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# Last Lesson.

1: INFERENTIAL STATISTICS

Inferential Statistics is the area of Statistics that is used to make inferences about the population through the use of
samples drawn randomly from this population. Because of the practicality of using the sample, an attribute of a sample
(usually the mean) may be used to estimate an attribute of the population where the sample is drawn.

Hypothesis Testing

This is a method for testing a claim or hypothesis about a parameter in a population using data measured in a sample.

## Four Steps in Hypothesis Testing

Step 1. State the hypotheses. We begin by stating two types of hypothesis: (a) null hypothesis; and (b) alternative
hypothesis.

The null hypothesis (Ho) is a statement about a population parameter that is assumed to be true.

The alternative hypothesis (Ha) is a statement that directly contradicts a null hypothesis by stating that the actual
value of a population parameter is less than, greater than, or not equal to the value stated in the null hypothesis.
This is what a researcher believes to be true.

Example 1: State the null and alternative hypotheses for each conjecture.

a) A researcher thinks that if expectant mothers use vitamin pills, the birth weight of the babies will increase. The
average birth weight of the population is 8.6 pounds.
b) An engineer hypothesizes that the mean number of defects can be decreased in a manufacturing process of
compact disks by using robots instead of humans for certain tasks. The mean number of defective disks per 1000
is 18.
c) A psychologist feels that playing soft music during a test will change the results of the test. The psychologist is
not sure whether the grades will be higher or lower. In the past, the mean of the scores was 73.

Step 2. Find the critical value based on the statistical test used and state the level of significance. The critical values
are obtained using a table. The level of significance (denoted by ) gives the probability of committing an error of
rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.

Step 3. Compute the test value. The test value is computed using a formula based on the statistical test employed. It is
used to make a decision regarding the null hypothesis.

Step 4. Make a decision. The decision is made by comparing the critical value and the test value. We either reject or do
not reject the null hypothesis.

NB:
Rejecting the null hypothesis means there is enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis.
Not rejecting the null hypothesis means there is no sufficient evidence to support the alternative hypothesis.
Last Lesson.2: THE z TEST FOR A MEAN

The z test is a statistical test for the mean of a population. It can be used when 30, or when the population is
normally distributed and is known.
The formula for the z test is

where
= sample mean
= hypothesized population mean
= population standard deviation
n = sample size

## Table of Critical Values

Critical Values
significance level right-tailed left-tailed two-tailed
0.01 2.326 -2.326 2.576
0.05 1.645 -1.645 1.96
0.1 1.282 -1.282 1.645

Rejection Rules:
Right-Tailed: Reject Ho if > ( )
Left-Tailed: Reject Ho if <
Two-Tailed: Reject Ho if < () or > (+)

Example 1: A researcher wishes to see if the mean number of days that a basic, low-price, small automobile sits on a
dealers lot is 29. A sample of 30 automobile dealers has a mean of 30.1 days for basic, low-price, small automobiles. At
= 0.05, test the claim that the mean time is greater than 29 days. The standard deviation of the population is 3.8 days.

Example 2: A researcher claims that the average cost of mens athletic shoes is less than \$80. He selects a random sample
of 36 pairs of shoes from a catalog and finds the following costs (in dollars). (The costs have been rounded to the nearest
dollar.) Is there enough evidence to support the researchers claim at = 0.10? Assume = 19.2.
60 70 75 55 80 55
50 40 80 70 50 95
120 90 75 85 80 60
110 65 80 85 85 45
75 60 90 90 60 95
110 85 45 90 70 70

Example 3: The Medical Rehabilitation Education Foundation reports that the average cost of rehabilitation for stroke
victims is \$24,672. To see if the average cost of rehabilitation is different at a particular hospital, a researcher selects a
random sample of 35 stroke victims at the hospital and finds that the average cost of their rehabilitation is \$26,343.The
standard deviation of the population is \$3251. At = 0.01, can it be concluded that the average cost of stroke
rehabilitation at a particular hospital is different from \$24,672?
Last Lesson.3: THE t TEST FOR A MEAN

The t test is a statistical test for the mean of a population and is used when the population is normally or approximately
normally distributed, and is unknown.
The formula for the t test is

=
/

where is the sample standard deviation. Moreover, the critical values are given by the t Distribution Table (see Table
F). The distribution table uses the degree of freedom denoted by df where df = n-1.

Rejection Rules:

## Right-Tailed Test: Reject Ho if > ,

Left-Tailed Test: Reject Ho if < ,
Two-Tailed Test: Reject Ho if | | > /2,

Example 1: A medical investigation claims that the average number of infections per week at a hospital in southwestern
Pennsylvania is 16.3. A random sample of 10 weeks had a mean number of 17.7 infections. The sample standard deviation
is 1.8. Is there enough evidence to reject the investigators claim at = 0.05?

Example 2: An educator claims that the average salary of substitute teachers in school districts in Allegheny County,
Pennsylvania, is less than \$60 per day. A random sample of eight school districts is selected, and the daily salaries (in
dollars) are shown. Is there enough evidence to support the educators claim at = 0.10?
60 56 60 55 70 55 60 55

Example 3: A physician claims that joggers maximal volume oxygen uptake is greater than the average of all adults. A
sample of 15 joggers has a mean of 40.6 milliliters per kilogram (ml/kg) and a standard deviation of 6 ml/kg. If the
average of all adults is 36.7 ml/kg, is there enough evidence to support the physicians claim at = 0.05?