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Chapter 5

Diode Rectifiers

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-1


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Diode Rectifier Block Diagram

Uncontrolled utility interface (ac to dc)

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-2


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
A Simple Circuit

Resistive load

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-3


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
A Simple Circuit (R-L Load)

Current continues to flows for a while even after the input


voltage has gone negative
Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-4
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
A Simple Circuit (Load has a dc back-emf)

Current begins to flow when the input voltage exceeds the dc back-emf
Current continues to flows for a while even after the input voltage has
gone below the dc back-emf
Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-5
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Single-Phase Diode Rectifier Bridge

Large capacitor at the dc output for filtering and energy


storage
Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-6
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Diode-Rectifier Bridge Analysis

Two simple (idealized) cases to begin with

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-7


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Redrawing Diode-Rectifier Bridge

Two groups, each with two diodes

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-8


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Waveforms with a
purely resistive load
and a purely dc current
at the output

In both cases, the dc-side


voltage waveform is the same

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-9


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Diode-Rectifier Bridge Input Current

Idealized case with a purely dc output current

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-10


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Diode-Rectifier Bridge Analysis with AC-
Side Inductance

Output current is assumed to be purely dc

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-11


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Understanding Current Commutation

Assuming inductance in this circuit to be zero

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-12


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Understanding Current Commutation (cont.)

Inductance in this circuit is included

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-13


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Current Commutation Waveforms

Shows the volt-seconds needed to commutate current


Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-14
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Current Commutation in Full-Bridge Rectifier

Shows the necessary volt-seconds


Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-15
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Understanding Current Commutation

Note the current loops for analysis

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-16


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Rectifier with a dc-
side voltage

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-17


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
DC-Side Voltage and Current Relationship

Zero current corresponds to dc voltage equal to the peak of


the input ac voltage
Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-18
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Effect of DC-Side Current on
THD, PF and DPF

Very high THD at low current values

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-19


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Crest Factor versus the Current Loading

The Crest Factor is very high at low values of current

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-20


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Diode-Rectifier with a Capacitor Filter

Power electronics load is represented by an equivalent load


resistance
Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-21
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Diode Rectifier Bridge

Equivalent circuit for analysis on one-half cycle basis

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-22


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Diode-Bridge Rectifier: Waveforms

Analysis using MATLAB

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-23


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Diode-Bridge Rectifier: Waveforms

Analysis using PSpice

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-24


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Input Line-Current Distortion

Analysis using PSpice

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-25


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Line-Voltage Distortion

PCC is the point of common coupling

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-26


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Line-Voltage Distortion

Distortion in voltage supplied to other loads

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-27


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Voltage Doubler Rectifier

In 115-V position, one capacitor at-a-time is charged from the


input.
Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-28
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
A Three-Phase, Four-Wire System

A common neutral wire is assumed

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-29


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Current in A Three-Phase, Four-Wire
System

The current in the neutral wire can be very high

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-30


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Three-Phase, Full-Bridge Rectifier

Commonly used

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-31


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Three-Phase, Full-Bridge Rectifier: Redrawn

Two groups with three diodes each

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-32


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Three-Phase, Full-Bridge Rectifier Waveforms

Output current is
assumed to be dc

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-33


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Three-Phase, Full-Bridge Rectifier: Input
Line-Current

Assuming output current to be purely dc and zero ac-side


inductance
Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-34
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Three-Phase, Full-Bridge Rectifier

Including the ac-side inductance

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-35


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
3-Phase Rectifier: Current Commutation

output
current is
assumed to be
purely dc

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-36


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Rectifier with a Large Filter Capacitor

Output voltage is assumed to be purely dc


Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-37
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Three-Phase, Full-Bridge Rectifier

THD, PF and DPF as functions of load current


Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-38
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Crest Factor versus the Current Loading

The Crest Factor is very high at low values of current


Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-39
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers
Three-Phase Rectifier Waveforms

PSpice-based analysis

Copyright 2003 Chapter 5 Line-Frequency Diode 5-40


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rectifiers