Você está na página 1de 19

OOGENESIS FOLLICLE MATURATION

BEFORE BIRTH BEFORE BIRTH



nd
Primordial Germ Cells (developed in Epiblast; 2 Week)

MIGRATES TO Yolk Sac

th
MIGRATES TO Developing Gonads (End of 5 Week)

Oogonia (2N)
Primary Oocyte surrounded by thin layer of follicular cells
DIVIDES (by mitosis) TO FORM Primary Oocyte
Primordial Follicle
Mitosis results to INCREASE NO. OF OOGONIA AND
PRIMARY OOCYTE

TOTAL NO. GERM CELLS REACHES MAXIMUM (7
MILLION)

SO, CELL DEATH BEGINS (OOGONIA AND PRIMARY OOCYTE
BECOMES ATRETIC)

Surviving Primary Oocytes undergo MEIOSIS I PROPHASE I
st
DIPLOTINE STAGE (1 arrest)

BIRTH
BIRTH
600,000-800,000 Primary Oocyte


CHILDHOOD (FSH) Surrounding follicular cells change from flat to cuboidal and
gradually become stratified epithelium forming GRANULOSA CELLS.

Primary oocyte becomes Atretic
GRANULOSA CELLS secrete glycoproteins forming ZONA

PELLUCIDA
BEGINNING PUBERTY


Primary Follicle
40,000 Primary Oocyte, fewer than 500 will be ovulated


Cells of THECA FOLLICULA organize into THECA INTERNA and

THECA EXTERNA, formation of Antrum
PUBERTY
PUBERTY

Secondary Follicle (LH AND FSH)^^^^

As Antrum enlarges, granulosa remain intact, thus forming CUMULUC
OOPHORUS
MEIOSIS I CONTINUES AND FINALLY COMPLETED
Graafian Follicle (surge in LH)
st
Secondary Oocyte + 1 Polar Body

ND
METAPHASE II OF MEIOSIS II (2 Arrest)

Fertilization/ No Fertilization

MEIOSIS II CONTINUES AND FINALLY COMPLETED/
secondary oocyte degenerates
OVARIAN CYCLE ^^^^ OVULATION (Follicular/ Proliferative Phase)

HYPOTHALAMUS ESTROGEN

GnRH Maturation of Secondary Follicle

GONADOTROPINS LH SURGE

FSH^^
Secondary follicle forms into Graafian follicle
Stimulates growth and maturation of GRANULOSA CELLS Collagenase activity/ Prostaglandins level

GC Together with THECA INTERNA
Digestion of Collage fibers surrounding the follicles/ Local
Produce ESTROGEN^^ muscular contraction in Ovarian walls

Estrogen stimulates Anterior Pituitary Gland Uterine Tube contract Rhythmically

Produce LH^^ The PRIMARY OOCYTE is extruded from the ovary
together with cumulus oophorus
Stimulates FOLLICULAR CELLS
Fimbrae sweeps over the surface of ovary
Produce PROGESTERONE
SECONDARY OOCYTE is propelled by peristaltic
movement or contraction of Uterine Tube

SECONDARY OOCYTE on uterine tube
^^FSH
Cumulus Oophorus rearrange around the zona pellucida
Nourishes the follicular cells of PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLE,
saving the 25-20 Primary follicle from dying and become Forming CORONA RADIATA**
atretic

^^ESTROGEN

Uterine Endometrium enter FOLLICULAR/PROLIFERATIVE
PHASE
/ Thinning of cervix mucus to allow passage of sperm

^^LH

Maturation promoting factor / Follicular Rupture and
Ovulation


Maturation of secondary follicle and completion of Meiosis
I
FERTILIZATION **CORPUS LUTEUM (SECRETORY PHASE)

Sperm If oocyte is not fertilized



Passes the Vagina
Remains of the Ruptured Follicle (GRANULOSA CELLS +
Passes the Cervix THECA INTERNA)

Muscular contraction of uterus and uterine tube Vascularized by surrounding vessels
Uterine tube (2 to 7 hours)
Develops into LUTEAN CELLS
Isthmus of Uterine tube
CORPUS LUTEUM
(Sperm becomes less motile and cease their migration)
CORPUS LUTEUM reaches maximum development
CUMULUS OOPHORUS produce chemo-attractants approx. 9 days after ovulation
stimulating motility of sperm
CORPUS LUTEUM shrinks and produce PROGESTERONE
Sperm in AMPULLA
Becomes CORPUS ALBICANS
CAPACITATION
(conditioning of the female reproductive tract; involves Venules and sinusoidal space become packed with blood
epithelial interaction between sperm and mucosal surface cells/ extensive diapedesis in blood tissues
of the tube)
Shedding of Endometrium (Menstruation)
Glycoprotein coat and seminal plasma proteins are
removed from the acrosome of spermatozoa

SPERM passes through If oocyte is fertilized
CORONA RADIATA
Remains of the Ruptured Follicle (GRANULOSA CELLS +
Acrosome reaction THECA INTERNA)

Sperm passes through ZONA PELLUCIDA Vascularized by surrounding vessels
(Alters the property of ZONA Pellucida, preventing other
sperm from entering) Develops into LUTEAN CELLS

FUSION OF SPERM AND EGG CELL MEMBRANES CORPUS LUTEUM

CORPUS LUTEUM does not degenerate
(Under influence of HCG)


Develops into CORPUS LUTEUM of PREGNANCY

th
Produce PROGESTERONE (until end 4 month that the
uterus is ready for implantation)

IMPLANTATION

Uterine glands and arteries become coiled and tissues
become succulent
CLEAVAGE SPERMATOGENESIS

PRIMORDIAL GERM CELLS is at Sex cords At Birth


Uterine Tube

2 Cell Stage
Before Puberty Sex cord obtain lumen and form
Seminiferous tubules
4 Cell Stage (formation of blastomeres)

COMPACTION (Blastomeres maximize their contact with
each other; segregates inner cell mass from outer cell PG develops into SPERMATOGONIAL STEM CELLS
mass)


8 Cell Stage Differentiate to SPERMATOGONIA TYPE A

16 Cell Stage Morula

Morula enters Uterine Cavity Divides by mitosis to form SPERMATOGONIA TYPE B

Fluid begins to penetrate zona pellucida

Divides by mitosis to form PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTE
Forming BLASTOCOELE

Formation of inner cell mass and outer cell mass
Meiosis I prolonged
BLASTOCYST

Zona pellucida disappears
Puberty

IMPLANTATION (Trophoblastic cells penetrate epithelial
cells of Uterine Mucosa)
Meiosis I completed

Forms SECONDARY SPERMATOCYTE

Meiosis 2 completed

Forms SPERMATIDS

Spermiogenesis (1. Formation of acrosome, 2.


Condensation of nucleus, 3. Formation of neck,
midpiece and tail and 4. Shedding of cytoplasm)

Mature Spermatozoa

Lumen of Seminiferous Tubules

Epididymis
nd
2 Week of Development (FORMATION OF BILAMINAR DISC)

Day 8 Day 9 Day 11 and 12 Day 13

Blastocyst attaches its outer cell mass in Blastocyst is partially embedded Blastocyst is completely
the epithelium of Endometrial Stroma in the endometrial stroma embedded in endometrial stroma

Blastocyst forms: Penetration defect is closed by Surface epithelium almost


o Trophoblast (Outer Cell Mass) FIBRIN COAGULUM entirely covers the original defect
Cytotrophoblast in the uterine wall
(mononucleated)

Syncytiotrophoblast Appearance of LACUNAE in Syncytiotrophoblast penetrate


(multinucleated) syncytiotrophoblast deeper into the stroma and
erodes endothelial lining Primitive Yolk Sac becomes the
Blastocyst cavity becomes Maternal blood enters lacunae SECONDARY/ DEFINITE YOLK
o Embryoblast (Inner Cell Mass) PRIMITIVE YOLK SAC Establishment of SAC
Hypoblast UTEROPLACENTAL
(Cuboidal cells) CIRCULATION
Epiblast Hypoblast forms the Extraembryonic coelom expands
(Columnar cells) EXOCOELOMIC MEMBRANE Exocoelomic Membrane to form CHORIONIC CAVITY
Amnioblast (Heusers Membrane) lining of becomes EXTRAEMBRYONIC
primitive yolk sac MESODERM
o Blastocyst cavity o SOMATOPLEUR (Somatic
Mesoderm)
o SPLANCHNOPLEUR (Visceral
Mesoderm)
rd
3 WEEK (GASTRULATION & NEURULATION)

Day 14 Day 16 - 18
Formation of PRIMITIVE STREAK Formation of NOTOCHORD (Basis of axial skeleton)
Migration of Epiblast cells Elongation
o Towards the hypoblast ENDODERM o Cranial end (from prechordal plate)
o Epiblast and newly created endoderm MESODERM o Caudal end are added (in primitive pit)
o Remains in the epiblast ECTODERM o Primitive pit forms indentation in the epiblast neurenteric canal
*These cells spread laterally and cranially temporarily connects the amniotic and yolk sac cavities
o CLOACAL MEMBRANE is formed at the caudal end

Mesoderm differentiates into:


o PARAXIAL MESODERM (midline)
o LATERAL PLATE MESODERM (lateral)
Mesoderm covering the Amnion Somatic or Parietal Mesoderm
Mesoderm covering the Yolk Sac Splanchnic or Visceral Mesoderm
Both mesoderm forms the INTRAEMBRYONIC CAVITY
o INTERMEDIATE MESODERM (connects paraxial and lateral plate mesoderm)
NEURULATION
Day 19 Day 20 Day 23 Day 25 Day 28

Formation of NEURAL Neuroectoderm Neural folds fuse cranially and Closure of the Closure of
PLATE becomes elevated caudally forming the NEURAL ANTERIOR POSTERIOR
forming the NEURAL TUBE NEUROPORE (18 NEUROPORE (25
FOLDS 20 somite stage) somite stage)
th
4 WEEK (ORGANOGENESIS)

ECTODERM
NEURAL TUBE NEURAL CREST CELLS

o Cranial region forms the BRAIN VESICLES They migrate into :


Prosencephalon (FOREBRAIN) o CRANIAL NEURAL FOLDS to form:
o Telencephalon CEREBRUM CRANIOFACIAL SKELETON
o Diencephalon OPTIC CUP, THALAMUS, HYPOTHALAMUS and NEURONS FOR CRANIAL GANGLIA
EPIPHYSIS GLIAL CELLS

Mesencephalon (MIDBRAIN) o Mesoderm in 2 pathways:


DORSAL PATHWAY
RHOMBOCEPHALON (HINDBRAIN) MELONOCYTE
o Metencephalon CEREBELLUM, PONS VENTRAL PATHWAYS
o Myelencephalon MEDULLA OBLONGATA SENSORY GANGLIA
ENTERIC NEURONS
SCHWANN CELLS
o Caudal region forms the SPINAL CHORD ADRENAL MEDULLA CELLS
MESODERM
PARAXIAL MESODERM LATERAL PLATE MESODERM INTERMEDIATE MESODERM
SOMITES SOMITOMERES Somatic mesoderm Splanchnic Metanephric Ureteric Bud
Mesoderm Mesodern
SCLEROTOME DERMATOME MYOTOME

o Ventromedial forms o Remains in o Dorsomedial & o Cranially (in w/ ectoderm w/ embryonic o Bowmans o Ureter
the cartilage, tendons the middle Ventrolateral association with dermis of skin in endoderm wall capsule
and bones forms the forms the neural plate) forms body wall, of Gut Tube o Renal
dermis of segmental the NEUROMERES connective tissue o Proximal Pelvis
o Vertebrae back muscles and then into of limbs Hemangioblast Convulated
Primary Curves MESENCHYME OF blood islands Tubule
THORACIC CURVE DERMOMYOTOME THE HEAD w/ sclerotome and blood cells o Major
SACRAL CURVE myotome costal Calyx
Secondary Curves o Caudally to form the cartilage, limb o Stroma of glands o Loop of
CERVICAL CURVE Ventrolateral lip SOMITES which will muscles and Henle o Minor
(develops when a o INFRAHYOID, ABDOMINAL form the AXIAL most body wall o Visceral muscles, Calyx
child learns to hold WALL, LIMB MUSCLES SKELETON muscles connective tissue o Distal
up his head) and Peritoneal Convulated
LUMBAR CURVE Dorsolateral lip components of Tubule
(develops when a child o Muscles of the back, surround in the gut
learns to walk) shoulder girdle and intraembryonic
intercostal muscles cavity
o Intervertebral disc mesothelial and
serous
o Together with Lateral membranes
Plate mesoderm forms
the COSTAL MANUBRIUM,
CARTILAGE STERNEBRAE
XIPHOID
o BONY PART OF THE PROCESS
RIBS
Together with
neural crest
cells form
SMOOTH
MUSLES
ENDODERM
FOREGUT MIDGUT - HINDGUT
Dorsal portion of the Respiratory Diverticulum Cephalic limb of the primary intestinal loops DISTAL 1/3 OF TRANSVERSE COLON
forms the ESOPHAGUS develop into DISTAL PART OF DUODENUM,
JEJUNUM AND PART OF ILEUM DESCENDING COLON
Fusiform dilation of the foregut forms the
STOMACH Caudal limb of the primary intestinal loops SIGMOID
becomes the LOWER PORTION OF ILEUM,
CECUM, APPENDIXASCENDING COLON AND RECTUM
The terminal part of the foregut and the cephalic PROXIMAL 2/3 OF TRANSVERSE COLON
part of the midgut forms the DUODENUM
*formed from rapid elongation of the gut and its mesentery UPPER PART OF ANAL CANAL (derived from
Outgrowth of the endodermal epithelium at the endoderm of hindgut and ectoderm of
distal end of the foregut forms the LIVER o proctodeum)

INTERNAL LINING OF BLADDER AND


Small ventral outgrowth formed by the bile duct URETHRA
forms the GALLBLADDER
*degeneration of cloacal membrane establish continuity
o Formed from the two buds of the endodermal between upper and lower part of anal canal
lining of duodenum is the PANCREAS

o Epithelial lining of digestive tract


o Hepatocytes, endocrine and exocrine glands
of pancreas

Orientation of BODY PARTS


LIMBS STOMACH DUODENUM
90 DEGREE CLOCKWISE ROTATION ROTATION OF STOMACH ON
st
o FORELIMBS (1 ) AROUND THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS ANTEROPOSTERIOR AXIS
Rotates 90 degree laterally
Extensor muscles lie laterally and posteriorly, o Left side of the stomach face anteriorly o Duodenum forms a C shaped loop and
thumbs on lateral side o Right side of the stomach face posteriorly rotates to the right
nd o Greater Curvature of the Stomach (formed o Swings duodenum from midline to right of
o HINDLIMBS (2 ) because posterior wall of stomach grows faster abdominal cavity
Rotates 90 degree medially
than anterior wall)
Extensor muscles at the anterior, toes at the medial
side
ROTATION ON THE ANTEROPOSTERIOR
SEGMENTATION OF THE LIMBS AXIS
First circular constriction separates distal segment
(foot/hand) from proximal segment (legs) o Caudal or pyloric part moves right, upward
Second circular constriction divides proximal o Cephalic or cardiac portion moves left
portion into two segments (the thigh and the legs) downward
oFINGERS and TOES
Distal portion thickens and forms APICAL ECTODERMAL RIDGE (AER)
AER inducts the adjacent mesenchyme causing it to remain undifferentiated, rapidly, proliferating cells called PROGRESSIVE ZONE
Cell death in AER separate ridges into 5 parts
o FEET/HANDS
Terminal portion becomes flattened to form HAND AND FOOT PLATES

PHARYNGEAL ARCH
ST ND RD TH TH
1 PHARYNGEAL ARCH 2 PHARYNGEAL ARCH 3 PHARYNGEAL ARCH 4 AND 6 PHARYNGEAL ARCH
(Hyoid arch)

o Maxillary Process (Dorsal) o STAPES, STYLOID PROCESS, o LOWER PART OF THE BODY o THYROID, CRICOID,
PREMAXILLA, MAXILLA, TEMPORAL BONE, OF HYOID BONE, GREATER ARYTENOID, CORNICULATE
ZYGOMATIC BONE, part of STYLOHYOID LIGAMENT, HORN OF HYOID BONE CUNEIFORM CARTILAGE OF
TEMPORAL BONE LESSER HORN and UPPER LARYNX
PART OF THE BODY OF
o Mandibular Process (Ventral) HYOID BONE o SUPERIOR LARYNGEAL
INCUS, MALLEUS BRANCH OF VAGUS NERVE
(4TH Arch)
o TRIGEMINAL NERVE
o FACIAL NERVE o GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL
NERVE o RECURRENT LARYNGEAL
BRANCH OF VAGUS NERVE
(6TH Arch)

1ST PHARYNGEAL CLEFTS


o EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS

PAHRYANGEAL POUCH
ST ND RD TH
1 PHARYNGEAL POUCH 2 PHARYNGEAL POUCH 3 PHARYNGEAL POUCH 4 PHARYNGEAL POUCH
Palatine Tonsils
o TYMPANIC MEMBRANE o INFERIOR PARATHYROID
(Distal) GLAND (Dorsal) o SUPERIOR PARATHYROID
o EUSTACHIAN TUBE o THYMUS (Ventral) GLAND (Dorsal)
(Proximal) o ULTIMOBRANCHIAL BODY
(Ventral)
Parafollicular Cells of Thyroid
Gland
Calcitonin
TONGUE
TH
MESODERM OF 1ST PHARYNGEAL ARCH MESODERM OF 2ND, 3RD AND Posterior Part of the 4
4TH PHARYNGEAL ARCH Arch

LATERAL LINGUAL 1ST MEDIAL SWELLING 2ND MEDIAN SWELLING 3rd MEDIAN SWELLING
SWELLING

Anterior 2/3 of Anterior 1/3 of TONGUE Posterior Root of TONGUE EPIGLOTTIS


TONGUE

MAXILLARY PROMINENCE FRONTONASAL PROMINENCE MANDIBULAR PROMINENCE

Merge with 2 Merge with the INTERMAXILLARY SEGMENT Merge across the midline
MEDIAL
NASAL
PROMINENCE

UPPER LIP UPPER JAW LABIAL PALATAL LATERAL NASAL MEDIAL NASAL LOWER LIP
COMPONENT COMPONENT COMPONENT PROMINENCE PROMINENCE

4 INCICOR PHILTRUM OF TRIANGULAR SIDE OF NOSE AND CREST AND TIP


TEETH UPPER LIP PRIMARY CHEEKS OF NOSE
PALATE
nd
2 MONTH TO BIRTH

Month Development
nd
2 Month
th th
(5 week 8 week) INCREASE IN HEAD SIZE
LIMBS AND HEAD FORELIMBS APPEAR as paddle shaped buds
HINDLIMBS appear later
RD th th
3 Month ( 9 12 week)
FULL DEVELOPMENT OF Slowdown in the growth of the head compared to the rest of the body
ORGANS FACE becomes more HUMAN LIKE
EYES from lateral position moves to the ventral portion of the head
Ears comes to lie at their definite position in the head
Limbs reach their relative length
Primary ossification are present in long bones and skull
External genitalia develop to such degree that the sex of the fetus can be determined
Large swelling (Herniation) has withdrawn into the abdominal cavity
th th th
4 ( 13 16 weeks)
LENGTH Fetus lengthens rapidly
Weight increase a little
Fetus is covered with fine hair (lanugo), eyebrows are visible
th th th
5 Month (17 20 weeks)
WEIGHT Movements of fetus can be felt by the mother
Weight increase rapidly
Fetus swallows its own amniotic fluid (400 mL a day) FETAL urine is added daily to the amnion
th ST TH
6 Month (21 24 weeks)
RED SKIN Skin is reddish and wrinkled because lack of underlying connective tissue
Fetus born in this month cannot survive since Respiratory and Nervous System has not yet sufficiently differentiated
th th
7 Months (25 - 28 weeks)
WHITE SKIN Fetus obtains well rounded contours as a result of fat deposition
The skin is covered with whitish fatty substance (Vernix caseosa) composed of secretory products of sebaceous glands
th
9 Month ( 33th - 36 weeks)
FETUS READY FOR DELIVERY Skull has the largest circumference of all parts of the body
CHANGES IN THE TROPHOBLAST/ PLACENTA
nd TH TH
2 MONTH 4 MONTH 5 MONTH
PLACENTA ENLARGES with growth of the fetus
Cytotrophoblastic cells invades Cytotrophoblastic cells and connective tissue cells and expansion of Uterus not due to further
(ENDOVASCULAR INVASION) the terminal ends disappears due to increase in diameter of villi penetration into maternal tissues but due to
of SPIRAL ARTERIES The SYNCYTIUM and ENDOTHELIAL WALL OF arborisation of existing villi
This transforms SPIRAL ARTERIES from small BLOOD VESSELS are the only layers that
diameter, high resistance vessels to large separate maternal and fetal circulation
diameter, low resistance vessels Villi covers the surface of the CHORION
Spiral arteries release blood into the Villi grow and expand to form CHORION
INTERVILLOUS SPACE derived from lacunae of FRONDOSUM
Syncytiotrophoblast; filled with maternal blood Villi on abembryonic region degenerate forming
CHORION LEVAE
CHRORION LEVAE comes in contact with
DECIDUA PARIETALIS on the opposite side of
the uterus and fuse, obliterating the uterine
lumen
Amnion expands, and come in contact with
Chorion, obliterating the CHORIONIC CAVITY;
yolk sac shrinks and gradually obliterated
Placenta produce:
o PROGESTERONE to maintain pregnancy
(synthesized in SYNCYTIAL TROPHOBLAST)
o ESTROGEN just before end of pregnancy to
promote uterine development and growth of
mammary glands
o hCG to maintain Corpus luteum
o Placental lactogen which gives fetus priority on
maternal blood glucose and makes mother
diabetogenic; promotes breast development for
PARTURITION
EFFACEMENT DELIVERY OF THE FETUS DELIVERY OF THE PLACENTAL MEMBRANES

o Uterine contracts, amniotic sac s forced against o Uterus contracts o Uterine contractions
the cervical canal like a wedge o Increased intraabdominal pressurefrom o Abdominal muscle contraction
o If memebrane is ruptured, pressure will be exerted contraction of Abdominal Muscles
by the presenting part of the fetus, usually the
HEAD

PLACENTA

Placenta is composed of: CHORIONIC VESSELS converge toward the umbilical cord
CHORION is covered by AMNINON
CHORION FRONDOSUM (Fetal Component) derived from TROPHOBLAST 4 Layers of Placental Membrane:
and EXTRAEMBRYONIC MESODERM
o Bordered by CHORIONIC PLATE Endothelial lining of Fetal Vessels
Connective Tissue on Villous Core
DECIDUA BASALIS (Maternal Component) derived from UTERINE Cytotrophoblastic layer
ENDOMETRIUM Syncytium
o Bordered by DECIDUAL PLATE The Amniotic Fluid
o Contains compartments called COTYLEDONS maintain its contact with
INTERVILLOUS SPACE through DECIDUAL SEPTA Derived from maternal blood
Function: Produced by amniotic cells
Clear, watery fluid replaced every 3 hours
Exchange of gases (simple diffusion) Normal amount:
Exchange of nutrients o 10 weeks 30 mL
Transmission of Maternal Antibodies o 20 weeks 450 mL
Hormone Production (hCG , progesterone, estrogen and placental lactogen) o 37 weeks 800 1000 mL

Full Term Placenta: Function:

Discoid Absorbs jolt


15 to 25 cm in diameter Prevents adherence of embryo to the amnion
3 cm thick Allow fetal movements
Weighs 500 to 600 grams
Form from uterine wall at birth The Umbilical Cord
Expelled 30 minutes after birth
Distally, contains :
On MATERNAL SIDE:
o Yolk Stalk
Contains 15 TO 20 cotyledons covered by decidua basalis o Umbilical vessels
On FETAL SIDE: Proximally contains:
o Intestinal loop
PLACENTA is covered by CHORIONIC PLATE o Remnant of Allantois
th
Resource: Langmans MedicalEmbryology, 11 Edition

Compiled and condensed by: Ma. Theresa Monje

August 21, 2012