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Justo Maradiaga
Yerling Acua F.
Melisa Kassandra
Uriel melgara

Mara Elizabeth

Using realia to help English language learners to improve students vocabulary in

first year in University Christian Autonomous of Nicaragua a in the second
trimester 2017.

General Objective:

To provide methodological strategies in order to motivate the English teacher

applies newer realia in the English classroom.

Specific Objectives:

To reach the positive influence of the use of English techniques specially a

different realia by making use in the classroom.
To analyze weakness and strength in the student learning.

Research Question:

How can be the English learning influenced by the use of a different realia in the
Which are the required resources that the teacher need for improving the English
language teaching?
Table of contents.

Summary .........
Table of contents .
Introduction of the Problems ..
Objective general
Objective specific
Relevance of problem ..
Problem statement ...
Background of the problem ..
Organization .
Types of media and didactic resource
Methodology used analysis ..
Research Question .
Definition of Vocabulary .
Problem statement.

Vocabulary is a central to English language teaching because without sufficient

vocabulary student cannot understand others ,express their own ideas. According to
(Alqahtan., 2015) Vocabulary knowledge is often viewed as a critical tool for second
language learner because a limited vocabulary in a second language impedes
successful communication. p. (55)
There are many abilities that the students can be distingue between receptive
vocabulary and productive vocabulary. The receptive vocabulary is like recognize
and understand when there are used in context, but which they cannot produce and
productive vocabulary is when the students understand and pronounce correctly and
use correctly in speaking and writing.
It is important to set the classroom to be fun and to be interesting. One of the way of
making interesting teaching process is taking real objects to the classroom. The use
of realia in the classroom support learning in many way (orally and written). Allowing
the student to explore the objects smelling it, seeing it, feeling and touching; it is a
powerful way to connect vocabulary to real. This type of realia gives students a
different experience of learning and make that lesson funny, unforgettable and most
important it keeps on their minds, therefore, all the words used in this type of realia
will be remembered.

The learning is natural and not forced; by using realia a teacher can create an
environment that is rich enough to compete with the common this is boring
complaint. When we create a colorful environment with real object materials student
do not have opportunity to sleep in class and to be different. (Velasques, Espinoza
Dixon, & Matamorros , 2016).
Relevance of the problem.

The objective of our research is to help student increase their vocabulary and to work
with the material that are accessible for the university, providing good ideas to
teachers so that they can motivate students and arouse interest to the class.
It is necessary to emphasize that the teachers have a very important role in the
learning of the students since of them depend of as it is the process of teaching. In
our investigation we want to make reference of how we can make use of a different
According to (Gomes & Marolin Estefani Gerrero, November 2012) Realia is
considered as a real object used in a new language, as a way to present real words
in a foreign language, which are brought innumerable activities. Realia is a useful
material to provide learner with a better environment so that they can understand the
target vocabulary in a direct way. we want to show different types of activities making
use of the materials that are accessible and make the students interested on the
class to make their learning easier, in some institutes the biggest problem is the lack
of materials that make the class bored by this cause is that many students do not
have a good learning. The teaching material of real objects are a good element for
the union of students and their teacher.
Background of the problem.

Around the world ;vocabulary learning has been a necessity in English language
teaching and Nicaragua is not exception. Learning vocabulary is a very complex
issue. according to (Aguilar & Herrera Lira, 2016), second language learners need
to know very large number of words, phrases, idioms, verbs; as they may be useful
for them in the long-term as learning vocabulary.
Realia is one of the most important tools a teacher can use in class in order to
make his or her teacher effective and motivate to all students. In this paper we
discussed the way in what realia has contributed to the learning and motivation of
the English learners.
A number of studies point out the use of authentic material is regarded a useful
means to motivate student, arouse their interest and expose them to real language
they will face in the real world. Other research confirmed the role of authentic
material in developing reading, writing, listening and speak skill though introducing
learning to new vocabulary and expression.
In addition, realia comes to be indispensable for the effectiveness of language
acquisition, because the implementation of these material create a more natural and
funny setting, learner can learn a second language in natural way and they can feel
confident, comfortable, and motivated their learning. (Aguilar & Herrera Lira, 2016)
Key Words

Games :A game is an activity carried out by co-operating or competing decision-

makers, seeking to achieve, within a set of rules, their objectives.(Zhu, 2012.p.801-

Realia: In education , realia are objects from real life used in classroom instruction
by educators to improve students understanding of other cultures and real life
Literature review.

The objective of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of using different

realia than the usual. Vocabulary is an essential key in the development of learners
of a second language.


What is vocabulary?
All the existing language of this world have words the learning is reborn first with
words must be used carefully, because as we mentioned can contain different
meaning in the case of teaching. We use the word vocabulary must carefully specific
what we refer to make this distinction.

How can vocabulary be taught?

Which strategies can be applied for teaching vocabulary?
How realia can be connected or influence on teaching vocabulary?
Note: In this chapter, you have to check which other topics you can develop in your
research. The examples above can be proposes.

How can teachers use realia with their students for acquiring new vocabulary?

Teachers almost always use realia in their classroom; it is known that they usually
use flashcards or illustrations to explain a certain topic. Lets supposed teacher is
teaching fruits and vegetables, so he/she goes to his/her classroom and teach it
through flashcards murals or illustration, but, what if he/she takes real fruits and not
only put students to name them, but also to take part in a picnic and talking between
Material Resource
There are permanent work material informative, illustrative and experimental
materials, we call instructional material those medium or specific resources that aid
the work of instruction and serve to facility the understanding of concepts during the
process of teaching and learning. For example

The board

The Didactic Material Allow.

-Present the topic and concepts in an objective and clear way.
-Save time.
-Facilitate knowledge.
-Complement the didactic techniques.
The obtaining knowledge through the medium of teaching is given from what is
known as the beginnings of communication, where there is an emitted, the message
and receiver of the information to be transmitted. The use of medium and resources
in the classroom is a demanding, rigorous, and systematic strategy teacher are the
actors in this process to transmit motivation to students.
The didactic resource are material elaborated with the intention to facilities to the
teacher its function and in turn the one of students, they are used in the educative

1-provides information do the students.

2- they are a learning guide to organize the information we want to convey.
3-Offers new knowledge to the student.
4-It helps to exercise the skills and also to develop them.
5-The didactic resource awaken motivation, promote and create an interest in the
6-Provides an environment for student expression.
Types of media and didactic resources

The didactic media and educational resources are usually classified in two group.
Convectional Materials.
1. Printed texts: books, photocopy newspaper, documents.
2. Didactic boards: Board.
3. Audio Visual Materials: Videos, Movies, TV programs, documentary.
4. Visual Materials: Images, mural, poster and photography.
News Technologies as: 1. Information programs: Videogame,
Authors, language activities of learning, multimedia, presentations,
real materials Encyclopedias.
2. Telematics Services: Web page, weblogs, virtual tours e-mail, chats, forums,
online curses, cellphone.
3. Internet and Interactive videos: Apart from it s functionality, the following
should be considered.
- Explain of form easy the adjectives.
- Provide information and relevant content and illustrations without on,
colors, shapes unusual and just attractive.
- Charges Present clear information and guide the attention.
- Create environments for expressions and creation and imagination.
Realia to teach academic English vocabulary.

There is different type of realia to teach vocabulary. As it was mention; it is known

teacher use realia; they can use printed texts ; sometimes they use English subtitled
videos to show a conversation , therefore, it gives students new vocabulary. But;
when we talk about printed text ; it is important to use informational texts, because,
it gives to students a better vocabulary to be acquired. According to (fieldman, 2008)
we found uncommon words on newspaper, popular magazine, adult books and
scientific articles p. (4). It teaches students a better body of words than childrens
literature or juvenile literature.

Using video lesson to give students new vocabulary

A video lesson or lecture is a video which present educational material for a topic
which is to be learned. The format may vary. It might it might be a video of a teacher
speaking to the camera, photographs and text about the topic or some mixture of
these. ( 2017, august 7) Retrieved from (Wikipedia, 2017)

There are many ways to teach vocabulary to students, and it is good to change realia
teachers use because this can keep attention on the students.

Also, when vary the method of teaching, then lessons will appeal to students with
different learning styles. Although the written here; videos will never replaced a real

A good teacher can adapt his/her teaching to an individual students need, and often
knows almost intuitively what the student understand, when she/he has to repeat
something, or when she/he has to have an extra explanation.
So what can videos make for teaching?; if teachers search on internet or even go to
youtube , they will find a variety of videos that other teachers have upload for people
to use. These can have many advantages on teaching; such as :

A different accent for students to hear

A different teaching style
Visual and audio explanation of words that sometimes can not be provide
on the classroom

An important point to be add is; if they realize they can acquire new vocabulary by
watching video lesson; this can encourage them to watch it by themselves at home
or wherever they are, and the internet access is not a problem nowadays for young

What is game-based learning?

There are several elements that define an activity as a game.

1) Competition: this component of the game , depending on how it is played can

put a part of the classroom working together as a team ; they overcome
obstacle helping each other. Therefore , its motivate students to work

2) Engagement: when the game starts, students does not want to stop before
the game is over. (cordova & lepper, 1992) refer to this as intrinsic
motivation and ascribe it to four sources: challenge, curiosity, control and

3) Immediate rewards: players can receive points or pleasure obtained by the

fulfillment of victory.
How games and realia are connected?

As it is mention In education , realia are objects from real life used in classroom
instruction by educators to improve students understanding of other cultures and
real life situation. So it is practically obvious of how those can be connected; if we
use games combined with objects from real life we have an strong combination to
teach vocabulary.

Example of games combined with realia

5 oclock tea:

This is a good one to teach table manners, request, or expressions related to

ordering or serving tea, coffee, or any meal in a friendly situation.

- Would you like some tea?

- No, thank you
- Id like some coffee, please.
- Sugar?
- A little bit

Simply bring cups to students to set conversation among them and teachers can
also put them to offer and serve each other and students can ask to teacher for a
word he/she does not know.

Talking about family:

Students can take a photo from his/her family and also must talk about characteristic
of the member he/she is mentioning. This will develop not only the students
vocabulary but also his/her speech or speaking skiil.
Celebrate the holidays:

Learning English does not mean only about learning to speak this foreign language;
students should learn about culture and tradition elements as well. Special holydays
like Halloween, thanksgiving, or saint valentines day. Teachers can plan a
celebration; lets supposed it is saint valentines day ; so they put their students to
make letters or exclaiming poems. They should give to students the chance to
experience the holidays and not just read about it.

Using games to teach motivate and engage students

Growing evidence indicates that games allow students to focus well enough to learn
better. The oct. 2010 issue of training+development magazine (American society of
trainers and Developers) incorporate games to train adults in the workplace and its
showed in higher factual and skill-based knowledge levels and higher retention
levels than programs which did not use games.

According to (Prensky, 2001) There is no reason that a generation that can

memorize over 100 pokemon characters with all their characteristic , history and
evolution cant learn the names , population , capitals and relationship of all 101
nations in the world.

Using games for teaching and learning is one way to shift to a more appropriate
learning form for the digital generation (21st century students). Games works pretty
good as a teaching and learning tool because bad consequences are rarely serious
or lasting. In other words; students do not have nothing to loss. Often, its possible
for students to recover within a game, and use what they have learned through
games to successfully complete a task.
(cordova & lepper, 1992) have found that rewriting a lesson with a story context
combined with a challenge for student to overcome (making it a game) significantly
improves the learning performance of children.

Game-based learning also teaches students to follow directions, make decisions

and discover new information. Peer learning involved in game instruction allows
discussion, reflection and problem solving. Game based instruction also
encourages teachers to be creative and more effective and helps them identify
difficult or poorly understood material through observable, immediate feedback
from students.

Methodological strategies to develop vocabulary.

Knowing the level of English language proficiency at which your students are
functioning academically is vital in order to be able to classification them
appropriately. Not all strategies are appropriate for all levels of language learners.
Knowing which scaffolds are most appropriate takes time, but if the teacher use the
realia in the classroom this will make easier to maintain the attention of theirs

Already years ago the Strategies of Teaching are considered as procedures that
the educational agent uses in a reflective and flexible way to promote the
achievement of learnings in the students, but if the teacher need to know how
much had learned the students them is necessary make activities as games in
front of the class for example translation between students and help them to finish
the activity, this way the teacher can see how much the student is advancing
According to (Rajadell, 1998), The processes of learning in the classroom A
teaching strategy that demonstrates the amount of knowledge and interest of the
student is equivalent to the sequenced action potentially aware of the professional
of education, the process of teaching in its Triple dimension of knowing, knowing
and doing. So it is necessary that the teacher use the practical's games because
the students will feel more compromise about the topic and they would like show
that they can for themselves do and what are their Weaknesses.
Level of cognitive development, emotional factors, previous knowledge.
Type of domain of general knowledge and of the curricular content in
The intentionality of the goal to be achieved and the cognitive and
pedagogical activities that the student must achieve the interesting in class.
Constant monitoring of the teaching process and individually talk with the
students to know how are progressing the games between the students and, as
well as student progress and their learning.

Questions Research.

How can be the English learning influence by the use realia in the classroom?

Which are the necessary resources that the teacher need to improve the English
language teaching?
The universe of this research was 8 students of the morning session at the
university Christian autonomous of Nicaragua, department of Estel.

This research was applied to first year students at the university. These were 15 in
total in the morning.

Sampling Data collection

The sample was intentional, taking into account students, characteristic such as:
group discipline and age (because this is more disciplined group from all eight
grades and the range of them is between 18 and 25 year old among boys and
In depth interview
The sample for his research paper was formed of 15 student out of 20 students,
which is the full number of first year students of the morning session. In total, there
were eight first year classroom. The age of these students went between 18 and
25 years old. They were the youngest of those classroom and important
characteristic such a good discipline, responsibility, good coordination and the best
relationship with the teachers. They have showed love for English class, and their
teacher most of the time uses materials teach.
The student at the university Christian autonomous of Nicaragua come from
different neighborhoods of the urban area, and from nearby country site
communities such as: pueblo Nuevo, Condega, Santa Cruz, San Juan de Limay,
Direct Observation
The university is located barrio next to Marista School. The university
was funded on

Data Analysis
The result gotten from the applied instrumental were analyzed by data tabulation
by interpretation of each applied instrument. Finally, they were discussed and
supported by graphics.
From the result obtained through the applied instrument it can be inferred that realia
is a techniques that has been used by the teacher in the teaching and learning
process. However, this use has been limited to printed, visual material that are
authentic material, but not specifically realia. Audio and virtual realia are less and
not usable to teach English, due to the physical conditions and number of resources
that the institute has for all its education and besides, the class is large.in accordance
with our finding, we can state the teachers preference for printed and visual
University Christian autonomous of Nicaragua.

Dear student:
We are doing and interview on investigation about use of realia in the classroom to
improve the students motivation.
Thanks for helping us by answering some question.
General data.
Students name: ________________________________________
Grade____________________________ date_____________________

1. Do you like English class?

Yes: ________________ No: _________________ Why?

2. Do you participate in English class?

Always_______ something___________ rarely________

3. Circle the activities to use to increase students motivation in the English


A. Song.
B. Games.
C. Realia.
D. Movies.
E. Other.
4. Do you consider when you use realia increase your motivation to learn
English why?

5. How the teacher use resource to motivate the students to learn English
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Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance .

fieldman, k. (2008). instructional strategies for teaching vocabulary to diverse learners.

Firooz , S., & Anjomshoa, L. (2015). The Importance of Motivation in Second Language Acquisition.

Gomes, P. A., & Marolin Estefani Gerrero. (November 2012). the effects of using realia on concrete
vocabulary learning .

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Prensky. (2001). Digital native, Digital immigrant.

Rajadell, N. (1998).

Velasques, E. d., Espinoza Dixon, J. P., & Matamorros , G. (2016). How the use of leala contribute to
the students motivation in the english learning process. Esteli.

Wikipedia. (august de 2017). Obtenido de