specify the vessel nodes when you want to
model through the vessel from the nozzle connection to the skirt or foundation.

Nozzle Outer Diameter


Specifies the outside diameter of the nozzle. CAESAR II fills this field automatically using the
corresponding pipe diameter. You can override this value because it does not have to be equal
to the diameter of the pipe used to model the nozzle.

Nozzle Wall Thickness


Specifies the wall thickness of the nozzle. CAESAR II fills this field automatically using the
corresponding pipe wall thickness. You can override this value because it does not have to be
equal to the wall thickness of the pipe element used to model the nozzle.

Vessel Outer Diameter


Specifies the outside diameter of the vessel.

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Vessel Wall Thickness


Specifies the wall thickness of the vessel at the point where the nozzle connects to the vessel.
Do not include the thickness of any reinforcing pad.

Vessel Pad Thickness


Specifies the thickness of any reinforcing pad at the nozzle. This thickness is added to the
vessel wall thickness before the software performs nozzle stiffness calculations.

Distance to Stiffener or Head


Specifies the distance along the vessel center-line from the center of the nozzle opening in the
vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the vessel that significantly stiffens the vessel's
cross-section against local deformation normal to the shell surface.

Distance to Opposite Stiffener


Specifies the distance along the vessel center line from the center of the nozzle opening in the
vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the vessel in the opposite direction from the
previous one. This entry is ignored for spherical vessels.

Vessel Centerline Direction Cosine VX, VY, VZ


Specifies the direction vector or direction cosines which defines the center-line of the vessel. For
example, a vertical vessel in a Y-up coordinate system, these entries would read:
Vessel Centerline Direction Cosine VX - <blank>
Vessel Centerline Direction Cosine VY - 1.0
Vessel Centerline Direction Cosine VZ - <blank>
If the centerlines of the nozzle and vessel are collinear, CAESAR II flags this as an error.

Vessel Temperature (Optional)


Specifies the estimated temperature of the vessel or nozzle junction. If you type this value, you
must also type a valid vessel material number in the corresponding field. The software uses the
estimated temperature to calculate the hot modulus-of-elasticity.

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Vessel Material (Optional)


Specifies the vessel material number. If you type this value, you must pair the vessel material
number with a valid vessel temperature. The allowed vessel material number can be any valid
material number from the material database. This value corresponds to the pipe materials used
in the dialog box. If the vessel temperature and the vessel material number are left blank or
zero, then the software uses an elastic modulus of 29.0E6 psi.

API 650
Performs nozzle flexibility calculations according to API 650.

CAESAR II can also calculate nozzle flexibilities according to Appendix P of API 650, "Design of
Carbon Steel Atmospheric Oil Storage Tanks."

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Nozzle Node
Specifies the node number located at the nozzle intersection with the vessel shell. There should
only be a single piping element connected to this node. There should be no restraints acting on
the node. The nozzle element must be perpendicular to the vessel shell.
You can model hillside nozzles and latrolets. To do this, the first (and possibly very short) nozzle
element that comes from the vessel must be perpendicular to the vessel to keep the local
stiffness properly oriented. The second, longer nozzle element can then go off on the true
centerline of the nozzle.

Tank Node (optional)


Specifies the node number on the tank surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the tank
shell.
This is optional. If you do not specify one, then the nozzle node is connected by the stiffnesses
to a point fixed rigidly in space. If you type this value, then the nozzle node is connected by the
stiffnesses to the tank node.
Specify the tank node when you want to model through the tank from the nozzle connection to
the foundation.

Nozzle Outer Diameter


Specifies the outside diameter of the nozzle. CAESAR II fills this field automatically using the
corresponding pipe diameter. You can override this value because it does not have to be equal
to the diameter of the pipe used to model the nozzle.

Nozzle Wall Thickness


Specifies the wall thickness of the nozzle. CAESAR II fills this field automatically using the
corresponding pipe wall thickness. You can override this value because it does not have to be
equal to the wall thickness of the pipe element used to model the nozzle.

Tank Outer Diameter


Specifies the outside diameter of the storage tank. API 650 Addendum 1 does not recommend
these computations for diameters less than 120 feet.

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Tank Wall Thickness


Specifies the wall thickness of the storage tank at the point where the nozzle connects to the
tank. Do not include the thickness of any reinforcing pad.

Reinforcing on Shell (1) or Nozzle (2)


Specifies whether the reinforcing is on the shell or on the nozzle. If the reinforcing is on the
shell, then type 1. If it is on the nozzle, type 2.

Nozzle Height
Specifies the height from the centerline of the nozzle to the base of the tank.

Fluid Height
Specifies the liquid level of the fluid in the storage tank. This value must be greater than the
nozzle height.

Fluid SG
Specifies the specific gravity of the stored liquid. This value is unitless.

Tank Coefficient of Thermal Expansion


Specifies the coefficient of thermal expansion of the plate material of the tank. Values are listed
in engineering handbooks or the appropriate section of the API 650, App P. If this value is left
blank, the software assumes a value of zero.

Temperature Change
Specifies the change in temperature from ambient to the maximum that the tank normally
experiences. For example, if the maximum summertime temperature is 107F, then the
temperature change would be 107 70 = 37, where 70 is the default ambient temperature
defined in configuration and environment. You would type 37 in this box. If this value is left
blank, the software assumes a value of zero.

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Tank Modulus of Elasticity


Specifies the hot modulus-of-elasticity for the tank. If this value is left blank, the software
assumes a value of 0.2950E+08.

Set Displacement Vector


Specifies the displacement vector to assign to the calculated displacements. If you select one
among D1 to D9, the calculated displacements become the boundary conditions of the current
job, and CAESAR II can use them for the stress analysis. If you have already specified
displacements on the Classic Piping Input dialog box, CAESAR II uses the calculated
displacements to replace the original displacements. If you select None, CAESAR II does not
use the calculated displacements for the stress analysis.

PD 5500
Performs nozzle flexibility calculations according to PD 5500.

CAESAR II can also calculate nozzle flexibilities according to Appendix G of the PD 5500
Specification for Unfired Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels.

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Nozzle Node
Specifies the node number located at the nozzle intersection with the vessel shell. There should
only be a single piping element connected to this node. There should be no restraints acting on
the node. The nozzle element must be perpendicular to the vessel shell.
You can model hillside nozzles and latrolets. To do this, the first (and possibly very short) nozzle
element that comes from the vessel must be perpendicular to the vessel to keep the local
stiffness properly oriented. The second, longer nozzle element can then go off on the true
centerline of the nozzle.

Vessel Node (Optional)


Specifies the node number on the vessel surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the
vessel shell. This is optional. If you do not specify this value, then the nozzle node is connected
by the stiffnesses to a point fixed rigidly in space. If you specify this value, then the nozzle node
is connected by the stiffnesses to the vessel node. Specify the vessel nodes when you want to
model through the vessel from the nozzle connection to the skirt or foundation.

Vessel Type - Cylinder (0) or Sphere (1)


Indicates whether the vessel is cylindrical or spherical.
Type 0 if the vessel is cylindrical. For cylinders, the distances to stiffeners or heads and the
vessel direction cosines are required.
Type 1 if the vessel is spherical. For spheres, the boxes for the distances to stiffeners or heads
and vessel direction cosines are ignored.

Nozzle Outer Diameter


Specifies the outside diameter of the nozzle. CAESAR II fills this field automatically using the
corresponding pipe diameter. You can override this value because it does not have to be equal
to the diameter of the pipe used to model the nozzle.

Vessel Outer Diameter


Specifies the outside diameter of the vessel.

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Vessel Wall Thickness


Specifies the wall thickness of the vessel at the point where the nozzle connects to the vessel.
Do not include the thickness of any reinforcing pad.

Vessel Pad Thickness


Specifies the thickness of any reinforcing pad at the nozzle. This thickness is added to the
vessel wall thickness before the software performs nozzle stiffness calculations.

Distance to Stiffener or Head


Specifies the distance along the vessel center-line from the center of the nozzle opening in the
vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the vessel that significantly stiffens the vessel's
cross-section against local deformation normal to the shell surface.

Distance to Opposite Stiffener


Specifies the distance along the vessel center line from the center of the nozzle opening in the
vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the vessel in the opposite direction from the
previous one. This entry is ignored for spherical vessels.

Vessel Centerline Direction Cosine VX, VY, VZ


Specifies the direction vector or direction cosines which defines the center-line of the vessel. For
example, a vertical vessel in a Y-up coordinate system, these entries would read:
Vessel Centerline Direction Cosine VX - <blank>
Vessel Centerline Direction Cosine VY - 1.0
Vessel Centerline Direction Cosine VZ - <blank>
If the centerlines of the nozzle and vessel are collinear, CAESAR II flags this as an error.

Vessel Temperature (Optional)


Specifies the estimated temperature of the vessel or nozzle junction. If you type this value, you
must also type a valid vessel material number in the corresponding field. The software uses the
estimated temperature to calculate the hot modulus-of-elasticity.

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Vessel Material (Optional)


Specifies the vessel material number. If you type this value, you must pair the vessel material
number with a valid vessel temperature. The allowed vessel material number can be any valid
material number from the material database. This value corresponds to the pipe materials used
in the dialog box. If the vessel temperature and the vessel material number are left blank or
zero, then the software uses an elastic modulus of 29.0E6 psi.

Displacements
Indicates that you are supplying displacement data. Select or clear this option by double-clicking
Displacements on the Classic Piping Input dialog box.
This auxiliary dialog box tab controls imposed displacements for up to two nodes for each
element. If a displacement value is entered for any vector, this direction is considered to be fixed
for any other nonspecified vectors.
Leaving a direction blank for all nine vectors models the system as free to move in that
direction. Specify 0.0 to indicate that the system is fully restrained in that direction.

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Node
Specifies the node number where the displacement is defined. Do not place a restraint at this
node.

Vector 1, Vector 2, ... Vector 9


Specifies the six components of the displacements for a vector. You can enter as many as nine
vectors, corresponding to nine operating temperatures. The six components of a vector are for
six degrees of freedom along global X, Y and Z directions. If you leave any field blank, that
degree of freedom is free.

If an imposed displacement is specified for a specific degree-of-freedom, then that


degree-of-freedom is considered restrained for all load cases whether or not they contain
that displacement set.
You can import displacements into the CAESAR II model from a file. For more information,
see Import/Export Displacements from File (on page 352).

Flange Checks
Indicates that you are supplying flange data to evaluate an in-line flange. Select or clear this
option by double-clicking the Flange check box on the Classic Piping Input dialog box.

You can read the values for the Flange Class/Grade and Gasket Diameter, G boxes from a file
if you select ASME - 2003 from the Flange Pressure Ratings dialog box. The G values are
located in the ASME-2003.G text file in the system folder under the application data folder.

Flange evaluation is based on a specific load case temperature. To evaluate the flanges in a
model, use the Load Case Options tab of the Static Load Case Editor to specify to which
operating temperature the flanges should be evaluated.
Flange evaluation can be performed for individual load cases and for ABS and MAX load
combination cases. For more information, see Combination Method (on page 540).

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From, To, Both


Specifies whether the flange is on the From end, the To end, or both ends of the element.

Specifies whether to evaluate the flanges using the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method or
the ASME B&PVC Section III Subsection NC-3658.3 method.

Peq
Evaluate the flanges using the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method.
Peq = 16M/()G3 + 4F/()G2 + PD Pressure Rating
Where:
Peq = equivalent pressure (for checking against flange rating)
M = bending moment on flange
G = diameter of effective gasket reaction
F = axial force on flange
PD = design pressure

NC-3658.3
Evaluate the flanges using the ASME B&PVC Section III Subsection NC-3658.3 method.
S = 36,000 * Mfs / (CAb * 3125) Min(Sy, 36000) non-occasional load case
S = 36,000 * Mfd / (CAb * 3125) 2.0 * Min(Sy, 36000) occasional load case
Where (note that the constants 36,000 and 3125 should be 248.22 and 21.6 in standard SI
units):
S = flange stress
Mfs = bending or torsional moment (whichever is greater) acting on the flange, developed
during a non-occasional load case
Mfd = bending or torsional moment (whichever is greater) acting on the flange, developed
during an occasional load case
Sy = yield strength of flange material at design temperature; (where Sy, given in psi, shall
not be taken as greater than 36,000 psi)
C = bolt circle diameter
Ab = total cross sectional area of bolts
PD = design pressure

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Read from File


Displays the Flange Pressure Ratings dialog box. Click this button to read
Temperature-Pressure Rating data from a file (ASME and DIN flanges are shipped with
CAESAR II).
As an alternative to reading from a file, you can type the data directly into the table.
You can create your own data files by following the format described in the CAESAR II
documentation.
Values for both Flange Class/Grade and Gasket Diameter, G can be read from a file if you
select ASME 2003 from the Flange Pressure Ratings dialog box. The G values are in the
text file ASME-2003.G located in the system folder of your application data directory.

Flange Class/Grade
Displays the flange class and material grade. Typically, flanges are identified by pressure class
and material grade, but you can type anything in this box. If the flange Temperature-Pressure
Rating data is read in from a file, then CAESAR II automatically builds a flange name made up
of the File Name, the Pressure Class, and the Material Class.

Gasket Diameter, G / Bolt Circle


Displays the gasket diameter. Values for Gasket Diameter, G can be read from a file if you
select ASME 2003 from the Flange Pressure Ratings dialog box. The G values are in the
text file ASME-2003.G located in the system folder of your application data directory. This box
does double duty depending on which analysis technique is active.

Peq Method:
Specify the diameter at the location of the gasket load reaction. From ASME Section VIII,
Division 1, Appendix 2, (except as noted in sketch (1) of Fig 2-4), G is defined as (see Table
2-5.2):
when b0 is less than or equal to 1/4, G equals the mean diameter of the gasket contact face
when b0 is greater than 1/4, G equals the outside diameter of the gasket contact face less
2b.
When using the Peq method with the Stoomwezen Piping Code, use the bolt circle
diameter instead of the gasket load reaction diameter (see chapter D0701 of the Code RToD).
The results of this Peq Method are considered by Stoomwezen to be conservative.

NC-3658 Method:
Specify the bolt circle diameter. This value is the diameter of the circle that passes through the
bolt centers.
Flange evaluation is based on a specific load case temperature. To evaluate the flanges
in a model, use the Load Case Options tab of the Static Load Case Editor to specify the
operating temperature to which the flanges should be evaluated.

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Temperature-Pressure Table
Specifies temperature and pressure values. Use this table to define the flange
Temperature-Pressure rating as a function of temperature for a particular material grade. You
can type up to 24 temperature-pressure pairs. These values must be typed in ascending
temperature order.
Flange evaluation is based on a specific load case temperature. To evaluate the flanges
in a model, use the Load Case Options tab of the Static Load Case Editor to specify to which
operating temperature the flanges should be evaluated.

Bolt Area (Ab)


Specifies the total cross-sectional area of the bolts at the root of thread or the section of least
diameter under stress.

Flange Yield Strength, SYC, SY1-SY9


Specifies the flange yield stress at the cold (ambient) temperature and at each of the operating
temperatures, for use in calculating the flange allowable stress.
Flange evaluation is based on a specific load case temperature. To evaluate the flanges
in a model, use the Load Case Options tab of the Static Load Case Editor to specify to which
operating temperature the flanges should be evaluated.

Nozzle Lmt Check


Indicates that you are supplying equipment data. Select or clear this option by double-clicking
the Nozzle Lmt Check check box on the Classic Piping Input dialog box.
Equipment nozzle evaluation is one of the most important tasks in analyzing a piping system.
The various nozzle loads, when subjected to the operating criteria of the piping system, must be
less than their associated allowable loads. Verification of the nozzle loads is a time consuming
task, which cannot be performed until the pipe stress requirements are met.
CAESAR II enables you to define overall nozzle limits. This permits CAESAR II to perform a first
pass screening. Actual detailed nozzle evaluation can then be focused on those nozzles that fail
this initial screening.

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To illustrate this procedure, consider the limits defined for a nozzle displayed below:

The data above specifies the nozzle limits and how the resulting loads (from the analysis) are
compared to the limits. After the analysis has been performed and the results are available, you
can select the specific load case the nozzle must be evaluated against as well as the Nozzle
Check report. For more information on the Nozzle Check report see the Equipment Report.
Nozzle Limit Check is a first pass at qualifying the equipment nozzles. This is a simple
check based on the limits defined on this dialog box. This screening is not a substitute for the
more rigorous checks of the actual equipment standards.

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Node
Specifies the node number representing the equipment nozzle to be checked. The node should
have a restraint or a displacement in the CAESAR II model, because this node represents an
equipment nozzle.

Comparison Method
Specifies the method used to compare the actual nozzle loads to the defined limits. Available
choices are:
Absolute - Each load is compared directly to the corresponding limit. That is, FX to
FX_allowable, FY to FY_allowable, and so on.
|Fa| |Fal|
|Fb| Fbl|
|Fc| |Fcl|
|Ma| |Mal|
|Mb| |Mbl|
|Mc| |Mcl|
SRSS - The square root sum of the squares (SRSS) of each load divided by the
corresponding allowable is compared to 1.0.

Forces
and

Moments
Unity Check - The sum of the three forces and three moments, each divided by their
respective allowables is compared to 1.0.

and

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Ref Vector X, Y, Z
Specifies the three components or direction cosines of the reference vector. The reference
vector is used with the current element orientation to define the local coordinate system ABC for
this equipment check. See Axis B, in the Forces - Moments (on page 186) fields. The vector
must be perpendicular to the current pipe element. This vector need not be unity.
Examples:
( 0, 1, 0 ) - the reference vector is in the global "Y" direction
( 1, 0, 0 ) - the reference vector is in the global "X" direction
( 0.7071, 0, 0.7071 ) - the reference vector is skewed 45 degrees in the global X-Z plane.

Read from File


Displays the Open dialog box. Select a file (some files are shipped with CAESAR II) and read
force and moment data into the Forces - Moments fields. Alternatively, you can enter the data
directly into the fields.

Forces - Moments
Specifies the three components of the force and the three components of the moment for the
load limits. The load limits are based on the local coordinate system ABC, where: axis A is
defined by the current element (From to To is positive), axis B is defined by the reference
vector, and axis C is the cross product of A and B (the right hand rule). For more information on
the use of these limits (Fal, Fbl, Fcl, Mal, Mbl, Mcl), see Comparison Method (on page 185).
A - Pipe/nozzle axis
B - Major equipment axis (the longitudinal direction of a vessel, or the pump shaft direction.)
C - Other perpendicular direction.

Loading Conditions
The check boxes in this block allow you to define loadings acting on the pipe. These loads may
be individual forces or moments acting at discrete points, distributed uniform loads (which can
be specified on force per unit length, or gravitational body forces), or wind loadings (wind
loadings are entered by specifying a wind shape factorthe loads themselves are specified
when building the load cases. The uniform load and the wind shape factor check boxes are
unchecked on subsequent input screens. This does not mean that the loads were removed from
these elements; instead, this implies that the loads do not change on subsequent screens.

You can specify uniform loads in g-values by setting a parameter in the Special
Execution Options. For more information, see Configuration and Environment (on page 45).

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Forces/Moments
Indicates that you are supplying force and moment data. Select or clear this option by
double-clicking the Forces/Moments check box on the Classic Piping Input dialog box.
This auxiliary database tab controls imposed forces or moments for up to two nodes per
element. You can use up to nine force vectors.

Node
Specifies the node number where the forces and moments act.

Vector 1, Vector 2, ... Vector 9


Specifies the three components of the force and the three components of the moment for a
vector. You can enter as many as nine vectors. The components of the force and the moment
are along the global X, Y, and Z directions.

Uniform Loads
Indicates that you are supplying uniform load data. Select or clear this option by double-clicking
the Uniform Loads check box on the Classic Piping Input dialog box.
This auxiliary database tab controls up to three uniform load vectors. These uniform loads are
applied to the entire current element, as well as all subsequent elements in the model, until
explicitly changed or zeroed out.

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The uniform load data is distributive and applies to current and all following elements until you
change it.
Assuming uniform loading in F/L, a snow load of 8.0 pounds per foot (assuming units of pounds
per inch in a Y-up coordinate system) could be specified as follows:

Vector 1 Vector 2 Vector 3

Y -8/12

or may be specified:

Vector 1 Vector 2 Vector 3

Y -.6667

Assuming uniform load in Gs, your entries of X = 1.0, Y = 0.0, Z = 0.0 represent a 1.0g load on
the piping system in the horizontal X direction. Your entries of X = 0.0, Y = -1.0, Z = 0.0
represent a 1.0g load in the minus Y direction, and is exactly equal to the pipe weight load in
Y-up coordinate system.
Uniform load in Gs is used most often for static earthquake loadings.
You can activate uniform loads in Gs by selecting the Uniform load in Gs check box
using the Environment > Special Execution Parameters command on the Classic Piping
Input dialog box.

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Vector 1, Vector 2, Vector 3


Specifies the three components of the uniform load for a vector. You can enter as many as three
vectors. The components of the uniform load are along the global X, Y, and Z directions. The
uniform load is either in terms of force per unit length or in terms of a magnifier of gravitational
loading (G).

in G's, in F/L
Indicates the unit of the uniform load.

Wind / Wave Loads


Indicates that you are supplying environmental load data. Select or clear this option by
double-clicking the Wind/Wave check box on the Classic Piping Input dialog box.
This auxiliary dialog box tab indicates whether this portion of the pipe is exposed to wind or
wave loading. The pipe cannot be exposed to both.
Selecting Wind exposes the pipe to wind loading; selecting Wave exposes the pipe to wave,
current, and buoyancy loadings; selecting Off turns off both types of loading.
This dialog box tab is also used to specify the Wind Shape Factor when Wind is specified. The
dialog box tab is used to specify various wave coefficients when Wave is specified. The
software automatically computes the wave coefficients if you leave these boxes blank.
Entries on this auxiliary dialog box tab apply to all subsequent piping, until changed on a later
element.
Specific wind and wave load cases are built using the Static Load Case Editor.

Wind Loads
Indicates that you are supplying wind load data.

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Wind load data is distributive and applies to the current and all following elements until you
change it.

Wind Shape Factor


Specifies the coefficient as defined in ASCE#7 in Figure 6-21 for chimneys, tanks, and similar
structure. A value of 0.5 to 0.65 is typically used for cylindrical sections. Activating the wind
option activates the Wind Load Input tab, which is accessed from the Load Case Editor during
static analysis.
Refer to the respective wind code standard for the applicable wind shape factor, specific
to that code

Wave Loads
Indicates that you are supplying wave load data.

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Wave load data is distributive and applies to current and all following elements until you change
it.

Drag Coefficient, Cd
Specifies the drag coefficient as recommended by API RP2A. Typical values range from 0.6 to
1.20. Type 0.0 to calculate the drag coefficient based on particle velocities.

Added Mass Coefficient, Ca


Specifies the added mass coefficient. This coefficient accounts for the added mass of fluid
entrained into the pipe. Typical values range from 0.5 to 1.0. Type 0.0 to calculate the added
mass coefficient based on particle velocities.

Lift Coefficient, Cl
Specifies the lift coefficient. This coefficient accounts for wave lift which is the force
perpendicular to both the element axis and the particle velocity vector. Type a value of 0.0 to
calculate the added lift coefficient based on particle velocities.

Marine Growth
Specifies the thickness of any marine growth adhering to the external pipe wall. The software
increases the pipe diameter experiencing wave loading by twice this value.

Marine Growth Density


Specifies the density used if you are including the weight of the marine growth in the pipe
weight. If you leave this box blank, the software ignores the weight of the marine growth.

Off
Indicates that you do not want either wind or wave loads on the current and all following
elements until you change it.

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Materials
CAESAR II requires the specification of the pipe materials elastic modulus, Poissons ratio,
density, and (in most cases) expansion coefficient. The software provides a database containing
the parameters for many common piping materials. This information is retrieved by picking a
material from the list, by typing the material number, or by typing the entire material name and
then picking it from the match list.

The coefficient of expansion does not appear on the dialog box, but you can review it during
error checking.
These material properties carry forward from one element to the next during the design session
so you only need to type values for those elements in which a change occurs.
Double-click >> to display the Edit Materials dialog box.

Material
Displays the material name. Materials are specified either by name or number. All available
material names and their CAESAR II material numbers are displayed in the list. Because this list
is quite long, typing a partial material name (such as A106) allows you to select from matching
materials.
Numbers 1-17 corresponds to the generic materials without code allowable stresses.
Material 18 represents the cold spring element for cut short.
Material 19 represents the cold spring element for cut long.
Material 20 is used to define Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) pipe.
Material 21 is for user-defined material.
When you select a material from the database, the physical properties as well as the allowable
stresses are obtained and placed in the dialog box.
If you change the temperature or piping code later, these allowable stress values are
automatically updated.
For user-defined material, enter the corresponding properties.

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Allowable Stress
Indicates that you are supplying allowable stress data. Select or clear this option by
double-clicking the Allowable Stress check box on the Classic Piping Input dialog box.
This auxiliary dialog box tab is used to select the piping code and to enter any data required for
the code check. Allowable stresses are automatically updated for material, temperature and
code if available in the Material Database.

The Allowable Stress Auxiliary changes according to the piping code. It incorporates piping
codes with their associated inputs. Press F1 to display the help screen to be sure that you
correctly interpret each new input data cell.
Allowable stress data is distributive and applies to current and all following elements until
you change it.
Click Fatigue Curves to specify material fatigue curve data. The Material Fatigue Curve dialog
box displays. Type stress versus cycle data with up to 8 points per curve.

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Code
Specifies the piping code. CAESAR II uses B31.3 by default. You can change this default setting
in the configuration. The following table lists the piping codes. You can find their current
publication dates in the CAESAR II Quick Reference Guide.

B31.1 Swedish Power Piping Code (Method 1)

B31.3 Swedish Power Piping Code (Method 2)

B31.4 B31.1 - 1967

B31.4, Chapter IX Stoomwezen

B31.5 RCC-M C

B31.8 RCC-M D

B31.8, Chapter VIII CODETI

B31.9 B31.11

Norwegian TBK-6 GPTC/Z380

ASME Sect III NC (Class 2) FDBR

ASME Sect III ND (Class 3) BS 7159

Navy 505 UKOOA

CAN/CSA Z662 IGE/TD/12

CAN/CSA Z662, Chapter


DNV
11

BS 806 ISO 14692

EN-13480 PD 8010-1

HPGSL PD 8010-2

JPI

The following topics discuss each of the input data cells. For more information about code
compliance considerations, see Technical Discussions (on page 883).

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SC
Specifies the cold stress value. Typically, this is the cold allowable stress for the specific
material taken directly from the governing piping code. CAESAR II fills this box automatically
after you select the material and piping code. The value of SC is usually divided by the
longitudinal weld efficiency (Eff) before being used. See the notes that follow for the specific
piping code.
B31.1 - Allowable stress tables in Appendix A include the longitudinal weld joint efficiencies
where applicable. Do not use these efficiencies for flexibility stress calculations. If the joint
efficiency (Eff) is given on this dialog box, then CAESAR II divides the SC by the joint efficiency
before using it in the allowable stress equations.
B31.3 - Values from tables in Appendix A do not include the joint efficiency. The Eff value
should be zero, blank, or one. The 1980 version of B31.3 included the longitudinal weld joint
efficiencies as part of the tables in Appendix A. If you are using this version of the code, then
you should type a value for Eff in the appropriate box on this dialog box.
B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX - Not used. The only stress value in B31.4 is the yield stress taken
from Table 1 in the appendix. For more information, see Sy (on page 202).
B31.5 - Values from tables in Appendix A do not include the joint efficiency. The value of Eff
should be zero, blank, or one.
B31.8 - Su, the specified minimum ultimate tensile strength.
B31.8 Chapter VIII - Not used. The only stress value in B31.8 is the yield stress taken from
Appendix D. For more information, see Sy (on page 202).
B31.9 - SC is taken directly from I-1. If you define a value for Eff, the software only uses it in the
minimum wall thickness check.
B31.11 - Not used. The only stress value used in B31.11 is the yield stress.
ASME NC and ND - SC is taken directly from Appendix I. If you define a value for Eff, the
software ignores it.
Navy 505 - There is no mention of joint efficiency in the 505 specification; however, it is implied
in Footnote 1 of Table TIIA. If a joint efficiency is given, then CAESAR II divides SC by the joint
efficiency before using it in the allowable stress equations. Eff should be zero, blank, or one.
CAN Z662 - Not used. The only stress value in Z184 is the yield stress specified in the
standards or specification under which the pipe was purchased. For more information, see Sy
(on page 202).
BS 806 - 0.2% of the proof stress at room temperature from Appendix E. Eff is not used in BS
806. If you define a value for Eff, the software ignores it.
Swedish Method 1 - Not used. Method 1 only uses the yield or creep rupture stress at
temperature (SHn and Fn respectively on this dialog box). Eff is used, but is the circumferential
weld joint efficiency and has a different meaning.
Swedish Method 2 - SC is the allowable stress at room temperature from Appendix 2. Eff is not
used. If you define a value for Eff, the software ignores it.
B31.1 (1967) - SC is the allowable stress at room temperature from the tables in Appendix A.
These tables include the longitudinal weld joint efficiencies where applicable. Do not use these
efficiencies for flexibility stress calculations. If you define a value for Eff, then CAESAR II divides
the SC by the joint efficiency before using it in the allowable stress equations.

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Piping Input Reference

Stoomwezen (1989) - SC is the yield stress at room temperature. This value is referred to as
Re in the code.
RCC-M C, D - SC is taken from the Appendix. Eff is not used. If you define a value for Eff, the
software ignores it.
CODETI - This is famb from the code. Eff is not used. If you define a value for Eff, the software
ignores it.
Norwegian - This is f1 from the code. Eff is not used for longitudinal joint efficiency.
BS 7159 - Not used. Design stress is typed in the SH boxes.
UKOO - Not used. Design stress (in the hoop direction) is typed in the SH boxes.
IGE/TD/1 - Not used.
DN - Not used.
EN-13480 - SC is the basic allowable stress at minimum metal temperature as defined in
Section 12.1.3.
GPTC/Z380 - Not used.
PD 8010-1 - Not used.
PD 8010-2 - Not used.
ISO 14692 - SC is used in a different way. See reference for ISO 14692.
HPGSL - Not used.
JPI - Not used.

SH1, SH2, ... SH9


Specifies the hot stresses. Typically, these are the hot allowable stress for the specific material
taken directly from the governing piping code. CAESAR II fills the boxes automatically after you
select the material and piping code. There are nine boxes corresponding to the nine operating
temperatures. You must type a value for each defined temperature case. The value of SH is
usually divided by the longitudinal weld efficiency (Eff) before being used. See the
recommendations that follow for the specific piping code.
B31.1 - Allowable stress from Appendix A. For more information, see SC (on page 195).
B31.3 - Allowable stress from Appendix A. For more information, see SC (on page 195).
B31.4 - B31.4 Chapter IX. SH is not used.
B31.5 - Allowable stress from Appendix A. For more information, see SC (on page 195).
B31.8 - Temperature derating factor, T, according to Table 841.116A.
B31.8, Chapter VIII - Temperature derating factor, T (according to Table 841.116A).
B31.9 - Allowable stress from Table I-1. For more information, see SC (on page 195).
B31.11 - Not used.
ASME NC and ND - Allowable stress from Appendix I.
Navy 505 - Allowable stress from Table XIIA. For more information, see SC (on page 195).

196 CAESAR II User's Guide


Piping Input Reference

CAN Z662 - Not used.


BS 806 - 0.2% of the proof stress at design temperature Appendix E. Eff is not used.
Swedish Method 1 - Yield stress at temperature from Appendix 1.
Swedish Method 2 - Allowable stress at temperature from Appendix 2.
B31.1 (1967) - Allowable stress from Appendix A. For more information, see SC (on page 195).
Stoomwezen - Yield stress at design temperature. This value is referred to as Re (vm) in the
code.
RCC-M C, D - Taken from the Appendix.
CODETI - f from the code.
Norwegian - f2 from the code.
FDBR - Hot allowable defined in Section 3.2.
BS 7159 - Design stress sd in the longitudinal direction as defined in Section 4.3 of the code.
That is d =d * Elamx . Specify design stress in the circumferential (hoop) direction by typing the
ratio of the circumferential design stress to the axial design stress in the Eff box. Because
design strain should be the same for both directions, the value in the Eff box is also the ratio of
Elamf(hoop) to Elamx (longitudinal).
UKOOA - Allowable design stress in the hoop direction defined in the code as f1 * LTHS. The
three hot allowable stress boxes correspond to the three possible temperature cases.
DNV - Yield stress is used here instead of hot allowable stress.
IGE/TD/12 - Yield stress is used here instead of a hot allowable stress.
EN-13480 - Allowable stress at maximum metal temperature.
GPTC/Z380 - Temperature reduction factor T according to Par. 192.115.
PD-8010 (Part 1 & Part 2) - Not used.
ISO 14692 - SH is used in a different way. See the reference for ISO 14692.
HPGSL - Not used.
JPI - Not used.

SY1, SY2, ... SY9


Specifies the yield point or 0.2% endurance strength at the design temperature. This option only
displays when you select JPL or HPGSL in the Codes list.
This is Syt, the specified minimum yield or stated proof stress of the pipe material at maximum
temperature.
If you do not enter a value, the software takes the value from the Material Database if
that value is available and applicable.

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UTS1, UTS2, ... UTS9


Specifies the ultimate tensile strength at the design temperature.
If you do not enter a value, the software takes the value from the Material Database if
that value is available and applicable.

F1, F2, ... F9


Specifies the stress range reduction factor for most piping codes.
B31.1 - Stress range reduction factor is obtained from equation 1c. Consult the applicable piping
code for methods of combining cycle life data where several thermal states exist and where the
number of thermal cycles is high. The software assumes a value of one if you do not type a
value.
B31.3 - Stress range reduction factor is obtained from equation 1c corresponding to Fig 302.3.5.
If certain criteria are met, then the stress range reduction factor is allowed to exceed 1.0. The
number of cycles can be specified in this box for B31.3. This allows CAESAR II to compute the
cyclic reduction factor according to equation 1c.
B31.4 - Not used.
B31.8 - Stress range reduction factor is obtained from the equation given in Section 833.8(b).
The number of cycles can be specified in this box for B31.8 which allows CAESAR II to compute
the cyclic reduction factor according to this equation.
B31.8 CHAPTER VIII - Not used.
B31.9 - References B31.1 for detailed stress analysis. For more information, see Paragraph
919.4.1.b.
CODETI - Called U in the code.
NORWEGIAN - Called fr in the code. This value can be as high as 2.34.
DNV - Material ultimate tensile strength at temperature.
CAN Z662 -
F1 = L - the location factor is obtained from Table 4.2

Application CLASS 1 CLASS 2 CLASS 3 CLASS 4

Gas (non-sour)

General & Cased crossings 1.000 0.900 0.700 0.550

Roads 0.750 0.625 0.625 0.500

Railways 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.500

Stations 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.500

Other 0.750 0.750 0.625 0.500

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Gas (sour service)

General & Cased crossings 0.900 0.750 0.625 0.500

Roads 0.750 0.625 0.625 0.500

Railways 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.500

Stations 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.500

Other 0.750 0.750 0.625 0.500

HVP

General & Cased crossings 1.000 0.800 0.800 0.800

Roads 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.800

Railways 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.625

Stations 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.800

Other 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.800

LVP

Uncased railway crossings 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.625

All others 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

Class 1 - Location areas containing ten or fewer dwelling units intended for human
occupancy
Class 2 - Location areas containing 11 to 46 dwelling units intended for human occupancy
OR
buildings with more than 20 persons
outside areas with more than 20 persons
industrial installations
Class 3 - Location areas with more than 46 dwelling units intended for human occupancy
OR institutions where rapid evacuation may be difficult
Class 4 - Location areas where buildings intended for human occupancy have 4 or more
stories.
F2 = T - The temperature derating factor, is obtained from Table 4.4

Temperature Derating Factor T

up to 120 (C) 1.00

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Piping Input Reference

150 0.97

180 0.93

200 0.91

230 0.87

F3 - F9 - Not used.
CAN Z662 Chapter 11 -
F1 - Not used.
F2 = T - Temperature derating factor obtained from Table 4.4
F3 = - Design factor for Condition A from Table 11.1.
F4 = - Design factor for Condition B from Table 11.1.
F5 - F9 - Not used.
BS 806 - Mean stress to failure in design life at design temperature. F1, F2, ... F9. This value
corresponds to the nine possible thermal states.
FDBR - Identical to B31.1,unless you type the expansion coefficients directly instead of
temperatures. In that case, the software cannot determine Ehot. In this case, type a value of 1.0
in the FAC box and use these boxes to specify the product of f * Ehot / Ecold for each
temperature case.
SWEDISH METHOD 1 - Creep rupture stress at temperature. F1, F2 ... F9. This value
corresponds to the nine possible thermal states.
STOOMWEZEN - Creep related material properties as follows:
F1 = Rrg - Average creep stress to produce 1% permanent set after 100,000 hours at
temperature (vm).
F2 = Rmg - Average creep tensile stress to produce rupture after 100,000 hours at
temperature (vm).
F3 = Rmmin - Minimum creep tensile stress to produce rupture after 100,000 hours at
temperature (vm).
BS 7159 - Fatigue factor Kn. This value is used inversely compared to other codes so that its
value is greater than 1.0. Kn is calculated as follows:
Kn = 1 + 0.25(As/sn) (log10(n) - 3)
Where:
As = stress range during fatigue cycle
n = Maximum stress during fatigue cycle
n = number of stress cycles during design life
UKOOA - Ratio r from the material UKOOA idealized allowable stress envelope. This ratio is
defined as sa(0:1)/sa(2:1) as shown on the figure below. One value should be given for each of
the operating temperature cases.
IGE/TD/12 - UTS value.

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EN-13480 - Stress range reduction factor taken from Table 12.1.3-1 (which matches the B31.1
table above), or computed from equation 12.1.3-4. You can specify the number of cycles in this
box for EN-13480. This allows CAESAR II to compute the cyclic reduction factor according to
equation 12.1.3-4.
GPTC/Z380 - Not used.
PD-8010 (Part 1 & Part 2) - Not used.
ISO 14692 F is used in a different way. See the Reference for ISO 14692.
HPGSL - Stress range reduction factor at design temperature.
JPI - Stress range reduction factor at design temperature.

Eff
Specifies the longitudinal weld joint efficiency. The field changes according to the current piping
code.
B31.1, B31.1-1967, B31.5 - Allowable stress tables include longitudinal weld joint efficiencies
where applicable. If Eff is specified, then values for SC and SH are divided by Eff before they
are used in the flexibility calculations. Eff is ignored in the minimum wall calculation.
B31.3, B31.4, B31.8, B31.8 Chapter VIII, B31.9, B31.11, NAVY 505, Z662 (J), BS 806 (e),
CODETI (z), FDBR (vl), GPTC/Z380 - Allowable stress or yield stress tables do not include
longitudinal weld joint efficiencies. Eff is ignored for the flexibility calculations. SH is multiplied
by Eff when calculating the minimum wall thickness.
B31.4 Chapter IX, ASME NC, ASME ND, RCCM-C, RCCM-D - Ignored for both flexibility and
minimum wall thickness calculations. The box is disabled for these codes.
Swedish Method 1, Swedish Method 2, Norwegian TBK 5-6 - Circumferential joint factor z
and is used in the calculation of the code stresses rather than in the calculation of the
allowables. This applies to both flexibility or minimum wall thickness.
Stoomwezen - Cyclic reduction factor referred to as Cf in the code. CAESAR II does not
consider weld joint efficiency for this code.
BS 7159 - Ratio of the hoop modulus to the axial modulus of elasticity Eh/Ea. The software uses
a default value of 1.0, as though the material is isotropic if you leave this box blank.
UKOOA - Replace this box with f2. This is the system design factor. The value is typically 0.67.
IGE/TD/12 - Replace this box with Dfac. This is the system design factor (f) as described in
Table 2 of the IFE/TD/12 code. The value must be 0.3, 0.5, and 0.67.
DNV - Replaces this box with usage factor Ns (pressure yielding) from Tables C1 or C2. The
value must be between 0.77 and 0.96.
EN-13480 - Ignored for the flexibility calculations. SH is multiplied by Eff when calculating the
minimum wall thickness.
PD-8010 Part 1 - Weld joint factor used in determining the allowable hoop stress. See Section
6.4.3.1 for details.
PD-8010 Part 2 - Not used.
ISO 14692 Eff is used in different way. See the Reference for ISO 14692.

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Piping Input Reference

HPGSL - Longitudinal weld joint efficiency.


JPI - Longitudinal weld joint efficiency.

Sy
Specifies the yield stress. CAESAR II fills the box automatically after you select the material and
piping code. The field changes according to the current piping code, and is generally used for
the transmission and non-US piping codes.
B31.1 - Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
B31.3 - Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX - Used for the allowable stress determination.
B31.5 - Used to satisfy the requirements of Paragraph 523.2.2.f.4. This paragraph addresses
ferrous materials in piping systems between -20F and -150F. The value typed here should be
the quantity (40% of the allowable) as detailed in the Code. When Sy is defined, the OPE case
is considered a stress case. This value is the allowable reported in the output report. The
computed operating stress includes all longitudinal components and ignore torsion.
B31.8, B31.8 Chapter VIII - Specified minimum yield stress.
B31.9 - Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
B31.11 - Specified minimum yield stress.
ASME Sect III Class 2 and 3 - Basic Material Yield Strength at design temperature for use in
Eqn. 9 for consideration of Level A and B service limits. Level C and Level D service limits must
be satisfied in separate runs by adjusting the value for the occasional factor in the CAESAR II
configuration file. If the occasional factor is set to 1.2, the allowable stress is the minimum of 1.2
x 1.5 SH or 1.5 SY. If the factor is 1.5, the allowable is the minimum of 1.5 x 1.5 SH or 1.8 SY. If
the factor is 2.0, the allowable is the minimum of 2.0 x 1.5 SH or 2.0 SY. To satisfy the code,
replace SH with SM for the latter two.
Navy 505 - Not used.
CAN Z662 - Minimum yield strength taken from the standards or specifications under which the
pipe was purchased or according to clause 4.3.3.
BS 806 - Sustained stress limit. The lower of 0.8 X 0.2% Proof stress value or the creep rupture
design stress value defined in Appendix A under cold, or any other, operating condition. See
17.2(c)
Swedish Method 1 - Not used. Type the yield stress at temperature in the respective SHn
boxes for the up to nine possible thermal states.
Swedish Method 2 - Ultimate tensile strength at room temperature.
B31.1 (1967) - Not used.
Stoomwezen (1989) - Tensile strength at room temperature. This value is referred to as Rm in
the code.
RCC-M C, D - Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
CODETI - Used only for the hydrotest allowable.

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Norwegian - Allowable stress at 7000 load cycles, RS, from Code Table 10.2. If you do not type
a value, then this factor is not considered to control the expansion stress allowable.
FDBR - Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
BS 7159 - Not used.
UKOOA - Not used.
IGE/TD/12 - Minimum yield stress (SMYS).
DnV - Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
EN-13480 - Used only for the hydrotest allowable.
GPTC/Z380 - Minimum yield stress.
PD-8010 Part 1 - Minimum yield stress.
PD-8010 Part 2 - Minimum yield stress.
ISO-14692 - Sy is used in a different way. See the Reference for ISO 14692.
HPGSL - Not used.
JPI - Not used.

SYa
Specifies the specified minimum yield or stated proof stress of the pipe material at room
temperature. This is also referred to as SMYS or SY.
If you do not enter a value, the software takes the value from the Material Database if
that value is available and applicable.

SY (c)
Specifies the minimum yield point or 0.2% endurance strength at room temperature.

Ksd
Material shakedown factor described in Table 4 of the IGE/TD/12 code. Typical values are:
Carbon Steel: 1.8
Austenitic Steel: 2.0

UTSa
Specifies the ultimate tensile strength of the pipe material corresponding to the specified
ambient temperature.

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Piping Input Reference

UTS (c)
Specifies the minimum tensile strength at room temperature.

DFac
Specifies the system design factor (f) as described in Table 2 of the IGE/TD/12 code. Its value
must be 0.3, 0.5, and 0.67.
If you do not enter a value, the software takes the value from the Material Database if
that value is available and applicable.

Fac
Specifies the multiplication factor. The field changes according to the current piping code, and is
generally used for the transmission and non-US piping codes.
B31.1 - Not used.
B31.3 - Not used.
B31.4 - Indicates whether the pipe is restrained, such as long or buried, or unrestrained.
The equation for pipe under complete axial restraint is:
Stress = (Fac) x abs[ E(T2-T1) + (1-) Shoop ] + (SE + SL)(1-Fac)
Where:
E = elastic modulus
= thermal expansion coefficient per degree
T2 = operating temperature
T1 = ambient temperature
= Poisson's ratio
Shoop = hoop stress in the pipe.
SE = expansion stress due to bending
SL = sustained stress due to pressure.
Fac should be 1.0, 0.0, or 0.001. This value should be one for pipe under complete axial
restraint. This value should be one when the pipe is fully restrained, such as buried for a long
distance. The default value for Fac is 0.0. When Fac is 0.001, this indicates to CAESAR II that
the pipe is buried but that the soil supports have been modeled. This causes the hoop stress
component, rather than the longitudinal stress, to be added to the operating stresses if the axial
stress is compressive.
B31.4 Chapter IX - F1, hoop stress design factor, according to Table A402.3.5(a) of B31.4.
Appropriate values are 0.72 for pipelines or 0.60 for platform piping and risers.
B31.5 - Not used.
B31.8 - Construction design factor from Table 841.114B.

Construction Type: (Descriptions are approx.) Factor

A (CLASS 1) Wasteland, Deserts, Mountains, Grazing Land, Farmland,


0.72
Sparsely Populated Areas.

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B (CLASS 2) Fringe Areas Around Cities, Industrial Areas, Ranch, or


0.60
Country Estates.

C (CLASS 3) Suburban Housing Developments, Shopping Centers,


0.50
Residential Areas.

D (CLASS 4) Multi-Story Buildings are prevalent, traffic is heavy, and 0.40 (0.4 defaults if
where there may be numerous other utilities underground. left blank)

B31.8 Chapter VIII - F1, Hoop stress design factor, according to Table A842.22 of B31.8.
Appropriate values are 0.72 for pipelines or 0.50 for platform piping and risers.
B31.9 - Not used.
B31.11 - Indicates whether the pipe is restrained, such as long or buried, or unrestrained.
The equation for pipe under complete axial restraint is:
Stress = (Fac) x abs[ E(T2-T1) + (1-) Shoop ] + (SE + SL)(1-Fac)
Where:
E = elastic modulus
= thermal expansion coefficient per degree
T2 = operating temperature
T1 = ambient temperature
= Poisson's ratio
Shoop = hoop stress in the pipe.
SE = expansion stress due to bending
SL = sustained stress due to pressure.
Fac should be 1.0, 0.0, or 0.001. This value should be one for pipe under complete axial
restraint. This value should be one when the pipe is fully restrained, such as buried for a long
distance. The default value for Fac is 0.0. When Fac is 0.001, this indicates to CAESAR II that
the pipe is buried but that the soil supports have been modeled. This causes the hoop stress
component, rather than the longitudinal stress, to be added to the operating stresses if the axial
stress is compressive.
ASME Sect III, Class 2 and 3 - Not used.
B31.1 (1967) - Not used.
Navy 505 - Not used
CAN Z662 - Indicates whether the pipe is restrained, such as long or buried, or unrestrained.
The equation for pipe under complete axial restraint is:
Stress = (Fac) x abs[ E(T2-T1) + (1-) Shoop ] + (SE + SL)(1-Fac)
Where:
E = elastic modulus
= thermal expansion coefficient per degree
T2 = operating temperature
T1 = ambient temperature
= Poisson's ratio
Shoop = hoop stress in the pipe.

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Piping Input Reference

SE = expansion stress due to bending


SL = sustained stress due to pressure.
Fac should be 1.0, 0.0, or 0.001. This value should be one for pipe under complete axial
restraint. This value should be one when the pipe is fully restrained, such as buried for a long
distance. The default value for Fac is 0.0. When Fac is 0.001, this indicates to CAESAR II that
the pipe is buried but that the soil supports have been modeled. This causes the hoop stress
component, rather than the longitudinal stress, to be added to the operating stresses if the axial
stress is compressive.
BS806 - Not used.
Swedish Power Code, Method 1 - Sigma(tn) multiplier. This value is usually 1.5. This value
should be 1.35 for prestressed (cold sprung) piping. The default value is 1.5.
Swedish Power Code, Method 2 - Not used.
Stoomwezen - Constant whose value is either 0.44 or 0.5. For more information, see
Stoomwezen Section 5.2.
RCC-M C, D - Not used.
CODETI - Not used.
Norwegian - Material ultimate tensile strength at room temperature, RM. If this value is not
specified, this factor is not considered to control the expansion stress allowable.
FDBR - Overrides the ratio of Ehot/Ecold which is automatically determined by CAESAR II.
The modulus ratio is used to compute the expansion case allowable stress based on the
material and temperature. Normally, you can leave this box blank. However, if necessary, you
can type a value greater than zero and less than one to override the ratio calculated by the
software.
To use FBDR, type the hot modulus in the Elastic Modulus box of the dialog box. CAESAR II
looks up the cold modulus and computes this necessary ratio. Using the hot modulus in the
flexibility analysis is a deviation of FBDR from every other piping code in CAESAR II.
If you type expansion coefficients directly instead of temperatures, then the software cannot
determine Ecold. In this case, type a value of 1.0 in this cell and use the cyclic reduction factor
boxes to specify the product of (f * Ehot /Ecold) for each temperature case.
BS 7159 - Mean temperature change multiplier k as defined in Section 7.2.1 of the code. This
should be 0.85 for liquids, 0.8 for gases, and 1.0 for ambient temperature changes. If left blank,
this value defaults to 1.0.
UKOOA - Mean temperature change multiplier k as defined for the BS 7159. If left blank, this
value defaults to 1.0.
IGE/TD/12 - Material shakedown factor Ksd described in Table 4 of the IGE/TD/12 code. Typical
values are 1.8 for carbon steel and 2.0 for austenitic steel..
HPGSL - Not used.
JPI - Not used.
DNV - Usage factor Nu (pressure bursting) from Tables C1or C2. Values must be between 0.64
and 0.84.
EN-13480 - Not used.
GPTC/Z380 - Construction design factor from Table 192.111.

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PD-8010 Part 1 - Same usage as B31.4.


PD-8010 Part 2 - Not used.
ISO 14692 - Fac is used in a different way. See the Reference for ISO 14692.

Pvar
Specifies the pressure variance. The field changes according to the current piping code.
ASME and RCC-M C, D - Variance in the pressure between operating and peak to be used as
the component in equation 9 above that found from B1 * P * Do / 2tn. Do not type the peak
pressure for Pvar. Type the difference between the operating pressure and the peak pressure.
Swedish Power Code, Methods 1 & 2 - Beta for the Seff calculation. If not given, this value
defaults to 10%. Type ten percent as 10.0. Values must be between 0.1 and 25.0. Values
specified outside of this range are automatically adjusted to the outer limit of the allowed range.
The definition for beta, as given in the Swedish piping code in section 5.6.2.1, is the "maximum
allowable minus the tolerance as a percentage of the nominal wall thickness".
Stoomwezen - Cm coefficient in the code whose value is usually 1.0.
Norwegian - Difference between design pressure P (in equation 10.7) and peak pressure
Pmaks (in equation 10.8).
The table that follows defines when each of these parameters is valid input for the piping code
(V) or not required (N).
DNV - Usage factor N for equivalent stress check from Table C4. Values must be between 0.77
and 1.00.
PD-8010 Part 1 - Design factor as discussed in Section 6.4.1.2. Typical limits on this value are
0.3 and 0.72, depending on categories and class locations. This design factor determines the
allowable hoop stress. This value has no units for PD-8010 Part 1.
PD-8010 Part 2 - Design factor as discussed in Section 6.4.1 Table 2. Type the value of fd for
the hoop stress evaluation. This value should be either 0.6 (riser/land fall) or 0.72
(seabed/tie-in). CAESAR II determines the appropriate fd values for the equivalent stress from
Table 2. This value has no units for PD-8010 Part 2.
This value is taken from the Material Database, if available and applicable, unless you
enter a value.
ISO 14692 - Pvar is used in a different way. See the Reference for ISO 14692.

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"f" Allowed Maximum of 1.2


Indicates whether to allow a maximum cyclic reduction factor. The 2004 edition of B31.3 permits
the cyclic reduction factor (f) to exceed 1.0 under certain conditions. To allow "f" to exceed 1.0,
up to the limit of 1.2, click On. To prohibit "f" from exceeding 1.0, click Off.
This setting is distributive and applies to current and all following elements until you
change it.

Appendix P - OPE Allowable Reduction


Indicates whether the software reduces the Operating Range Allowable value by 15%. Appendix
P in the 2010 Edition of B31.3 requires a reduction of the Operating Range Allowable value by
15% for materials with ratio of Sy/St > 0.8. The software selects this check box by default for the
B31.3 code. When selected, CAESAR II performs this reduction, when applicable.
You must set the Implement Appendix P configuration setting to True for CAESAR II to
display this check box on the Allowable Stresses tab of the Classic Piping Input dialog box.
You can find this configuration setting in the SIFs and Stresses > B31.3 Code-Specific
Settings section of the Configuration Editor.

Restrained Piping per B31.8


Indicates whether or not the piping is restrained. B31.8 (2003) distinguishes between restrained
and unrestrained piping for the purposes of stress computations. When implementing the B31.8
piping code, you must define which sections of the piping system are restrained according to
Code Section 833.1.
If the pipe is restrained, click On. If the pipe is not restrained, click Off.
In general, restrained piping is piping in which the soil or supports prevent axial displacement of
flexure at bends. Unrestrained piping is piping that is free to displace axially or flex at bends.
Additional details are provided in Section 833.1. For more information, consult the code directly.

Fatigue Curves
Displays the Material Fatigue Curves dialog box.

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Cycle Stress Table


Specifies cycle and stress values. Use the material fatigue curve data to evaluate fatigue load
cases and cumulative use scenarios. You can enter up to eight cycle-stress pairs. These values
must be entered in ascending cycle order.
IGE/TD/12 provides the opportunity to enter up to five fatigue curves, representing fatigue
classes D, E, F, G, and W. Fatigue evaluations are explicitly specified by IGE/TD/12. CAESAR II
offers them as extensions to other codes.
You must type cycle/stress pairs in ascending order (ascending by cycles). Type stress values
as the allowable stress range rather than allowable stress amplitude. The software considers
fatigue curves to be specified using a logarithmic interpolation.
Static fatigue cases are evaluated against the full range of the fatigue curve, while
dynamic fatigue cases are assumed to represent amplitudes, and are therefore evaluated
against half of the range of the fatigue curve.

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Piping Input Reference

Read from File


Displays the Open dialog box so that you can select a file (some files are shipped with CAESAR
II) and read cycles and stress data into the Cycles and Stress boxes.

Composition/Type
Specifies the material composition of the pipe.
Aluminum - Aluminum alloy or alloy steel containing 9% nickel. For use at temperatures
lower than room temperature.
Austenite - Austenite stainless steel and high nickel contained allows. For use at
temperatures higher than room temperature.
Others - Any material other than aluminum or austenite.

TD/12 Modulus Correction


IGE/TD/12 Section A5.6 requires that the allowable fatigue stress (as specified in the fatigue
curves) be adjusted by the ratio of the material modulus-of-elasticity divided by 209103 N/mm2.
This divisor can be adjusted if necessary by changing the entry in the Modulus Correction box.

Allowable Stress (ISO 14692)


Activates allowable stress data. Select or clear this option by double-clicking the Allowable
Stress check box on the Classic Piping Input dialog box. When you select material 20 for FRP
(Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic) and piping code ISO 14692, the Allowable Stress auxiliary
dialog box changes.

al(0:1)
Specifies the long term axial stress at 0:1 stress ratio. Typically, the axial stress (hoop stress is
0 at this point) is lower than the axial stress al(2:1) (hoop stress is double the axial stress at this
point). The ratio of these stresses, called bi-axial stress ratio, can range between 0.5 and 0.75
for plain pipe depending on the winding angle and specific pipe type.

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al(1:1)
Specifies the long term axial stress at 1:1 stress ratio. According to ISO 14962,, hoop stress has
the same value as that for axial stresses at a 1:1 stress ratio, that is hl(1:1)=al(1:1). However,
CAESAR II allows you to type different values for al(1:1) and hl(1:1) for a generalized failure
profile. In this case, CAESAR II displays a warning message in the Error Checker.
If you leave both the al(1:1) and hl(1:1) boxes blank, CAESAR II assumes that a simplified
envelope is used for plain pipe.

hl(1:1)
Specifies the long term hoop stress at 1:1 stress ratio. According to ISO 14692, hoop stress has
the same value as that for axial stresses at a 1:1 stress ratio. That is, hl(1:1) = al(1:1). However,
CAESAR II allows a different value for al(1:1) and hl(1:1) for a generalized failure profile. In this
case, CAESAR II displays a warning message displays in the Error Checker.
If you specify al(1:1) and leave hl(1:1) blank, CAESAR II assumes that hl(1:1) is equal to al(1:1),
and displays a warning message in the Error Checker. For more information, see al(1:1) (on
page 211).

al(2:1)
Specifies the long term axial stress at a 2:1 stress ratio. According to ISO 14962, hoop stress is
twice the axial stress at a 2:1 ratio, that is hl(2:1) = 2 * al(2:1). This is a natural condition when a
pressurized pipe is enclosed at both ends. However CAESAR II allows you to type different
values for hl(2:1) 2 * al(2:1). In this case, CAESAR II displays a warning message in the Error
Checker.

hl(2:1)
Specifies the long term hoop stress at a 2:1 stress ratio. According to ISO 14692, hoop stress is
twice the axial stress at a 2:1 stress ratio. That is, hl(2:1)= 2*al(2:1). However, CAESAR II allows
hl(2:1) to have a different value than twice of al(2:1). In this case, CAESAR II displays a warning
message in the Error Checker.
If you specify al(2:1) and leave hl(2:1) blank, CAESAR II assumes that hl(2:1) is equal to twice
al(2:1), and displays a warning message in the error checker. For more information, see al(2:1)
(on page 211).

Qs
Specifies the qualified stress for joints, bends, and tees. A qualified stress, Qs, provided by the
manufacturer is defined as:

Pq is the qualified pressure;


D is the average diameter of the pipe;
tr is the average reinforced wall thickness of the pipe.

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The qualified stress, qs, for fittings is calculated as:

CAESAR II does not require qualified stress Qs for plain pipe. Qs for pipe = hl(2:1), and
hl(2:1) is required input for plain pipe.
You must enter qualified stress Qs for joints, bends and tees even if these fitting are not in
the piping model. You can enter positive values (1000.0 for Qs and 1.0 for r, for example) to
pass the Error Checker.

r
Specifies the bi-axial stress ratio for bends, tees, and joints. The bi-axial stress r is defined as:

where:
sh(2:1) is the short-term hoop strength, under 2:1 stress conditions;
sa(0:1) is the short-term axial strength, under axial loading only.
In the absence of data from the manufacturer, use the default values:

Short-term
Fitting Component Strength Bi-axial
Stress Ratio (r)*

Filament-wound unidirectional 90
0.45
and
Bends 1.0
Filament-wound and hand-lay 1
1.9
100% hand-lay

Tees Filament-wound and hand-lay 1 1.0

Other Hand
laminated
CSM/WR 1, 9 1.9

Spigot/Socket Adhesive or
1.0
Mechanical Connection
0.45
Joints Threaded
1.0
Flange
2.0
Laminated

You can use a higher factor for r if justified by testing according to 6.2.6

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ISO 14692-2-2002.

CAESAR II assumes that the bi-axial stress ratio r is 1.0 for tees according to ISO 14692.
CAESAR II displays a warning message in the Error Checker if the bi-axial stress ratio r is
greater than 20 for bends or joints. You can ignore the warning message.
If a piping system has no joints or bends, the corresponding bi-axial stress ratio r should not be
required. However, you must type a positive value (such as 1.0) for r to get rid of error
messages.

Eh/Ea
Specifies the ratio of the hoop modulus to the axial modulus of elasticity. If you leave this box
blank, CAESAR II uses a default value of 2.0.

Hand Lay
Indicates that the bend is hand-layed. If this box is selected, the software assumes smooth
bends. This affects the calculations of both the flexibility factor and the SIFs for the bend.

1, 2, ... 9 for Partial Factor for Temperature (A1)


Specifies the partial factor for temperature. Because each operating temperature needs an A 1
factor, you may need to specify up to 9 factors if all 9 operating temperatures are defined in a
model. If you leave the boxes blank, CAESAR II uses the default value of 1.0.
The following passage is from ISO14692-3:2002(E) section 7.4.2 Design Temperature.
The effect of temperature on reduction of mechanical properties shall be accounted for by the
partial factor A1, which is determined according to Annex D in ISO 14692-2:2002.
The maximum operating temperature of the piping system shall not exceed the temperature
used to calculate the partial factor A1 of the GRP components. If the operating temperature is
less than or equal to 65C, then A1 is generally equal to 1.0
The effect of low temperatures on material properties and system performance shall be
considered. For service temperatures below 0C, the principal should consider the need for
additional testing, depending on the resin system. Both qualification as well as additional
mechanical tests should be considered.
Glass Reinforced Plastic GRP materials do not undergo ductile/brittle transition within the
temperature range of this part of ISO 14692. Because of this, there is no significant abrupt
change in mechanical properties at low temperatures. A concern is that at temperatures lower
than 35C, internal residual stresses could become large enough to reduce the safe operating
envelope of the piping system.

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Chemical Resistance (A2)


Specifies the partial factor for chemical resistance. If you leave the box blank, CAESAR II uses
the default value of 1.0.
The following passage is from ISO 14692-3:2002(E) section 7.4.3 Chemical Degradation.
The effect of chemical degradation of all system components from either the transported
medium or the external environment shall be considered on both the pressure and temperature
ratings. System components shall include adhesive and elastomeric seals/locking rings, if used,
as well as the basic glass fiber and resin materials.
The effect of chemical degradation shall be accounted for by the partial factor A2 for chemical
resistance, which is determined according to Annex D in ISO 14692-2:2002. If the normal
service fluid is water, then A2 = 1. Reference shall be made to manufacturers' data if available.

In general, the aqueous fluids specified in the qualification procedures of ISO 14692-2:2002
are among the more aggressive environments likely to be encountered. However, strong
acids, alkalis, hypochlorite, glycol, aromatics and alcohol can also reduce the properties of
Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) piping components; the effect depends on the chemical
concentration, temperature and resin type.
The information from the manufacturers' tables is based on experience and laboratory tests
at atmospheric pressure, on published literature, raw material suppliers' data, and so on.
Chemical concentrations, wall stresses, reinforcement type and resin have not always been
taken into account. Therefore the tables only give an indication of the suitability of the piping
components to transport the listed chemicals. In addition, the mixing of chemicals may
cause severe situations.

Cyclic Service (A3)


Specifies the partial factor for cyclic service. If you leave the box blank, CAESAR II uses the
default value of 1.0.
The following passage is from ISO 14692-3:2002(E) section 7.4.4 Fatigue and Cyclic Loading.
Cyclic loading is not necessarily limited to pressure loads. Thermal and other cyclic loads shall
therefore be considered when assessing cyclic severity.
If the predicted number of pressure or other loading cycle is less than 7000 over the design life,
the service shall be considered static. If required, the limited cyclic capability of the pipe system
components can be demonstrated according to 6.4.5 of ISO 14692-2:2002.
If the predicted number of pressure or other loading cycles exceeds 7000 over the design life,
then the designer shall determine the design cyclic severity, Rc, of the piping system. Rc is
defined as:

where Fmin and Fmax are the minimum and maximum loads (or stresses) of the load (or stress)
cycle.
The partial factor, A3 , for cyclic service is given by:

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where N is the total number of cycles during service life.


This equation is intended for cyclic internal pressure loading only, but may be applied with
caution to axial loads provided they remain tensile, that is, it is not applicable for reversible
loading.

System Design Factor


Specifies the system design factor. This value is multiplied by the occasional load factor (k) to
generate the value of the part factor for loading (f 2). If you leave this box blank, CAESAR II uses
the default value of 0.67.
The purpose of the system design factor is to define an acceptable margin of safety between the
strength of the material and the operating stresses for the three load cases. These load cases
are occasional, sustained including thermal loads, and sustained excluding thermal loads. The
following table shows the relationship between the system design factor, the occasional load
factor, and f2, along with their default values.

Load System Design Occasional Part Factor For


Loading Type
Duration Factor (SDF) Load Factor Loading (f2)

Occasional Short-term 0.67 1.33 0.89

Sustained Including
Long-term 0.67 1.24 0.83
Thermal Loads

Sustained
Excluding Thermal Long-term 0.67 1.00 0.67
Loads

The part factor for loading f2 is equal to System Design Factor times the Occ Load
Factor.

Thermal Factor (k)


Specifies the thermal factor. This factor is defined in Section 8.4 of ISO-14692-3:2002(E). In the
absence of further information, the thermal factor k should be taken as 0.85 for liquids and 0.8
for gasses. If you leave this box blank, CAESAR II uses a default value of 1.0.

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Material Elastic Properties


Specifies the elastic modulus and Poissons ratio of the material. These values must be typed
for Material type 21 (user specified).

Material properties in the database can be changed permanently using the CAESAR II
Material Database editor. For more information, see Material Database (on page 1033).
Double-click >> to display the Edit Elastic Properties dialog box.

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Material Properties
Displays the properties associated with the material. CAESAR II automatically fills in the
Modulus of Elasticity, Poisson's Ratio, and other material properties. If you want to change
any material property extracted from the material database, change the value in the
corresponding box.

Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP)


The CAESAR II FRP pipe element models an orthotropic material whose properties can be
defined by:
Ea - Axial Modulus-of-elasticity
Eh - Hoop Modulus-of-elasticity
h/a - Poisson's ratio of the strain in the axial direction resulting from a stress in the hoop
direction.
G - Shear Modulus (Not related to the Elastic Modulus and Poisson's ratio in the
conventional manner.)

FRP pipe is specified by setting the Material box to 20. The material name displays and FRP
properties from the configuration file display on the dialog box.
Some of the material parameters are renamed when the FRP material is selected: Elastic
Modulus changes to Elastic Modulus/axial and Poisson's Ratio changes to "E a/Eh*h/a". The
latter entry requires the value of the following expression: (Ea*h/a) / Eh. This expression is
equal to a/h, Poisson's ratio of the strain in the hoop direction resulting from a stress in the axial
direction. The shear modulus G is defined by typing the ratio of G/Ea (shear modulus to axial
modulus) on the special execution parameters screen. You can type only one ratio for each job.
The decrease in flexural stiffness at bends and intersections due to changes in the circular
cross-section is typically negligible because the hoop modulus is usually considerably higher
than the axial modulus for FRP pipe. Because of this, a default flexibility factor of 1 is used for
these components. Similarly, because the fatigue tests performed by Markl on steel pipe are
likely to have no bearing on FRP design, an SIF of 2.3 is applied for all fittings. CAESAR II uses
these recommendations for all FRP fittings unless you specifically override the defaults. You can
override the defaults on a point-by-point basis or by forcing all calculations to adhere to the
requirements of the governing code through a CAESAR II configuration parameter. Note that if

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the BS 7159, UKOOA, or ISO 14692 code is in effect, all SIFs and flexibility factors are
calculated according to that code regardless of the configuration parameter settings.

Propagate Properties
Indicates whether to propagate the property changes. Clear this check box to indicate that
properties apply to the current element only.

Densities
The densities of the piping material, insulation, and fluid contents are specified in this block. The
piping material density is a required entry and is usually extracted from the Material Database.
You can also type Fluid density in terms of specific gravity, if convenient, by following the input
immediately with the letters: SG, for example, 0.85SG (there can be no spaces between the
number and the SG).

If an insulation thickness is specified (in the pipe section properties block) but no
insulation density is specified, CAESAR II defaults to the density of calcium silicate.

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Double-click >> to display the Edit Densities dialog box.

Refract Thk
Specifies the thickness of refractory to apply to the piping. Refractory is applied to the inside of
the pipe. It is included in the dead weight of the system and reduces the internal pipe area
affecting the fluid weight in the system.

Refract Density
Displays the density of the refractory lining. If you select a value from the list, the numeric value
replaces the material name when the box is registered.
Refractory densities are much higher than insulation densities and could lead to under
sized restraints.
Densities for some typical refractory materials display below:

MATERIAL DENSITY (lb./cu.in. )

A.P. GREEN GREENCAST 94 0.09433

A.P. GREEN KRUZITE 0.08391


CASTABLE

A.P. GREEN MC-30 0.08391

A.P. GREEN MC-22 0.07234

A.P. GREEN KAST-SET 0.06655

A.P. GREEN KAST-O-LITE 25 0.05208

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A.P. GREEN VSL-35AST 94 0.02257

B & W KAOCRETE B 0.05787

B & W KAOCRETE 32-C 0.08333

B & W KAO-TAB 95 0.09549

B & W KAOLITE 2200 0.03241

B & W KAOLITE 2200-HS 0.04745

B & W KAOLITE 2500-LI. 0.03472

Insul Thk
Specifies the thickness of the insulation to be applied to the piping. Insulation applied to the
outside of the pipe is included in the dead weight of the system and in the projected pipe area
used for wind load computations.
Even if you specify the unit weight of the insulation or cladding, the thickness values are
still required so that the software can determine the correct projected area.

Clad Thk
Specifies the thickness of the cladding to be applied to the piping. Cladding is applied to the
outside of the insulation. It is included in the dead weight of the system and in the projected pipe
area used for wind load computations.
Even if you specify the unit weight of cladding plus insulation, the thickness values are
still required so that the software can determine the correct projected area.

Insulation Density
Displays the density of the insulation on a per unit volume basis. If you select a value from the
list, the numeric value replaces the material name when the box is registered.
If you leave this box blank, then the software assumes that the insulation is CALCIUM SILICATE
having a density of 0.006655.
Verify that this assumed value is appropriate for the current application. Sample density values
for insulation materials are:

MATERIAL DENSITY

AMOSITE ASBESTOS .009259

CALCIUM SILICATE .006655

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CAREYTEMP .005787

FIBERGLASS (OWEN/CORNING) .004051

FOAM-GLASS/CELLULAR .004630
GLASS

HIGH TEMP .01389

KAYLO 10 (TM) .007234

MINERAL WOOL .004919

PERLITE / CELO-TEMP 1500 .007523

POLY URETHANE .001273

STYRO FOAM .001042

SUPER X .01447

Cladding Density
Displays the thickness of the cladding to apply to the piping. Cladding is applied to the outside of
the insulation and is included in the dead weight of the system. Cladding is also included in the
projected pipe area used for wind load computations.

Insul/Cladding Unit Weight


Displays an alternative to specifying the insulation and cladding thickness and density. This is
an optional combined uniform load (weight per unit length).
If you are applying wind loads, then you must type the insulation and cladding thickness
to obtain the correct projected area for wind load computation.

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Propagate Properties
Indicates whether to propagate the property changes. Clear this check box to indicate that
properties apply to the current element only.

Line Number
Specifies the line number for an element.

Line numbers carry forward to successive elements. Because of this, you only need to specify
data on the first element of a new line.
To assign a line number name, do one of the following:
Select the Line Number box, or press F9. Select <new..> to automatically assign a name.
The line number is named Line Number X, where X is a sequential number.
Use the auto-complete feature that populates with the nearest match as you type. For
example, if you have a line named 8-300-123 and you want to assign 8-150-124, Type 8
and the box automatically fills with the first line number that matches what you have typed.
Press End to change the last character.
You can also select elements on the graphics model and click Create from Selection in the
Line Numbers dialog box.
See Also
Line Numbers (on page 278)

Available Commands
Topics
File Menu ....................................................................................... 223
Edit Menu ....................................................................................... 227
Model Menu ................................................................................... 235
Environment Menu ......................................................................... 279
Global Menu................................................................................... 321
Options Menu................................................................................. 328
View Menu ..................................................................................... 333
Tools Menu .................................................................................... 351

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File Menu
Performs actions associated with opening, closing, and running the job file.

New
Creates a new CAESAR II job.

New Job Name Specification Dialog Box


Controls parameters for creating a new CAESAR II job.
Enter the name for the NEW job file - Specifies the job name.
Piping Input - Indicates that the job is a piping job.
Structural Input - Indicates that the job is a structural job.
Enter the data directory - Specifies the location of the job file. You can type the directory into
the field, or click the browse button to browse to the directory.

Open
Opens an existing CAESAR II job.

Open Dialog Box


Controls options for opening existing files.
Look in - Specifies the directory in which the file exists.
Name - Lists the files in the selected directory that match the selected file type. You can sort the
list by clicking the Name, Data modified, or Type column headers.
File Name - Specifies the name of the selected file. This field is automatically filled in if you click
a file in the Name list.
Files of type - Specifies the type of file listed in the Name list.
System - Changes the Look in field to the CAESAR II System folder.
Examples - changes the Look in field to the CAESAR II Examples folder.

Open CADWorx Model


Opens an existing CADWorx model.

Open Dialog Box


Controls options for opening existing files.
Look in - Specifies the directory in which the file exists.
Name - Lists the files in the selected directory that match the selected file type. You can sort the
list by clicking the Name, Data modified, or Type column headers.

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File Name - Specifies the name of the selected file. This field is automatically filled in if you click
a file in the Name list.
Files of type - Specifies the type of file listed in the Name list.
System - Changes the Look in field to the CAESAR II System folder.
Examples - changes the Look in field to the CAESAR II Examples folder.

Save <filename>
Saves the current CAESAR II job under its current name.

Save As
Saves the current CAESAR II job under a new name.

Save As Dialog Box


Save in - Specifies the directory in which to save the job.
Name - Lists the files in the selected directory that match the selected file type. You can sort the
list by clicking the Name, Data modified, or Type column headers.
File Name - Specifies the name of the selected file. This field is automatically filled in if you click
a file in the Name list.
Save as type - Specifies the type of file listed in the Name list.
Save - Writes the file to the selected directory.

Save as Graphics Image


Saves the current CAESAR II job as an HTML page, .TIFF, .BMP, or .JPG file.

Save As Dialog Box


Save in - Specifies the directory in which to save the job.
Name - Lists the files in the selected directory that match the selected file type. You can sort the
list by clicking the Name, Data modified, or Type column headers.
File Name - Specifies the name of the selected file. This field is automatically filled in if you click
a file in the Name list.
Save as type - Specifies the type of file listed in the Name list.
Save - Writes the file to the selected directory.

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Archive
Assigns a password to the job to prevent inadvertent alteration of the model or to type
the password to unlock the file. Archived input files cannot be altered or saved without this
password; however, they can be opened and reviewed.

Archive Dialog Box


Error Check
Sends the model through interactive error checking. This is the first step of analysis. When
the error check is complete, the Errors and Warnings dialog box displays the results. For more
information, see Error Checking (on page 513).

Batch Run
Error checks the model in a non-interactive way. This process halts only for fatal errors. It
uses the existing or default static load cases and performs the static analysis.

Print Setup
Sets up the printer for the input listing.

Print Setup Dialog Box


Controls parameters for setting up a printer.
Name - Specifies the name of the printer.
Properties - Displays printer properties.
Size - Specifies the size of the paper in the printer.
Source - Specifies the active paper tray
Portrait - Prints the file using a vertical orientation.
Landscape - Prints the file using a horizontal orientation.
Network - Allows you to specify a printer from the network.

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Print Preview
Displays a preview of the print job.

Print <filename>
Prints the current job. The software prompts you to select the reports to print, prior to
printing.
You can change the report contents by modifying the .inp file.
Any time an input listing is written to a file or to the printer, the format of each of the reports is
obtained from the .inp file. The .inp files are ASCII text files which can be modified to create
reports of differing styles or content. You can modify the Initial.inp to change the page length in
the report, and the starting and stopping column positions. Any text editor (such as Notepad)
can be used to change any of the .inp files. If you change the .inp file, you may receive fatal
errors during report generation if impossible formats, or if invalid commands are requested.
If you prefer a different (more columnar) form of the basic element data, three additional
formatting files have been provided.
ELEMENT0.INP - Intergraph CAS standard element format
ELEMENT1.INP - 1st alternate element format
ELEMENT2.INP - 2nd alternate element format
ELEMENT3.INP - 3rd alternate element format
To use any of these formatting files, change directories to the CAESAR II\System directory.
Then, copy the formatting file that you want to use into Element.inp.
To print an Input Echo from the input dialog box, click File > Print. To write an Input Echo to the
screen for review, click File > Print Preview.
You can print an input listing from the output module as part of the entire output report.

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Input Listing Options Dialog Box


Controls which options are included in the print job. Select the box for items to include. Clear the
box for items not to include.

Recent Piping Files


Displays a list of most recently opened piping files.

Recent Structural Files


Displays a list of most recently opened structural files.

Exit
Closes the session. You are prompted to save unsaved changes.

Edit Menu
Performs actions associated with cutting and pasting, navigating through the elements, and
performing a few small utilities.

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Cut
Cuts selected elements from the document and pastes them to the Clipboard. The selected
elements replace the previous contents of the Clipboard.

Copy
Copies selected elements to the Clipboard. When you use this command, it replaces the
previous contents of the Clipboard with the new contents.

Paste
Inserts the Clipboard contents into the file. The command is not available if the Clipboard is
empty.

Continue
Moves the dialog box to the next element in the model. The software adds a new element if
there is no next element.

Duplicate Element
Copies the selected element either before or after the current element.

Insert Element
Inserts an element.

Insert Element Dialog Box


Controls options for inserting an element.
Before - Inserts a new element prior to the current element. The To node of the new element is
then equal to the From node of the current element.
After - Inserts a new element following the current element. The From node of the new element
is then equal to the To node of the current element.

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Delete Element
Deletes the current element.

Find
Displays a specific element in the view. This command displays a dialog box that allows you
to specify the From and To nodes for which you want to search. You can enter the node
numbers in either of the two fields, or in both. If you entering only the From node number, the
software searches for the first available element that starts with that node number. If you enter
only the To node number, the software searches for an element ending with that node number.
When the software locates the element it highlights the element and fits it in the view. You can
zoom out to better identify the location of the highlighted element within the model.

Find Element Dialog Box


Controls parameters for finding elements.
Node Numbers - Specifies the node numbers to search for. Enter a single node number to find
the next element containing that node number (either as a From or To node). Enter two node
numbers to find the next element containing both of those node numbers (in either order).
Zoom to Node if Found - Indicates that the software will display the found node in the active
view.

Global
Specifies the absolute (global) coordinates for the start node of each discontiguous system
segment.
This may be required for three reasons:
1. To show nodal coordinates in absolute, rather than relative coordinates.
2. Defining global coordinates for discontiguous segments allows the piping segments to plot in
the correct locations, rather than superimposed at the origin.
3. It is important that the pipe be given the correct elevation if wind loading is present.

Global Coordinates Dialog Box


Controls parameters for defining the absolute coordinates for the start node of an element.
X - Specifies the X coordinate.
Y - Specifies the Y coordinate.
Z - Specifies the Z coordinate.

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Close Loop
Closes a loop by filling in the delta coordinates between two nodes in the model.

Increment
Specifies the increment between nodes. CAESAR II uses the nodal increment set in
Configure/Setup when generating the From and To nodes for new elements. You can override
this behavior by typing a different value in this dialog box. For more information, see Auto Node
Number Increment (on page 65).

Set Node Increment Dialog Box


Specifies the parameters for setting an increment between nodes.
Node increment - Specifies the increment between node numbers.

Distance
Finds the distance between two specified nodes or between any two points you select on the
model.

Distance Dialog Box


Controls the parameters for finding distances between nodes or specified points on a model.

Use the Pan and Zoom functions to move around larger models when measuring the
distance between two nodes.
Press SHIFT to confine the measuring line to the x-, y-, or z-axis directions. When you press
SHIFT, the software selects the axis nearest to the cursor location. As the mouse moves
around the model, the software changes the measuring line direction to the closest axis to
the cursor location.
Snap to nearest node - Select for the software to choose the start and end point of an element
on the model by highlighting snap points. Snap points are markers that indicate element node
points. The software uses snap points to highlight a node when the mouse cursor comes within
a certain proximity range of it. The software defaults to having this check box selected. Clear
this check box for the software to measure without using the snapping functionality.

Clear the Snap to nearest node check box when measuring distance with imported
graphics models, such as from CADWorx or Smart 3D. The software cannot snap to nodes
on models created outside of CAESAR II.
Change the shape, size, and color of snap point markers by selecting Display Options from
the right-click context menu. Make changes to the Graphic Edit Options>Symbol
Information settings, and then click Apply in the Plot Settings dialog box.
Origin and Selected Node - Calculates the distance between the origin point (using the starting
node coordinates (0,0,0)), and a selected point on the model.

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Nodes - Calculates the distance between two nodes. Type the node numbers in the boxes and
click Calculate (or press ENTER) for the software to perform the distance calculation. The
distance calculated displays in the Result area of the dialog box.
Result - Shows the results of the previous distance calculation. The software also displays the
result on the status bar at the bottom of the window. The results indicate the start and end point
and the length measured in the unit of measure specified for the current model. The software
also displays the difference of change along the three axes in the Delta X, Y, Z boxes.

What do you want to do?


Measure between two nodes
1. Open a CAESAR II file.
2. Click Piping Input in the main menu.
The Classic Piping Input dialog box opens.
3. Click Distance on the Input Tools toolbar.
The Distance dialog box opens.
4. Click Nodes to measure distance between two specified nodes.
5. Type the starting and ending node numbers and click Calculate.
The software displays the measured distance in the Delta X, Y, Z boxes at the bottom of the
Distance dialog box, on the measure line in the model, and in the status bar at the bottom
of the window.

After you select the method for measuring the distance, you can dock the Distance
dialog box to the side or even minimize the dialog box entirely. Then, as you measure
distances, the results display on the model and also in the status bar at the bottom of
the window.
Press ESC to stop the distance measuring functionality on the model.
Measure between two points on a model
1. Open a CAESAR II file.
2. Click Piping Input in the main menu.
The Classic Piping Input dialog box opens.
3. Click Distance on the Input Tools toolbar.
The Distance dialog box opens.
4. Double-click to select the element.
5. Click Origin and selected node.
You must have only one element selected on the model to use the Origin and
selected node option.
The software displays the measured distance from the To node of the element selected to
the origin (first) node in the model.
The distance calculation displays in the Delta X, Y, Z boxes at the bottom of the Distance
dialog box, on the measure line in the model, and in the status bar at the bottom of the

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window.

After you select the method for measuring the distance, you can dock the Distance
dialog box to the side. Then, as you measure distances, the results display on the
model and also in the status bar at the bottom of the window.
Press ESC to stop the distance measuring functionality on the model.

List
Displays all of the applicable input data in a dialog box. You can edit, delete, or modify data in
the lists.
Show All Lists - Displays the all of the available List dialog boxes.
Close All Lists - Closes all of the List dialog boxes and clears (un-checks) all the list options,
such as Allowables, Bends, Elements, and so forth.
The List dialog boxes appear as a rows tabs at the bottom of the piping input. These tabs
specify the various list options that you can access.
When you select a tab, the headings at the top of the selected List dialog box display the
specific input data and controlling parameters in the corresponding columns. All of the input data
can be accessed through the various List dialog boxes.
The following shows an example of a List dialog box, the Elements dialog box.

The software displays the input information in the List dialog boxes in a column format. Move the
cursor into any box to type a new value to replace the original value. You can scroll through the
reports either vertically or horizontally.
Press F1 while within the data cells to display help information. You can delete the input
information by highlighting the selection and pressing Delete. The software supports many
standard Windows commands, such as Cut and Paste, on a box-by-box basis.

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If you edit input data on a List dialog box, the software updates the Classic Piping Input dialog
box as well. The software indicates values that carry forward on the Classic Piping Input dialog
box by displaying the value in red if there is a change to the data value. For example, in the
example shown above, the PIPE OD value changes from 8.6250 inch to 6.6250 inch on the
element From Node 30 to To Node 50. The software displays the first element in the list with
the new value in red. Note that elements 2 through 3 inherit the value of element 1
automatically. In this example, the value of the PIPE OD does not change until you enter a new
value for element 4. All elements below element 4 inherit that value unless a new value is
entered.
Other options from the Elements dialog box include the following:
Find the current node - Use the Find command (started with Ctrl F or Edit > Find) to quickly
jump to the element where the given node is located. Find remembers the last node number
that you typed, so subsequent searches of the same node can be accomplished by pressing
Ctrl F.
Perform global (block) operations - Perform global editing operations on selected parts of the
piping system by highlighting an element row, right-clicking on an element line, and selecting
Block Operation and one of the global (block) options. These options include varieties of
rotations, deletions, duplications, node renumbering, and status reporting. For more information
on the block operations, see Block Operations Toolbar (on page 344).
Access element auxiliary data - Access the Auxiliary Data dialog boxes located on the piping
input by highlighting an element row, right-clicking on an element line, and selecting Block
Operation > Aux Screens. By single-clicking on any checked items from the dialog box shown
below the appropriate Auxiliary Data box displays. You can edit the data in the Auxiliary Data
box, which updates the input dialog box. Additionally, you can type new data by double-clicking
on any of the unchecked boxes to open the Auxiliary Data dialog box. You can delete an entire
Auxiliary Data box by double-clicking on the checked item. A prompt warns you of the
operation.

Display block status - View Block Status dialog box, which shows the piping data in the
current job and in the block.

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Next Element
Skips to the next element.

Previous Element
Skips to the previous element.

First Element
Skips to the first element.

Last Element
Skips to the last element.

Undo
Reverses or cancels any modeling steps. This can also be accomplished by pressing Ctrl-Z.
You can undo an unlimited number of steps. Undo is limited only by the amount of available
memory.
Making any input change while in the middle of the undo stack resets the redo stack.

Redo
Repeats the last step done You can redo an unlimited number of steps. Redo is limited by
the amount of available memory.
Making any input change while in the middle of the redo stack resets the undo stack.

Edit Static Load Cases


Displays the Static Analysis dialog box. For more information, see Static Analysis (on page
513).

Edit Dynamic Load Cases


Displays the Dynamic Analysis dialog box displaying static load information. For more
information, see Dynamic Analysis Overview (see "Dynamic Loads in Piping Systems" on page
615).

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Review Units
Displays the Review Current Units dialog box. This dialog box displays the units used to create
the report file. Changing the units in the configuration does not affect the input. To change the
input units, click Tools > Change Model Units.

Model Menu
Performs actions associated with modeling as well as specifying associated system-wide
information.

Break
Divides an element into two or more individual elements.
Click Model > Break on the Classic Piping Input dialog box. This command displays the
Break at element <node> - <node> dialog box.

Break at element <node> - <node> Dialog Box


Controls options for breaking an element.
A straight run of pipe between two nodes needs to be broken to insert a restraint, or some
other change in properties.
A long straight run of pipe needs to be broken into multiple, uniform lengths of pipe with
similar support conditions on each length. For example, a long straight run of rack piping, or
a buried run with multiple soil supports at each point in the run.

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The example above illustrates a single nodal insert between the nodes 10 and 20. The node to
be inserted is 15 and is 6 ft. from the node 10. Alternatively, you could insert node 15 an
appropriate distance from the To node 20. If there was some other node in the model with a
restraint (or imposed displacements) like the one to be put on the newly generated node 15,
then the node identifying that restraint location could be filled in at the line Get Support From
Node and the restraint would be automatically placed at 15. In this case, the +Y support at node
10 is copied to node 15.
For multiple inserts in a rack piping system the dialog box might appear as follows:

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If you type the node where a +Y restraint has already been defined at the prompt for "support
condition", a +Y restraint is placed at all of the generated nodes, namely 110, 112, ... , 120. The
multiple insert Break is used primarily for three reasons:
Rack piping supports where the total length and node spacing is known and typed directly
when requested at the prompts.
Underground pipe runs where the overall length of the run is known, and the lengths of the
individual elements in the run are known.
To add mass points in order to refine a model for dynamic analysis.
Break does not work when the element is an expansion joint or the delta dimensions in
the DX, DY, and DZ boxes are blank or zero.
Insert Single Node - Indicates that only one node is inserted.
Insert Multiple Nodes - Indicates that more than one node is inserted.

Single Node Information


New Node Number - Indicates the node number for the inserted node.
Distance in (in.) from Node <node number> - Specifies the distance from the selected node.

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Multiple Node Information


Total Number of Break Elements - Specifies the number of elements to insert.
Node Step - Specifies the increment between node numbers.
Length of each element - Displays the length of each element to insert.
Allow Duplicate Node Numbers - Indicates that duplicate node numbers are allowed.
Get Support From Node - Specifies the node from which to copy support information.

Valve
Provides access to the valve and flange databases. This command displays the Valve and
Flange Database: <database name> dialog box.

Valve and Flange Database: <database name> Dialog Box


There are currently four databases provided:
CRANE steel valves and total flange length
GENERIC valves and 2/3 flange length
Corner and Lada valves - no flanges
CADWorx Plant (this is the CAESAR II default)
CAESAR II automatically generates data lengths and weights of rigid elements for flange-valve
-flange combinations when you select the Flange-Valve-Flange check box.
The CRANE database contains all flanged and welded fittings in the CRANE steel valve catalog.
The GENERIC database contains information from a variety of sources. In some cases, such as
weights for control valves, information from different sources was found to vary considerably. In
these cases the largest reasonable weight was selected for use in the database. In other cases
only the length of the fitting was available.

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The default database, CADWorx Plant, is a subset of the full component database provided
with CADWorx Plant, Intergraph CAS's piping design and drafting software. This database
offers nine different component types (gate, globe, check, control, ball, plug, butterfly valves,
flange pair, and single flange) as well as four different end types (flanged, no-flanged, threaded,
or socket). Selection of flanged-end components or flanges themselves automatically provides
for gaskets.

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Selecting flanged ends (FLG) for a valve simply adds the length and weight of two
flanges and gaskets to the valve length and weight. NOFLG selects a valve without including the
two mating flanges.
Rigid Type - Specifies the rigid type for the fitting.
End Type - Specifies the end type for the fitting.
Class - Specifies the class for the fitting.
Whole element - Indicates that the selections apply to the whole element.
From end - Indicates that the selections apply to the From end of the fitting.
To end - Indicates that the selections apply to the To end of the fitting.
Both ends - Indicates that the selections apply to both ends of the fitting.
Flange-Valve-Flange - Automatically generates data lengths and weights of rigid elements for
flange-valve-flange combinations.
Activate Flange Check - Turns on the flange check.

Adding an Element from the Valve Flange Database


1. Type the node numbers for the rigid element in the From and To boxes on the Classic
Piping Input dialog box.

2. Click Valve/Flange on the toolbar, or click Model > Valve from the menu.
3. Highlight blocks to select the fitting.
4. Select where to insert the new element.

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Clicking the Flange Valve Flange check box enables CAESAR II to generate three
RIGID elements whose length and weight are automatically populated with data from the
Valve/Flange database.
5. Click OK to accept the selection.
If the particular selection is valid for the current line size, CAESAR II displays the length of
the element in the DX, DY, and DZ boxes, designates the element as RIGID, and inserts the
weight in the appropriate slot in the Auxiliary box.
The assumed orientation of the rigid is taken from the preceding element. CAESAR II is doing a
table lookup based on line-size and is inserting the selected table values into the dialog box.
Should the line size change at a later time, you must come back and ask CAESAR II to perform
another table look-up for the new size.
Use of the CADWorx Plant database offers several benefits over the use of other databases:
The CADWorx Plant database provides more accurate component lengths and weights
than those typically available in the GENERIC database.
Using the same component data for CAESAR II and CADWorx Plant modeling promotes
the efficiency of the bi-directional interface between them. Total sharing of data files and
specifications between CAESAR II and CADWorx Plant occurs when the CADWorx
installation option is saved in the registry. In that case, you should edit the third line of the
CADWORX.VHD file to name the actual CADWorx specifications. These specifications are
located in the CADWORX\SPEC subdirectory. For more information on editing this file, see
below.
You can more easily modify the CADWorx Plant Valve and Flange database, because the
specification files and component data files are ASCII text files. This process, which involves
possibly editing the CADWORX.VHD, specification, and data files, is described below.
The CADWORX.VHD file is structured as follows:

The first line must read CADWORX.DAT. It must not be changed.


The second line is editable. It must begin with a zero. The second number on the line
designates the number of specifications to make available. It can be a maximum of 7.
The third line is editable. It lists the available specifications. Each specification name must
consist of 8 characters, padded by blanks on the right. The specification names designate
files with extension .SPC, located in the SPEC subdirectory of the CAESAR II or the
CADWorx Plant specification directory (if the CADWORX option is set in the registry).
The fourth line is editable. It designates whether each specification uses English or Metric
nominal pipe sizes. Seven blanks followed by a 1 indicate an English nominal, while seven
blanks followed by a 2 indicate a metric nominal.
The last five lines are not editable.

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The specification files are located in the SPEC subdirectory of the CAESAR installation
directory. They are designated by the extension .SPC. The specification files correlate pipe size
and component with the appropriate data file. Individual lines in the file list the library
(subdirectory to the LIB_I or LIB_M directory, depending on whether English or Metric units are
in effect), file name (with an extension equal to the library name), range of nominal pipe sizes for
which the specified data file applies. You can edit any of these items. The last item on the line is
the component type number, and should not be changed. Other items in the file pertain to
CADWorx Plant and are not significant to CAESAR II.
The data files hold the dimensional and weight values. Data files for different types of
components hold different types of data. The data columns are labeled. The only data with
significance to CAESAR II involves the weight and lengths. You can change these values. The
following is a typical component data file for weld neck flanges:

You can find more extensive information on editing these files in the CADWorx Plant User
Manual.

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Expansion Joint
Displays the Expansion Joint Database <data file> and Expansion Joint Modeler dialog
boxes.
CAESAR II automatically generates an expansion joint model from catalog data that you select.
The catalog used may be selected in the CAESAR II Configure/Setup routine. You decide where
in the model the expansion joint should go, that is, between which two nodes, and the modeler
assembles the completed joint. Selectable joint styles include Untied, Tied, Hinged, Gimbaled,
Untied-Universal, and Tied Universal expansion joints.
An example selection session is illustrated as follows. Of particular note are the following items:
You can select any of four material types. These material types are used to adjust the
bellows stiffnesses to the actual highest temperature in the model. This typically results in
higher stiffnesses than those shown in the vendor's catalog because the stiffnesses in the
catalog may be based on a higher design temperature.
You can select any combination of end types.
Bellows, liner, cover, rod, and hinge or gimbal assembly weights are looked up from the
stored database and automatically included in the expansion joint model.
For universal joints, the minimum allowed length is stored, but when the available space
exceeds the minimum allowed, you are prompted for the length that you want the expansion
joint assembly to occupy.
The last screen that follows shows the "proposed" model before it is inserted into the
CAESAR II input. This allows you to investigate the characteristics of several joints before
settling on one.
Actual maximum pressure ratings are also a part of the database, and in many cases
exceed the nominal pressure rating shown in the catalog. You can use pressures up to
these actual allowed maximums.
Allowed joint movements are also stored as part of the database and are printed with each
proposed model. These values should be recorded for use in checking the model after a
successful design pass has been completed.
Pressure thrust is included in the modeling considerations for each of the expansion joint
styles, removing this concern.
In the case of "tied" expansion joints, rigid elements are used to model the tie-bars.
Restraints with connecting nodes are used to contain the pressure thrust, and to keep the
ends of the expansion joint parallel.

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Expansion Joint Modeler - From / To Nodes


Indicates whether the expansion joint assembly should be installed at the From end or the To
end of the current element if the length of the current element exceeds the length of the
expansion joint assembly.

Expansion Joint Modeler - Hinge/Pin Axis


Specifies the direction cosines which define the axis of the hinge pin of the expansion joint
assembly. That is, the axis about which the joint can rotate.
For example, if the hinge can rotate about the X-axis, type:1.0 0.0 0.0

Expansion Joint Modeler - Tie Bar Plane


Specifies the direction cosines corresponding to a line drawn from the mid-point of one tie rod to
the mid-point of the other. If an expansion joint has only two tie rods permitting rotation about
the plane defined by the tie rods, type the direction cosines which, when crossed with the axis of
the expansion joint assembly, define the plane.
In this example, you would enter VX as1.000, VY as -0.000, and VZ as 0.000.

Expansion Joint Modeler - Overall Length


Specifies the length of the universal joint. Alternatively, select the check box to default the joint
length to the shortest recommended length. The length of a universal joint is variable depending
upon the length of the intermediate spool piece.

Expansion Joint Modeler - Expansion Joint Database


Specifies the database to use in the modeler. The current expansion joint vendor provides
multiple databases.
You can change the default expansion joint vendor in Expansion Joints (on page 56).

Torsional Spring Rates


Type a large value such as 1E10 if the torsional spring rate is unknown. This produces
conservative results. These results are conservative with respect to loads and non-conservative
with respect to displacements. It is very common to rate the bellows allowed torsion by the
amount of rotation that it experiences. Large torsional stiffnesses result in small, seemingly
satisfactory rotations. When results from a piping analysis are communicated back to the
expansion joint manufacturer, it is important to report both the rotation and the stiffness used to
produce that rotation. For more information, see Expansion Joints (on page 888).

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Expansion Joint Design Notes


It was common practice in the expansion joint industry to design expansion joint bellows and
hardware (restraints) for the system pressure, and pressure thrust only. Generally, no
consideration was given to the system deadweight or thermal forces. This poor practice was
tolerated before the wide-spread use of piping analysis software because:
The deadweight and thermal forces are normally small compared to the pressure and
pressure thrust.
Designers laid out expansion joints so that the thermal forces were very low and therefore
not significant.
The allowable stresses used in hardware designs have a significant safety factor.
The forces and moments generally were not known. Today, when an expansion joint is
modeled, it is recommended that al information relating to the joint be submitted to the
expansion joint manufacturer. This is especially true of the forces and moments resulting from
the operating loads, such as deadweight, thermal forces, and operating deflections. Better
evaluations of the loading conditions on the bellows and hardware simply help the manufacturer
make sure that his design is suited for the intended installation and service.

Expansion Joint Modeler - Modeler Results


Click Build to insert the proposed model of the expansion joint assembly into the piping system
model.
The Bellows Catalog Data (at the bottom of the Expansion Joint Modeler dialog box) shows
the bellows stiffness parameters and allowable movements from the vendor catalog. Note the
allowable movements for later evaluation of the expansion joint.

Expansion Joint Modeler Notes


Expansion joints cannot be inserted on an element that is either already rigid or an expansion
joint. Bends, however, can be at either end of the element where you are inserting the
expansion.
You do not have to give a length on the element where you are inserting the expansion joint.
The six types of expansion joint models supported currently by CAESAR II are:
Untied single bellows
Tied single bellows
Hinged single bellows
Gimbaled single bellows
Untied universal bellows
Tied universal bellows
The four possible joint end types are:
Welded-end

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Slip-on flange
Weld neck flange
Plate flange
If the length of the element to receive the expansion joint model is given, then the expansion
joint assembly should fit within this length. If it does not, a warning message displays. If a
universal joint has been requested, the length of the receiving element should be at least long
enough to accept the smallest possible universal length, as defined by the minimum spool piece
size from the manufacturers' database. If the element to receive the universal expansion joint
model is zero, you are prompted for the expansion joint length. If the element to receive the
universal expansion joint model had an original length, then the maximum possible space
available for the universal is reported and you are asked for the length. If the element to receive
any expansion joint is longer than the expansion joint to be inserted, you are prompted for the
end of the element where the joint should be inserted. Overall universal lengths should be
limited to about 10 times the pipe diameter before the center spool piece weight begins to
become a problem.
If there is a bend at either the From or the To end of the element to receive the expansion joint,
then you must define the length of the element.
To find extra nodes needed for the expansion joint model, CAESAR II starts with the element
From node and increments by one until a sufficient number of nodes not used elsewhere in the
model are encountered. It is these nodes that are reported in the Proposed-model dialog box.
Angular stiffnesses reported are given in the current set of units. Only the translational stiffness
label is found at the top of the bellows stiffness report. If you are unsure about the rotational
stiffness units, they may be seen either in the help screens or in the UNITS report from the LIST
option.
You are prompted to adjust the stiffness for the expansion joint if the highest operating
temperature is given and not equal to the expansion joint catalog design temperature. This
reduces bellows stiffnesses greater than those published in the catalog.
Bellows, tie-bar, and hinge/gimbal assembly weights are combined together and distributed over
the expansion joint rigid end pieces.
The expansion joint modeler makes every attempt possible to generate nodes in the model that
are unique. Inspect the nodes that are generated closely and make sure that you do not use
them unintentionally in any future model building.
Review the generated CAESAR II models and be sure that everything is consistent with your
intentions.

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Expansion Joint Styles


The following six styles of expansion joints are built automatically by CAESAR II. With each type
is a brief discussion of its use when associated with hot, pressurized equipment protection.

Untied
Specifies a single unrestrained expansion joint. This type of joint can absorb movement in all
directions. It also subjects the system to pressure thrust which must be designed for, external to
the expansion joint. This type of joint should almost never be used by the expansion joint novice
needing to protect hot, pressurized equipment. Guide restrictions limiting displacements into the
joint, regular maintenance problems because of all of the support hardware away from the
bellows, and pressure thrust make using and analyzing this type of bellows difficult.

Tied
Specifies a tied single expansion joint that is capable only of transverse (lateral) movement.
Pressure thrust is restrained internally by the tie-bars. This is a good, dependable expansion
joint to use for several reasons:
You do not have to design for pressure thrust.
Tie rods provide stability to the overall joint. This makes working with it in the field easier.
There is a single displacement mode (lateral). You can compare this mode directly to the
rated lateral movement in the catalog without the need for the relatively complicated
geometric calculations in the Expansion Joint Rating.
The disadvantages to the single tied expansion joint are:
They are fairly stiff in practice. This joint often does not provide the needed flexibility to
sufficiently reduce the loads on sensitive equipment.
The tie-bar assembly does provide some nonlinear restraining effect on flexibility that is
unaccounted for in the analysis. This may be appreciable when the bellows displacement
becomes large, such as when it is most critical that it perform as predicted.

Hinged
Specifies a single hinged expansion joint. This type of joint can only angulate about one axis.
Pressure thrust is retained internally by the hinge mechanism. Hinge joints are often used in
pairs to absorb considerable displacement in a single plane while transmitting very little load to
any attached equipment. The piping system must be designed to assure that displacement into
the hinges is planar for all types of thermal and occasional loadings to be experienced by the
system. Where pressure loads to be absorbed by the hinge mechanism are high, considerable
friction forces can be generated that somewhat limits further flexing of the joint. This transmits
larger loads than expected back into the piping system.

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Gimbal
Specifies a single gimbal expansion joint. This type of joint can angulate about two axes.
Gimbaled joints restrain both pressure thrust and torsion by the gimbal mechanism. These joints
are often used in pairs to absorb considerable displacement in several directions, while
transmitting very little load to any attached equipment.

U-UNIV
Specifies an untied universal expansion joint. This type of unit is similar to a single unrestrained
expansion joint. It can absorb movement in all directions and normally has a much higher
capacity for transverse (lateral) deflection than a single bellows. An untied universal subjects the
system to pressure thrust loads which must be designed for external to the expansion joint.
Even when pressure is negligible, these joints can often be difficult to use in practice unless
proper guiding of the thermal displacement protects the joint against unwanted movement.

T-UNIV
Specifies a tied universal expansion joint. This is similar to a tied single joint, except that the tied
universal has much higher transverse (lateral) movement capability. Pressure thrust loads are
restrained internally by the tie-bars. These types of joints are a good option where vertical pipe
runs close to the equipment are available. The tie-bars restrict movement to a single mode
(lateral) and eliminate the worry about pressure thrust design. Longer lengths result in smaller
lateral stiffnesses, but overall length is somewhat restricted by the weight of the center spool. A
good rule of thumb is to restrict the overall length of the assembly to ten times the pipe diameter.
Be careful not to put the assembly into compression, as the tie bar mechanisms are not
designed to take this load and damage to the bellows can result.
These six types of expansion joints are not all of the types available, but they are the most
common. If a joint is needed that is not covered by the above, select the style closest to that
required. Edit the resulting input after the EJ Modeler is complete and processing returns to the
Classic Piping Input dialog box.

Available Expansion Joint End-Types


The following expansion joint end-types are available in the CAESAR II modeler.

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Welded
Indicates standard pipe beveled for welding.

Slipon
Indicates a slip-on flange.

WN
Indicates a weld neck flange.

Plate
Indicates a plate flange in accordance with the manufacturers catalog.
Slip-on, weld neck, and plate flanges may not be available in all diameters and pressure ratings,
such as over 24-in. diameters. Consult the catalog for specific interface dimensions, codes, and
materials. When you select a combination that is not available, you are warned that there are no
database values for his particular geometry and line size.

Bellows Application Notes


The following considerations are important when selecting the number of convolutions for a
particular application:

Movement Capability
The more convolutions selected, the greater the movement capacity of the bellows. It is a
common practice to perform a quick hand calculation to estimate the required movement and
then select the number of convolutions from the rated movements in the catalog. After an
analysis is performed, the exact evaluation of the bellows performance can be made using the
expansion joint rating module provided with CAESAR II.

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Spring Forces
Specifies the spring forces. The more convolutions that you select, the lower the resulting
bellows spring forces become. This is particularly critical when the expansion joint is located
near rotating equipment.

Available Space
The more convolutions selected, the greater the required overall length. If working in a confined
area, the number of convolutions may be restricted by the space.

Pressure Rating
The pressure rating should be equal to, or larger than the design pressure of the system. In
many instances, larger pressures can be tolerated than the rated pressure shown. In many
small diameter expansion joints, the same bellows is used in 50, 150, and 300 psi-rated joints.
The CAESAR II modeler contains the true minimum pressure limits for all of the bellows in the
database, and checks the maximum pressure in the line (as specified) against the allowed
pressure. This allows you to select a smaller joint with more flexibility for certain applications.

Materials
Bellows can be formed from most ductile materials that can be welded by the automatic T.I.G.
butt welding process and yield a homogeneous ductile weld structure. Because the specific
media content varies from system to system, and most media data specified prior to system
operation is approximate with considerable fluctuation possible, it is not feasible to make specific
recommendations concerning bellows materials. The following are the four most common
bellows materials that are supported by CAESAR II:
304SSA240 tp 304 Stainless Steel
316SSA240 tp 316 Stainless Steel
600IncInco 600 High Nickel
625IncInco 625 High Nickel

Liners
Internal liners smooth the flow through the expansion joint. The smooth flow reduces pressure
drop and also prevents flow-induced vibration of the bellows. Liners are generally recommended
when the flow velocity exceeds 1.3 ft./sec. as a minimum, and are definitely recommended when
the flow velocity exceeds about 25 ft./sec. Consult the manufacturers catalog for additional
information. Heavy gage liners should be used in high velocity or turbulent flow systems. Also,
heavy liners should be used when the media is abrasive.

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Covers
External covers protect very thin bellows, (0.010 to 0.090 in.) from mechanical damage. Covers
are also recommended when the line is insulated.

Title Page
Displays the title page of the current job. This is up to 60 lines of text that is stored with the
problem, and may be used for detailing run histories, discussing assumptions, and so on. These
lines may be printed with the output report through the input echo.

Hanger Design Control Data


Displays system-wide hanger design criteria.

Hanger Design Control Data Dialog Box


Spring hanger design can be globally controlled by typing data into the Hanger Design Control
Data dialog box shown above. The Hanger Design Control Data dialog box contains five items
that also appear on each individual hanger design spreadsheet. These parameters can be set
once in the dialog box, and then apply for all individual hangers to be defined unless specifically
overridden at the individual hanger input level. These items are:
Short-range springs
Rigid support displacement criteria
Maximum-allowed travel limit
Hanger table
Multiple load-case design option

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In addition, the Hanger Design Control Data dialog box tells the hanger design algorithm the
number of temperature cases to be used in the hanger design, and whether or not the actual
cold loads should be calculated. All of these options are discussed in detail in the following
sections.

No. of Hanger - Design Operating Load Cases


Specifies the number of load cases to be considered when designing spring hangers. This value
may be between 1 and 9 and corresponds to the number of thermal load cases to be used in
hanger design. If more than one operating case is to be considered in the hanger design then
you must also select the Multiple Load Case Design Option to use.

Calculate Actual Cold Loads


Indicates that CAESAR II makes one additional pass after the hanger design is completed and
the hangers are installed, to determine the actual installed loads that should be used when the
hangers are first installed and the load flanges adjusted in the field. This calculation tends to be
important in the following situations:
The stiffness of the piping system is small.
The stiffness of the hanger selected is high.
The hanger travel is large. This is usually more important in smaller diameter piping systems
that are spring supported away from equipment nozzles.

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Actual cold loads should be calculated when springs in smaller diameter lines are to be adjusted
in the cold position.

Allow Short Range Springs


Indicates that hanger design allows short range springs.
CAESAR II gives you the option of excluding short range springs from consideration from the
selection algorithms. Short range springs are considered specialty items in some instances and
are not used unless their shorter length is required for clearance reasons. Clear this check box
in this case.
If this option is not selected, CAESAR II selects a mid-range spring over a short-range spring,
assuming that they are more standard, readily available, and in general cheaper than their
short-range counterparts.
If the default should be that short range springs are used wherever possible, then check the box
on the Hanger Design Control Data dialog box.

Allowable Load Variation (%)


Specifies the limit on the allowed variation between the hot and cold hanger loads. If this value
is not specified, the only limit on load variation is that inherent in the spring table. This is
approximately 100% when the hot load is smaller than the cold load and 50% when the hot load
is larger than the cold load. Hot loads are smaller than cold loads whenever the operating
displacement in the Y direction is positive. The default value for the load variation is 25%.
The Allowable Load Variation value is the percentage variation from the hot load:

or as may be more familiar:

The Allowable Load Variation value is typed as a percentage. For example, type twenty five
percent as 25.0.

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Rigid Support Displacement Criteria


Specifies the minimum amount of travel for hanger design. This is a cost saving feature that
replaces unnecessary springs with rigid rods.
The hanger design algorithm operates by first running a restrained weight case. The load to be
supported by the hanger in the operating condition is determined from this case. After the
hanger design load is known, the software runs an operating case with the hot hanger load
installed. This analysis determines the travel at the hanger location. If this determined hanger
travel is less than the Rigid Support Displacement Criteria, then a rigid Y-support is selected
instead of a spring for the location.
The software does not apply the criteria if you leave the Rigid Support Displacement Criteria
box blank or zero.
A typical value is 0.1 in.
You should insert a single directional restraint instead of a rigid rod in some cases.
Rigid rods are double-acting restraints. In some cases these can develop large hold down forces
that do not really exist because the support has lifted off, or because the rigid rod has bowed
slightly. When this condition develops, you should rerun the hanger design inserting single
directional restraints where rigid rods were put in by CAESAR II.
Do not replace hangers with rigid rods in very stiff parts of the piping system. These parts are
usually associated with rotating equipment or vessel nozzles that need to be protected.

Maximum Allowed Travel Limit


Specifies the maximum amount of travel for hanger design. CAESAR II selects a constant effort
support if the design operating travel exceeds this limit, even though a variable support from the
manufacturer table would have been satisfactory in every other respect.
You can design a constant effort hanger by specifying a very small number for the Maximum
Allowed Travel Limit. A value of 0.001 typically forces CAESAR II to select a constant effort
support for a particular location.

Hanger Table
Specifies the active hanger table.
The following spring tables are currently included in CAESAR II:

1. Anvil 2. Bergen Power

3. Power Piping 4. NPS Industries

5. Lisega 6. Fronek

7. Piping Technology 8. Capitol

9. Piping Services 10. Basic Engineers

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11. Inoflex 12. E. Myatt

13. SINOPEC 14. BHEL

15. Flexider 16. Carpenter & Paterson

17. Pipe Supports Ltd. 18. Witzenmann

19. Sarathi 20. Myricks

21. China Power 22. Pipe Supports USA

23. Quality Pipe Supports 24. PiHASA

25. Binder 26. Gradior

27. NHK 28. PSSI GmbH

29. Seonghwa 30. Mitsubishi

31. Yamashita 32. Sanwa Tekki

33. Techno Industries

Additional design options are invoked if you use the following check boxes.
Extended Range
Cold Load
Hot load centered (if possible)
The Hanger Design Control Data dialog box defaults to the hanger table-specified in the
configuration file.
Extended Load Range Springs - CAESAR II includes the maximum load range to permit the
selection of less expensive variable support hangers in place of constant effort supports when
the spring loads are just outside the manufacturers recommended range. Extended load ranges
are the most extreme ranges on the spring load table. Some manufacturers build double-spring
supports to accommodate this range. Others adjust the top or bottom travel limits to
accommodate either end of the extended table. Make sure that the manufacturer can supply the
spring before you use the maximum ranges. Use of the extended range often eliminates the
need to go to a constant effort support.
Lisega springs do not support an extended range. If you select Extended Range for
a hanger with Lisega springs, CAESAR II returns the standard Lisega spring table and
ranges.
Cold Load Spring Hanger Design - Cold load spring hanger design is a method of designing
the springs in which the hot (or operating) load is supported in the cold (or installed) position of
the piping. This method of spring design offers several advantages over the more usual hot load
design:
Hanger stops are easier to remove.

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There is no excessive movement from the neutral position when the system is cold or when
the stops are removed.
Spring loads can be adjusted before the system is brought up to temperature.
Some feel that the cold load approach yields a much more dependable design.
Operating loads on connected equipment are lower in some system configurations. A hot
vertical riser anchored at the bottom turning horizontally into a nozzle connection is a typical
configuration resulting in this load-reduction. The spring to be designed is at the elbow
adjacent to the nozzle. Operating loads are lower because the difference between the hot
and cold loads counters the moment produced by the vertical thermal expansion from the
anchor.
The disadvantages to cold load design are:
In some systems, the loads on rotating equipment may be increased by a value proportional
to the spring rate times the travel in the hot condition.
Most installations are done on a hot load design basis.
Middle of the Table Hanger Design (Hot Load Centered) - Many designers prefer that the hot
load be centered as closely as possible to the middle of the spring table. This provides as much
variability as possible in both directions before the spring bottoms out when the system is hot.
This design was necessary prior to effective computer modeling of piping systems, when the
weights at hangers were approximated by chart methods or calculated by hand. Activating this
option does not guarantee that spring hot loads are at the middle of the spring table, but
CAESAR II makes every effort to move the hot load to this position. The CAESAR II design
algorithm goes to a higher size spring if the design load is closer to the middle of the larger
spring's range, but never switches spring types. This option, when it is effective, can only result
in a one-size larger spring. CAESAR II attempts to move the hot load to the next higher spring
when it is within 10% of the maximum travel range for the spring. If the new spring is not
satisfactory, then CAESAR II uses the old one.

Multiple Load Case Design Options


Specifies the multiple load case design option. Whenever more than one thermal load case is
used in the hanger sizing algorithm, CAESAR II must know how you want to weigh the results
from the different cases. There are currently 13 different methods that you can use for multiple
load case hanger design selection. These 13 methods are described in greater detail under the
hanger auxiliary data section.
1. Design per Load Case #1
2. Design per Load Case #2
3. Design per Load Case #3
4. Design per Load Case #4
5. Design per Load Case #5
6. Design per Load Case #6
7. Design per Load Case #7
8. Design per Load Case #8
9. Design per Load Case #9

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10. Design for the maximum operating load


11. Design for the maximum travel
12. Design for the average load and the average travel
13. Design for the maximum load and the maximum travel

Seismic Wizard
Selects a particular Seismic Code and its associated data.
The wizard computes the applicable g factor and fills in the appropriate data cells. X-component
is set into Vector 1, Y-component is set into Vector 2, and Z-component is set into Vector 3; all
other load components are set to zero.
A warning displays if the current element has uniform loads defined.
Because the wizard sets data in gravitational loading, you must verify other uniform load
definitions for correctness.

ASCE Static Seismic Wizard


Computes the static g factor based on the ASCE 7-2005 (IBC 2006) methodology.

CAESAR II displays the calculated gravity factor on the Uniform Loads tab.

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Uniform Loads Tab

Importance Factor I (ASCE)


Specifies the component importance factor from ASCE #7 Section 13.1.3. Type 1.5 for
life-safety components, components containing hazardous material, or components that are
required for continuous operation. Type 1.0 for all others.

Response Factor R (ASCE)


Specifies the component response modification factor, from ASCE #7 Table 13.6-1. Type 12.0
for piping according to ASME B31 with joints made by welding or brazing. Type a value range as
low as 3.0 for other joints and for less ductile materials.

Max. Mapped Res. Acc. Ss (ASCE)


Specifies the maximum mapped MCE spectral response acceleration at short periods according
to Section 11.4.1, Chapter 22 Seismic Ground Motion and Long-period Transition Maps
provide values for Ss.

Site Class (ASCE)


Specifies the site class code. Based on the soil properties, the site is classified as Site Class A,
B, C, D, E, or F according to Chapter 20. If you do not know the soil properties in sufficient detail
to determine the site class, use Site Class D.

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Component Elevation Ratio z/h (ASCE)


Specifies the ratio of height in structure at the point of attachment over the average height of the
supporting structure.

Component Amplification Factor ap (ASCE)


Specifies the component amplification factor from Table 13.6-1. Type 2.5 for distribution system,
such as piping. This term reflects the relationship of the piping response to the structure
response.

ASCE Example Problem


For further information on the Seismic Wizard see the example below.
The Importance Factor IP = 1
The Component Response Modification Factor RP = 12.0, from Table 13.6-1 for "Piping in
accordance with ASME B31",
The Mapped MCE Spectral Response Acceleration Ss = 1.552, Mapped MCE Spectral
Response Acceleration at short periods according to section 11.4.1.
The Site Coefficient (Fa) = 1.0 for Site Class D, according to Table 11.4-1.
The Maximum Considered Earthquake MCE SMS - The MCE is adjusted for site class effects as
defined in Section 11.4.3,
SMS = Fa SS = 1.552
SDS - Design elastic response acceleration at short period (0.2 sec), from Section 11.4.4.
SDS= 2/3 SMS = 2/3 * 1.552 = 1.0347
The appropriate seismic acceleration is aH
= [ (0.4aPSDS) / ( RP / IP )] ( 1 + 2z/h)
= [(0.4 x 2.5 x 1.0347)/(12.0/1.0)](1 + 2 * 0.5)
= 0.17245
Check limits on aH:
aH <= 1.6 * SDS* IP = 1.6 * 1.0347 * 1.0 = 1.65552
aH >= 0.3 * SDS * IP = 0.3 * 1.0347 * 1.0 = 0.31041
aH = 0.31041
aH = 0.2 SDS= 0.2 * 1.0347 = 0.20694,
Section 13.1.7 states, "The earthquake loads determined in accordance with Section 13.3.1
shall be multiplied by a factor of 0.7."
aH = 0.7 * 0.31041 = 0.2173
av = 0.7 * 0.20694 = 0.1149
CAESAR II displays the calculated gravity factor on the Uniform Loads tab.

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CFE Sismo Static Seismic Wizard


Computes the static g factor based on the Manual De Diseno por Sismo (Seismic Design
Manual) 1993 methodology.

CFE Sismo Seismic Wizard


CAESAR II displays the calculated gravity factor on the Uniform Loads tab.

Uniform Loads Tab

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Seismic Zone (CFE)


Specifies the seismic zone. Zone D is the zone of highest seismic activity. Zone A is the least
active. For more information, review the Manual De Diseno por Sismo (Seismic Design
Manual). A map with different regions displays on page 1.3.29.

Structure Group (CFE)


Specifies the structural group as defined in the following table:

Group A High Degree of Safety

Group B Intermediate Degree of Safety

Group C Low Degree of Safety

Soil Type (CFE)


Specifies the soil type as defined in the following table:

Ground deposits formed exclusively by layers with propagation velocity bo = 700


I Hard Soil
m/s or modulus of rigidity >= 85000 t/m2

Ground deposits with fundamental period of vibration and effective velocity of


II Med. Soil
propagation which meets the condition: c5 5c cc

Ground deposits with fundamental period of effective vibration of propagation


III Soft Soil
which meets the conditions: c5 5c cc

First Mode Period (CFE)


Specifies the period of first natural mode of the piping system in seconds.

Increase Factor (CFE)


Specifies the increase factor. The Mexican Earthquake Code considers an SRSS type effect on
the structure. This value scales up the earthquake loads in a linear (Scalar) fashion. This value
is traditionally 1.118 and should always be greater or equal to 1.0.

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CFE Sismo Example Problem


For further information on CFE Sismo, see the example below.
For seismic zone D and soil type I, the following parameters are found in Table 3.1.
a0 = 0.50
C = 0.50
Ta (s) = 0.0
Tb (s) = 0.0
r=
If T> Tb , then
a = c ( Ta / Tb)r = 0.50 * (0.6 / 1.15) ^ 0.5 = 0.3612
For a structure group of A High Safety, the acceleration is multiplied by 1.5
a = 0.3612 * 1.5 = 0.5417
CAESAR II displays the calculated gravity factor on the Uniform Loads tab.

NBC Static Seismic Wizard


Computes the static g factor based on the NBC 2005 methodology.

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Importance Factor IE (NBC)


Specifies the importance factor as defined in Article 4.1.8.5 as defined in the following table:

Importance Category Importance Factor (IE)

Low 0.8

Normal 1.0

High 1.3

Post-disaster 1.5

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Site Class (NBC)


Specifies the site classification for the seismic site response from Table 4.1.8.4.A.

Sa(0.2) (NBC)
Specifies the spectral response acceleration value at 0.2 seconds as defined in Paragraph
4.1.8.4.(1).

Component Elevation Ratio [hx/hn] (NBC)


Specifies the component elevation ratio. The values hx and hn are the height above the base to
level n or x respectively. The base of the structure is the level at which horizontal earthquake
motions are imparted to the structure.

Component Amplification Factor [Rp] (NBC)


Specifies the force amplification factor from Table 4.1.8.17.

Element or Component Factor [Cp] (NBC)


Specifies the component factor from Table 4.1.8.17.

Component Force Amp. Factor [Ar] (NBC)


Specifies the component response modification factor from Table 4.1.8.17.

NBC Example
For further information on the use of the Static Seismic Wizard see the example below.
Importance Factor IE = 1.0 for a "Normal" category by Table 4.1.8.5.
The Site Class is "C" for "Very dense soil and soft rock" by Table 1.1.8.4.A:
Sa (0.2) = 0.55, spectral response acceleration value at 0.2 s, as defined in Sentence
4.1.8.4.(1).
According to Table 4.1.8.4.B.,Fa = 1.0:
Sp = Cp Ar Ax / Rp = 1 * 1 * (1 + 2 * 0.5) / 3 = 0.6667
Cp = 1, Ar = 1 and Rp = 3 according to Table 4.1.8.17.
The maximum value of Sp is 4.0 and minimum value of Sp is 0.7, therefore:
Sp = 0.7
aH= 0.3 * Fa Sa (0.2)IE Sp = 0.3 * 1.0 * 0.55 * 1.0 * 0.7 = 0.1155

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CAESAR II displays the calculated gravity factor on the Uniform Loads tab.

Optimization Wizard
Assists with expansion loop design.
This wizard allows you to specify the element into which the loop should be incorporated, the
loop type, the item to be optimized - nodal stress or restraint load, and the target value to which
the item should be optimized. The optimization routines run the analysis several times to arrive
at an acceptable loop size such that the code stress or restraint load on the target element is at
the specified limit. Besides offering the opportunity to specify various loop configurations and a
selection of height to width ratios, the wizard also provides an option to allow CAESAR II to
select the most economical (based on length of pipe and number of bends) of those possible.
The Optimization Wizard automatically chooses the most economical loop solution based on
your target input. If there is an issue with the target input or loop sizing, the wizard prompts you
and attempts to insert the most ideal loop possible. However, you can always revise your target
input or loop sizing and re-run the wizard.
To use the optimization wizard, the job must be run at least once so that there is an issue, such
as an overstress, to resolve. These results must be current. The process is illustrated by the
example LOOP-WIZARD.C2, as displayed below.
Reviewing the results of the LOOP-WIZARD job shows that it is suffering an expansion
overstress of 46,741 psi. The allowable value at node 20 is 41,288 psi. This is due to the
expansion of the long run 60-140. A loop should be installed somewhere along that run. The
questions are where, and how big should it be?

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Before you start the Loop Optimizer, examine the area of the plant surrounding the piping
system. To do this, import the CADWorx (or AutoCAD) plant model, using the CADWorks
Model command. In this case, import the
...\EXAMPLES\LOOP-WIZARD-PLANT\OVERALL.DWG model. This model shows that there is
a convenient area to place a loop beside element 60-70.

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Select element 60-70 and then click Model > Optimization Wizard start the Loop
Optimization Wizard. The Loop Design Wizard dialog box displays.

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Using the Loop Optimization Wizard:


1. Loop 60-70 is already indicated as the element upon which the loop is installed. You can
change this value by selecting a different value from the list, or by selecting other elements
in the model.
2. Click Stress as the optimization type. Optionally, you can optimize restraint load
components as well.
3. Select EXP from the Load Case list. This fills in the element list showing stresses on the left
side of the dialog box.
4. Type 36,000 in the Stress box to define a target maximum stress. This value refines the
element list, so that it displays only those elements with stress levels higher than the target.
5. Select the Max Stress box to limit the maximum stress in the system to the target value.
6. Select the Loop Type from the available icons. For this example, select the first loop type.
7. Select <none> from the Height to Width Ratio list to allow the loop height to vary to any
size while keeping the width constant. In this case, the terminal run of pipe is set to one
bend radius with the loop width fixed to the remaining length of element 60-70.

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At this point there are two alternatives to indicating where the loop should be placed.
8. Click Draw Cube to generate a transparent cube anchored on the selected element. You
can adjust the size and location of this cube by using the mouse. Use the corner points (Pt1
or Pt2) to adjust the major direction of the loop and the available space. Use the triangle to
adjust the minor axis of the loop and the available space. Drag the cube over the decking
adjacent to element 60-70 to build a cube with a Major dimension of 17ft 11 inches in the X
direction.

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9. After the dialog box is complete, Click Design to start the optimization procedure.
The progress of the design scheme displays. After the loop is designed, you are informed of
how much pipe and how many bends were required to create the loop.
10. Click Undo to restart the Loop Wizard using different loop types. You can use this
information to find the most economical implementation.

When the optimizer finishes, the new expansion loop is inserted into the selected element.

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11. Run a final analysis to verify all results. There are instances where the optimizer reports an
error. Examples of such situations are: (a) requesting a loop insertion in an element that is
not long enough, or (b) setting an impossible target maximum.
Selecting the special loop type enables CAESAR II to select the best loop to reach the
indicated target. This loop type is indicated on the dialog box by a lightning bolt. The best
characteristic of each loop is based on the relative cost of bends to straight pipe. When you
select the lightning bolt loop type, the Bend Cost Factor box activates. The default value of
100 indicates that a bend costs 100 times as much as the equivalent length of straight pipe.
Adjust this value as necessary.

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Loop Optimization Wizard Overview


The Loop Optimization Wizard automates the sizing of expansion loops in a piping system.

Optimization Type
Specifies the type of output value to reduce. The available values include Stress Level and
Restraint Load Component.

Load Case (for Design)


Specifies the load case for which to reduce an output value. Adding a loop may well solve a
problem in a displacement-driven load case (Operating or Expansion) but not in a force-driven
load case (Sustained or Occasional).
After you select the Load Case value, the software displays Stress or Restraint Load output
values for review and selection.

Target Stress
Specifies the target level to which you would like to reduce the output value. Typing a stress
value (or a Load, in conjunction with a Load Component type) acts as a filter, showing only
elements which have stress values exceeding that level. This target value also becomes the
stress or load for which the selected target (Maximum System Stress, Restraint Load
Component, or Node) is optimized.
Design is not activated until you designate both a Target and Optimization Type.

Max. Stress
Optimizes the maximum stress level in the system (as opposed to a stress level at a single
node) to the value in the Target Data box.
Design is not activated until you designate both a Target and Optimization Type.

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At Node
Specifies either the node at which the stress level is to be optimized (and the element upon
which that node is located) or the node at which a restraint load component is to be optimized
(along with the Load Component Type). Double-click one of the entries in the
Element/Node/Stress list or a Load Component in the Restraint Load to automatically fill in
these entries.
Design is not activated until you designate both a Target and Optimization Type.

On Element

For Stress Optimization:


Specifies the element on which the node for which the stress level is to be optimized is located.
Double-click one of the entries in the Element/Node/Stress list to automatically fill in this entry.
Design is not activated until you designate both a Target and Optimization Type.

For Restraint Load Optimization:


Specifies the restraint load component which is to be optimized. Double-click one of the Load
Component entries in the Restraint Load list to automatically fill in this entry.
Design is not activated until you designate both a Target and Optimization Type.

Element/Node/Stress/Restraint Load Component


Displays the items which you can double-click to automatically fill in the entries designating the
item (either nodal stress or restraint load component) for which the results should be optimized.

Create Loop on Element


Specifies the element which is replaced by the loop. You can select the element from the list or
from the model. The Loop Optimization Wizard can only be used to substitute loops in place of
single elements.

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Loop Type
Specifies the general configuration of the loop.

Type #1 - places the loop at the From end of the original element in the plane of the
Major Direction.

Type #2 - Places a 2-D (both dimensions the same size) loop at the From end of the
original element, first in the plane of the Major Direction and then in the plane of the Minor
Direction.

Type #3 - Places the loop in the middle of the original element in the plane of the
Major Direction.

Type #4 - Places 2-D (both dimensions the same size) loop in the middle of the
original element, first in the plane of the Major Direction and then in the plane of the Minor
Direction.

Type #5 - Places the loop at the To end of the original element, in the plane of the
Major Direction.

Type #6 - Places 2-D (both dimensions the same size) loop at the To end of the
original element, first in the plane of the Major Direction and then in the plane of the Minor
Direction.

Type # 7 - Builds a loop of the same size as the original element.

Type # 8 - Builds a 2-D (both dimensions the same size) loop of the same size as the
original element, first in the Major Direction and then in the Minor Direction.

Type #9 - Causes CAESAR II to try all eight loop types and find the most
economically efficient solution based on total pipe length and number of bends.

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Bend Cost Factor


Specifies the relative cost of a bend relative to straight pipe. This value is used when CAESAR II
is asked to select the most economic loop design. For example, if a bend (including hardware,
fabrication, and other costs) costs 100 times as much as the same length of straight pipe, then
the appropriate value would be 100.0.

Width to Height Ratio


Specifies the loop height to width ratio that should be maintained when building the loop.
Available options are 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, and none. Select none if the segments of the selected loop
configurations still coincide with the original element run. For example, segment #4 of Loop
Type #1, segment #6 of Loop Type #2, segments #1 and #5 of Loop Type #3, segments #1 and
#7 of Loop Type #4, or segment #1 of Loop Types #5 and #6 have a length equal to exactly the
length of a long radius bend. This entry does not apply in the event that Loop Types #7 or #8
were selected. In this case, the height to width ratio is not used. The height varies as necessary
and the width is held constant to the length necessary to make up the original element length.
This last option is often preferable in areas where there is limited room for wide loops.

Draw Cube
Graphically creates the anticipated area where the loop is installed. This cube may then be
resized or moved to reflect the preferred area for the loop. The Loop Optimization Wizard tries
to design a loop that fits in the allocated space.

Major Direction
Specifies the direction and distance of the primary direction of the loop.

Minor Direction
Specifies direction and distance of the secondary direction of a 2-D loop.

Major Direction Available Space


Specifies the maximum available space for the loop in the major direction.

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Minor Direction Available Space


Specifies the maximum available space for the loop in the minor direction.

Design (Button)
Begins the loop optimization process. If an appropriate loop cannot be designed, you must
change some of the parameters and try again.

Line Numbers
Displays the Line Numbers dialog box.

Line Numbers Dialog Box


Controls options for line numbers.

Create from Selection - Creates line numbers from the selected elements.

Remove Line Number - Deletes line numbers from the selected elements.

Reset Visibility Settings - Returns visibility settings to their default settings.


<type here to search> - Limits the elements that display to those elements that match the text
in this field. Clear this field to display all elements.
Show/Hide - Turns the display of line numbers for elements on or off.
Visibility - Specifies the opacity of elements. 100% indicates that the element is opaque.
0% indicates that the element is completely translucent, or invisible.

Color - Displays the Color dialog box from which you can specify a color for the element.
Name - Specifies the name of the element.
See Also
Line Number (on page 222)

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Environment Menu
Performs actions associated with miscellaneous items.

Review SIFs at Intersection Nodes


Displays the Node Selection dialog box. Access this function from the Classic Piping Input
dialog box by clicking Environment > Review SIFs at Intersection Nodes or Intersection
SIF scratchpad on the Input Tools toolbar.

Node Selection Dialog Box


Controls options for selecting the node.
Enter intersection Node Number to be reviewed - Specifies the number of the node where
you want to evaluate the stress intensification factors.
OK - Displays the Review Intersection SIF's dialog box.

Review Intersection SIF's Dialog Box


Controls options for reviewing intersection SIFs.
Node Specifies the node number where the stress intensification exists. CAESAR II displays
the To node of the current element by default. You can type any node in the system, but it is
most often at a pipe intersection or joint.
If the node is at an intersection, CAESAR II calculates SIFs for all pipes going to the intersection
if the intersection Type is specified. You only need to type the intersection type once. CAESAR
II finds all other pipes framing into the intersection and applies the appropriate SIFs.
If the node is at a two-pipe joint, such as a butt weld, CAESAR II calculates SIFs for the two
pipes going to the joint node if the joint Type is specified. You only need to specify the joint type
once. CAESAR II finds the other pipe completing the joint and applies the appropriate SIFs.
If the node is not at an intersection or a joint then, leave the Type box blank and type user
defined SIFs in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) boxes. Entries in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) boxes only apply to
the element on which they are defined.
User defined stress intensification factors must be greater than or equal to one.
CAESAR II calculates and displays code-defined SIFs in the Intersection SIF scratchpad.
Access this scratchpad from the Classic Piping Input dialog box by clicking Environment >
Review SIFs at Intersection Nodes or Intersection SIF scratchpad on the Input Tools
toolbar. You can modify parameters used in the scratchpad so that you can observe the effects
of different geometries and thicknesses. Most changes made in the scratchpad can be
automatically transferred back into the model.
If the node is on any part of the bend curvature then the following applies:
1. You cannot override code calculated SIFs for bends by default. A configuration option exists
to override this default. For more information, see Allow User's SIF at Bend (on page 90). If
you set Allow User's SIF at Bend to True, then you can specify SIFs for bend To nodes.
The SIFs specified in this way apply for the entire bend curvature.

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2. CAESAR II applies user-defined SIFs to straight pipe going to points on a bend curvature
regardless of any parameter in the setup file. This option is commonly used to intensify
injector tie-ins at bends, or dummy legs, or other bend attachment-type of supports.
Type Specifies the type of tee or joint.
For non-FRP piping codes, there are six types of tees and ten types of joints. These
elements correspond to 1 to 6 and 7 to 16 in the previous table. For more information, see
Input Items Optionally Effecting SIF Calculations (see "Input Items Optionally Affecting SIF
Calculations (Except for ISO 14692)*" on page 127).
For BS 7159 and UKOOA, there are two types of tees: Moulded and Fabricated. Moulded
tee corresponds to either the Welding (3) or Extruded (6) welding tee Type. Fabricated tee
corresponds to a tee Type of Reinforced (1).
For ISO 14692, there are three types of tee and joints: Tee (1), Qualified Tee (3), and Joint
(2).
ASME NC and ND piping codes do not include equations for SIFs with a tee Type of Sweepolet
(4), Weldolet (5), or Extruded (6). When you specify one of these tee types, CAESAR II uses
B31.1 equations.
Pad Thk Specifies the thickness of the reinforcing pad for reinforced fabricated or full
encirclement tees (intersection type #1 and #17, respectively). The pad thickness is only valid
for these intersection types. If the thickness of a type #1 or type #17 intersection is left blank or
the value entered is zero, the software uses the SIFs for an unreinforced fabricated tee.
In most piping codes, the beneficial effect of the pad thickness is limited to 1.5 times the nominal
thickness of the header. This factor does not apply in BS 806 or Z184, and is 2.5 in the Swedish
piping code.
Ftg Ro Specifies the fitting outside radius for branch connections. This option is used for
reduced branch connections in the ASME and B31.1 piping codes, Bonney Forge Insert
Weldolets, and for WRC 329 intersection SIF calculations. Configuration options exist to invoke
the WRC 329 calculations and to limit the application of the reduced branch connection rules to
unreinforced fabricated tees, sweepolets, weldolets, and extruded welding tees. If omitted, Ftg
Ro defaults to the outside radius of the branch pipe.
Crotch R Specifies the crotch radius of the formed lip on an extruded welding tee, intersection
type 6. This is also the intersection weld crotch radius for WRC329 calculations. Specifying this
value can result in a 50% reduction in the stress intensification at the WRC 329 intersection. If
you attempt to reduce the stress riser at a fabricated intersection by guaranteeing that there is a
smooth transition radius from the header to the branch pipe, then you may reduce the resulting
stress intensification by a factor of 2.0.
Weld ID Specifies the weld ID value. The following values are valid.
0 or BLANK - As Welded
1 - Finished/Ground Flush
Used for:
BONNEY FORGE SWEEPOLETS
BONNEY FORGE INSERT WELDOLETS
BUTT WELDS IN THE SWEDISH PIPING CODE
If this value is 1 then the weld is considered to be ground flush on the inside and out and the SIF
is taken as 1.0.

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For more information on how input parameters are used to compute SIFs for girth butt welds,
see WELD (D) (on page 133).
Weld(d) Specifies the average circumferential weld mismatch measured at the inside diameter
of the pipe. This value is used for Butt Welds and Tapered transitions. This is the average; not
the maximum mismatch. You must verify that any maximum mismatch requirements are
satisfied for your particular code.
Fillet Specifies the fillet leg length. This option is used only in conjunction with a socket weld
component. This value is the length of the shorter leg for an unequal leg fillet weld. If a fillet leg
is given, both socket weld types result in the same SIF. See appendix D of the B31 piping codes
for further clarification.
Header OD Specifies the actual outside diameter of the header matching pipe.
Header Thk Specifies the actual wall thickness of the header matching pipe.
Branch OD Specifies the actual outside diameter of the matching pipe.
Branch Thk Specifies the actual wall thickness of the matching pipe.
Header SIF(i) Displays the SIF in-plane for the header.
Header SIF(o) Displays the SIF out-of-plane for the header.
Branch SIF(i) Displays the SIF in-plane for the branch.
Branch SIF(o) Displays the SIF out-of-plane for the branch.
Flexibility Characteristic Displays the flexibility characteristic.
Branch Section Modulus Displays the branch section modulus.
Recalculate - Displays SIFs after you enter a different set of data. If you change the input data,
CAESAR II allows you to transfer the data back to the CAESAR II model.

Review SIFs at Bend Nodes


Displays the Node Selection dialog box. Access this function from the Classic Piping Input
dialog box by clicking Environment > Review SIFs at Bend Nodes or Bend SIF
scratchpad on the Input Tools toolbar.

Node Selection Dialog Box


Controls options for selecting the node.
Enter bend Node Number to be reviewed - Specifies the node number where you want to
evaluate the stress intensification factors.
OK - Displays the Review Bend SIF's dialog box.

Review Bend SIF's Dialog Box


Controls options for reviewing bend SIFs.
Node Displays the node number.
Bend Radius Displays the bend radius. CAESAR II assumes a long radius by default. You
can override this value. Alternatively, select a value from the list.

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Long - Indicates a long radius bend. The radius is equal to 1.5 times the nominal diameter.
Short - Indicates a short radius bend. The radius is equal to the nominal pipe diameter.
3D - Indicates a 3D bend. The radius is equal to 3 times the nominal diameter.
5D - Indicates a 5D bend. The radius is equal to 5 times the nominal diameter.
Bend Type Specifies the bend type. For most codes, this refers to the number of attached
flanges and can be selected from the list. If there are no flanges on the bend, leave Type blank.
A bend should be considered flanged if there is any heavy or rigid body within two diameters of
the bend that significantly restricts the bends ability to ovalize.
When using the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes with Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) pipe, this
entry refers to the material laminate type and may be 1, 2, or 3. These laminate types are
All chopped strand mat (CSM) constructing with internal and external surface tissue
reinforced layer.
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external
surface tissue reinforced layer.
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multi-filament roving construction with internal and external
surface tissue reinforced layer.
The laminate type affects the calculation of flexibility factors and stress intensification factors for
the BS 7159 and UKOOA Codes only.
For ISO 14692, only type 3 filament-wound laminate is considered.
Bend Angle Displays the bend angle.
Fitting Thickness Specifies the thickness of the bend if that thickness is different than the
thickness of the matching pipe. If the thickness is greater than the matching pipe wall thickness,
then the inside diameter of the bend is smaller than the inside diameter of the matching pipe.
CAESAR II calculates section modulus for stress computations based on the properties of the
matching pipe as defined by the codes.
The pipe thickness is used twice when calculating SIFs and flexibility factors; once as Tn, and
once when determining the mean cross-sectional radius of the pipe in the equation for the
flexibility characteristic (h):
h = (Tn)(R) / (r2)
Tn = Thickness of bend or fitting
R = Bend radius
r = Mean cross-sectional radius of matching pipe
= (OD - WT) / 2
OD = Outside Diameter of matching pipe
WT = Wall Thickness of matching pipe
Most codes use the actual thickness of the fitting (this entry) for Tn, and the wall thickness of the
matching pipe for the calculation of the mean cross-sectional radius of the pipe (the WT value).
More specifically, the individual codes use the two wall thicknesses as follows:

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Code For Tn: For Mean Radius Calculation:

B31.1 Fitting Fitting

B31.3 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.4 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.5 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.8 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.8 Ch VIII Fitting Matching Pipe

SECT III NC Fitting Matching Pipe

SECT III ND Fitting Matching Pipe

Z662 Matching Pipe Matching Pipe

NAVY 505 Fitting Fitting

B31.1 (1967) Fitting Fitting

SWEDISH Fitting Matching Pipe

BS 806 N/A N/A

STOOMWEZEN N/A N/A

RCC-M C/D Matching Matching Pipe


Pipe

CODETI Fitting Fitting

NORWEGIAN Fitting Fitting

FDBR Fitting Fitting

BS 7159 Fitting Fitting

UKOOA Fitting Fitting

IGE/TD/12 Fitting Fitting

EN-13480 Fitting Matching Pipe

GPTC/Z380 Fitting Matching Pipe

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The bend fitting thickness (FTG) is always used as the pipe thickness in the stiffness matrix
calculations. However, the thickness of the matching pipe (WT) is always used in the bend
stress calculations.
Number of Miter Cuts Displays the number of cuts in the bend if it is mitered. When you type
a number, CAESAR II checks if the mitered bend input is closely or widely spaced. If the bend is
determined to be widely spaced, and the number of miter cuts is greater than one, the bend
should be broken down into n single cut widely spaced miters, where n is the total number of
cuts in the bend. The number of cuts and the radius of the bend are all that is required to
calculate the SIFs and flexibilities for the bend as defined in the B31 codes. The bend radius
and the bend miter spacing are related by the following equations:
Closely Spaced Miters
R = S / (2 tan )
q = Bend Angle / (2 n) where n = number of miter cuts
Widely Spaced Miters
R = r2 (1.0 + cot q) / 2.0
r2 = (ri + ro) / 2.0
= Bend Angle / 2.0
Seam Weld Indicates that the bend is seam welded.
B31.3
If the B31.3 piping code is active, the Seam Welded check box is used to activate the Wl
box for bends. The Wl box is the weld strength reduction factor used to determine the
minimum wall thickness of the bend element.
IGE/TD/12
Used by IGE/TD/12 to calculate the stress intensification factors due to seam welded elbow
fabrication as opposed to extruded elbow fabrication. This option is only available when
IGE/TD/12 is active.
Matching Pipe OD Specifies the outside diameter of the matching pipe. This is used in the
average cross sectional radius calculation:
r2 = (OD - WT) / 2
OD = Outside Diameter as entered
WT = Wall Thickness of attached pipe
The B31.3 (1993) code defines r2 as the mean radius of matching pipe.
Matching Pipe Thk Specifies the match pipe wall thickness. You should not subtract any
corrosion. All SIF calculations are made ignoring corrosion. This wall thickness is used in the
mean radius (r2) calculation as defined in the piping codes.
Elastic Modulus Specifies the elastic modulus among EC, E1 to E9. This value is used for
the pressure stiffening calculations.
Pressure Specifies the pressures among PMax, P1 to P9, PHydro and none. This value is
used for the pressure stiffening calculations.
Bend In-Plane SIF Displays the SIF under in-plane bending.
Bend Out-of-Plane SIF Displays the SIF under out-of-plane bending.

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In-Plane Flexibility Factor Displays the flexibility factor under in-plane bending.
Out-of-Plane Flexibility Displays the flexibility factor under out-of-plane bending.
Flexibility Characteristic Displays the pipe factor.
Recalculate - Displays the SIFs after you enter a different set of data. If you change the input
data, CAESAR II allows you to transfer the data back to a CAESAR II model.

Special Execution Parameters


Displays the Special Execution Parameters dialog box. Click Environment > Special
Execution Parameters. These parameters remain set for that particular job.

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Print Forces on Rigids and Expansion Joints


Indicates whether forces are printed on rigid elements and expansion joints. Forces and
moments are not normally printed for these elements because the forces that act on these
elements can usually be read directly from the forces that act on the adjacent pipe elements.
Select this option to cause forces and moments to be calculated and printed for all rigid
elements and expansion joints in the system.

Print Alphas and Pipe Properties


Indicates whether the software prints alphas and pipe properties. CAESAR II prints the thermal
expansion coefficients along with the pipe, insulation, fluid, and refractory weights in the error
checker. This report can be very useful during error checking to help identify possible problems
in the temperature or weight input specifications. Rigid elements and expansion joints are
treated the same as straight pipe. Rigid weights and insulation cladding factors are not reflected
in this table.

Activate Bourdon Effects


Specifies the Bourdon effects option to use. Choose the option from the drop list to activate the
Bourdon pressure effect. The Bourdon pressure effect causes straight pipes to elongate, or
displace along their axes, and causes curved pipes or bends to elongate along the line that
connects the bends near and far nodes. If the Bourdon effect is not activated, there are no
global displacements due to pressure. The Bourdon effect is always considered when plastic
pipe is used, regardless of the setting of the Activate Bourdon Effects option.
By default, CAESAR II does not include the Bourdon effect in the analysis of steel piping
systems. That is, there are no displacements of the system due to pressure.
As an option, you can include pressure displacement effects. These effects can be appreciable
in long runs of pipe or in high pressure, large diameter bends adjacent to sensitive equipment.
Bourdon effects are almost always important in fiberglass reinforced plastic piping systems. For
this reason the Bourdon (Translational) is automatically turned on for all FRP pipe runs and
bends.
Two Bourdon options are available:
Use the Translation only option when the elbows in the system are forged or welded
fittings and can reasonably be assumed to have a circular cross section.
Use the Translational & Rotational option when the bends in the system are fabricated by
the hot or cold bending of straight pipe. In these cases the slight residual ovalization of the
bend cross section, after bending, causes the bend to try to straighten out when pressurized.
Fixed end moments are associated with this opening. These fixed end moments do not exist
when the original shape of the bend cross-section is circular.

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Branch Error and Coordinate Prompts


Specifies how branch error and coordinate prompts display. You are prompted for two pieces of
information:
The loop closure tolerance.
The global coordinates of the first point of the piping system and each following piece of the
piping system that is not connected to the first.
This data is needed the first time CAESAR II prepares a global geometry calculation. This
calculation is made on three different occasions:
Before preprocessor plots are generated.
Before global coordinate reports are built.
Before error checking is performed.
Alternatively, you can select Edit > Global and specify the global coordinates to avoid any
prompting.
There are several major uses for this flag:
Set the loop closure tolerance.
Define the elevation of the piping system for wind/wave load calculations.
Give the proper east-west or north-south coordinates for dimension checks.
Move parts of the system around in the plotted output for visual checking.
Whenever you create a physical loop in the piping system, there are at least two different sets of
dimensions between the same points. If the two dimensions are not within a certain tolerance of
each other, a fatal error occurs. You can set this tolerance interactively or in the configuration
file. Select Both for the Branch Error and Coordinate Prompts option to cause CAESAR II to
interactively prompt for this tolerance.

Thermal Bowing Delta Temperature


Specifies the temperature differential which exists between the top of the pipe and the bottom of
the pipe. This differential is used to compute an elemental load. It is added to each temperature
case for horizontal pipes.
This entry is computed from the equation:
dT = Ttop - Tbottom
For example, consider a horizontal pipe where the temperature on the top is 20 degrees hotter
than the temperature on the bottom. The proper value to type in this box is 20, not -20.

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Liberal Stress Allowable


Indicates whether or not to use liberal stress allowable. Conservative formulation of the
allowable expansion stress range for many codes in CAESAR II is calculated from:
f ( 1.25 Sc + .25 Sh )
When select this option, the difference between Sh and Sl, provided Sh > Sl, is added to the
term inside the parenthesis. That is:
SA(Liberal) = f[ 1.25 Sc + .25 Sh + ( Sh - Sl) ]
The liberal expression is only used when there is at least one sustained stress case in the load
set. If there is more than one sustained stress case in a single problem, then the largest of Sl,
considering all of the sustained cases, for any single element end is chosen to subtract from Sh.
Because the sustained stress varies from one pipe to another, the allowable expansion stress
also varies.
By default, CAESAR II uses the liberal stress allowable setting in the configuration file in its
computation of the expansion stress allowable. New models are created using this configuration
setting. If you do not want to use this default setting for calculating the expansion, clear this
check box.

Uniform Load in G's


Specifies whether to use a magnifier of gravitational loading for the uniform load. Uniform load
can be defined either in terms of force per unit length or in terms of a magnifier of gravitational
loading. Uniform load in G's is used most often for static earthquake loadings.

Earthquake loads are occasional loadings and as such are not directly addressed by the
CAESAR II recommended load case logic. You must form your own combination cases at
the output processor level that represent the algebraic sum of the stresses due to sustained
and occasional loads. For more information, see Occasional Load Factor (on page 88).
When you select this option, the in Gs radio button is activated on the first Uniform Load
auxiliary dialog box on the Classic Piping Input dialog box. You can override this option by
selecting the in F/L option.

Ambient Temperature
Specifies the actual ambient temperature. The default ambient temperature for all elements in
the system is 70F/21C. If this does not accurately represent the installed, or zero expansion
strain state, then type the actual value in this box. The ambient temperature is used in
conjunction with the specified hot temperature and the interpolated expansion coefficient to
calculate the thermal expansion per inch of pipe length experienced by the element when going
from the ambient temperature to the hot temperature.
A default ambient temperature can be defined in the configuration file. For more information, see
New Job Ambient Temperature (on page 51). The software uses this configuration file value to
set the ambient temperature when you create a new model.

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FRP Coef. of Thermal Expansion (x 1,000,000 )


Specifies the thermal expansion coefficient. The default thermal expansion coefficient for
fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe is 12.0E-6 in./in./deg.F. If you have a more suitable value for
the particular composite, type that value in this box. For example, if the improved value was:
8.5E-6 in./in./deg. F., then type 8.5 in this box. The exponent (E-6) is implied. This expansion
coefficient is used in conjunction with the temperatures on the Classic Piping Input dialog box
for each plastic pipe element to calculate the thermal expansion for the element.
This method does not provide for any variation in the thermal expansion coefficient as a function
of temperature. This could prove limiting should there be parts of the system at different
non-ambient temperatures. In this case, you can always calculate the thermal expansion at
temperature in inches per inch and input this value directly into the Temperature box on the
Classic Piping Input dialog box.
For new models, the default value is obtained from the configuration file.

FRP Ratio of Shear Modulus/Emod Axial


Specifies the ratio of the shear modulus to the modulus of elasticity in the axial direction of the
fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe. For example, if the material modulus-of-elasticity (axial) is
3.2E6 psi, and the shear modulus is 8.0E5 psi, type 0.25 as the ratio of these two.
For new models, the default value is obtained from the configuration file.

FRP Laminate Type


Specifies the default laminate type as defined in the BS 7159 code for the fiberglass reinforced
plastic pipe. Valid laminate types are:
CSM and Woven Roving - Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR)
construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer.
CSM and Multi-filament - Chopped strand mat and multi-filament roving construction with
internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer.
CSM - All chopped strand mat construction with internal and external surface tissue
reinforced layer.
The software uses this entry to calculate the flexibility and stress intensity factors of bends;
therefore, this default entry may be overridden using the Type field on the bend auxiliary dialog
boxes.

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Z-Axis Vertical
Indicates that the Z axis is vertical. Traditionally CAESAR II has used a coordinate system
where the Y-axis coincides with the vertical axis. In one alternative coordinate system, the
Z-axis represents the vertical axis (with the X axis chosen arbitrarily, and the Y-axis being
defined according to the right hand rule. CAESAR II now gives you the ability to model using
either coordinate system. You can also switch between the systems in most cases.
You can specify that CAESAR II start with the Z axis vertical. For more information, see Z-Axis
Vertical (see "New Job Z-Axis Vertical" on page 66).
A new piping model determines its axis orientation based on the setting in the Configure/Setup
module. An existing piping model uses the same axis orientation under which it was last saved.
You can change the axis orientation from Y-Axis to Z-Axis vertical by clicking the check box on
the Environment-Special Execution Parameters dialog box.
Clicking this check box causes the model to immediately convert to match the new axis
orientation. That is, Y-values become Z-values or the reverse. There is no change in the model;
only the representation changes.
This allows any piping input file to be immediately translated from one coordinate system into
the other.
When including other piping files in a model, the axis orientation of the included files need not
match that of the piping model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion.
When including structural files in a piping model, the axis orientation of the include files need not
match that of the piping model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion.
The axis orientation on the Static Load Case Builder (such as wind and wave loads), the Static
Output Processor, The Dynamic Input Module, and the Dynamic Output Processor is dictated by
the orientation of the model input file.

Bandwidth Optimizer Options


Orders the set of equations that represent the piping system for both static and dynamic
analyses. The optimizer may be run with a variety of different switch settings. The default
settings were chosen for their combination of ordering efficiency and speed. These settings
should suffice for the majority of piping systems analyzed. For systems having greater than 100
nodes, or that are highly interconnected, the following optimum parameters should be used.
Optimizer Method = Both
Next Node Selection = Decreasing
Final Ordering = Reversed
Collins Ordering = Band
Degree Determination = Connections
User Control = None
If the User Control is set to Allow User Re-looping, CAESAR II lets you interactively try as
many different combinations of switch settings as needed. When the most efficient ordering is
obtained, you can continue on with the analysis. This interactive prompting for optimization
parameters is done in the analysis level processing.

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Include Piping Input Files


Includes other piping models in the current piping model. Piping models added may have a
node offset applied and can optionally be rotated about the Y-axis before being added.

Include Piping Files Dialog Box


File Name - Displays the file to include. Click Browse to browse for the file name. The file need
not reside in the current data directory.
Read Now - Specifies whether or not the file is read immediately. Select Y if the file is to be read
immediately and stored as part of the current input. The file read may be edited as part of the
current job. Select N, if the file is to be read for plotting and fully processed only during error
checking. The file read may not be edited as part of the current job.
RotY - Specifies the angle about the Y axis to rotate the model before including it in the current
job. The rotation applies regardless of the Read Now setting.
Restraints, uniform loads, and concentrated forces are not rotated. Additionally, the
rotation of the model can be accomplished from the List utility For more information, see Rotate
(on page 321).
Inc - Specifies the increment to be added to all of the nodes in the model before including it in
the current job. The node increment applies regardless of the Read Now setting.

Including Structural Input Files


Includes existing structural model into the current job. The structural model must have been
built and successfully error checked in the structural steel preprocessor accessed from the
CAESAR II menu. For more information, see Structural Steel Modeler (on page 387).
After a structural model has been built, you can include it into any piping input. You can include
the names of up to 20 different structural models. After this is done, you can plot and analyze
the structural model with the piping model. The structural models need not reside in the current
folder.
Piping systems are usually tied to structural steel models by the use of restraints with
connecting nodes. Make absolutely sure there are no node number conflicts between structure
and pipe models. After you define a restraint with a connecting node between the pipe and
structure, CAESAR II knows where to put the structure in the resulting preprocessor plot. If no
connection between the pipe and the structure is given, the structure is plotted starting from the
origin of the piping system. In this case, the resulting plot may not meet your expectations.

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Advanced PCF Import (APCF)


The Advanced PCF Import (APCF) option provides an interactive, customizable way of
importing Piping Component Files (PCFs) to the CAESAR II piping environment.
Provides more control and flexibility over element sequencing and node numbering
Provides the capability to build and verify the model in an incremental way
Provides the capability to selectively update the CAESAR II model
An interactive interface is built directly into the CAESAR II input environment that:
Does everything that the PCF batch process does (See PCF/Intergraph Smart 3D PCF doc
in External Interfaces section)
Builds the piping input model on a line-by-line basis if needed
Provides the ability to define and control node numbering
Uses the Block Operations modeling tools to ease modeling changes.
You can perform the APCF function to create a new model or add to any existing job model. The
CAESAR II input model constructed from the PCFs assumes the Units System of the current
job, plus automatically attach/intersect the piping generated from the PCF to the existing piping,
if appropriate.
The PCF file format is a standard drawing exchange format developed by Alias Ltd. A PCF is a
flat text file containing detailed information about the piping system components. The
information is extracted from a CAD system. Details on the format of the PCF and its capabilities
can be obtained from Alias.

Converting the PCF


1. Before you begin the conversion, determine:
Which files will be converted
How they should be combined
How they should be numbered on the first conversion process.
2. Click Environment > Advanced PCF Import (APCF) to begin the conversion of a PCF(s)
to a CAESAR II Piping Input file.

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The Advanced PCF Import (APCF) dialog box displays.

3. Click Choose Files.


4. Select the PCF(s) to convert.
A PCF has a file extension of .pcf.

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PCFs may be selected all at once or each one may be added to the conversion list just prior
to being converted. Only those files with the check box selected are processed.

Files can be arranged in the order you want to process them by dragging-and-dropping the
file names in the conversion list.
In the example, the elements of the header, which includes files TPA-551-0012, 551-00513,
521-90100_BL, 521-90100, and 521-90102, are processed first.
Vents off of that header are processed next (in the example, 521-12101, 521-12113,
521-12112, 521-12111, 521-12138, 521-12137, 521-10103, 521-10104, 521-90461).
Finally, the separate detached section files (551-0012, 551-0041) are processed last.
5. Set the conversion options listed in the lower left-hand pane.
Condense Options
Miscellaneous Options
CAESAR II Element Properties

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The options can be set identically for all conversion passes, or they can be changed for
each pass. The example uses Piping Materials based on Pipe Spec and also set a Diameter
Limit (exclude pipes below 3" nominal) as well as condense rigids, tees, and bends.
In this example, clear the check boxes for all files except those comprising the header. This
converts the header files. To process them together, define a Start Node of 0 for files 2
through 5 ("0" signifies "carry on numbering with the next available number"). Start
numbering the system with node 1000 and continue with an increment of 10.
This means that all of the elements from all of the files are combined, sorted, ordered,
numbered, and so forth. For example, a header from the first five files is processed before
adding branches from the first file as though they came from a single large PCF. This is
assured by processing a group of files together during the same process, and defining the
Start Node for files after the first in the group as "0". Processing files individually or entering
a Start Node (or changing the Node Increment) for specific files in the group being
processed causes those files to be processed individually.
6. Begin the conversion by clicking the Begin Processing button.
This creates the first portion of the CAESAR II piping input model.
At this point, all CAESAR II functions (3D graphics pane, Classic Input Piping dialog box,
Elements dialog box) are available for examining the resultant piping input model.
Remember that you can use the Undo button.

7. In the example, you can select the vent lines to be processed separately, each with their
own numbering system.
8. In the example, check each of the next 9 file names, plus define the Start Node for each.

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This causes each individual vent line to be fully processed before proceeding to the next.
Alternatively these files could be processed individually simply by running them one at a
time.

The vents are processed as requested.

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Undo is available.

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9. Process the second detached section, with both files processed together, and the Start
Node set at node at 10000.

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After the conversion processing completes, the CAESAR II piping input model looks like this
in the example.

At this point, the entries for Delta Coordinates, Temperatures, Pressures, and so forth may
contain values calculated to several decimal places due to repetitive unit conversions and
other calculations during the conversion process. For example, see the DX = -5390.7523
mm and the Temp 1 = 250.0214C.
These entries can be automatically rounded to the nearest integer by closing the APCF
Import dialog box using the "X" in the right top corner.

We recommend that this round-off process not be done until all PCFs have been
imported. This is because connectivity is determined based upon sharing global
coordinates. If element delta coordinates get rounded off, then nodal global coordinates may
get changed enough that they fall outside of the connection tolerances.

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Warnings in Log.RTF file


During the conversion process, Status Messages display in the Message Area in the lower right
of the dialog box.
These messages are also written to a LOG file with the name XXXX.LOG.RTF, where XXXX
represents the name (less the extension) of the Combined CAESAR II file (in the case where
many PCFs are being combined into a single CAESAR II model) or the first CAESAR II file in
the list (where one or more PCFs are being combined into individual CAESAR II models).
1. Click Save Warnings to save the warnings to a different file.

Topics
PCF Interface Custom Attributes ................................................... 300
How to Use the Advanced PCF Import (APCF) ............................. 315

PCF Interface Custom Attributes


PCFs contain custom attributes in the form of component-attribute<n>. Intergraph Smart 3D can
generate PCFs with ISO_STRESS PCF configuration. This configuration assures that a number
of various data fields are passed in specific PCF data fields.
COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE1 = Design pressure
COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE2 = Maximum temperature
COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE3 = Material name
COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE4 = Wall thickness (reducing thickness in the case of reducing
components)
COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE5 = Insulation thickness
COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE6 = Insulation density
COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE7 = Corrosion allowance
COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE8 = Component weight
COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE9 = Fluid density
COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE10 = Hydro test pressure
The units associated with the values of these attributes are defined by including a descriptive
unit label after the value. For example, the pressure attribute, COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE1, can
be specified as COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE1 15.3 barg. If the unit label chosen (barg) is not
one of the labels recognized by CAESAR II as defined through Tools > Create/Review Units
on the CAESAR II Main menu, then you must include that label in the PCF_UNITS_MAP.TXT
file in the CAESAR II System folder.

The only PCF SUPPORT attribute that is not ignored is the SUPPORT-DIRECTION
attribute. It must have a value of UP, DOWN, EAST, WEST, NORTH, or SOUTH.
One note on the Material Number setting is that the selected material is applied to a piping
element as the default only if the PCF COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE3 for that element is not
specified or recognized.

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You can achieve the best results by preparing customized mapping files before beginning the
conversion process.
You may use default mapping files if the values fit our model. There are a number of mapping
files that define various values. Locate these files in the CAESAR II System folder.

PCF Unit Mapping


The PCF_UNITS_MAP.TXT file maps the PCF Units name to the conversion factor used to
convert it to the CAESAR II internal units (English).
This file defines three columns:

CAESAR II Unit Displays the internal unit used by the software

PCF Unit Displays the user-supplied unit label

Conversion from CAESAR II -> PCF Displays the conversion factor used to convert the
user-supplied unit to a CAESAR II internal unit

Comments can be added at the end of each line separated from the last column value by
spaces and preceded by the "*" character.
All PCF component attributes can be specified inside the PCF with their associated units. Any
unit specified by the PCF component attributes which is not a standard internal CAESAR II unit
as defined by the Tools > Create/Review Units dialog box on the CAESAR II Main menu needs
to be mapped inside the PCF_UNITS_MAP.TXT file.
CAESAR II divides the user-supplied value by this constant to calculate the value for the
attribute that is displayed by the software according to the units specified in the configuration
options (except that temperature from C to F will also add the 32 ).

To Modify the PCF_UNITS_MAP.TXT File


Locate this file in the CAESAR II System folder.
This is an optional task. You can review the default file and determine if you need to
make changes to fit your model.
1. Open the PCF_UNITS_MAP.TXT file in any text editor, such as Notepad.

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An example of the CAESAR II default file is shown below.

2. Modify any of the units definitions or add another unit definition as needed.
3. Save, and close the file.

PCF Material Mapping


The PCF_MAT_MAP.TXT file maps PCF material names to a corresponding CAESAR II
material number. Note that the first line is currently reserved to the CAESAR II version number.
The match in this file must be an exact match. If no match is found, then the software searches
the CAESAR II material database to find the "best match" (where the "best match" tries to do an
intelligent match, adjusting for dashes, spaces, "GR", "SA" versus "A", and so forth) for the
material name.
PCF COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE3 is used by the software to set the material attribute for each
component. If the COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE3 value is not defined or recognized, the software
applies the default material as specified by the Material Number value in the dialog box.
Any material specified by the PCF COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE3 which is not a standard
CAESAR II material as defined in the Tools > Materials dialog under the Material > Edit
menu must be mapped inside the PCF_MAT_MAP.TXT file.

To Modify the PCF_MAT_MAP.TXT File


This file is located in the CAESAR II System folder.

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This is an optional task. You can review the default file and determine if you need to
make changes to fit your model.
1. Open the PCF_MAT_MAP.TXT file in any text viewer, such as Notepad.
The CAESAR II default file looks like this.

2. Modify any of the materials definitions.


3. Save and close the file.

PCF Restraint Mapping


The PCF_RES_MAP.TXT file defines the CAESAR II restraint types corresponding to PCF
support/restraint names.
The PCF SUPPORT attribute is used by CAESAR II to apply supports at the specified
coordinates. Only the SUPPORT-DIRECTION identifier is interpreted by the software if no
match is found for a particular support NAME in the PCF_RES_MAP.TXT file. The
SUPPORT-DIRECTION identifier must have a value of UP, DOWN, EAST, WEST, NORTH, or
SOUTH.
In order to fine-tune the support configuration placed on the imported model by CAESAR II for a
given PCF SUPPORT component, the PCF support NAME identifier value needs to be mapped
in the PCF_RES_MAP.TXT file.

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The example below shows a typical PCF SUPPORT component, highlighting the support NAME
value which should be used to define CAESAR II support mapping.

To Modify the PCF_RES_MAP.TXT File


Locate the file in the CAESAR II system folder.
This is an optional task. You can review the default file and determine if you need to
make changes to fit your model.
This file defines the CAESAR II function corresponding to PCF support/restraint names.
1. Open the PCF_RES_MAP.TXT file in any text editor, such as Notepad.
2. Modify any of the restraints definitions.
3. Save, and close the file.
In the example, the Support type VG100 corresponds functionally to two CAESAR II supports:
+Vertical support (weight support)
Guide, each with friction coefficients equal to 0.3
This file supports a wide range of support functions, plus the key words MU= (for friction) and
GAP= (to define gaps in the restraint).

Syntax for each support type is:

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<Support Name> <N->


<Restraint Function> <MU=> <GAP=>
<Support Name> - CAESAR II considers a matching as any PCF support/restraint name that
contains this <Support Name> (not an exact match). Best results are achieved if the <Support
Names> are listed in order of longest names to shortest names. Otherwise VG1" might register
as a match before VG100 is processed.
<N> - Followed by N lines of: This means how many CAESAR II restraints need to get placed
on the corresponding Restraint auxiliary screen. N should be limited to 4 or less.
<Restraint Function> - This is defined in terms of CAESAR II function (GUI, LIM, VHGR, and
so forth.), Global Axes (VERT, NS, EW, and so forth), or Local Axes (A, B, C, and so forth):
ANC, GUI, LIM, VHGR, CHGR These create a CAESAR II Anchor, Guide, Axial Restraint,
Variable Hanger, or Constant Hanger, respectively. The last two create to-be-designed
hangers, which may end up as either variable or constant hangers.

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VERT, EW, NS These create translational restraints corresponding to the compass points
of the global axes (Y, X, Z respectively for the Y-up setting, and Z, X, Y respectively for the
Z-up setting). See the figure below. One-way restraints may be created by prefixing with "+"
or "-".

A, B, C These create translational restraints corresponding to the local axes of the


support/pipe installation. The A corresponds to the centerline of the pipe, B corresponds to
the "direction" attributed to the support, and C corresponds to the cross-product of the A and
B axes. As with the global restraints, one-way restraints may be created by prefixing with +
or -. See the figure below.

<MU=> Optional keyword followed by a value for adding a friction coefficient to the restraint (not
valid with ANC, VHGR, CHGR).
<GAP=> Optional keyword followed by a value and set of units for adding a gap to the restraint
(not valid with ANC, VHGR, CHGR).
The software also processes equipment nozzles designated by the
END-CONNECTION-EQUIPMENT keyword as imposed thermal displacements in all degrees of
freedom, all with values of 0.0. This creates an initial behavior of an anchor, but allows you to
easily impose actual thermal displacements when known.

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Examples
The examples below illustrate typical restraint configurations, along with suggested mapping
entries.
Variable Spring Hanger

These represent variable spring hangers, and are mapped onto a single CAESAR II support (=
VHGR). This is interpreted as a program-designed spring hanger in CAESAR II.

Constant Effort Spring Hanger


This represents a constant effort spring hanger, and thus is mapped onto a single CAESAR II
support (= CHGR). This is treated as a program-designed spring hanger in CAESAR II.

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Note that it is identical to the VHGR shown in the figure above.

These hanger rod assemblies only resist downward (weight) loads, and allow upward
movement. In CAESAR II, they are typically modeled as +Y (or +Z, depending on how the
vertical axis is set).

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These sliding supports only resist downward (weight) loads, and allow upward movement. They
are represented as a single +VERT support. However, since they slide against a base, most
stress analysts prefer to add a friction coefficient (MU=x.xx).

YRIGID 1
VERT MU=0.3
or
YRIGID 1
B MU=0.3
These restraints resist load/movement in both directions (so the "+" of the previous two supports
is eliminated). If the restraint is always installed vertically, then use the first definition (VERT). If
the restraint is installed in any direction (for example, vertically or horizontally), use the second
definition B, indicating that it acts along the installed support direction. This assumes that the
installed direction of the restraint is always defined as the direction from the main steel towards
the pipe. Because sliding is involved, a friction coefficient is included as well.

UGUIDE 1
GUI MU=0.3
or

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UGUIDE 1
C MU=0.3
If this restraint is always installed vertically on horizontal lines (as shown in the figure above),
then the support function can always be modeled as a Guide (with sliding friction). If the restraint
may be installed in any direction at all (with restraint direction corresponding to the direction of
the attachment point toward the pipe), then use the second definition (C) as it represents the
direction lateral to the pipe and the restraint.

TEESUPPORT 2
+VERT MU=0.3
GUI MU=0.3
This restraint maps to two functions:
+VERTical
GUIde
Because sliding is involved in both functions, friction coefficients are provided for both.

VERTLATERAL 2
VERT MU=0.3
GUI MU=0.3
or
VERTLATERAL 2
B MU=0.3
C MU=0.3
This restraint maps to two functions:

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up/down restraint
side-to-side restraint
If it is always installed vertically, then it is defined as a VERTical and a GUIde. If it is possible
that the restraint may be rotated about the pipe to be installed in any direction, then use the
second definition, which represents restraint along the direction of the support as well as lateral
to the support and pipe.

VERTAXIAL 2
+VERT MU=0.3
LIM MU=0.3
or
VERTAXIAL 2
+VERT MU=0.3
A MU=0.3
This restraint maps to two functions:
+VERT support
An axial restraint. The axial restraint can be defined equally as LIM or A (as A corresponds
to restraint along the direction of the pipe centerline).

SWAYSTRUT 1
B

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These represent sway struts, which may be installed in any direction, and provide restraint along
the line of action of the sway strut. Assuming that the restraint direction corresponds to the
direction of the sway strut, then the best way to define these restraints is B (restraint along the
support direction).

ANCHOR 1
ANC
These restraints all restrict movement of the pipe in all six degrees-of-freedom, so they can be
defined as Anchors ("ANC").

PENETRATION 4
+C GAP=aMM
-C GAP=bMM

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-VERT GAP=cMM
+VERT GAP=dMM

In the example above, the pipe (and the local A-axis) is running into the page. With B up, +C is
to the right.
Some of these can get quite complex, especially if restraints have different gaps in different
directions. It may require trial and error to determine exactly how the +/- restraint directions
correspond to the support direction passed in the PCF. In some cases, you may want to model
the restraint behavior in CAESAR II rather than in the mapping file.

PCF Stress Intensification Factor Mapping


The PCF_SIF_MAP.TXT file defines the CAESAR II SIF data to be applied at the intersection of
tees and olets. The file also provides support for some SIF keywords.
Stress Intensification Factors (SIF) are not assigned a separate PCF
COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE or defined in any other way inside PCFs. In order to tune Stress
Intensification Factor settings of imported PCF components, CAESAR II provides the
PCF_SIF_MAP.TXT mapping file.
The file defines five columns:

SKEYS PCF components use SKEYS to indicate how their subtype is


used within the general component group.

CAESAR II SIF TYPE Should be set to the SIF type number used by CAESAR II as
shown in the CAESAR II SIF TYPE figure below.

PAD=X.X UNITS (optional) Should be set to the SIF pad thickness, including the
applicable unit (for example, PAD=10 MM)

Ii=X.XX (optional) Should be set to the in-plane SIF of the component.


This is a multiplier, and therefore unit-less (for example, Ii=1.23)

Io=X.XX (optional) Should be set to the out-plane SIF of the component.


This is a multiplier, and therefore unit-less (for example, Io=2.34)

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Applying the above example values to set the TERF SKEY to the associated reinforced type
requires the following mapping entry to be specified inside the PCF_RES_MAP.TXT file:
TERF 1 PAD=10 MM Ii=1.23 Io=2.34
Each PCF component defines an SKEY. For an example, see the SUPPORT component
identifier listed in the figure in PCF Restraint Mapping (on page 303) (SKEY 01HG). In this case,
these are typically four-character words indicating tee type (CROSS, OLET) and end type. The
PCF menu command matches the SKEYS to the entries in this mapping file. If an SKEY is not
found in this file, you should add it.

To Modify the PCF_SIF_MAP.TXT File


Locate this file in the CAESAR II system folder.
This step is strongly recommended in order to take advantage of the capabilities of the
PCF menu command.

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1. Open the PCF_SIF_MAP.TXT file in any text editor, such as Notepad.

2. Modify any of the SIF definitions.


3. Save, and close the file.

How to Use the Advanced PCF Import (APCF)


1. Click Environment > Advanced PCF Import (APCF) from the Piping Input menu.

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The Advanced PCF Import (APCF) dialog box displays.

2. Click the Choose Files button.

A PCF must have a file extension of .pcf.


You can add one or multiple files to be converted.
Remove PCF(s) from the File Name list by pressing Delete on the keyboard.
The selected file(s) displays in the File Name portion of the dialog box.
3. Enter the Start Node and Increment value for each of the file names.
4. Change any of the Conversion Options in the lower left-hand pane as needed.
Condense Rigids (on page 318)
Condense Tees (on page 1167)
Condense Elbows (on page 319)
Use Pipe Materials Only (on page 319)
Combine PCF Files (on page 319)

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Model Rotation (on page 319)


Diameter Limit (on page 320)
Material Number (on page 320)
Pipe Schedule/Wall Thickness (on page 320)
5. Click the Begin Processing button to initiate the conversion process.
During the Conversion Process, Status Messages display in the Message Area in the lower
right of the PCF Interface dialog box.
These messages are also written to a LOG file with the name XXXX.LOG.RTF, where XXXX
represents the name (less the extension) of the Combined CAESAR II file. The log file is
placed in the selected CAESAR II output file folder.
6. View your new CAESAR II input model.
For example, this CAESAR II model was created from the sample file 1001-P.PCF:

Elements are ordered and nodes are numbered in a logical manner.


The following attributes transfer correctly from the PCF_UNITS_ MAP_TXT file.
Materials
Diameter and Wall Thickness
Corrosion Allowance and Fluid Density
Operating Conditions (Temperature and Pressures) also are translated.

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The following attributes transfer correctly from the PCF_RES_MAP.TXT file.


Restraints
The following attributes transfer correctly from the PCF_SIF_MAP.TXT file.
Tees convert with the correct SIFs in this case a Welding Tee and a Weldolet.
Besides supports/restraints, boundary conditions such as equipment connections transfer
(in this example, at all three nozzle connections are set). The user can easily change the
thermal displacements.
Weights of in-line components, insulation thickness and density, all material properties, and
Allowable Stress information transfer correctly.
Line numbers are assigned according to the name of the PCF file.
In this example, the output displays the applicable CAESAR II warnings, which are informational
only.
Phantom components (PCF items marked as "CONTINUATION" or "STATUS DOTTED"
or "MATERIAL LIST EXCLUDE") are ignored during the conversion process.
Tee components are modeled using the thickness of the matching pipe.
Node Numbering preferences (start node and increment) are based on the Node
Numbering Increment set in the active CAESAR II Configuration file.

Start Node
Indicates the starting node number in the resulting CAESAR II model. By default, the entire
model is renumbered using this value as the starting point. To disable renumbering, you must
set this option and Increment (on page 318) to zero.

Increment
Defines the value used as a node number increment. This value is used during the renumbering
of the model. To disable renumbering, you must set this option and Start Node (on page 318) to
zero.

Condense Rigids
Instructs the software to combine rigids that connect to each other into a single element.
This indicates whether these items should be condensed/merged into adjacent elements. For
example, a valve with adjacent gaskets and flanges would be combined into a single rigid
element.
If activated, then elements are condensed/merged unless there is a valid reason not to (change
of cross section, change of operating conditions, restraint at the location, and so forth).
The default value is TRUE.

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Condense Elbows
Controls whether the software treats elbows as two designated elements. When set to TRUE,
this directive instructs the software NOT to treat elbows as two designated elements. Rather, it
is condensed into its adjacent elements for each direction in which the elbow travels.
The default value is TRUE.

Use Pipe Materials Only


Instructs the software to apply pipe materials only as defined by the PCF
COMPONENT-ATTRIBUTE3 identifiers.
Activating this option replaces the material of various components (elbows, valves, flanges,
reducers, tees, and so forth) with the appropriate piping material, where possible, leading to a
much more homogenous CAESAR II model. Matching components to their corresponding piping
material is done by assembling a matrix of Pipe Spec/diameter combinations, based the
available data transmitted in the PCF. Where an exact match is available, the material
substitution is made. Where piping materials are available for the Pipe Spec but not the
diameter, a match is made to the closest diameter. Where no piping material is available for the
Pipe Spec, the component material is retained. For example, A106 Grade B would be applied
but A234 Grade WPB would be ignored.
If you choose to condense Rigids, Tees, or Elbows, set Use Pipe Materials Only to
TRUE.

Combine PCF Files


Converts and combines PCFs in the dialog box into a single CAESAR II model. You are
prompted for the name of the combined CAESAR II file.
When you merge multiple PCFs into a single CAESAR II model using Combine PCF
Files, line numbers are assigned based on the originating PCF name.

Model Rotation
The rotation of the +X-axis of the CAESAR II model should be rotated about the vertical axis
away from the PCF's East compass point. The default setting is zero, which imposes no rotation.
Select +90 to rotate the model a positive 90-degrees. Select -90 to rotate the model a negative
90-degrees.
Z can also be vertical based on special execution setting.
Alternatively, you can rotate the model after importing it to CAESAR II. Use the Rotate
command on the Block Operations toolbar.

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Diameter Limit
Use this to exclude the processing of small pipes, such as vents and drains, by specifying the
size (nominal diameter) below which pipes will be ignored. Enter a diameter limit of -1.000 to
include all pipe sizes that you want to import into CAESAR II.

Material Number
Select the CAESAR II material to be assigned to components which do not have the material
attribute explicitly set otherwise.
The default is low carbon steel (material number 1).

Pipe Schedule/Wall Thickness


Select the default schedule of the pipe to be used in case the wall thickness of the pipe cannot
be determined from the PCF.

Show Informational Messages


Displays informational messages upon the conversion of nominal to actual diameters, schedule
to wall thickness, and specific gravity to density. Click Environment > Show Informational
Messages.
Clear the check box to suppress these messages.

Reset View on Refresh


Controls the way graphics behave when you add or modify elements. When this option is
turned on, CAESAR II resets the plot to the default view each time you refresh.

CAESAR II Configuration
Opens the configuration file for review and editing. For more information, see Configuration and
Environment (on page 45).

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Global Menu
Performs actions associated with commands you can perform on a group of elements, such as
the block operations (Rotate, Invert, and so forth).

Rotate
Rotates elements defined in the block.
Displays the Block Rotate dialog box. This dialog box rotates the block through some angle
about the X, Y, or Z axis.
Unskew - Returns skewed geometry to an orthogonal orientation.
Setup - Determines what in the block should be rotated, including restraints, displacements,
force/moments, uniform loads, flexible nozzles, flanges, and element characteristics. The default
is for all items that appear in the block to be rotated with the block.
Degrees - Specifies the degrees of the rotation.
Add bends - Specifies that the software includes bends in the block rotation.
For more information, see Performing Block Operations (on page 371).

Delete
Deletes the selected block of elements.
A confirmation message displays before the delete action is taken.
For more information, see Performing Block Operations (on page 371).

Duplicate
Duplicates elements in a block.
Displays the Block Duplicate dialog box. You can make identical copies of the block. You can
also make a mirror image by flipping the chosen elements in one of the orthogonal planes.
Mirror imaging is done on the piping delta dimensions only. That is, restraints are copied but not
mirror imaged. A +Y restraint does not become a -Y restraint when mirrored in the XZ plane.

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Setup - Restraints, displacements, forces/moments, uniform loads, nozzles, flanges, and


element characteristics can be individually included or excluded from the duplication.
After the type of duplication is determined, you must decide the following:
Where in the Elements List to put the duplicated group of elements, either at the end of the
current block, the end of the input file, or after a specific element in the model.
What node increments to add to the nodes in the block so that they define unique pipe
elements. Be sure this increment is large enough to avoid any duplication of node numbers.
For more information, see Performing Block Operations (on page 371).

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Renumber
Rearrange the node numbers in the block.

Why use the Renumber command?


You can use this feature to clean up part or all of the piping system. It is not unusual to put the
entire model in one block and do a full renumber of all of the nodes.
To renumber the node numbers in a block
Make copies of any large jobs before renumbering them. Be particularly careful when
renumbering systems containing large numbers of interconnected restraints with CNodes.
Select the block of nodes you want to renumber from the 3D Graphics pane or in the
Elements dialog box.
1. Click the Renumber icon in the Block Operations toolbar.

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The Block Renumber dialog box displays.

2. Select whether you want the software to increment or renumber the block nodes.
a. Select Increment to renumber the selected block of nodes by the Node Increment you
specify. For example, if you have nodes of 10, 30, 600, 25 and 670 in a block, and you
select Increment and specify a Node Increment of 100, the software changes the node
numbering in the block to 110, 130, 700, 125 and 770. respectively.
b. Select Renumber to activate the Start Node box and renumber the selected block of
nodes from the Start Node number by the Node Increment that you specify. For
example, if you have nodes of 10, 30, 600, 25, and 670 in a block, and you select
Renumber and specify a Start Node of 100 and a Node Increment of 10, the software
changes the node block numbering to 100, 110, 120, 130, and 140, respectively.
Be sure that the Start Node and Node Increment values results in unique node
numbers for the elements being renumbered.

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3. If you want to renumber the nodes of the elements that are connected to the selected block,
leave the Renumber the boundary nodes check box selected.
CAESAR II renumbers the nodes of the elements that are connected to the selected block
and the model remains connected in the same way as it was before the renumber. The
boundary nodes include the From and To nodes of the elements connected to the selected
block, plus the nodes of the auxiliary data block that are connected to the selected block.
The software renumbers every node in the selected block on the model.

If you clear the Renumber Boundary Nodes check box, the software does not apply the
increment or renumber action to restraints, displacements and branch connections in the
selected block of nodes.
CAESAR II does not typically renumber a CNode in a block, because the CNode is
connected to a node outside the block. The software does not renumber CNodes if they do
not connect to a node in the block and on the piping system.
To avoid any confusion in these instances, start the renumbering at a node greater than the
largest node in the model. If all of the nodes renumber successfully (that is, there are not any
dangling CNodes), then you can specify a Node Increment with a negative increment to shift
the newly renumbered nodes back into the original range.
Typically, you may graphically select multiple blocks to renumber. However CAESAR II can only
perform the renumber operation for the first block. In this case, CAESAR II displays a message
box with information about which block that is renumbered. You can then continue to renumber
the second block and so on until all blocks are renumbered.

For more information, see Performing Block Operations (on page 371).

Invert
Assigns new From Node and To Node values to the selected block of elements. The Invert
command reverses the order of the elements in the selected group as well as the node
numbering while preserving the geometry of the input model.
Contiguous segments (sets of elements) may be selected in either the Elements dialog
box, the 3D Graphics pane, or the Line Numbers dialog box.

Why use the Invert command?


The Invert command can be very helpful when you have imported a new piping input model from
an external source, such as a Piping Component File (PCF), and you want to re-assign node

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numbers. For example, for an imported run from a termination to a tee, invert it to run from the
tee to the termination.
To invert a block of elements
1. Select the block of elements (nodes) you want to invert, either from the Elements dialog box
or from the 3D Graphics pane or from the Line Numbers dialog box.

If you select a block of elements from the Elements dialog box or from the Line
Numbers dialog box, the corresponding elements are selected (highlighted) in the 3D
Graphics panel.
If you select a block of elements in the 3D Graphics pane or from the Line Numbers
dialog box, the corresponding elements are NOT selected (highlighted) in the Elements
dialog box.
2. Click the Invert icon on the Block Operations tool bar.
Alternatively, right-click in the Elements dialog box to display the menu and click Block
Operation > Invert.
The node numbers are reversed.
Notice that nothing changes in the 3D Graphics pane- only the node numbers are
changed.
3. Review the Elements dialog box to verify the new node number assignments.
The From Node and To Node values are renumbered for the selected elements.
For example:

Element Number Original node numbers New node number

21 95 - 100 115 - 110

22 100- 105 110 -105

23 105 - 110 105 - 100

24 110 - 115 100 - 95

For more information, see Performing Block Operations (on page 371).

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Change Sequence
Changes or rearranges the sequence (order) of elements while preserving the geometry.

Why use the Change Sequence command?


Typically, the Elements dialog box displays by the order of elements entered during the input
process. The order in the list is important because when you specify some particular input
values for an element in the list, that value propagates to all the elements in the list following it
UNTIL the value is explicitly changed.
When you import piping model data (in the form of PCFs) from other piping input design
software such as Intergraph Smart3D, CAESAR II imports the elements in one sequence.
However, that sequence may not be what you want. For example, you may want all the high
pressure elements to be listed together. This reduces the number of unique input fields to verify
and can help you to logically organize the model. You can re-organize elements in a way so that
those with similar carry-forward properties are placed consecutively.
To change the sequence of elements
1. Select the block of elements (nodes) whose sequence you want to change, either from the
Elements dialog box, from the 3D Graphics pane, or from Line Numbers dialog box.

2. Click Change Sequence in the Block Operations tool bar.


Alternately, you can right-click in the Elements dialog box, and then click Block Operations
> Change Sequence.
The Change Sequence dialog box displays.

3. Choose where in the list you want to move the selected block.
To move the selected block after a given element, click Follow.
To move the selected block before a given element, click Precede.
The cursor changes to indicate the operation is in progress.
4. From the Elements dialog box, position the cursor in the line where you want the selected
block to be placed. Alternatively, you can select elements in the 3D Graphics pane and then
click on the element where you want to move them.
The selected block of elements displays in the new order.
The 3D graphics model does not change. This command only affects the Elements
dialog box display contents. Remember that this command provides you with the capability
of organizing "like" types of elements together.

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To re-store the order of the Elements dialog box to the original list, use the
Undo button.
For more information, see Performing Block Operations (on page 371).

Options Menu
Performs actions associated with the display of the model.

Range
Displays only the elements that contain nodes within a range. This is helpful when you need
to locate specific nodes or a group of related elements in a large model. This command displays
the Range dialog box. Alternatively, press U.

Using the Range command affects the display and operation of other 3D graphics
highlighting options. For example, if part of the model is not visible because of the use of the
Range command, then the Diameters command only highlights the elements that are
visible. Also, if using the Range command hides any nodes containing the predefined
displacements, the Displacements legend grid still displays, but the model may not highlight
correctly.
Find may not work properly for the part of the model that is hidden by the range. The
corresponding message displays in the status bar.

Range Dialog Box


Restraints
Turns the display of restraints on or off on the current model. Click the arrow on the icon to
indicate what size you want the restraints to display on your model , as well as whether or not
the software displays restraints with or without connecting nodes (CNodes).

Anchors
Turns the display of anchors on or off.
Click the arrow on the icon to indicate what size you want the anchors to display on your model,
as well as whether or not the software displays anchors with or without connecting nodes
(CNodes).

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Displacements
Turns the display of displacements on or off.

Hangers
Turns the display of hangers on or off.
Click the arrow on the icon to indicate what size you want the hangers to display on your model ,
as well as whether or not the software displays anchors with or without connecting nodes
(CNodes).

Nozzle Flexibility
Turns the display of nozzle flexibility on or off.

Flange Check
Turns flange checking on or off.

Nozzle Check
Turns nozzle checking on or off.

Forces
Updates the model to show each force in a different color. Use this option to see the force
variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been made. A color key displays
the force defined in the model. You can change the assigned colors to meet your needs.
The force parameters display in a table. Use the scroll bars to view all of the data. Click Next >>
and Previous << to move through the displacement or force vectors.

Uniform Loads
Updates the model to show each uniform load in a different color. Use this option to see the
uniform load variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been made. A color
key displays the uniform loads defined in the model. You can change the assigned colors to
meet your needs.
The uniform load parameters display in a table. Use the scroll bars to view all of the data. Click
Next >> and Previous << to move through the displacement or force vectors.
Uniform Loads has three vectors defined. The Node column represents the start node number
where the uniform loads vector was first defined. Because the data propagates throughout the
model until changed or disabled, the model is colored accordingly.

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Wind/Wave
Updates the model to show each wind or wave load in a different color. Use this option to
see the variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been made. A color key
displays the wind or wave loads defined in the model.
The wind and wave load parameters display in a table. Use the scroll bars to view all of the data.
Click Next >> and Previous << to move through the loads.
All the elements with wind defined display in red. All the elements with wave data defined
display in green. The legend grid shows the relevant data.

Compass
Turns the display of the orientation tee on or off.

Node Numbers
Turns the display of node numbers on or off. Alternatively, press N. You can display node
numbers for a specific element such as only restraints or only anchors.

Length
Turns the display of element lengths on or off. Alternatively, press L.

Tees
Turns the display of tees on or off.

Expansion Joints
Turns the display of expansion joints on or off.

Diameters
Updates the model to show each diameter in a different color. Use this option to see the
diameter variations throughout the system or to verify that diameter changes have been made.
Alternatively, press D. A color key displays the diameters defined in the model. You can change
the assigned colors to meet your needs.

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Wall Thickness
Updates the model to show each wall thickness in a different color. Use this option to see the
wall thickness variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been made.
Alternatively, press W. A color key displays the thicknesses defined in the model. You can
change the assigned colors to meet your needs.

Corrosion
Updates the model to show each corrosion allowance in a different color. Use this option to
see the corrosion variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been made. A
color key displays the corrosion allowances defined in the model. You can change the assigned
colors to meet your needs.

Piping Codes
Updates the model to show each piping code in a different color. Use this option to see the
piping code variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been made.

Material
Updates the model to show each material in a different color. Use this option to see the
material variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been made.
Alternatively, press M. A color key displays the materials defined in the model. You can change
the assigned colors to meet your needs.

Pipe Density
Updates the model to show each pipe density in a different color. Use this option to see the
pipe density variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been made. A color
key displays the pipe densities defined in the model. You can change the assigned colors to
meet your needs.

Fluid Density
Updates the model to show each fluid density in a different color. Use this option to see the
fluid density variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been made. A color
key displays the fluid densities defined in the model. You can change the assigned colors to
meet your needs.

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Refractory Thickness
Updates the model to show each refractory thickness in a different color. Use this option to see
the refractory thickness variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been
made. A color key displays the thicknesses defined in the model. You can change the assigned
colors to meet your needs.

Refractory Density
Updates the model to show each refractory density in a different color. Use this option to see the
refractory density variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been made. A
color key displays the refractory densities defined in the model. You can change the assigned
colors to meet your needs.

Insulation Thickness
Updates the model to show each insulation thickness in a different color. Use this option to
see the insulation thickness variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have
been made. Alternatively, press I. A color key displays the thicknesses defined in the model.
You can change the assigned colors to meet your needs.

Insulation Density
Updates the model to show each insulation density in a different color. Use this option to see
the insulation density variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been
made. A color key displays the insulation densities defined in the model. You can change the
assigned colors to meet your needs.

Cladding Thickness
Updates the model to show each cladding thickness in a different color. Use this option to see
the cladding thickness variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been
made. A color key displays the thicknesses defined in the model. You can change the assigned
colors to meet your needs.

Cladding Density
Updates the model to show each cladding density in a different color. Use this option to see the
cladding density variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been made. A
color key displays the cladding densities defined in the model. You can change the assigned
colors to meet your needs.

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Insul/Cladding Unit Wt.


Updates the model to show each insulation or cladding unit weight in a different color. Use this
option to see the variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been made. A
color key displays the insulation or cladding unit weights defined in the model. You can change
the assigned colors to meet your needs.

Temperatures
Displays the temperature parameters that you have defined.

Pressures
Displays the pressure parameters that you have defined.

View Menu
Performs actions associated with viewing the model.

Toolbars
Changes the toolbars. The toolbars can be displayed or hidden by clicking View > Toolbars and
checking or unchecking the toolbar.
You can customize where toolbars display and their locations. Click View > Toolbars, or
right-click the toolbar, and then select Customize. You can also customize toolbars by pressing
Shift and dragging buttons to new positions.
Customize Dialog Box
Controls options for customizing the CAESAR II interface.
Click Reset on the Customize dialog box to undo changes.

Toolbars Tab (Customize Dialog Box)

Commands Tab (Customize Dialog Box)

Options Tab (Customize Dialog Box)

Keyboard Tab (Customize Dialog Box)

Menus Tab (Customize Dialog Box)


The Classic Piping Input and the 3D Model include the following toolbars.
Standard Toolbar (on page 334)
Standard Operators Toolbar (on page 335)
Standard Views Toolbar (on page 336)
Display Options Toolbar (see "Display Options" on page 337)

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Cutting Planes Toolbar (on page 338)


Markups Toolbar (see "Markups" on page 337)
Plot Tools Toolbar (on page 338)
Legends Toolbar (on page 339)
Edit Mode Toolbar (on page 340)
CAESAR II Tools Toolbar (on page 341)
Navigation Tools Toolbar (on page 341)
Reset and Refresh Tools Toolbar (on page 342)
List Operations Toolbar (on page 342)
Input Tools Toolbar (on page 342)
Block Operations Toolbar (on page 344)
Aux Tools Toolbar (on page 344)
Edit Tools Toolbar (on page 346)
Reference CAD Models Toolbar (on page 346)
Wizards Toolbar (on page 347)
Import Model Toolbar (on page 347)
Organization Tools Toolbar (on page 347)
Input Card Toolbar (on page 348)

Standard Toolbar
The Standard toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog box or the
3D Model, contains the following functions.

New - Starts a new piping job. You can also click File > New on the main menu. CAESAR II
opens the New Job Name Specification dialog box.

Open - Opens a different piping input job. You are prompted for the file to open.

Save - Saves the selected piping input job. You are prompted for the file name.

Cut - Removes the selected data from its current location and places a copy on the
Clipboard.

Copy - Creates a copy of the selected data and places it on the Clipboard.

Paste - Places a copy of the Clipboard contents in the specified location

Print - Prints the selected piping input job.

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Standard Operators Toolbar


The Standard Operators toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog
box or the 3D Model, contains the following functions.
When you select an operator, the software keeps it active until you click another operator.
(For example, Move Geometry stays selected until you select Orbit or Pan.)

Zoom to Extents - Fits the entire model in the view.

Zoom to Window - Changes the magnification of the model to fit an area that you specify.
Click one corner of the area and then while holding the mouse button, stretch a box
diagonally to the opposite corner of the area

Zoom to Selection - Fits the selected element in the view.

Orbit - Rotates the model interactively. Rotate the model using the mouse or the arrow keys
on the keyboard. To use the mouse, click the left mouse button on the model to start a
bounding box. Hold the left mouse button and move the mouse to the other end of the
bounding box. Release the mouse button to update the view. If the bounding box is not
visible, check the corresponding box on the User Options tab of the Plot Configuration
dialog box For more information, see 3D Graphics Configuration (on page 363). During
rotation, the model may in centerline mode, or some of the geometry details may disappear
or become distorted. This is to improve the display speed. The actual conversion depends
on the size and complexity of the model. After the rotation is complete, the model returns to
its original state.
Another method of orbiting the model is the Gyro-operator. Press G. The model performs a
360-degree rotation in the plane of view.

Orbit Vertical- Rotates the model on the vertical axis only.

Pan - Pans the model. The cursor changes to a hand. Move the cursor while holding down
the left mouse button. You can also pan the view while another command is active by
holding down the middle mouse button or mouse wheel while moving the mouse.

Zoom - Increases or decreases the magnification of the model. Move the cursor up or down
holding the left mouse button. Release the mouse button to stop the zoom. Alternatively,
press + and - to zoom in and out. You can change the zoom level of the model while in
another command by rotating the mouse wheel.

Walkthrough - Explores the model with a setup similar to a virtual reality application. This
command produces the effect of walking towards the model.

Select Element - Select a single element in the model. Hover over an element in the model
to display information about that element. Press Ctrl when you select to add or remove
elements from the selection.

Select Group - Select a group of elements in the model by dragging a window around
them. You can add elements to the selection by pressing Ctrl while dragging the window.
Remove elements from the selection by pressing Shift while dragging the window.

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Shaded View - Displays the model as shaded 3D shapes. Restraints and other element
information items display.

Hidden Line Wire Frame - Displays the model as a wire frame with hidden lines removed.
Restraints and other element information items display.

Wire Frame - Displays the model as a wire frame. Restraints and other element information
items display.

Silhouette - Displays the model as a silhouette, or a two-line plot. Restraints and other
element information items display.

Translucent Objects - Displays the model as translucent 3D shapes. Restraints and other
element information items display. You can select Translucent Objects with any of the
other display options (Shaded View, Hidden Line Wire Frame, Wire Frame, Silhouette,
Center Line View). Select a different type of operator to deactivate Translucent Objects.

Center Line View - Displays model data in single line mode. This often makes the view
clearer. In this mode, restraints and other element information items display. Display the
volume or double line plot by clicking the corresponding button. Press V to switch among
the views in the following order: Shaded View (rendered mode) / Two Line Mode / Center
Line View.

Standard Views Toolbar


The Standard Views toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog box
or the 3D Model, contains the following functions.

Front - Displays the model from the front. Alternatively, press Z.

Back - Displays the model from the back. Alternatively, press Shift + Z.

Top - Displays the model from the top. Alternatively, press Y.

Bottom - Displays the model from the bottom. Alternatively, press Shift + Y.

Left - Displays the model from the left. Alternatively, press X.

Right - Displays the model from the right. Alternatively, press Shift + X.

Southeast ISO View - Displays the model isometrically from the southeast. Alternatively,
press F10.

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Display Options
The Display Options toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog box
or the 3D Model, contains the following functions.

Plot Properties - Opens the Plot Settings dialog where you can adjust properties for the
current model.

Perspective - Displays the model in perspective mode.

Orthographic - Displays the model in orthographic mode.

Markups
The Markups toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog box or the
3D Model, contains the following functions.

Freehand Markup - Draws a line in the model. Click and drag the mouse to draw the line.

Rectangle Markup - Draws a rectangle in the model. Click and drag the mouse to draw the
rectangle.

Circle Markup - Draws a circle in the model. Click and drag the mouse to draw the circle.

Annotate - Adds a brief description to the model. The annotation may be especially useful
in the output processor. The annotation text box is a single line. Annotation is printed and
saved to the bitmap. Annotation is not saved to HTML.

Annotate w/Leader - Adds a brief description to the model. This annotation includes a
leader line. Drag the annotation box to extend the leader. The annotation text box is a single
line. The annotation with a leader stays with the model when you zoom, pan, rotate, or use
any of the highlight options. Annotation is printed and saved to the bitmap. Annotation is not
saved to HTML.

The markup annotation text box is a single line. The color and the font face/size cannot be
changed. The default color is red.
Markup annotations are saved to the .TIF file and spooled to the printer.
The geometry and the text of the markup annotations are temporary. They are not saved
with the model. These graphics and disappear from view with any change such as zoom,
rotate, pan, or reset all.
The color, font face, and size of the annotation text can be changed by clicking Tools >
Configure/Setup on the main menu. For more information, see 3D Graphics Configuration
(on page 363).
When you select an operator, the software keeps it active until you click another operator.
(For example, Freehand Markup stays selected until you select Orbit or Pan.)

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Cutting Planes Toolbar


The Cutting Planes toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog box or
the 3D Model, contains the following functions.

3D Cutting Plane - Defines the cutting plane for the model. This option is useful when
trying to emphasize a specific element. In many cases, the elements or node numbers are
not defined consecutively. Because of this, it may be easier to cut a portion of the model at
a certain location to see more details.
When the cutting plane displays, use the handles to move and or rotate the planes. If cutting
the plane's handles are not visible, or the display goes blank, use the Zoom command to
expand the view. To disable the cutting plane, select the command again.
This command can be used along any of the three axes.

Plot Tools Toolbar


The Plot Tools toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog box or the
3D Model, contains the following functions.

Restraints - Turns the display of restraints on or off on the current model. For more
information, see Restraints.

Anchors - Turns the display of anchors on or off on the current model. For more
information, see Anchors (on page 328).

Hangers - Turns the display of hangers on or off on the current model. For more
information, see Hangers (on page 329).

Displacements - Turns the display of displacements on or off on the current model.

Nozzles - Turns the display of nozzle flexibility on or off on the current model.

Flanges - Turns the display of flanges on or off on the current model.

Nozzle Limits - Turns nozzle checking on or off on the current model. You can also specify
the size the nozzle limit that displays on the model by clicking the arrow on the icon and
choosing a size.

Expansion Joints & Rigids - Turns the display of expansion joints or rigid elements on or
off on the current model.

Tees - Turns the display of Tees on or off on the current model.

Compass - Turns the display of the orientation compass on or off on the current model. The
compass indicates the X, Y and Z axis direction of the model.

Node Numbers - Turns the display of node numbers on or off. Alternatively, press N. You
can display node numbers for a specific element such as only restraints or only anchors.

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Lengths - Turns the display of element lengths on or off on the model. Alternatively, press
L.

Range - Displays only the elements that contain nodes within a range. This is helpful when
you need to locate specific nodes or a group of related elements in a large model. This
command displays the Range dialog box. Alternatively, press U. For more information, see
Range (on page 328).

Find Node - Displays a specific element in the view. This command displays a dialog box
that allows you to specify the From and To nodes for which you want to search. You can
enter the node numbers in either of the two fields, or in both. If you entering only the From
node number, the software searches for the first available element that starts with that node
number. If you enter only the To node number, the software searches for an element ending
with that node number. When the software locates the element it highlights the element and
fits it in the view. You can zoom out to better identify the location of the highlighted element
within the model.

Legends Toolbar
The Legends toolbar lets you quickly view legends for areas of the model input. You can access
this toolbar from the Classic Piping Input dialog box or the 3D Model. This toolbar contains the
following functions.

Materials- Opens the Materials legend, where you can make changes to the color display
settings for materials on the model.

Piping Codes - Opens the Piping Codes legend, where you can view and make changes to
the color display settings for piping codes on the model.

Insulation - Opens the Insulation legend, where you can view and make changes to the
color display settings for insulation on the model.

Diameter - Opens the Pipe Diameters legend, where you can view pipe diameter
dimensions and make changes to the color display settings for pipes on the model.

Wall Thickness - Opens the Wall Thickness legend, where you can view wall thickness
dimensions and make changes to the color display settings for wall thicknesses on the
model.

Forces - Opens the Forces/Moments legend, where you can view the forces and moments
applied to each node and make changes to the color display settings for forces and
moments on the model. Click the arrow buttons at the top of the legend to scroll through the
various forces and moments.

Uniform Loads - Opens the Uniform Loads legend, where you can view the uniform loads
applied to each node and make changes to the color display settings for uniform loads on
the model. Click the arrow buttons at the top of the legend to scroll through the various
uniform loads.

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Wind/Wave - Opens the Wind/Wave Loads legend, where you can view the the wind or
wave loads applied to each node and make changes to the color display settings for loads
on the model. Click the arrow buttons at the top of the legend to scroll through the various
wind or wave loads.

Show Temps- Opens the Temperatures legend, where you can view the temperatures of
model elements and make changes to the color display settings for temperatures.

Show Pressures- Opens the Pressures legend, where you can view the pressures on
model elements and make changes to the color display settings for pressures.

Corrosion - Opens the Corrosion legend, where you can view the elements that have
corrosion specified and make changes to the color display settings for showing corrosion.

Pipe Density- Opens the Pipe Density legend, where you can view the elements with pipe
density specified and make changes to the color display settings for showing pipe density.

Fluid Density- Opens the Fluid Density legend, where you can view the elements with fluid
density specified and make changes to the color display settings for showing fluid density.

Insulation Density- Opens the Insulation Density legend, where you can view the elements
with insulation density specified and make changes to the color display settings for showing
insulation density.

Edit Mode Toolbar


The Edit Mode toolbar lets you move selected elements on the model. You can access this
toolbar from the Classic Piping Input dialog box or the 3D Model. This toolbar contains the
following functions.

Move Geometry - Moves selected elements to a new location in the model.

Move Geometry (X-Axis) - Moves selected elements along the x-axis on the model.

Move Geometry {Y-Axis) - Moves selected elements along the y -axis on the model.

Move Geometry (Z-Axis) - Moves selected elements along the z-axis on the model.

For more information, see Moving Elements (on page 375).

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CAESAR II Tools Toolbar


The CAESAR II Tools toolbar contains common functions to the CAESAR II software. You can
access this toolbar from the Classic Piping Input dialog box or the 3D Model. This toolbar
contains the following functions.

CAESAR II Configuration - Contains instructions specifying how CAESAR II operates on a


particular computer and how it performs a particular analysis. Each time that you open the
software, it searches for this configuration file in the current data directory and uses it to
perform the analysis. For more information, see Configuration and Environment (on page
45).

Start/Run (Error Checker) - Sends the model through interactive error checking. This is the
first step of analysis. When the error check is complete, the Errors and Warnings dialog
box displays the results. For more information, see Error Checking (on page 513).

Batch Run - Error checks the model in a non-interactive way. This process halts only for
fatal errors. It uses the existing or default static load cases and performs the static analysis.

Edit Static Load Cases - Displays the Static Analysis dialog box. For more information on
static analysis, see Static Load Case Editor (on page 515).

View Static Results - Provides an interactive review of static analysis results for the open
job. The Static Output Processor window automatically displays upon completion of a
static analysis. For more information, see Static Output Processor (on page 567).

Dynamic Analysis - Performs dynamic analysis on a piping model. The command is also
available from Analysis > Dynamics. For more information, see Dynamic Analysis
Workflow (on page 622).

Navigation Tools Toolbar


The Navigation Tools toolbar contains functions that help you move about the Classic Piping
Input dialog box or the 3D Model. This toolbar contains the following functions.

First Element - Skips to the first element.

Previous Element - Skips to the previous element.

Next Element - Skips to the next element.

Last Element - Skips to the last element.

Continue - Moves the dialog box to the next element in the model. The software adds a
new element if there is no next element.

Duplicate Element - Copies the selected element either before or after the current element.

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Reset and Refresh Tools Toolbar


The Reset and Refresh Tools toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input
dialog box, the 3D Model, and the Structural Modeler, contains the following functions.

Reset Plot - Resets the view to the default settings.


Reset Plot is not available on the Structural Modeler.

Reset View - Controls the way graphics behave when you add or modify elements. When
this option is turned on, CAESAR II resets the plot to the default view each time you refresh.

Lock Graphics - Locks the 3D model so you cannot make any graphics updates. When the
graphic is locked, the icon displays highlighted in the toolbar. Click Lock Graphics again to
unlock the model for updating.
Lock Graphics is not available on the Structural Modeler.

List Operations Toolbar


The List Operations toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog box
or the 3D Model, contains the following functions.

List Input - Displays the model in a spreadsheet view at the bottom of the Classic Piping
Input dialog box. From this view, you can quickly review and enter input data. Additionally,
you can rotate the 3D model along the various axises and duplicate input values from the
List Input view.

Input Tools Toolbar


The Input Toolbars toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog box or
the 3D Model, contains the following functions.

Archive - Assigns a password to the job to prevent inadvertent alteration of the model or to
type the password to unlock the file. Archived input files cannot be altered or saved without
this password; however, they can be opened and reviewed. For more information, see
Archive Dialog Box.

Insert - Inserts an element. For more information, see Insert Element Dialog Box.

Delete - Deletes the current element.

Break - Divides an element into two or more individual elements. For more information, see
Break (on page 235).

Global Coordinates - Specifies the absolute (global) coordinates for the start node of each
discontiguous system segment. For more information, see Global (on page 229).

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Close Loop - Closes a loop by filling in the delta coordinates between two nodes in the
model.

Increment Node - Specifies the increment between nodes. CAESAR II uses the nodal
increment set in Configure/Setup when generating the From and To nodes for new
elements. You can override this behavior by typing a different value in this dialog box. For
more information, see Auto Node Number Increment (on page 65).

Distance - Finds the distance between two specified nodes or between any two points you
select on the model.

Valve Flange Database - Provides access to the valve and flange databases. This
command displays the Valve and Flange Database: <database name> dialog box. For
more information, see Valve (on page 238).

Expansion Joint Modeler - Displays the Expansion Joint Database <data file> and
Expansion Joint Modeler dialog boxes. For more information, see Expansion Joint (on
page 243).

Title - Displays the title page of the current job. This is up to 60 lines of text that is stored
with the problem, and may be used for detailing run histories, discussing assumptions, and
so on. These lines may be printed with the output report through the input echo.

Hanger Design Criteria - Displays system-wide hanger design criteria. For more
information, see Hanger Design Control Data (on page 253).

Intersection SIF Scratchpad - Opens a scratchpad for calculating stress intensification


factors (SIFs) for various intersection configurations under different codes. For more
information, see Intersection Stress Intensification Factors (on page 782).

Bend SIF Scratchpad - Opens a scratchpad for calculating stress intensification factors
(SIFs) for various bend configurations under different codes. You can access this
scratchpad by selecting Analysis > SIFs @ Bends or through the Bend SIF Scratchpad
option on the Classic Piping input or on the 3D model.

Special Execution Options - Displays the Special Execution Parameters dialog box.
Click Environment > Special Execution Parameters. These parameters remain set for
that particular job.

Undo - Reverses or cancels any modeling steps. This can also be accomplished by
pressing Ctrl-Z. You can undo an unlimited number of steps. Undo is limited only by the
amount of available memory.

Redo - Repeats the last step done You can redo an unlimited number of steps. Redo is
limited by the amount of available memory.

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Block Operations Toolbar


The Block Operations toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog box
or the 3D Model, contains the following functions. For more information, see Performing Block
Operations (on page 371).

Rotate- Rotates elements defined in the block. For more information, see Rotate (on page
321).

Duplicate- Duplicates elements in a block. For more information, see Duplicate (on page
321).

Delete - Deletes the selected block of elements.

Renumber - Rearrange the node numbers in the block. For more information, see
Renumber (on page 323).

Invert- Assigns new From Node and To Node values to the selected block of elements. The
Invert command reverses the order of the elements in the selected group as well as the
node numbering while preserving the geometry of the input model.
Contiguous segments (sets of elements) may be selected in either the Elements
dialog box, the 3D Graphics pane, or the Line Numbers dialog box.
For more information, see Invert (on page 325).

Change Sequence - Changes or rearranges the sequence (order) of elements while


preserving the geometry. For more information, see Change Sequence (on page 327).

Aux Tools Toolbar


The Aux Tools toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog box or the
3D Model, contains auxiliary data functions most often used in piping input. Use this toolbar to
quickly access the Auxiliary Data dialog box found in the piping input. This toolbar includes the
following functions.

Bend - Puts a bend at the To node of every element that you have selected on
the model. Select an element(s) on the model and click Bend to view the Bends
tab on the Auxiliary Data dialog box of the current piping input job. Click the
down arrow to change the icon function to delete all bends or toggle between the
select and delete functions.

Rigids - Replaces the element(s) that you selected with a rigid. Select an
element(s) on the model and click Rigids to view the Rigids tab on the Auxiliary
Data dialog box of the current piping input job. Click the down arrow to change
the icon function to delete all rigid elements or toggle between the select and
delete functions.

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Expansion Joint - Replaces the currently selected element with an expansion


joint. Select an element(s) on the model and click Expansion Joint to view the
Expansion Joints tab on the Auxiliary Data dialog box of the current piping input
job. Click the down arrow to change the icon function to delete all expansion joints
or toggle between the select and delete functions.

Reducer - Select an element(s) on the model and click Reducer to view the
Reducers tab on the Auxiliary Data dialog box of the current piping input job.
Click the down arrow to change the icon function to delete all reducers or toggle
between the select and delete functions.

SIFs/Tees - Inserts a SIF or Tee at the end of the selected elements on the
model.

Restraints - Adds a restraint to each of the selected elements on the model.

Hangers - Adds a hanger to each of the selected elements on the model. Click
the down arrow to change the icon function to delete all hangers or toggle
between the select and delete functions.

Nozzles - Adds a nozzle to each of the selected elements on the model.

Displacements - Adds a displacement at each of the selected elements on the


model.

Forces/Moments - Adds a forces and moments at each of the selected elements


on the model.

Wind/Wave - Adds wind or wave details to each of the selected elements on the
model.

Uniform Loads - Adds a uniform load to each of the selected elements on the
model.

Allowables - Adds an allowable stress at each of the selected elements on the


model.

Node Names - Adds a node name to each of the selected elements on the
model.

Offsets - Adds an offset to each of the selected elements on the model.

Flange - Adds a flange to either end or both ends of the selected elements on the
model. Click the down arrow to change the icon function to delete all flanges or
toggle between the select and delete functions.

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Edit Tools Toolbar


The Edit Tools toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog box or the
3D Model, contains icons that let you access the most commonly used editing windows in piping
input. This toolbar includes the following functions.

Node Number Edit Window- Displays the Edit Node Numbers dialog box. For more
information, see Node Numbers (on page 101).

Mini-Delta Box - Displays the Edit Deltas dialog box. For more information, see Deltas
(on page 103).

Mini-Pipe Size Box - Displays the Edit Pipe Sizes dialog box. For more information, see
Pipe Sizes (on page 106).

Mini-Temps and Pressures Box - Displays the Edit Operating Conditions dialog box.
For more information, see Temperatures (on page 111).

Mini-Material Box - Displays the Edit Materials dialog box. For more information, see
Materials (on page 192).

Mini-Elastic Properties Box - Displays the Edit Elastic Properties dialog box. For more
information, see Material Elastic Properties (on page 216).

Mini-Densities Box - Displays the Edit Densities dialog box. For more information, see
Densities (on page 218).

Mini-Aux Screens Box - Displays the Auxiliary Data dialog box. For more information,
see Auxiliary Element Data (on page 1048).

Reference CAD Models Toolbar


The Reference CAD Models toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input
dialog box or the 3D Model, contains icons that let you import CAD-based models into the piping
input. This toolbar includes the following functions.

CADWorx Model - Opens a CADWorx model for use with this model. If you have already
opened a CADWorx model, click the down arrow on the icon to select Load CWx Model.
For more information, see Open CADWorx Model (on page 223).

S3D/SPR Model - Opens the Load S3D/SPR Model (see "Load S3D/SPR Dialog Box"
on page 380) dialog box. If you have already opened a S3D or SPR model, click the down
arrow on the icon to select other options, including the Show/Hide S3D/SPR Model, Dim
S3D/SPR Model, S3D/SPR Visibility Options. These options only display when you have
a S3D/SPR model already open. For more information, see S3D/SPR Import View (see
"S3D/SPR Model View" on page 379) and S3D/SPR Visibility Options (on page 384).

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Wizards Toolbar
The Wizards toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog box or the 3D
Model, contains icons that let you access the most commonly used wizards in piping input. This
toolbar includes the following functions.

Static Seismic Wizard - Opens the Seismic Wizard, which selects a


particular Seismic Code and its associated data. For more information,
see Seismic Wizard (on page 259).

Optimization Wizard - Opens the Optimization Wizard, which assists


with expansion loop design. For more information, see Optimization
Wizard (on page 267).

Import Model Toolbar


The Import Model toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog box or
the 3D Model, contains functions that let you access various import dialog boxes used in piping
input. This toolbar includes the following functions.

Include Piping Files - Opens the Include Piping Files dialog box, which lets you include
other piping models into the current piping model. For more information, see Include Piping
Input Files (on page 291).

Include Structural Files - Opens the Include Structural Files dialog box, , which lets you
include structural models into the current job. For more information, see Including
Structural Input Files (on page 291).

APCF - Opens the Advanced PCF Import (APCF) dialog box, which provides an
interactive, customizable way to import Piping Component Files (PCFs) into the CAESAR II
piping environment. For more information, see Advanced PCF Import (APCF) (on page
292).

Organization Tools Toolbar


The Organization Tools toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog
box or the 3D Model, contains functions let you organize or move the elements on a model. This
toolbar includes the following functions.

Move Geometry - Selects or moves nodes or node groups on the model.

Move Geometry (X-Axis) - Restricts mouse movement on the model to the X axis.

Move Geometry (Y-Axis) - Restricts mouse movement on the model to the Y axis.

Move Geometry (Z-Axis) - Restricts mouse movement on the model to the Z axis.

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Input Card Toolbar


The Input Card toolbar, which you can access from the Structural Modeler, contains the
following functions.

Copy the selected card - Copies the selected card from current card stack.

Paste the previously copied card - Pastes the card you previously copied into the card
stack.

Delete selected card - Deletes the selected card from the current card stack.

Limiting the Display


Sometimes it is necessary to limit the amount of information displayed on the screen. This may
be useful when the model is large, or if it has many similar looking branches.

Find - Displays a specific element in the view. This command displays a dialog box
that allows you to specify the From and To nodes for which you want to search. You
can enter the node numbers in either of the two fields, or in both. If you entering only
the From node number, the software searches for the first available element that
starts with that node number. If you enter only the To node number, the software
searches for an element ending with that node number. When the software locates
the element it highlights the element and fits it in the view. You can zoom out to better
identify the location of the highlighted element within the model.

3D Cutting Plane - Defines the cutting plane for the model. This option is useful when
trying to emphasize a specific element. In many cases, the elements or node numbers
are not defined consecutively. Because of this, it may be easier to cut a portion of the
model at a certain location to see more details.
When the cutting plane displays, use the handles to move and or rotate the planes. If
cutting the plane's handles are not visible, or the display goes blank, use the Zoom
command to expand the view. To disable the cutting plane, select the command
again.
This command can be used along any of the three axes.

Range - Displays only the elements that contain nodes within a range. This is helpful
when you need to locate specific nodes or a group of related elements in a large
model. This command displays the Range dialog box. Alternatively, press U.
For more information, see Range (on page 328).

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Line Numbers - Displays the Line Numbers pane which allows graphical editing of
line numbers. You can do the following from this pane.
Assign a new line number to the block of elements that have been selected on the
3D graphical display.
Remove an existing line number.
Set and reset visibility options to hide and unhide elements.
Assign a color to an individual line number.
To reassign one or more elements from one line number to another existing line
number, simply drag-and-drop (move) the elements between existing Line Numbers in
the Line Numbers pane.
When you click the Line Number name in the Line Number pane, the
corresponding elements are highlighted in the 3D pane and are selected to perform
Block operations.

Reset
Resets the view to the default settings.

Toggle Graphics Update


Turns graphics updating on or off.

Front View
Displays the model from the front. Alternatively, press Z.

Back View
Displays the model from the back. Alternatively, press Shift + Z.

Top View
Displays the model from the top. Alternatively, press Y.

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Bottom View
Displays the model from the bottom. Alternatively, press Shift + Y.

Left-side View
Displays the model from the left side. Alternatively, press X.

Right-side View
Displays the model from the right side. Alternatively, press Shift + R.

Southeast ISO View


Displays the model isometrically from the southeast. Alternatively, press F10.

Southwest ISO View


Displays the model isometrically from the southwest.

Northeast ISO View


Displays the model isometrically from the northeast.

Northwest ISO View


Displays the model isometrically from the northwest.

4 View
Displays the model in four windows.
This command automatically places the horizontal and vertical dividers, or splitter bars, and
changes the cursor to a four-way arrow. You can change the position of the splitter bars by
moving the mouse. Click to fix the position.
Drag the splitter bars to change the size of the windows. Drag the splitter bars out of the view to
remove those views. You can drag the splitter located at the top or left scroll bar to add views.
You can manipulate the image in any of these panes individually.

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Review Error Report


Displays the Errors and Warnings dialog box. This option is only available if you have run the
File > Error Check command. For more information, see Error Check (on page 225).

Review Static Results


Displays the results of the static load analysis. This option is only available if you have run
the Edit > Edit Static Load Cases command. For more information, see Edit Static Load
Cases.

Tools Menu
Performs actions associated with toolbars, mini-windows, and importing and exporting
displacements.

Reset Toolbar Layout


Sets toolbars to the default layout.

Mini-windows
Displays a list of mini-windows that you can display. Mini-windows provide a quick way to
provide specific types of data.

Node Numbers - Displays the Edit Node Numbers dialog box.

Edit Deltas - Displays the Edit Deltas dialog box.

Pipe Sizes - Displays the Edit Pipe Sizes dialog box.

Temps & Pressures - Displays the Edit Operating Conditions dialog box.

Materials - Displays the Edit Materials dialog box.

Elastic Properties - Displays the Edit Elastic Properties dialog box.

Densities - Displays the Edit Densities dialog box.

Auxiliary Data - Displays the Auxiliary Data dialog box.


Classic Input - Displays the Classic Piping Input dialog box.

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Import/Export Displacements from File


Imports or exports nodal displacements from a file.
CAESAR II Versions 5.10 and later enables you to import and export displacements to and from
a text file. This feature is very useful in situations where you need to define several
displacements in a CAESAR II model. You can import the displacements into a CAESAR II
model with a few mouse clicks instead of manually typing all the displacements in the Classic
Piping Input. A displacements file in the specified format must exist.
This feature works only on From and To nodes using a fixed file (.disp) format for
versions 5.10 and 5.20.
In CAESAR II Version 2014 (7.0) , this feature works on the From and To nodes, CNodes, and
Bend middle nodes in either the fixed file format (.disp), or the comma separated value (.csv)
format. You can easily generate and maintain a displacement file in .csv format using Microsoft
Excel.

Import/Export Displacements Dialog Box


Controls parameters for importing and exporting nodal displacements.
Export Displacements To a File - Specifies the file name for the export. Type the full path to
the file, or use the browse button to browse to the file.
Export - Exports the nodal displacements to the specified file.
Import Displacements From a File - Specifies the file name for the import. Type the full path to
the file, or use the browse button to browse to the file.
Import - Imports the specified nodal displacement file.

Displacement File Formats


A displacement file is a flat text file in (versions 5.10 and 5.20), which can be created and edited
by any text editor such as Notepad.
In CAESAR II Version 2014 (7.0) a displacement file can be in either fixed format .disp or
comma separated value format .csv.
For both formats, use * to indicate a comment line in the displacement file. You can type
anything on the line following the *.
Displacement files can have as many comment lines as necessary.
The comment line is not counted in line numbering in the file format descriptions.

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Fixed Format
A fixed format displacement file has the .disp extension and this format:
1. The first line has only one the conversion factor value, which is used to divide the
translational displacements (DX, DY, and DZ) to convert them to the internal unit of inches.
2. The second line is either Y axis up or Z axis up to indicate the CAESAR II Coordinate
System that the following displacement data corresponds to.
3. All the remaining lines are displacement data lines:
a. Each line must have 58 values: Node X, Y, Z and 54 displacements for the nodes (6
degrees of freedom times 9 vectors is 54).
b. The first value is a node number.
c. The following three values, the three coordinates of a node, are ignored.
d. The final 54 values are displacements of the node, in the order: DX1, DY1, DZ1, RX1,
RY1, RZ1... DX9, DY9, DZ9, RX9, RY9, RZ9.
e. The first character space is reserved for the comment "*", each of the 58 values must be
12 characters long so the total length of a displacement data line should be 697
(1+58x12) characters long.
f. The position of each of the 54 displacement values is used to determine its location in a
CAESAR II model. For example, values at position 5, 8, 55 and 58 correspond to DX1,
and RX1, DZ9, and RZ9 of the node in the model.
g. A value must occupy a 12 character field. When a value has fewer than 12 characters,
you must pad either to the left or right of the blanks to make it 12 characters in length. If
there is no displacement value, a 12 character blank field must be reserved for it.
When creating the blank space use the Space Bar. Do not use the Tab key.

Comma Separated Value Format


A comma separated value format displacement file has the .csv extension and follows this
format:
1. The first line has only the conversion factor value, which is used to divide the translational
displacements (DX, DY, and DZ) to convert them to the internal unit of inches.
2. The second line is either Y axis up or Z axis up to indicate the CAESAR II Coordinate
System that the following displacement data corresponds to.
3. All the remaining lines are displacement data lines:
a. Each line could have 58 values: Nodes X, Y, Z and the 54 displacements for the node (6
degrees-of-freedom times 9 vectors is 54).
b. The first value is a node number, which is required.
c. The following three values, the three coordinates of the node, are ignored.
d. The final 54 values are displacements of the node, in the order: DX1, DY1, DZ1, RX1,
RY1, RZ1... DX9, DY9, DZ9, RX9, RY9, RZ9. They are optional. You can specify all 54
values, or not a single value, or any number of values in between.

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e. Values are separated by commas. The length of a displacement data line is not fixed.
f. Because each value is followed by a comma, a comma counter is used to determine the
placement of the value in a CAESAR II model. For example, values at positions 5, 8, 55
and 58 correspond to DX1, and RX1, DZ9, and RZ9 of the node in the model,
respectively.
g. A value can be any number of characters in length. When there is no displacement
value, you can use a zero length or blank field. For example, if a comma is followed by a
comma, or if a comma is followed by blank spaces and then a comma, it means that its
corresponding location in a CAESAR II model has no displacement value.
Generally, the csv format is recommended for a displacement file because it is relatively easy to
generate and maintain in Microsoft Excel. The fixed format of a displacement file is more
difficult to maintain.
A displacement file from version 5.10 or 5.20 cannot be used directly in CAESAR II
Version 2014 (7.0) because the formats are different.

Warning Messages
There are three kinds of warning messages:
1. Node xxx is not in the model - Indicates that a node in the displacement file does not exist in
the CAESAR II model.
2. Node xxx could not find an empty location - Indicates that a node in the displacement file
exists in the CAESAR II model but that the software thinks that all displacement slots in the
model have already been occupied by other nodes. In this case, it is still possible for you to
input displacements for the node through the CAESAR II Classic Piping Input dialog box.
3. Node xxx does not have displacements - Indicates that a node in the displacement file does
not have a displacement value.
where xxx denotes a node number such as 100.
Generally, when a warning message is issued it indicates that an error exists either in the
displacement file or in the corresponding CAESAR II model. Carefully examine the offending
node in the displacement file or in the corresponding model and correct the error.

Summary Report
The Import and Export Summary reports are generated in the import and export operations.
The reports provide information about the nodes in a displacement file just imported into a
CAESAR II Import model:
1. The number of displacement nodes existing in the model before import.
2. The number of displacement nodes existing in the model after import.
3. The number of displacement nodes that have been read in.
4. The number of displacement nodes that are not in the model.
5. The number of displacement nodes that cannot find empty locations in the model.

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6. The number of displacement nodes that do not have displacements.


7. The number of displacement nodes that have stored displacements in the model.
8. The number of displacement nodes that are replacing values in the model.
9. The number of displacement nodes that are new in the model.
Similar in operation to the warning messages, the summary report can help you identify potential
problems in a displacement file. However, you should remember the following points:
1. Because every displacement data line in a displacement file has a node number, the total
number of nodes processed is equal to the total number of displacement data lines in the
file.
2. Each displacement data line should have a unique node number. However, if the same
node number appears in many data lines, it would be counted many times. In this case, the
displacement values in the last data line are used in the model, overwriting the previous
values.
3. If no node number appears in a displacement data line, CAESAR II indicates the
corresponding data line number and stops the import process.
4. If there is a node in a displacement file that is not in the model, or cannot find a slot in the
model, or does not have a displacement, the displacement file or the model should be
checked carefully to understand the reasons behind it.
5. If a displacement node exists both in the model and the displacement file, the displacement
values from the file are used to overwrite the ones in the model, and this node is counted as
a replacement node.
6. The number of displacement nodes existing in the model after import should be equal to the
number of displacement nodes existing in the model before import, plus the number of new
displacement nodes.
7. The number of displacement nodes that have stored displacements in the model should be
equal to the number of replacement nodes, plus the number of new displacement nodes.

Exporting Displacements to a File


1. Click Tools > Import/Export Displacements from File.
The Import/Export Displacements dialog box displays.
2. Type the path and name of a displacement file in the Export Displacements To a File box,
or click ... to browse to the file.
3. Click Export to send the nodal displacements to the selected file.
4. Click Done to exit the Import/Export Displacements dialog.
If there are no displacements in a CAESAR II job, an export operation creates a
displacement template file in which all nodes are listed according to the element list.

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Importing Displacements from a File


1. Click Tools > Import/Export Displacements from File.
The Import/Export Displacements dialog box displays.
2. Type the path and name of the displacement file in the Import Displacements From a File
box, or click ... to browse to the file.
The Open dialog box displays.

Two file formats can be used to create a displacement file:


Fixed format with a .disp file extension.
Commas Separated Value format with a .csv file extension.
By default, displacement files display in comma separated values format(.csv).

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You can also choose displacement files with the fixed format (.disp) by clicking
Displacement Import File (*.dsp) from the Files of type list.

3. Select the displacement file.


4. Click Open.
5. Click Import.

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During the import process, if an erroneous condition is detected for a displacement node a
warning message displays. A summary report is generated after all displacement data is
processed.

For more details about warning messages and the summary report, see Imposed Loads.
6. After reviewing warning messages and a summary report, click Done.
The first two figures show displacement files Notepad for disp and csv formats. The third
and fourth figures show displacement files in Microsoft Excel.
For a detailed description of both file formats, see Displacement File Formats (on page 352).

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Notepad Example (*.disp) format

Notepad Example (*.csv) format

Excel Example (*.csv) format


If a CAESAR II job has no displacements the displacement export operation creates a
displacement template file as shown below.

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Excel Example (*.csv) format Displacement File Template

3D Modeler
When you start CAESAR II and start the piping input processor, the software automatically
displays a graphic representation of the model to the right of the Classic Piping Input dialog
box. To increase the window space available for graphics you can hide the Classic Piping
Input dialog box by clicking . The initial view for a job that has never been plotted displays
according to the configuration defaults. These defaults include:
A rendered view - restraints shown
XYZ compass - isometric view
Tees and nozzles highlighted - orthographic projection
The plotting begins by displaying the model in centerline/single line mode to speed up the
process. Then all the elements are rendered one-by-one. Later, the restraints and other relevant
items are added.
The model is fully operational while it is being drawn. You can apply any available option
to the model at any time. The status bar at the bottom displays the drawing progress in the form

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of Drawing element X of Y. When the plot operation is complete the status message changes
to Ready.

When you hover the cursor over a button, the name of the button and a short description of the
functionality displays in the status bar at the bottom of the view window.
There are several methods of accomplishing nearly every command in the Input Plot utility. You
can access commands by clicking buttons, by selecting menu items, or by using hot keys.

Center Line View - Displays model data in single line mode. This often makes the view
clearer. In this mode, restraints and other element information items display. Display the
volume or double line plot by clicking the corresponding button. Press V to switch among
the views in the following order: Shaded View (rendered mode) / Two Line Mode / Center
Line View.

Shaded View - Displays the model as shaded 3D shapes. Restraints and other element
information items display.

Silhouette - Displays the model as a silhouette. Restraints and other element information
items display.

Hidden Line Wire Frame - Displays the model as a wire frame with hidden lines removed.
Restraints and other element information items display.

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Wire Frame - Displays the model as a wire frame. Restraints and other element
information items display.

Translucent - Displays the model as translucent 3D shapes. Restraints and other element
information items display.

Front - Displays the model from the front. Alternatively, press Z.

Back - Displays the model from the back. Alternatively, press Shift + Z.

Top - Displays the model from the top. Alternatively, press Y.

Bottom - Displays the model from the bottom. Alternatively, press Shift + Y.

Left - Displays the model from the left. Alternatively, press X.

Right - Displays the model from the right. Alternatively, press Shift + X.

Southeast ISO View - Displays the model isometrically from the southeast. Alternatively,
press F10.

Node Numbers - Turns the display of node numbers on or off. Alternatively, press N. You
can display node numbers for a specific element such as only restraints or only anchors.

Length - Turns the display of element lengths on or off. Alternatively, press L.

Select Element - Select a single element in the model. Hover over an element in the
model to display information about that element. Press Ctrl when you select to add or
remove elements from the selection.

Select Group - Select a group of elements in the model by dragging a window around
them. You can add elements to the selection by pressing Ctrl while dragging the window.
Remove elements from the selection by pressing Shift while dragging the window.

Perspective - Displays the model in perspective mode.

Orthographic - Displays the model in orthographic mode.

You can turn off the display of nodes, restraints, hangers, and anchors for a clearer view.
The size of boundary condition symbols (such as restraints, anchors, and hangers) is relative to
the pipe size outer diameter. You can change the size of these symbols clicking the black arrow
to the right of the relevant button and selecting a size from the list.
You can adjust the color of the node numbers, lengths, elements, boundary conditions, and so
on by clicking Change Display Options . For more information, see 3D Graphics
Configuration (on page 363).

Reset - Returns the model returns to its default state as defined by the configuration. Any
elements hidden by the Range command are restored.

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Zoom - Increases or decreases the magnification of the model. Move the cursor up or
down holding the left mouse button. Release the mouse button to stop the zoom.
Alternatively, press + and - to zoom in and out. You can change the zoom level of the
model while in another command by rotating the mouse wheel.

Zoom to Window - Changes the magnification of the model to fit an area that you
specify. Click one corner of the area and then while holding the mouse button, stretch a
box diagonally to the opposite corner of the area

Zoom to Selection - Fits the selected element in the view.

Zoom to Extents - Fits the entire model in the view.

Orbit - Rotates the model interactively. Rotate the model using the mouse or the arrow
keys on the keyboard. To use the mouse, click the left mouse button on the model to start
a bounding box. Hold the left mouse button and move the mouse to the other end of the
bounding box. Release the mouse button to update the view. If the bounding box is not
visible, check the corresponding box on the User Options tab of the Plot Configuration
dialog box For more information, see 3D Graphics Configuration (on page 363). During
rotation, the model may in centerline mode, or some of the geometry details may
disappear or become distorted. This is to improve the display speed. The actual
conversion depends on the size and complexity of the model. After the rotation is
complete, the model returns to its original state.
Another method of orbiting the model is the Gyro-operator. Press G. The model performs
a 360-degree rotation in the plane of view.

Pan - Pans the model. The cursor changes to a hand. Move the cursor while holding
down the left mouse button. You can also pan the view while another command is active
by holding down the middle mouse button or mouse wheel while moving the mouse.

Walk Through - Explores the model with a setup similar to a virtual reality application.
This command produces the effect of walking towards the model

Load CADWorx Model - Displays the model in CADWorx.

3D Graphics Configuration
The CAESAR II 3D Graphics engine remembers the state of the model between sessions.
When you exit and return, the model displays in the same state in which it was last viewed.
To obtain a more uniform look for the graphics, change the color and font options:
1. Click Tools > Configure/Setup on the main menu to display the CAESAR II Configuration
Editor dialog box.
2. Open the Graphics Settings category.
3. Set the Always Use System Fonts and Always Use System Colors options to True under
the Visual Options section.

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These settings are stored in the computer's registry and CAESAR II always displays the
graphics according to these settings.

If the settings are set to False, then the state of each model is maintained individually as an
XML data file (job- name.XML) in the current data folder. After starting another input session,
CAESAR II reads this XML file and restores the 3D graphics to its previous state. This includes
the rotation and zoom level of the model; color settings, data display, and the current graphics
operator.

Option Description

Colors Select any color item in the list, then click to display a Windows color selection
tool. Select the new color. Click Reset All to return all of the settings to CAESAR II
defaults, as defined in configuration,.

Fonts Selecting any font item in the list, then click to display the standard Windows
font selection tool. Set the options to meet your requirements and click OK.

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Changing the Model Display


You can specify the way the model displays when you open a file. The session can start with a
preset command active (such as Zoom), or start with the last command still active. Similarly, the
graphics can start in a preset view (such as isometric), or in the last rotated zoomed position.

Option Description

Show Bounding Box Determines if rotations using the mouse include an outline box
surrounding the model.

Hide Overlapped Prevents text from appearing on top of other text items.
Text

Restore Previous Determines whether the software remembers your last command
Operator (operator) between sessions or always defaults to a specified
command.

Restore Previous Determines whether the graphics engine remembers the last displayed
View view of the model, or defaults to a specified view.

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Default Projection Determines the initial projection style of the model.


Mode

Visibility Alters the degree of transparency when translucent pipe is activated.


Increasing this value makes it easier to see through the pipe elements.
The Visibility option is only effective when viewing the model in
rendered mode.

Markers Displays a symbol denoting the elements end points.

Manipulating the Toolbar


You can rearrange or remove buttons on toolbars. There are two methods to make these
adjustments.
Right-click the toolbar, and click Customize.
Remove or reposition the button using drag and drop.
To remove buttons from the toolbar click the down arrow located at the end of each toolbar and
then click Add or Remove Buttons. Turn on the check box to add buttons to the toolbar. Clear
the check box to remove buttons. To rearrange buttons, press ALT and then drag the button to
a different location. To restore the CAESAR II default toolbar configuration, click Reset .
For more information, see Toolbars (on page 333).

Highlighting Graphics
You can review the piping model in the context of certain data such as by diameter, wall
thickness, temperature, or pressure.
You can make changes to some piping input properties from the Legends dialog box. The
software updates all elements that have the same property value in the model. For more
information, see Updating Properties from the 3D Model (on page 369).

Command Description

Diameters Updates the model to show each diameter in a different color. Use this
option to see the diameter variations throughout the system or to verify
that diameter changes have been made. Alternatively, press D. A color
key displays the diameters defined in the model. You can change the
assigned colors to meet your needs.

Wall Thickness Updates the model to show each wall thickness in a different color.
Use this option to see the wall thickness variations throughout the
system or to verify that changes have been made. Alternatively, press
W. A color key displays the thicknesses defined in the model. You can
change the assigned colors to meet your needs.

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Insulation Updates the model to show each insulation thickness in a different


Thickness color. Use this option to see the insulation thickness variations
throughout the system or to verify that changes have been made.
Alternatively, press I. A color key displays the thicknesses defined in
the model. You can change the assigned colors to meet your needs.
You can change the display to cladding thickness or refractory
thickness by selecting that option from the list.

Cladding Thickness Updates the model to show each cladding thickness in a different
color. Use this option to see the cladding thickness variations
throughout the system or to verify that changes have been made. A
color key displays the thicknesses defined in the model. You can
change the assigned colors to meet your needs.
You can change the display to insulation thickness or refractory
thickness by selecting that option from the list.

Refractory Thickness Updates the model to show each refractory thickness in a different
color. Use this option to see the refractory thickness variations
throughout the system or to verify that changes have been made. A
color key displays the thicknesses defined in the model. You can
change the assigned colors to meet your needs.
You can change the display to insulation thickness or cladding
thickness by selecting that option from the list.

Material Updates the model to show each material in a different color. Use this
option to see the material variations throughout the system or to verify
that changes have been made. Alternatively, press M. A color key
displays the materials defined in the model. You can change the
assigned colors to meet your needs.

Piping Codes Updates the model to show each piping code in a different color. Use
this option to see the piping code variations throughout the system or
to verify that changes have been made.

Corrosion Updates the model to show each corrosion allowance in a different


color. Use this option to see the corrosion variations throughout the
system or to verify that changes have been made. A color key displays
the corrosion allowances defined in the model. You can change the
assigned colors to meet your needs.

Pipe Density Updates the model to show each pipe density in a different color. Use
this option to see the pipe density variations throughout the system or
to verify that changes have been made. A color key displays the pipe
densities defined in the model. You can change the assigned colors to
meet your needs.

Fluid Density Updates the model to show each fluid density in a different color. Use
this option to see the fluid density variations throughout the system or
to verify that changes have been made. A color key displays the fluid
densities defined in the model. You can change the assigned colors to

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meet your needs.

Insulation Density Updates the model to show each insulation density in a different color.
Use this option to see the insulation density variations throughout the
system or to verify that changes have been made. A color key displays
the insulation densities defined in the model. You can change the
assigned colors to meet your needs.
You can change the display to cladding density, insulation or cladding
unit weight, or refractory density by selecting that option from the list.

Cladding Density Updates the model to show each cladding density in a different color.
Use this option to see the cladding density variations throughout the
system or to verify that changes have been made. A color key displays
the cladding densities defined in the model. You can change the
assigned colors to meet your needs.
You can change the display to insulation density, insulation or cladding
unit weight, or refractory density by selecting that option from the list.

Insul/Cladding Unit Wt. Updates the model to show each insulation or cladding unit weight in a
different color. Use this option to see the variations throughout the
system or to verify that changes have been made. A color key displays
the insulation or cladding unit weights defined in the model. You can
change the assigned colors to meet your needs.
You can change the display to insulation density, cladding density, or
refractory density by selecting that option from the list.

Refractory Density Updates the model to show each refractory density in a different color.
Use this option to see the refractory density variations throughout the
system or to verify that changes have been made. A color key displays
the refractory densities defined in the model. You can change the
assigned colors to meet your needs.
You can change the display to insulation density, insulation or cladding
unit weight, or insulation density by selecting that option from the list.

The Legend dialog box can be resized, docked, or removed from view.
You can still zoom, pan, or rotate the model while in highlight mode. You can also use any
of orthographic projections and single line or volume modes without affecting the model
highlighted state.
Clicking one of the highlight commands a second time cancels the coloring effect.
If you print the model while it is in highlight mode, the color key legend displays in the upper
left corner of the page, even if the actual legend window has been dragged away from the
view.

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Updating Properties from the 3D Model


You can update many of the piping input properties globally from within the Legends dialog box
in the 3D model.
To update a piping input property from the 3D model
1. Select the property you want to update using the Legends toolbar in 3D model.
You can also update many of these properties by right-clicking, selecting Highlights from
the context menu, and then specifying the property that you want to edit.
The Legend dialog box opens with the selected property displayed.
2. Double-click on the property value in the left column to open the Edit box.

3. Type a new value in the Edit box and press ENTER or click anywhere in the dialog box.
The software updates all elements that have the same property value, represented in the
Legend dialog box, on the 3D model, and in the List dialog box.
Currently, the software does not include global update functionality for the following
piping input properties:
Materials
Piping Codes
Forces
Uniform Loads
Wind/Wave Data
Displacements
Pipe Density

Displaying Displacements, Forces, Uniform Loads, and


Wind/Wave Loads
You can display applied or predefined displacements, forces, uniform loads, or wind and wave
loads in a table. You can scroll the display windows vertically and/or horizontally to view all node
points where data has been defined. To move through the defined displacement or force vectors
1 through 9, click Next >> and Previous <<. The color key assists you in locating the node
points on the model when the model geometry is complex.
The displacements window shows user-specified values as well as free or fixed degrees of
freedom (DOF). In this case, a DOF is free if a displacement value is not specified in any of the

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displacement load vectors. If a DOF has a specified displacement in at least one of the load
vectors, then it is fixed in all other load vectors.

Forces - Updates the model to show each force in a different color. Use this option to
see the force variations throughout the system or to verify that changes have been
made. A color key displays the force defined in the model. You can change the
assigned colors to meet your needs.
The force parameters display in a table. Use the scroll bars to view all of the data. Click
Next >> and Previous << to move through the displacement or force vectors.

Uniform Loads - Updates the model to show each uniform load in a different color. Use
this option to see the uniform load variations throughout the system or to verify that
changes have been made. A color key displays the uniform loads defined in the model.
You can change the assigned colors to meet your needs.
The uniform load parameters display in a table. Use the scroll bars to view all of the
data. Click Next >> and Previous << to move through the displacement or force
vectors.
Uniform Loads has three vectors defined. The Node column represents the start node
number where the uniform loads vector was first defined. Because the data propagates
throughout the model until changed or disabled, the model is colored accordingly.

Wind/Wave - Updates the model to show each wind or wave load in a different color.
Use this option to see the variations throughout the system or to verify that changes
have been made. A color key displays the wind or wave loads defined in the model.
The wind and wave load parameters display in a table. Use the scroll bars to view all of
the data. Click Next >> and Previous << to move through the loads.
All the elements with wind defined display in red. All the elements with wave data
defined display in green. The legend grid shows the relevant data.

The legend window can be resized, docked, or removed from view.


You can still zoom, pan, or rotate the model while in highlight mode. You can also use any
of orthographic projections and single line or volume modes without affecting the model
highlighted state.
Clicking one of the highlight commands a second time cancels the coloring effect.
If you print the model while it is in highlight mode, the color key legend displays in the upper
left corner of the page. This is true even if the actual legend window has been dragged away
from the view.
You can display predefined displacements by pressing F3. You can display forces/moment
vectors by pressing F5.
Select Element displays element data. When this command is active, hovering the
cursor over a pipe element displays the element's nodes, delta dimensions, and pipe size
data. Clicking an element highlights the element and updates the information on the dialog
box. Click in the empty space of the graphics view to unhighlight the element. The dialog box
still contains the information from the last element that you selected.

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Performing Block Operations


Perform block (global) operations to elements in the model using one of the following methods:

To access Block Operations commands from the 3D Graphics pane


1. Access the Block Operations commands from the Block Operations toolbar.

2. Select one of the following icons to perform the indicated operation.


Rotate
Duplicate
Delete
Renumber
Invert
Change Sequence
You can also access block operation commands from the Global menu in piping input.

To access Block Operations commands from the Elements dialog box


1. Right-click in the Elements dialog box to display the menu.
2. Click Block Operation.
3. Select one of the sub-menu items to perform the indicated operation.
Rotate
Delete
Duplicate
Nodes
Invert
Change Sequence
Status
You can also access block operation commands from the Global menu in piping input.

To define a block of elements in the 3D Graphics pane


1. Click Select Element on the Standard Operators toolbar and select a single element on
the 3D model.
The selected element highlights.
To select more than one element, press the Shift key while clicking the additional
elements.
The entire group (block) of elements highlights.

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Alternatively, you can click Select Group on the Standard Operators toolbar and draw a
box around the items you want to select.
The highlighted elements define the set that any Block Operations command affects. A block
can contain any number of elements, from a single element to every element in the model.

To define a block of elements from the Elements dialog box


1. Move the cursor to the first element in the group (block) to be operated on and click the row
number for that item on the far left of the dialog box.
The software highlights the row for the element highlights in the Element dialog box and in
the 3D Graphics pane.
2. Move the cursor to the last element in the group (block) to be operated on, press Shift and
click the corresponding row number.
3. Alternatively, you can Select Group in the Standard Operators toolbar and draw a box
around the items you want to select.
The entire group (block) of elements highlights.
The highlighted rows define the elements that any block operations affect. A block may contain
any number of elements from a single element to every element in the model.

To define a block of elements by selecting by Line Number


1. Display the Line Numbers dialog box.
2. Select the element or block of elements for which you want to perform a block operation.
The corresponding element(s) highlight in the 3D Graphics pane.
The highlighted rows define the elements that any block operations change. A block may
contain any number of elements from a single element to every element in the model.

Limiting the Display


Sometimes it is necessary to limit the amount of information displayed on the screen. This may
be useful when the model is large, or if it has many similar looking branches.

Find - Displays a specific element in the view. This command displays a dialog box
that allows you to specify the From and To nodes for which you want to search. You
can enter the node numbers in either of the two fields, or in both. If you entering only
the From node number, the software searches for the first available element that
starts with that node number. If you enter only the To node number, the software
searches for an element ending with that node number. When the software locates
the element it highlights the element and fits it in the view. You can zoom out to better
identify the location of the highlighted element within the model.

3D Cutting Plane - Defines the cutting plane for the model. This option is useful when
trying to emphasize a specific element. In many cases, the elements or node numbers
are not defined consecutively. Because of this, it may be easier to cut a portion of the
model at a certain location to see more details.
When the cutting plane displays, use the handles to move and or rotate the planes. If
cutting the plane's handles are not visible, or the display goes blank, use the Zoom

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command to expand the view. To disable the cutting plane, select the command
again.
This command can be used along any of the three axes.

Range - Displays only the elements that contain nodes within a range. This is helpful
when you need to locate specific nodes or a group of related elements in a large
model. This command displays the Range dialog box. Alternatively, press U.
For more information, see Range (on page 328).

Line Numbers - Displays the Line Numbers pane which allows graphical editing of
line numbers. You can do the following from this pane.
Assign a new line number to the block of elements that have been selected on the
3D graphical display.
Remove an existing line number.
Set and reset visibility options to hide and unhide elements.
Assign a color to an individual line number.
To reassign one or more elements from one line number to another existing line
number, simply drag-and-drop (move) the elements between existing Line Numbers in
the Line Numbers pane.
When you click the Line Number name in the Line Number pane, the
corresponding elements are highlighted in the 3D pane and are selected to perform
Block operations.

Saving an Image for Later Presentation


Occasionally, it is necessary to add a graphical representation of a model to the CAESAR II
Stress reports. The graphics view can be saved as a graphic by clicking File > Save As
Graphics Image. The model geometry, colors, highlighting, Plot Settings legend, as well as
restraints and most of the other options are transferred to the graphic. The default graphic file
name is the job name with an extension .TIF. This is a standard Windows-supported image file
extension that can be opened for viewing. The image resolution can also be changed in the
Save Image dialog box.
This is a static graphic file.
You also have the option to save the graphics as .HTML file. After saving as .HTML CAESAR II
creates two files in the current data directory using the current job name: *.HTML and *.HSF.
Opening the .HTML file displays the corresponding .HSF file.
This is an interactive file.
The first time a CAESAR II-created .HTML file is opened with an Internet browser, you receive a
message asking you to download a control from Tech Soft 3D. Answer Yes to allow the
download, and the image displays. After the model displays, right-clicking the model shows the

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available viewing options such as orbit, pan, zoom, different render modes, and so on. The
image can be printed or copied to the clipboard.
Internet Explorer (IE) version 5.0 and earlier may not display the image properly.
Intergraph CAS recommends IE6 or later.
You can use the Markups toolbar functions to add additional lines or annotations to the image.
The Markups toolbar, which you can access from the Classic Piping Input dialog box or the
3D Model, contains the following functions.

Freehand Markup - Draws a line in the model. Click and drag the mouse to draw the line.

Rectangle Markup - Draws a rectangle in the model. Click and drag the mouse to draw the
rectangle.

Circle Markup - Draws a circle in the model. Click and drag the mouse to draw the circle.

Annotate - Adds a brief description to the model. The annotation may be especially useful
in the output processor. The annotation text box is a single line. Annotation is printed and
saved to the bitmap. Annotation is not saved to HTML.

Annotate w/Leader - Adds a brief description to the model. This annotation includes a
leader line. Drag the annotation box to extend the leader. The annotation text box is a single
line. The annotation with a leader stays with the model when you zoom, pan, rotate, or use
any of the highlight options. Annotation is printed and saved to the bitmap. Annotation is not
saved to HTML.

The markup annotation text box is a single line. The color and the font face/size cannot be
changed. The default color is red.
Markup annotations are saved to the .TIF file and spooled to the printer.
The geometry and the text of the markup annotations are temporary. They are not saved
with the model. These graphics and disappear from view with any change such as zoom,
rotate, pan, or reset all.
The color, font face, and size of the annotation text can be changed by clicking Tools >
Configure/Setup on the main menu. For more information, see 3D Graphics Configuration
(on page 363).
When you select an operator, the software keeps it active until you click another operator. (For
example, Freehand Markup stays selected until you select Orbit or Pan.)

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Walking Through the Model


CAESAR II lets you explore the model with a feature similar in operation to a virtual reality
game. It produces the effect of walking towards the model. After you are close to or inside the
model, you can look left, right, up, and down, step to a side, or ride an elevator up and down.
Walk Through is useful in providing a real-time interactive view of the model.
Click Walk Through to display the cursor as a pair of feet.

Walking Around
You can begin walking by clicking and holding the left mouse button. Move forward by moving
the mouse toward the top of the window. Move back by doing the opposite.

Walk Through also provides an additional control that aids in navigation. Clicking the
various hot spots on the control duplicates mouse movements with the added benefit of
providing the ability to move in a perfectly straight line.
In addition, Walk Through also provides you with the added functionality of determining the
walking speed. In general, walking speed is determined by the distance between where you first
click and how far you move the mouse. The keys below which, if held down while walking, effect
walk through's operation:
Shift - Changes the walk mode to run mode, effectively doubling the walk speed.
Ctrl - Changes the walk mode to slow mode, effectively halving the walk speed.
Alt - Enables you to look left or right without changing the walk path. Releasing the key,
automatically returns your viewpoint to looking forward.
To exit from this command, click any other command.

Moving Elements
The Move Geometry commands, located in the Edit Mode toolbar, let you select and move
nodes or elements along a specified axis. Select the node or element, and then press Tab or
click to select the x-, y-, or z-axis option (located next to the Move Geometry option in the
toolbar). The software defaults to the X-Axis.
For example, to move a restraint along a corresponding pipe centerline, select Move Geometry
and specify the direction of the axis for the line. Or, if your model includes an expansion loop,
select Move Geometry to change the length or depth of the loop in the direction of the specified
axis.
Once you select an operator, the software keeps it active until you click another operator.
(For example, Move Geometry stays selected until you select Orbit or Pan.)
To move elements on the 3D model
1. Click Move Geometry to display marker control points at all nodes and tangent points.
On bends, the marker control points display on the far weld-line.
2. Click and drag the cursor to select the nodes to move.
3. Click any of the selected nodes.
The mouse is in move mode. The mouse movement is clamped to either the x, y, or z axis.

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Piping Input Reference

4. To change the axis press Tab or click one of the Axis commands on the Edit Mode toolbar.
5. Click to