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CONTENTS

TOPIC 1 GEOMETRY 1

Outcomes 1

Topic Summary 66

Checklist 69

VOLUME 72

Outcomes 72

Dimensional Objects

Checklist 107

ANSWERS 109

REFERENCES 127

1 MAT0511/004

GEOMETRY

OUTCOMES

After studying this topic you should be able to do the following.

distance.

zontal line. Recognise objects that have reflection symmetry.

tating an object through a given angle between 0 and 360 .

and the resulting corresponding, alternate and cointerior angles.

I Draw the diagonals (if they exist) and altitudes of any polygon.

or angles of congruent polygons.

similar polygons are in proportion.

required when a given object needs to be enlarged or reduced.

2

their angles.

I Know and apply the four sets of conditions that triangles must satisfy in

order to be congruent. The conditions are referred to as SSS, SAS, AAS

(or ASA) and RHS.

I Recognise triangles that are similar. Use the fact that corresponding sides

of similar triangles are in proportion to calculate distance or length.

or equal in length.

als.

the diagonals intersect at right angles, and the longer of the di-

agonals bisects the shorter diagonal.

In a parallelogram prove that

the diagonals bisect each other

opposite sides have equal length

opposite angles have equal measure.

In a rhombus (in addition to the properties of parallelograms) prove

that

the diagonals bisect each other at right angles

the diagonals bisect the vertices.

In a rectangle (in addition to the properties of parallelograms) prove

that

the diagonals have equal length.

In a square (in addition to the properties of a rhombus) prove that

the diagonals have equal length.

I Use the terminology of circles: centre, radius, chord, diameter, arc, semi

circle, tangent, central angle subtended by an arc.

3 MAT0511/004

1.1

LINES AND ANGLES

1.1A

WHAT GEOMETRY MEANS

Geometry is the branch of mathematics that considers the size and shape of

things. From as early as 2 000 BC there are records of geometric activity in vari-

ous parts of the world. The Babylonians knew how to find the areas of rectangles

and some triangles, and volumes of various objects. They were also responsible

for dividing the circumference of a circle into 360 equal parts.

land areas and volumes of harvested grain. Construction of the pyramids in

Egypt required extensive geometric understanding. By the time of Euclid, about

300 BC, the method of making a sequence of deductions from certain initial

clearly stated assumptions was a wellestablished mathematical practice. This

The Elements consists of

way of thinking forms the basis of Euclidean geometry and other branches of

13 separate books which in-

mathematics.

volve the study of number

theory and elementary alge-

When we hear the word geometry, most of us think about Euclidean geome-

bra, as well as geometry. Six

try. Euclid was a professor of mathematics at the University of Alexandria (in

of the books deal with much

Egypt) but it seems that he originally studied in Athens. His bestknown work

of the plane and solid geom-

is Elements which has had a significant influence on scientific thinking.

etry that has formed part of

secondary school mathemat-

Today we still study aspects of Euclidean geometry at school, although in later

ics.

mathematics we will encounter nonEuclidean geometries. At school level,

Transformation geometry transformation geometry is also sometimes studied. Transformation geometry

involves three different processes, namely translation, reflection and rotation.

We describe each of these processes by means of an example.

1.1.1

page.

4

Figure 1.1.1

Translation We say that this design has been created by horizontally shifting (or sliding or

translating) the original elephant. The distance that the original motif is shifted

may vary. For example, in Figure 1.1.2 if we translate the circle motif horizon-

tally by 2 cm, we have a pattern of separate circles; however, if we translate it

The translation distance ap- only a very short distance, we have an overlapping pattern.

plies to any point of the mo-

tif.

Figure 1.1.2

discussion after Activity 4.1.1 deals with the symmetry of a graph in the yaxis.

Look at the butterfly in the figure below.

Figure 1.1.3

Is it possible to draw a line through the middle of the butterfly that divides the

butterfly into two identical halves? If you fold the figure along a vertical line

through the middle of the butterfly you will see that the one half lies directly on

top of the other half. We say that the one half of the butterfly is the mirror image

of the other half, and that the vertical line is the axis of symmetry of this figure.

A figure may have more than This figure thus has a vertical axis of symmetry. In Figure 1.1.4 we see an object

one axis of symmetry. with a horizontal axis of symmetry.

Figure 1.1.4

5 MAT0511/004

Figure 1.1.5 shows an object which we can fold along many possible lines that

pass through its centre in such a way that one half lies directly on top of the other

half. The object thus has an infinite number of axes of symmetry.

Figure 1.1.5

Reflection symmetry The objects in Figures 1.1.3, 1.1.4 and 1.1.5 are all symmetric about at least one

axis of symmetry. One half of the object reflects the other half in this line. For

Reflection symmetry is also this reason we say that the objects in these figures all have reflection symmetry.

called line symmetry. We can create patterns by reflecting any given object in a certain line. We may,

for example, reflect objects vertically, or horizontally. To grasp more easily

what this means, put your pencil down on a piece of paper.

Now pick it up at the point, keeping the blunt end on the paper, and let it lie down

flat again pointing the other way.

We can continue moving in the same direction as often as we choose to. In the

sketch below we have reflected the pencil three times in a vertical line.

1.1.2

6

(a) Start with a vertical line through the right hand corner, then reflect the

motif five times moving to the right with no spaces between successive

motifs.

(b) Start with a horizontal line through the bottom corner, then reflect the motif

five times moving downwards with no spaces between successive motifs.

(c) Reflect the motif once in a vertical line (as in (a)), then reflect the resulting

shape once in a horizontal line through the lower corners.

SOLUTION

(a)

(b)

(c)

7 MAT0511/004

1.1.3

Consider the motif below. Create a design in the following way. First reflect the

motif downwards in a horizontal line through the bottom corner. Then translate

the resulting shape horizontally 7 times by intervals of 5 mm.

SOLUTION

Rotational symmetry We can also turn or rotate objects about a central point. If they look exactly

the same after the turn as they did before the turn, we say they have rotational

symmetry. The amount of rotation is the angle through which the object is

We discuss angles in the rotated, and it is measured in degrees. Earlier (when we discussed pie graphs in

next study unit. Topic 7 of Book 3) we mentioned that angles can be measured in degrees, and

that one complete revolution measures 360 . Hence, for example, a full circle

rotation measures 360 , a half circle rotation is a turn through 180 , and a quarter

circle rotation is a turn through 90 . When objects have rotational symmetry, the

angle of rotation will always be less than 360 , since any object will look the

same after a turn through one complete revolution.

1.1.4

The object below has rotational symmetry of 180 since it looks the same

every time we turn it through one half of a revolution about its central point.

Figure 1.1.6

8

Do you see why the angle of rotation of the object in Example 1.1.4 is not 90 ?

If we rotate it 90 (i.e. through a quarter of a revolution) we obtain the following

figure.

1.1.5

Through how many degrees can you rotate the object below to obtain the identi-

cal object?

SOLUTION

You can turn this 90 or 180 or 270 and still have exactly the same object.

1.1.1

(ii) reflection symmetry.

9 MAT0511/004

cloths, walls, covers of books. Can you identify the basic motif used to

create the design? See whether each motif has reflection or rotational sym-

metry. If it has rotational symmetry, through how many degrees can the

motif be rotated? If it has reflection symmetry, in what line(s) can the

motif be reflected?

(c) Draw a capital letter E such as the one shown below. Fold along the dotted

line. Does it have line symmetry or rotational symmetry?

trical about the horizontal line shown. It does not have rotational symmetry, since

we cannot rotate it through any angle other than 360 and still have exactly the

same object.

1.1B

LINES AND ANGLES

You have already worked with the number line, which we use to represent the set

of real numbers. (See Book 1, Topic 1.) We have also seen (in Book 3, Topic 1)

how this association (between points on a line and real numbers) was extended to

ordered pairs of real numbers that represent points in the Cartesian plane. When

we look at points, lines and curves in the Cartesian plane, we can describe their

behaviour in algebraic terms by using equations.

10

We now look at points and lines separately from the Cartesian plane. We are

thus no longer considering an algebraic description, but a geometric description,

which treats these entities as physical objects that we can see and measure. There

is obviously a big difference between a point on a number line and a point

on a page in your book. On the number line there are, for example, infinitely

many numbers between 0 and 1. A few of them are shown in Figure 1.1.7(a).

0 _81 _41 _1

2

1

Figure 1.1.7(a)

In the Cartesian plane we can consider the points (1, 0), 21 , 0 ; then 41 , 0 , 18 , 0 ,

and so on (see Figure 1.1.7(b)), and we soon realise that this process can also

continue indefinitely.

( _41 , 0 )

( _81 , 0 ) ( _21 , 0 ) ( 1, 0)

Figure 1.1.7(b)

However, if we physically draw a line segment, and use even a very fine pencil,

we will soon cover the number line with the dots that represent numbers; how-

ever there will be many numbers not yet shown, for which there is no space on

the number line.

A point We In use the word point in many different ways. When we look in a Math-

ematics Dictionary we are even more confused. We read that a point is an

undefined element of geometry. Euclid called it something that has position

but no nonzero dimensions. This directly contradicts the Concise Oxford En-

glish dictionarys definition of a point as a very small mark on a surface. What

is the point of all this? (Yet another use of the word!)

11 MAT0511/004

the propositions formulated by Euclid

We will not study any of Euclids propositions, but it is helpful to remember the

role that they play.

Terminology In many sections of the MAT011K books we have used words such as point,

line, line segment, angle, and so on. We now give the specific mathematical

meaning of some of these words.

Definition 1.1.1

A line is a collection of points in a plane.

A line It extends indefinitely in two directions.

It has no width.

The line AB

Figure 1.1.8

Note that when we use the word line we mean straight line. We denote the line

by means of any two points on the line. Some authors use the notation AB where

the doubleheaded arrow indicates that the line continues indefinitely in both

directions.

12

Definition 1.1.2

A line segment A line segment is part of a line.

It has two endpoints.

Its length is the distance between the two endpoints.

Figure 1.1.9

authors

use the notation AB to denote the line segment AB ; they

may also use AB to denote the length of the line segment. We use the notation

AB to denote both the line segment and its length.

Definition 1.1.3

A ray A ray is part of a line.

It has one endpoint.

It extends indefinitely in one direction.

B

A

The ray AB

Figure 1.1.10

Some authors use the notation AB to denote a ray. We denote the ray by first writ-

ing down its endpoint (starting point), then any other point on it. For example, if

the points C, D or E also lie on the ray shown in Figure 1.1.10, then

AB, AC, AD and AE

all denote the same ray.

13 MAT0511/004

Since the context usually makes it quite clear whether we are dealing with lines,

rays, line segments, or the lengths of line segments, we avoid the sometimes

confusing notation

AB for line

AB for ray

AB for line segment

AB for the length of the line segment.

From now on we will use only AB in each case, and we depend on the context

to make it clear which meaning is intended.

When we consider the different line segments (or lines or rays) we have three

possible situations. The line segments

I are coincident

We can also use the phrase I intersect in one point (in which case they may be perpendicular)

cut each other instead of

the word intersect. I are parallel to each other.

B

B

G D

C A

B

A

F

A D C

line segments intersect once, at F. line segment CD.

Line segments EF and AB We write AB k CD.

intersect once, at G. The arrows denote parallel

EF is perpendicular to AB lines.

and we write EF AB.

The little block at G indicates

the right angle.

Figure 1.1.11

14

In Figure 1.1.11(b) we see that the line segments EF and CD intersect the line

segment AB in different ways. The difference can be considered in terms of the

angles that are made at the points of intersection.

Definition 1.1.4

An angle is formed by rotating a ray about its fixed

endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

Note that the plural of vertex

The amount of rotation is the measure of the angle.

is vertices.

This is a mathematical con- The direction of rotation determines whether the measurement of the angle is

vention, chosen to ensure positive or negative. If the ray is rotated in an anticlockwise direction, the

consistency. We will not measurement is positive; if it is rotated in a clockwise direction, the measure-

consider negative angles in

this module. ment is negative.

We can see from Figure 1.1.11(b) that whenever two lines (or line segments or

rays) meet at some point such as G or F, they form angles whose vertex is that

point.

positive negative

angle angle

In the Concise Oxford Dictionary the word angle is given as space between

two meeting lines or planes; inclination of two lines to each other; corner; sharp

projection and a few other options. The word angle is derived from the Latin

word angulus which means corner.

C

B2

vertex B1 D

Figure 1.1.12

The angle shown in Figure 1.1.12 is obtained by rotating the ray with endpoint

A in an anticlockwise direction. AB1 is the starting position of the ray, and it is

rotated about the endpoint A so that the end position is the ray AB2 .

15 MAT0511/004

I CAD (or DAC, B2 AB1 , CAB1 etc., using A and any other two points, one

on one ray, the other on the other ray; note that A is always written in the

middle)

I CAD (or DAC, B2 AB1 , etc., using A and any other two points on the

rays; once again A is written in the middle)

In Figure 1.1.12 it is quite clear what we mean when we speak about the angle

A, or A. However, in Figure 1.1.13 we see that it is necessary to be more specific.

P Q R

Figure 1.1.13

In Figure 1.1.13 there are two different angles at the point Q. We have SQP and

SQR, and hence if we write just Q it will not be clear what angle we are referring

to.

Angle Measurement We mentioned previously that angles are measured in degrees. One complete

There are also other ways rotation of a ray about its endpoint is a rotation of 360 degrees. We denote this

of measuring angles, but we by 360 , and we call this one revolution.

will not discuss those here.

360o

Figure 1.1.14

In our notation we do not always specifically distinguish between the angle itself

and the measure of the angle. Suppose the angle SQP in Figure 1.1.13 measures

60 . We then usually write

SQP = 60

whereas it is more correct to write

16

1 minute = 60 seconds (we write 6000 ).

such as 35 200 1500 . As in the case of time, where we do not work within a dec-

imal system, we need to remember that 40, 6 means 40 and 0, 6 of one degree.

We have

6

= 10 60 minutes

= 36 minutes.

When we have a diagram in which several angles occur, we often use capital

letters to represent the vertices and small letters to indicate the measures of the

angles in degrees. See Figure 1.1.15.

A

B

a

e

E b

d cQ

C

D

Figure 1.1.15

From Figure 1.1.15 we understand that the measure of AQB is a, the measure of

BQC is b, and so on, where a, b, c, d and e represent specific numbers of degrees.

Since one revolution is 360 , we know that a + b + c + d + e = 360 . Although

we recognise that a, b, etc., represent measurements, it is often convenient to

refer to angle a, angle b, etc.

we do not usually put arrows on the ends of the line segments to denote rays. It

is also clear that angles occur whenever lines or line segments intersect, so we

need not restrict ourselves to thinking of angles only in terms of rays.

17 MAT0511/004

Revolution; straight and Angles are classified according to their measures. We have three special names

right angles for three specific measurements.

o

360

I 360 one revolution

o

180

I 180 a straight angle

o

90

I 90 a right angle

Acute, obtuse and reflex We have another three names which describe angles. In these three cases they

angles are classified according to their measures relative to 90 , 180 and 360 .

a A

O

B a

A

O

a O A

everyday make use of right angles. Walls are usually at right angles to floors.

Shelves need to be at right angles to the wall, i.e. perpendicular to the wall (and

parallel to the floor).

Let us consider two lines in the same plane that are not coincident or parallel.

When they cut each other they form angles of different measurements at the point

of intersection.

18

I The lines can intersect in at most one point. See Figure 1.1.16(a).

I If two lines in a plane are perpendicular to the same line, they are parallel

to each other. See Figure 1.1.16(b), where AB k CD since AB PQ and

CD PQ.

A C

A D

P Q

C B B D

(a) (b)

Figure 1.1.16

Adjacent, supplementary, We have looked at some names given to specific angles, and we now consider

complementary and some other angle names based on the relationships between two or more angles.

vertically opposite angles

I We call two angles adjacent if they have a common vertex and a common

ray.

A C D

B

ABC and CBD are adjacent angles with common vertex B and common

ray BC.

to 180 .

A

B

120o

O

o

60

C D

AOB and COD are supplementary angles since AOB + COD = 180 . We

are usually more interested in adjacent supplementary angles, since to-

gether they form a straight angle.

19 MAT0511/004

180o

P S

Q

RQP and RQS are adjacent supplementary angles, since they are adja-

cent (common vertex Q and common ray QR ) and supplementary (since

PQR and RQS form the straight angle PQS ).

I We call two (or more) angles complementary angles if their measures add

up to 90 .

D

E

o o

A 60 30 C

B

We also have adjacent complementary angles, where the measures of

two (or more) adjacent angles add up to 90 .

P

R

S

Q

PQR and RQS are adjacent complementary angles, since they have a com-

mon vertex, Q, and a common ray, QR, and PQR + RQS = 90 .

I We say that two angles are vertically opposite each other if they are non

adjacent angles formed by two intersecting lines. The measures of two

vertically opposite angles are equal.

M Q

P N

Similarly, M OP = QON.

20

Further relationships arise when we consider two parallel lines. Look at Figure

1.1.17, which shows two parallel lines both cut by a line AB.

B

The line AB is sometimes

referred to as a transversal p1 P p EC k FD;

E p4 p

2 C

line. 3 pi and ri

(i = 1, 2, 3, 4)

r1 R r2 represent the

F r4 r3 D

measures (in

degrees) of the

A

angles shown.

Figure 1.1.17

Corresponding, alternate

and cointerior angles

We also have: if correspon- I BPC and BRD are called corresponding angles. If two parallel lines are

ding angles are equal, then cut by another line, the corresponding angles are equal. Thus we have

the lines are parallel. p2 = r2 . Similarly p3 = r3 ; p4 = r4 and p1 = r1 .

The converse of the se- I E PR and PRD are called alternate angles. If two parallel lines are cut

cond statement is also true: by another line, the alternate angles are equal. Thus p4 = r2 . Similarly

if alternate angles are equal, p 3 = r1 .

then the lines are parallel.

I CPR and DRP are called cointerior angles. If two parallel lines are cut

The converse of the third by another line, the cointerior angles are supplementary. Thus we have

statement is also true. p3 + r2 = 180 . Similarly p4 + r1 = 180 .

1.1.6

What is the converse of the statement If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal

line then the cointerior angles so formed are supplementary.?

SOLUTION

If two lines in the same plane are cut by a transversal line and the cointerior

angles so formed are supplementary, then the two lines are parallel.

21 MAT0511/004

1.1.2

o

A c b 30 B

d a

h e

C g f D

We have AB k CD, and b = 30 . Find the measurements of all the other angles,

and give reasons for your answers.

There are several different c = 150 b and c are adjacent supplementary angles.

ways of finding these angles.

For example, e = 30 since e = 30 b and e are corresponding angles on parallel

e and d are alternate angles lines AB and CD.

on parallel lines AB and CD.

f = 150 e and f are adjacent supplementary angles.

lines AB and CD.

22

1.1.3

A E

G

Px x 1 are four lines. DE k FG.

C 2

x3 x5 xi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

x4 and yi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4)

y1

y2 Q represent the measures, in

y degrees, of the angles shown.

4

y3

D

F B

Figure 1.1.18

angles on the parallel lines DE and FG.

(e) There are two pairs of alternate angles. They are ........ and ........; ........ and

........ .

APE is an ....... angle, because x1 ........ . We call x1 and x3 ........ angles.

(g) Since x1 ........ it follows that x5 ........ and x5 ........ because APB is a straight

angle. Hence we call E PQ an ........ angle.

(h) x1 = y1 because APE and PQG are ........ angles on the parallel lines DE and

FG.

23 MAT0511/004

(b) right

(d) 180

We have seen that two noncoincident lines in a plane are either parallel or cut

each other in one point. When more than two line segments are considered they

can form many different shapes. The names of the shapes often tell us something

about them. We look at some of these shapes in the next two sections.

1.1

1. Reflect the triangle ABC shown below in a vertical line through C to create

its mirror image.

B

24

2. Rotate the triangle ABC shown below through an angle of 90 about the

vertex B in

(b) an anticlockwise direction.

A B

In case the word bisect is 3. Consider the following sketch, in which BPC = CPD, APD = 90 , and

unfamiliar: to bisect means PB bisects APD.

to cut in half.

A

P

B

(b) What is the measure of CPD ?

(c) Why can we say that APB, BPC and CPD are complementary angles?

(d) Suppose you include an additional point E such that E PD and DPC are

supplementary angles. What will be the measure of E PA ?

utes and seconds. (If there are no minutes, or no seconds, write the answer

as x 00 000 where x represents the number of degrees.)

(a) 28, 65 (b) 90, 055

(c) 30, 8 (d) 100, 1

25 MAT0511/004

E H

B

R

Q

A D

C

F

G

(i) E PC

(ii) E PH

(iii) CPG ?

(b) Identify four pairs of cointerior angles.

(c) Identify the pair of acute alternate angles.

(d) What kind of angle is AQR ?

(e) (i) What angle is the complement of F PG ?

(ii) What angle is the supplement of F PG ?

Show that one of the shapes has rotational symmetry as well as reflection

symmetry and that the other shape only has reflection symmetry.

26

1.2

POLYGONS

1.2A

TERMINOLOGY

In Book 1 we noted that a specific type of algebraic expression consisting of

several terms can be described in general as a polynomial.

sided figure a polygon.

The geometric meaning of A polygon is a closed figure in a plane composed of line segments that only

polygon is different from the meet at their endpoints. The line segments are called the sides of the polygon,

statistical meaning.

and each point where two sides meet is a vertex of the polygon. So, for example,

the shape in Figure 1.2.1 represents a polygon; the shape in Figure 1.2.2 does not,

because in Figure 1.2.2 the line segments do not only meet at their endpoints.

D

A

B line segments AB, BC, CD

C

and DA meet only at the end-

points A, B, C and D.

Figure 1.2.1

P

A D

ABCD is not a polygon since

the line segments AD and BC

B intersect at P, which is not

an endpoint of any one of the

line segments.

Figure 1.2.2

Classification of polygons Polygons are classified according to the number of angles (or sides) they have.

27 MAT0511/004

Because the sides only meet at the vertices it is clear that any polygon has exactly

the same number of angles as the number of sides.

There are also special names for polygons with 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12 sides. For

example, an octagon is an eightsided polygon.

Regular polygons A polygon is called a regular polygon if all of its sides have the same length

and if all of its interior angles have the same measurement. Consider the three

special quadrilaterals sketched below.

Study Unit 1.2C.

(not regular) (not regular) (regular)

The rectangle has all four angles equal to right angles, but the sides are not all

equal. The rhombus has all sides equal, but not all angles equal. Thus neither

of these quadrilaterals is a regular polygon. If, however, the rectangle has equal

sides or the rhombus has equal angles we obtain a square, which is a regular

polygon.

28

A A F

A

B E

B E

B C C D C D

Figure 1.2.3

Polygons are usually denoted by the vertices, stated in order. Thus we refer to

the hexagon in Figure 1.2.3 as the hexagon ABCDEF.

Polygons that fit together to create a flat surface with no gaps are said to tessel-

late. A pattern formed in this way is referred to as a tessellation. Figure 1.2.4 is

a tessellation of regular hexagons.

Figure 1.2.4

Can you think of a regular

polygon that will not tessel-

Note that not all regular polygons will tessellate.

late?

Altitude is sometimes re- Polygons have altitudes and diagonals. A diagonal of a polygon is a line seg-

ferred to as height. ment whose endpoints are nonadjacent vertices. The altitude from any vertex

V to an opposite side is the line segment with endpoint V which is perpendicular

to that side. See Example 1.2.1.

1.2.1

Draw diagonals for the quadrilateral ABCD, and draw the altitude from A to CD.

C D

29 MAT0511/004

SOLUTION

C E D

AC and BD are the only two diagonals of quadrilateral ABCD. AE is the altitude

from A to CD.

When we compare different polygons, to see whether they are possibly the same

shape and size, we look at their corresponding angles, or corresponding sides.

Look at the two polygons shown in Figure 1.2.5. Can you say what kind they

are? (Since they each have five sides, they are pentagons. The sides are not all

the same length, so they are not regular pentagons.)

P T

A E

S

Not regular Pentagons B D

Q

C R

Figure 1.2.5

In polygons ABCDE and PQRST , examples of pairs of corresponding sides are

AE and PT

ED and T S

DC and SR

CB and RQ

BA and QP.

30

A and P

B and Q

C and R

D and S

E and T .

Congruent polygons If all corresponding sides and corresponding angles of two polygons are equal,

we say the polygons are congruent. Thus congruent polygons have exactly the

same shape and size. We use the notation to denote congruency.

1.2.1

(a)

P

A C

Q R

B

The two triangles shown above appear to have the same shape and size.

List the three pairs of corresponding sides, and the three pairs of corre-

sponding angles, that we can compare to see whether or not the triangles

are congruent.

(b)

P S

A D

Q R

B C

Why are they not congruent?

31 MAT0511/004

Corresponding angles

(b) ABCD and PQRS have exactly the same shape, but PQRS is clearly bigger

than ABCD, so they do not have the same size. Thus they are not congruent.

Similar polygons When polygons have the same shape but not the same size, they are called simi-

lar polygons. Hence the two squares in Activity 1.2.1(b) are similar, even though

they are not congruent. To be certain that they have the same shape, we need

to find out whether the measurements of the corresponding angles are equal

and the lengths of the corresponding sides are in proportion. In (b) of Activity

1.2.1 we see that A = P = 90 , B = Q = 90 , C = R = 90 , D = S = 90 ; we

also have

PQ QR RS SP

= = = .

AB BC CD DA

have the same measurements, we mark the sides with different numbers of small

lines, and the angles with different numbers of arcs, as shown in Figure 1.2.6.

32

Figure 1.2.6

1.2.2

Assume the polygons in the sketch below have the measurements and properties

indicated. Note that they are not drawn to scale.

P

4 cm 3 cm

S

A 12 cm D

o

100

Q

9 cm

o

100

B C R

E o H

100

12 cm

F G

6 cm

(b) Which pairs of polygons are not similar, and why not?

33 MAT0511/004

The polygons illustrated are all quadrilaterals since they have four sides.

(a) Quadrilateral ABCD is similar to quadrilateral PQRS, for the following rea-

sons.

Corresponding angles are equal.

hence A and B are cointerior angles and thus

supplementary.

Similarly PQ k SR and Q and R are supplementary.

P + Q = 180 since PS k QR.

R + S = 180 since PS k QR.

AD 12

Just after Activity 1.2.8 we

= =3 Since PQ = 4 cm it also follows that

RS 4

prove that if PQ k SR and SR = 4 cm, because otherwise PS and QR

PS k QR then PQ = SR and would not be parallel.

PS = QR.

CD 9

= =3

PS 3

BC 12

= =3 BC = 12 cm since AD = 12 cm.

QP 4

AB 9

= =3 AB = 9 cm since CD = 9 cm.

QR 3

QR = 3 cm since PS = 3 cm.

as soon as we try to identify corresponding sides and angles.

E o H

100

A 12 cm D

o

100 12 cm

9 cm

F G

B C 6 cm

34

If we stand the quadrilaterals on the longer of their two sides, we see that

quadrilateral ABCD leans to the right, whereas quadrilateral EFGH

leans to the left. We also see that the ratio of the longer sides is 12

12 , i.e.

9 3

1, but the ratio of the shorter sides is 6 , i.e. 2 .

Similarly quadrilateral PQRS is not similar to quadrilateral EFGH.

P

4 cm 3 cm E o H

100

S

Q 12 cm

o

100

F G

R 6 cm

a smaller scale, or enlarge an object. We are all familiar with maps, which are

smallscale reproductions of largescale regions. There may also be times when

we need to provide bigger representations of very small objects. Hence we can

scale things up or down, depending on the requirements of the situation.

Scale factor scale factor. Thus, if a figure has doubled in size, we say that the new figure has

a scale factor of 2. If an object is halved in size the new figure has a scale factor

of 12 .

1.2.3

A company wants to hang on the wall of one of its function rooms an enlarge-

ment of a photograph which is 50 cm across and 70 cm high. The available wall

space measures 0, 9 m across and 1, 5 m high. What scale factor will allow for

maximum enlargement? What will the dimensions of this enlargement be?

35 MAT0511/004

The enlargement will be similar to the original, i.e. the corresponding sides will

be in proportion. The original photograph has sides that are in the ratio 5 : 7

(when we consider the ratio of width to height). The available wall space is

0, 9 m wide and 1, 5 m high.

0,9 m

111

000

50 cm

000

111

1,5 m

70 cm

000

111

Picture

Since the dimensions of The enlargement cannot be more than 90 cm wide or 150 cm high. We first

the photograph are given in consider whether it is possible for the enlargement to be 90 cm wide. Let us use

centimetres it is convenient a scale factor of x.

to convert the wall space

dimensions to centimetres

as well. If

Alternatively: 50 x = 90

then

50 70 90 9

=

90 x x= = .

50x = 6300 50 5

x = 126

Thus, if we use a scale factor of 95 , the width of the enlargement will be 90 cm

and its height will be 70 59 cm, i.e. 126 cm. Thus an enlargement with this

scale factor will fit into the available wall space. If we consider a scale factor

that will make the enlargement 150 cm high, then it will be too wide to fit into

the available wall space.

The scale factor of 95 gives an enlargement that completely fits the available

width. Hence the scale factor of 59 will produce the maximum enlargement, and

the enlargement will measure 90 cm across, and 126 cm high.

36

1.2B

TRIANGLES

In Study Unit 1.2A we introduced triangles as polygons with three sides. The

name triangle suggests that triangles are shapes which have three angles (and

hence also three sides). Triangles have various characteristics. Some of these are

important when we study trigonometry (the word, literally translated from the

original Greek form, means triangle measurement). Trigonometry, in turn, is an

important foundation for other mathematical topics.

b a

A B

c

Figure 1.2.7

We use the symbol 4 to de- gles. Previously, in Topic 1 of Book 3, we worked according to the convention

note a triangle. Hence Fig- that a, b and c represent the lengths of the sides opposite the angles A, B and

ure 1.2.7 represents 4 ABC. C, respectively. When we do this we often represent the measurements of angles

, and are pronounced in a triangle by means of letters of the Greek alphabet. In Figure 1.2.7 the mea-

as alpha, beta and gamma. sure of A is denoted by , the measure of B is denoted by and the measure of

They are the first three let- C is denoted by , where , and represent numbers of degrees.

ters of the Greek alphabet.

Triangles can have different shapes, but regardless of their shape, they all have

one common characteristic.

In any triangle the sum of the measures of the

angles is 180 .

Like many other statements in geometry, we can prove the statement formally,

or we can illustrate it in some way. We now illustrate this statement. Draw any

triangle, on a separate piece of paper. Tear off the vertices, and arrange them

next to each other, as shown in Figure 1.2.8.

37 MAT0511/004

X P Y

Figure 1.2.8

When we arrange the angles next to one another so that the three vertices meet

Note that this is not an actual at the point P, we see that, regardless of the order in which they are arranged,

proof. the angles form a straight line. From our classification of angles, we know that

X PY is a straight angle, which measures 180 .

TRIANGLE INEQUALITY

The sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater

than the third side.

a+b > c

a+c > b

b + c > a.

Classification of triangles In Study Unit 1.1B angles are classified according to certain characteristics.

We may also classify triangles according to various characteristics, such as the

lengths of their sides. The lengths of the sides of the triangles influence the sizes

of the angles, and vice versa as we see in Figures 1.2.9, 1.2.10 and 1.2.11.

equal size.

C

B

Scalene triangle

Figure 1.2.9

The longest side is opposite the biggest angle. Conversely, the biggest

angle is opposite the longest side.

38

I An isosceles triangle has two equal sides, and hence two equal angles.

B C

Isosceles triangle

Figure 1.2.10

If AC = AB, then the angles opposite these two sides are also equal, i.e.

B = C. Conversely, if B = C, then the sides opposite these two angles are

also equal. Hence AC = AB.

I An equilateral triangle has all three sides equal in length, and hence all

three angles equal.

A

o

60

C

B

Equilateral triangle

Figure 1.2.11

Since the angles of any triangle add up to 180 it follows that in equilateral

triangles, all angles measure 60 .

If AB = BC = AC then C = A = B = 60 .

Conversely, if A = B = C (= 60 ) then BC = AC = AB.

39 MAT0511/004

C

Acute angle triangle

Figure 1.2.12

eral.

C

B

Obtuse angle triangle

Figure 1.2.13

eral.

I A right angle triangle (which we usually call a right triangle) has one

right angle.

C

B

Right triangle

Figure 1.2.14

opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse.

40

1.2.4

(a) Since the longest side is AC, the angle opposite AB, i.e. B , is the biggest.

The next longest side is BC, hence the next biggest angle is the angle op-

posite BC, i.e. A. Thus in descending order we have

B, A, C.

(b) All sides have different lengths, hence 4 ABC is a scalene triangle.

All angles are acute, hence 4 ABC is an acute angle triangle.

We dealt with right triangles and the Theorem of Pythagoras in Topic 1 of Book

3. You may want to read the relevant parts of that section again, before moving

on.

41 MAT0511/004

1.2.5

50o

Q R

(PQ)2 , etc. p

(b) QR = PQ2 PR2

(c) PQ = PR + QR

(d) PQ > PR

(e) QR > PR

oras for 4 PQR.

(b) False p

QR = PQ2 PR2 The statement is algebraically correct, since

if a2 = b2 + c2 then b2 = a2 c2 , and

hence b = a2 c2 .

But RQ represents length, which cannot be

negative, hence we ignore the negative root.

PQ < PR + QR combined lengths of the other two sides.

See the Triangle Inequality.

42

PR is opposite an angle that measures 50 .

QR > PR Since 180 (50 + 90 ) = 40 we have P = 40 .

PR is opposite an angle that measures 50 .

Congruency We discussed congruency of polygons in Study Unit 1.2A. Two triangles are

We make use of congru- congruent if they have exactly the same shape and size, i.e. if corresponding

ency to prove several im- sides are equal in length and if corresponding angles have the same measure.

portant mathematical state-

ments, and to derive rules

such as the distance formula.

However, we do not need to investigate all pairs of corresponding sides and all

pairs of corresponding angles every time that we want to show that two triangles

are congruent.

Conditions for congruency If two triangles have certain properties, then certain other properties will follow.

We have four different sets of requirements that must be satisfied in order for

triangles to be congruent.

It is clear that if correspond- (1) I Two triangles are congruent if the three sides of one triangle are equal to

ing sides are equal, then the the three corresponding sides of the other triangle. We call this the side

corresponding angles will be sideside (abbreviated SSS) condition for congruency.

equal as well.

We denote equal sides by

C Q

writing down the vertices of

corresponding angles in the A

correct order. Thus we write

AB = PQ

and not P

B R

AB = QP,

4 ABC 4 PQR

since A corresponds to P, and Figure 1.2.15

B corresponds to Q.

Hence C = R, B = Q, A = P.

A (2) I Two triangles are congruent if two sides and the included angle of one

triangle are equal to two sides and the included angle of the other trian-

gle. We call this the sideangleside (abbreviated SAS) condition for

B C congruency.

B is the angle included by

the sides AB and BC.

43 MAT0511/004

R U

T V

4 RST 4WUV

Figure 1.2.16

From this it follows that RT = WV (we can show, by drawing any two such

triangles, that under these conditions the third sides of the two triangles

are equal). Thus we have the condition SSS and hence 4 RST 4WUV .

Consequently

R = W

and

T = V

since the angles are opposite equal sides.

(3) I Two triangles are congruent if two angles and one side of one triangle

are equal to two corresponding angles and the corresponding side of the

When we have AAS we au- other triangle. We call this the anglesideangle, or angleangleside

tomatically have ASA and (abbreviated ASA or AAS) condition for congruency.

vice versa: if two pairs of

angles are equal the third S

pair must also be equal.

X

P

R Q M

4 PQR 4 MXS

Figure 1.2.17

From this it follows that

S = R (angle sum of a triangle)

RP = SM

RQ = SX.

The last two properties can be shown by drawing any two triangles with

the properties shown in Figure 1.2.17.

Thus we have the SSS condition and hence 4 PQR 4 MXS.

44

(4) I Two right triangles are congruent if the lengths of the hypotenuse and

one side of one triangle are respectively equal to the lengths of the hy-

potenuse and one side of the other triangle. We call this the right angle

This is a special case of two hypotenuseside (abbreviated RHS) condition for congruency.

sides and an angle where we

do not necessarily have the A C

angle included between the M

two sides.

P T

4 MPO 4 TAC

Figure 1.2.18

From this it follows that AT = PM (by the Theorem of Pythagoras) and

hence we have the SSS condition. Thus 4 MPO 4 TAC. Consequently

C = O

and

T = M

since both pairs of angles are opposite equal sides.

1.2.2

N

Y Z U

Figure 1.2.19

Figure 1.2.19 shows 4 XY Z and 4 NUT in which none of the angles is a right

angle and XY = NU, Y Z = UT, Z = T .

45 MAT0511/004

Although the lengths of two corresponding sides are equal and one pair of corres-

ponding angles is equal, we see that

We use 6 to denote is not

4 XY Z 6 4 NUT

congruent to.

since Y is acute but the corresponding angle, U, is obtuse.

Thus it is necessary that when two sides and one angle of each triangle are in-

volved we must have either RHS or SAS.

1.2.6

(a) Draw any scalene triangle PQR. Can the triangle have a diagonal? Draw

the altitude from Q to PR.

(b) Draw any equilateral triangle GEF. Draw the altitude from G to EF, so

that it meets EF in the point H. Show that 4 GEH 4GFH.

(a)

X

R P

In fact, no triangle has a di- It is impossible to draw a line from any vertex to a nonadjacent vertex.

agonal. Since a triangle has Hence 4 PQR has no diagonals.

three sides it can have three

altitudes. QX PR, hence QX is an altitude of 4 PQR.

(b)

G

E F

H

46

EG = FG 4 GEF is equilateral.

is one line, it serves as a side for two

different triangles.

Thus

4 GEH 4 GFH. RHS condition is satisfied.

From the solution to Activity 1.2.6(b), since 4 GEH 4 GFH it follows that

EH = FH

and

E GH = F GH.

Thus we see that an altitude of an equilateral triangle bisects the angle at the

vertex from which it originates and bisects the opposite side of the triangle.

Similar triangles As in the case of polygons in general, we also have similar triangles. We say

that two triangles are similar if all three pairs of corresponding angles are equal.

In practice this means that we only need to show that two pairs of corresponding

We use ||| to denote similar- angles are equal, because the angles of any triangle add up to 180 .

ity.

P T L

Figure 1.2.20

In Figure 1.2.20 we have 4 MPT ||| 4 SLK. We know that when polygons are

similar, their corresponding sides are in proportion. This applies to triangles, and

thus

PT PM MT

= = .

LK LS SK

We can use this relationship to calculate the length of a side of a triangle.

47 MAT0511/004

1.2.3

At a certain time of the day a boy who is 1, 2 m tall casts a shadow that is 3, 6 m

long. At the same time a tree casts a shadow that is 7, 2 m long. How high is the

tree?

SOLUTION

representing the boy, BC

representing the boys A

shadow; similarly DE

represents the tree and EF 1,2 m

the trees shadow. C F

B 3,6 m E 7,2 m

We assume that the boy and the tree both stand upright and make an angle of 90

with the horizontal ground. Since the sun is in the same position relative to both

the boy and the tree, we can also assume that C = F.

Since the triangles are similar, pairs of corresponding sides are in proportion.

Thus

DE EF DF

= = .

AB BC AC

We want to find the length of DE. Since we know nothing about DF or AC, we

use the equation

DE EF

= .

AB BC

We substitute AB = 1, 2 m, BC = 3, 6 m and EF = 7, 2 m into this equation. We

then have

DE 7, 2 m

=

1, 2 m 3, 6 m

48

and thus

1, 2 7, 2

DE = m

3, 6

12 72

= m

You may want to revise dec- 360

imal multiplication and divi-

sion. See Topic 2 of Book 1.

= 2, 4 m.

1.2C

QUADRILATERALS

As we have already pointed out, a quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides. The

angles in a triangle add up to 180 . What do you think is the angle sum of any

quadrilateral? You may want to try to work this out physically. If you draw a

few different quadrilaterals, cut off the vertices and rearrange them (as you did

in the case of a triangle in Figure 1.2.8) you will see that the angle sum of a

quadrilateral is 360 .

You can also derive this mathematically, using your knowledge of triangles. A

quadrilateral can be divided into two triangles. See Figure 1.2.21.

D

C

Figure 1.2.21

49 MAT0511/004

In quadrilateral ABCD,

A + B + C + D

= C

| AD + {z

D + DCA} + A

| CB +{z

B + BAC}

the angles in the angles in

4 ACD 4 ABC

= 180 + 180

= 360 .

Because quadrilaterals have four sides, we have two different kinds of quadrilat-

erals: one kind in which opposite sides (either one pair or both pairs) are parallel,

and the other kind in which no sides are parallel. We cannot generalise much

about quadrilaterals such at these, because if opposite sides are not parallel, then

such quadrilaterals cannot have any common properties. Figure 1.2.22 shows

three different quadrilaterals, in which no opposite sides are parallel.

A A

B

D

C

D

C B

C

B

Figure 1.2.22

50

Kite The only interesting quadrilateral in this category is a kite. A kite is a quadrilat

eral in which pairs of adjacent sides have the same length. See Figure 1.2.23.

Q

D

R P

A square and a rhombus are A C

also kites.

B S

Figure 1.2.23

1.2.7

Use congruent triangles to show that the diagonals of a kite cut each other at

When we write bisects the right angles, and that the longer of the two diagonals bisects the shorter one, and

vertex we mean bisects bisects the vertices that it joins.

the angle at the vertex.

R P

T

QP = QR

PS = RS

QS = QS.

Hence

4 QPS 4 QRS. SSS

51 MAT0511/004

Hence

PQS = RQS

and

PSQ = RSQ.

Hence

QS bisects Q and S.

QP = QR

QT = QT

PQT = RQT.

Hence

4 PQT 4 RQT. SAS

Hence

QT P = QT R.

Since

QT R + QT P = 180 RT P is a straight angle.

it follows that

QT R = QT P = 90 .

Thus the diagonals are perpendicular to each other.

Since 4 PQT 4 RQT it also follows that PT = RT , i.e. the longer diagonal

bisects the shorter one.

Trapezoid A trapezoid or trapesium is a quadrilateral which has two parallel sides. See

(Trapesium) Figure 1.2.24.

D E C

A F B

Figure 1.2.24

sium. Either of the parallel sides is called a base of the trapezoid. Any perpendic-

52

trapezoid in which the nonparallel sides are equal in length is called an isosceles

trapezoid.

Figure 1.2.25, we have

AB k DC and AD k BC.

D C

A B

Figure 1.2.25

1.2.8

Draw any parallelogram. Draw its diagonals. Measure its sides and its angles.

What do you notice about these line segments and angles?

(In this activity (and in others that follow) you are asked to draw parallel lines,

perpendicular lines, measure angles, construct certain angles, and so on. We

assume you will have learnt to do these constructions at school. If you are not

sure what to do, any school geometry book at grade 7 or 8 level will help you. In

this module we will not expect you to do accurate constructions.)

S T

Q

P

53 MAT0511/004

From even a rough sketch, such as the figure on the previous page, you can see

that in parallelogram SRQP

Note that SQ 6= PR. I the diagonals bisect each other, i.e. RT = T P and ST = T Q.

Note that these results will be the same regardless of the shape of the parallel-

ogram we draw. In fact, we can once again prove the results, using congruent

triangles.

S 2 1 2

R

1

2 2

1 1

P Q

Figure 1.2.26

Q1 = S2 Alternate angles.

Q2 = S1 Alternate angles.

SQ = SQ. Common to both triangles.

Hence

4 QSP 4 SQR ASA

and thus

R = P, QP = SR, PS = RQ.

I Similarly,

Hence

S = Q.

54

lelogram are equal. Since QP = SR and PS = RQ we have shown that the

opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal.

I Also

4 SRT 4 QPT ASA

so that

ST = QT

and

4 QRT 4 SPT ASA

and thus

If the line segments bisect

RT = PT.

each other, they intersect at

the midpoints of the line seg- Hence the diagonals bisect each other.

ments.

These properties of parallelograms are interdependent. Each one implies the oth-

ers, and hence in any quadrilateral, if we have any one of the following conditions

the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

I Opposite angles are equal.

I Each diagonal divides the parallelogram into two congruent triangles.

I The diagonals bisect each other.

In the following example we show that one of these conditions implies that the

quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

1.2.4

Show that ABCD is a parallelogram.

SOLUTION

We sketch ABCD, and draw the diagonal DB.

D C

A B

55 MAT0511/004

AB = CD

AD = CB.

Thus

4 ABD 4CDB. SSS

Since the triangles are congruent, all pairs of corresponding angles are equal.

Hence ABD = CDB. Thus DC k AB. (If alternate angles are equal the lines are

parallel.)

Rhombus If all sides of a parallelogram have equal length, the parallelogram is a rhombus.

See Figure 1.2.27.

C N

L M

Figure 1.2.27

1.2.9

Draw any rhombus. Draw its diagonals. What do you notice about these diago-

nals?

56

S R

P Q

The diagonals SQ and PR bisect each other at right angles, and SQ and PR bisect

the vertices. Note that SQ 6= PR.

PQS = QSR Alternate angles equal since PQ k SR.

But

PQS = PSQ. PS = PQ

Thus

PSQ = QSR

i.e.

SQ bisects PSR.

Similarly it follows that SQ bisects PQR, and that PR bisects SRQ and SPQ.

PS = RS

ST = ST

PST = RST. The diagonal SQ bisects the vertex S.

Hence

4 PST 4 RST SAS

and thus

PT = RT

i.e. we have shown that the diagonal SQ bisects the diagonal PR.

Also

PT S = RT S

and thus

PT S = RT S = 90 . PT R = 180 .

Hence the diagonal SQ is perpendicular to the diagonal PR.

In the same way we can show that the diagonal PR is the perpendicular bisector

of the diagonal QS.

57 MAT0511/004

Rectangle and square If one angle of a parallelogram is a right angle, then the parallelogram is a rect-

angle. If one angle of a rhombus is a right angle, then the rhombus is a square.

See Figure 1.2.28.

S R

D C

A B P Q

Rectangle Square

Figure 1.2.28

1.2.10

Show why we only have to specify that if one angle of a parallelogram is a right

angle, then the parallelogram is a rectangle.

D C

A B

interior angles are supplementary.

Similarly, AD k BC and hence the cointerior angles DAB and ABC are supple-

mentary. Thus ABC = 90 .

is a rectangle.

Similarily we can show that we need only specify that one angle of a rhombus is

a right angle for the rhombus to be a square.

58

1.2.11

Draw the diagonals of the rectangle and square given in Figure 1.2.28. Do they

bisect each other? Do they intersect at right angles? Do they bisect the vertices?

S R

D C

A B P Q

In the square

The first three properties fol- I the diagonals are perpendicular to each other

low immediately from the

I the diagonals bisect the vertices

fact that a square is a rhom-

bus. I the diagonals have equal length.

By using congruency we can prove that the diagonals of a rectangle have equal

length.

59 MAT0511/004

AB = BA

AD = BC

A = B = 90 .

Hence

4 DAB 4 CBA. SAS

Thus

DB = CA

Similarily we can prove that the diagonals of a square are also equal in length.

the length of the diagonal.

1.2.12

Calculate the length of DB in the rectangle ABCD sketched below.

A 12 cm B

5 cm

D C

i.e. we have

DB2 = (52 + 122 ) cm2

= (25 + 144) cm2

= 169 cm2 .

Thus DB = 169 cm = 13 cm, since length cannot be negative.

60

1.2

horizontal line through the lower edge once, and then translating the

resulting shape twice by intervals of 3 cm to the right.

(b) Create a tessellation using right triangles.

2.

A

B C

D

altitude AD bisects BC.

3.

A

B C

D

that

3

AD = s cm.

2

4. You have seen that the angle sum of a triangle is 180 , and the angle sum

of a quadrilateral is 360 . Sketch a regular octagon, and calculate the sum

of the measures of all the angles.

5. (a) See Activity 1.2.8. How many pairs of congruent triangles are there

after you have drawn both diagonals?

(b) If PQRS is any quadrilateral such that SQ divides the quadrilateral

into two congruent triangles, namely 4 QRS and 4 SPQ, show that

PQRS is a parallelogram.

61 MAT0511/004

trapezoid. CG is a quarter of the length of CD, and CF is one third of the

length of CD.

F E

C D

G

7.

D

A C

AB = DC

B = C

DB AC.

8. Sketch a kite in which the pairs of adjacent sides are such that the shorter

sides are half the length of the longer sides.

(a) Draw the longer of the two diagonals. Show that it cuts the kite into

two congruent triangles.

(b) Draw the shorter diagonal. Show that the longer diagonal bisects the

shorter diagonal.

62

9.

D

C A

P Q

Also, DA = AQ, DC = CP.

Show that 4 DPQ ||| 4 DCA, and that CA = 12 PQ.

Polygon(regular) Number Number Number Angle

of of of sum

sides vertices diagonals

Triangle

Quadrilateral

Pentagon

Hexagon

Octagon

11. Complete the following statements.

(b) The diagonals of a rhombus make angles of ......... with each other at

their point of intersection.

(c) The diagonals of a ......... and a .......... bisect the vertices as well as

each other.

(d) (Complete the statement by choosing one of the options suggested.)

A parallelogram with diagonals that are almost the same length will

lean over (further than /less than) a parallelogram in which one di-

agonal is considerably longer than the other.

63 MAT0511/004

1.3

CIRCLES

1.3A

SOME BASIC FACTS ABOUT CIRCLES

A circle is a figure in a plane consisting of all points which are the same distance

from a fixed point called the centre of the circle. Any line segment from the

The plural of radius is radii. centre to any point on the circle is called a radius of the circle. It should be

obvious that all radii of the same circle have the same length.

Figure 1.3.1

When two or more circles have the same centre they are called concentric

circles. Each of the circles in Figure 1.3.2 has the same centre, C.

Figure 1.3.2

If we move along a circle from one point to another, we move along an arc of

the circle.

64

If we join any two points on a circle by means of a line segment, the line segment

We pronounce this with a is called a chord. A chord which passes through the centre of the circle is called

silent h, so that it sounds a diameter of the circle. A diameter thus consists of two radii, and hence the

like kord. length of the diameter is twice the length of the radius. Algebraically we express

this as

d

d = 2r, or r =

2

where d and r represent the lengths of the diameter and radius, respectively. Any

diameter divides the circle into two semicircles.

A tangent or tangent line to a circle is any line that touches the circle at exactly

one point, i.e. it is a line that that contains exactly one point of the circle.

F

C

B

E

O

A

Figure 1.3.3

I centre O

I chord AB

I diameter CD

In Figure 1.3.3 we note that CD EF. In fact, in any circle, the radius (or diam-

eter) is always perpendicular to the tangent to the circle at the point of contact.

65 MAT0511/004

A B

P

E C

Figure 1.3.4

Consider Figure 1.3.4 above. The arcs AB, BC, CD, DE and EA are equal in

length. If we join each of the points A, B, C, D and E on the circle to the centre

P, then we obtain five central angles. We say that angle BPC is subtended by arc

BC. By this we mean that we draw the radii PB and PC and thus create an angle

at the centre, namely BPC. Equal arcs subtend equal central angles. Thus

APB = BPC = CPD = DPE = E PA.

You can verify this yourself by drawing any circle, marking off equal arcs and

then measuring the central angles subtended by these arcs.

1.3

1. Draw any right triangle ABC with right angle at B and find the midpoint of

the hypotenuse, AC. Draw a circle using the midpoint of the hypotenuse

as centre, and the hypotenuse as diameter.

(b) Join A and C to any other point D on the circle, on the opposite side

of the circle to B. What does the measure of ADC appear to be?

2. Use a pair of compasses (if you have one) or draw freehand as accurately

as possible, a circle with radius 4 cm, and, using the same centre, a circle

with radius 2,5 cm. For the smaller circle, draw two diameters AB and CD

perpendicular to each other. Mark the endpoints of the two diameters by

means of A and B, C and D. Extend AB in both directions to cut the bigger

circle at Z and T . Extend CD in both directions to cut the bigger circle at

Q and W . Draw lines parallel to ZABT , through C and through D. Draw

lines parallel to QCDW , through A and through B. Write down as many as

you can find of the congruent figures that have been created.

66

Transformation

B Translation (shifting)

shifting an object in any given direction (e.g. horizontally or ver-

tically) over any given distance

B Symmetry

axis of symmetry:

vertical

horizontal

object in a vertical or horizontal line

rotational symmetry: object remains identical after rotation

through any given angle less than 360

Lines

tions.

B A line segment is part of a line, and has two endpoints. The distance

between the two endpoints is its length.

B A ray is part of a line. It extends indefinitely in one direction, and

has one endpoint.

B Points of intersection

infinitely many (the lines are coincident)

none (the lines are parallel)

only one (the lines may be perpendicular)

Angles

called the vertex. The amount of rotation is the measure of the angle,

expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds.

67 MAT0511/004

(Suppose the measure of the angle is x, where x represents a certain

number of degrees.)

one revolution 360

reflex angle 180 < x < 360

straight angle 180

obtuse angle 90 < x < 180

right angle 90

acute angle 0 < x < 90

B Relationships between angles

adjacent angles share a common vertex and a common ray

supplementary angles have measures that add up to 180

complementary angles have measures that add up to 90

vertically opposite angles are equal

when parallel lines are cut by a transversal line, then:

corresponding angles are equal

alternate angles are equal

cointerior angles are supplementary

B Similar polygons have exactly the same shape but different sizes.

The corresponding sides of similar polygons are in proportion.

Scale factor: the number that represents the amount by which

an object is enlarged or reduced so that it is similar to the origi-

nal.

B Polygons have

vertices: the corners of the polygon

diagonals: line segments whose endpoints are nonadjacent

vertices

altitudes: line segments from any vertex to an opposite side,

perpendicular to that side

B Classification of triangles according to lengths of sides

scalene: no sides with equal length (and hence no equal angles)

isosceles: two equal sides (and hence two equal angles)

equilateral: three equal sides (and hence three equal angles, all

measuring 60 )

68

acute angle triangle: all angles acute

obtuse angle triangle: one angle obtuse

right angle triangle: one angle a right angle (the hypotenuse is

the side opposite the right angle)

Congruency of triangles

side, side, side (SSS)

side, angle, side (SAS)

angle, angle, side (AAS or ASA)

right angle, hypotenuse, side (RHS)

Similar triangles

portion.

the diagonals cut each other at right angles, and the longer of the

two diagonals bisects the shorter one

B Trapezoid: two sides are parallel

B Parallelogram: both pairs of opposite sides are parallel

opposite sides have equal length

opposite angles have equal measurement

each diagonal divides the parallelogram into two congruent tri-

angles

the diagonals bisect each other

B Rhombus: a parallelogram in which all sides have equal length. In

addition to all the properties of parallelograms it is also true that

the diagonals bisect each other at right angles

the diagonals bisect the angles from which they originate (i.e.

the vertices).

B Rectangle: a parallelogram in which one angle is a right angle. In

addition to all the properties of parallelograms it is also true that

the diagonals have equal length.

B Square: a rhombus in which one angle is a right angle. In addition

to all the properties of a rhombus, it is also true that

the diagonals have equal length.

69 MAT0511/004

point called the centre. Different circles with the same centre are called

concentric circles.

B Radius: any line segment from the centre to any point on the circle

B Chord: any line segment joining any two points on the circle

B Diameter: a chord through the centre, dividing the circle into two

semicircles

B Arc: any path along the circle from one point to another. An arc from

one endpoint of a diameter to the other endpoint is a semicircle. An

angle at the centre subtended by a chord or arc is a central angle.

B Tangent: a line which touches the circle at exactly one point

CHECKLIST

Now check that you can do the following.

SECTION 1.1

distance.

Examples 1.1.1, 1.1.3

zontal line. Recognise objects that have reflection symmetry.

Examples 1.1.2, 1.1.3; Activity 1.1.1

ing an object through a given angle between 0 and 360 .

Examples 1.1.4, 1.1.5; Activity 1.1.1

Definitions 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.1.3 and 1.1.4

Figures 1.1.11, 1.1.16

Pages 1719; Activity 1.1.3

and the resulting corresponding, alternate and cointerior angles.

Page 20; Example 1.1.6; Activities 1.1.2, 1.1.3

70

SECTION 1.2

Figure 1.2.4

2. Draw the diagonals (if they exist) and altitudes of any polygon.

Example 1.2.1

or angles of congruent polygons.

Activity 1.2.1

similar polygons are in proportion.

Activity 1.2.2

required when a given object needs to be enlarged or reduced.

Activity 1.2.3

their angles.

Figures 1.2.9, 1.2.10, 1.2.11, 1.2.12, 1.2.13, 1.2.14; Activity 1.2.4

Activities 1.2.5, 1.2.12

8. Know and apply the four sets of conditions that triangles must satisfy in

order to be congruent. The conditions are referred to as SSS, SAS, AAS

(or ASA) and RHS. You do not need to prove that each of these conditions

implies congruency.

Figures 1.2.15, 1.2.16, 1.2.17, 1.2.18 and related discussion; Example

1.2.2; Activity 1.2.6

9. Recognise triangles that are similar. Use the fact that corresponding sides

of similar triangles are in proportion to calculate distance or length.

Figure 1.2.20 and related discussion; Example 1.2.3

equal in length.

Figures 1.2.24, 1.2.25, 1.2.27, 1.2.28 and related discussion.

the diagonals intersect at right angles, and the longer of the di-

agonals bisects the shorter diagonal.

Activity 1.2.7

71 MAT0511/004

the diagonals bisect each other

opposite sides have equal length

opposite angles have equal measure.

Activity 1.2.8 and the discussion that follows; Example 1.2.4

In a rhombus (in addition to the properties of parallelograms) prove

that

the diagonals bisect each other at right angles

the diagonals bisect the vertices.

Activity 1.2.9 and the discussion that follows

In a rectangle (in addition to the properties of parallelograms) prove

that

the diagonals have equal length.

Activity 1.2.11 and the discussion that follows

In a square (in addition to the properties of a rhombus) prove that

the diagonals have equal length.

Activity 1.2.11 and the discussion that follows

SECTION 1.3

1. Use the terminology of circles: centre, radius, chord, diameter, arc, semi

circle, tangent, central angle subtended by an arc.

Figures 1.3.1, 1.3.2, 1.3.3, 1.3.4 and related discussion

72

OUTCOMES

After studying this topic you should be able to do the following.

I Draw the net for several familiar threedimensional objects, i.e. a pyramid,

rectangular prism, cube, right circular cylinder.

I Calculate the surface area of a right circular cylinder and the surface area

of a right circular cone.

lar prism, cube, right circular cylinder, right circular cone, sphere.

I Calculate the volume of irregularly shaped objects, or objects that are com-

binations of other solids.

73 MAT0511/004

2.1

MEASUREMENTS OF PERIMETER AND AREA

2.1A

PERIMETER AND AREA OF TWODIMENSIONAL

OBJECTS

Perimeters of polygons We use the word perimeter to describe the total length of the edges or sides of

any polygon. In the case of a polygon that is not regular, we need to measure

the lengths of all the sides and add the measurements. For all polygons the

perimeter is the sum of the lengths of all the sides. In the case of regular

polygons, we often have a formula that we can use to calculate the perimeter.

In Table 2.1.1 we now state, without proof, the formulas for the perimeters of

the polygons we encounter most often (It is important to know these formulas by

heart.)

Polygon Perimeter

lengths, s1 , s2 and s3 units.

equal sides by s1 units;

the length of the third side is s2 units.

Triangle (equilateral) 3s The three sides all have the same length,

s units.

Quadrilaterals (in general) s1 + s2 + s3 + s4 The four sides may have different lengths,

namely s1 , s2 , s3 and s4 units.

Special quadrilaterals

The breadth is b units.

B Square 4s Each of the four sides measures s units.

B Parallelogram 2 (l + b) The length of one of the sides is l units;

the length of the adjacent side is b units.

B Rhombus 4s The four sides all have the same length,

s units.

B Kite 2 (s1 + s2 ) Two sides each measure s1 units and the

other two sides each measure s2 units.

Table 2.1.1

74

From the formulas given in Table 2.1.1 for the perimeter of an equilateral tri-

angle, a square and a rhombus, it is clear that, in general, the perimeter of any

regular polygon is ns units, where n is the number of sides, and s is the length of

a side.

2.1.1

6m

5m

7m

2m 1m

8 cm

2 cm

3 cm 2 cm 5 cm

2 cm

3 cm

4 cm

pentagon hexagon

SOLUTION

Triangle: Perimeter = (2 + 6 + 7) m = 15 m.

Rectangle: Perimeter = 2 (5 + 1) m = 12 m.

Pentagon: Perimeter = (5 3) cm = 15 cm.

Hexagon: Perimeter = (6 2) cm = 12 cm.

Irregular polygon: We deduce the lengths of the remaining edges from the

given measurements, and the fact that opposite sides are

parallel.

75 MAT0511/004

8 cm

2 cm

2 cm 5 cm

7 cm 3 cm

4 cm

13 cm

We then have

Perimeter = (7 + 2 + 2 + 8 + 5 + 3 + 4 + 13) cm = 44 cm.

Circumference of a circle In the case of a circle, the perimeter of a circle is called the circumference of

the circle. The formula for the circumference of a circle is d or 2r, where d

We also speak of the ra- and r are respectively the lengths of the diameter and radius.

dius and diameter instead

of the lengths of the radius In this module we first mentioned in connection with irrational numbers. The

and diameter, respectively.

Greek mathematicians noticed that in any circle with circumference c and diam-

eter d, the ratio dc is always a constant. They gave this constant the name , and

from this the formula c = d developed. The fact that the ratio c : d is always

constant tells us that the circumference and diameter of a circle are always in

direct proportion to each other.

important to remember that these numbers are not exactly the same as .

2.1.2

Calculate the circumference of a circle with radius 5 cm. Give your answer

correct to one decimal place.

SOLUTION

Circumference = 2r

= 2 5 cm

= 10 cm

31, 4 cm

Thus the circumference is approximately 31, 4 cm.

The formula for the circumference of a circle is useful to determine the distance

covered by a point on a wheel.

76

2.1.3

The diameter of a wheel is 40 cm. How far does a point on the wheel travel when

it revolves completely, 200 times? (Assume the wheel moves smoothly and does

not slip.) Leave the answer in terms of .

SOLUTION

In one revolution any point on the wheel covers a distance equal to its circum-

ference. (If you are not sure that this is so, experiment with a coin, or saucer, or

any small circular object.)

Circumference = d cm

= 40 cm

= 40 cm

Thus in one revolution a point on the wheel travels 40 cm, and in 200 revolu-

tions it travels (200 40) cm, i.e. 8 000 cm, i.e. 80 m.

Areas of polygons For any polygon we can determine how much space in the plane it covers. This

We use the word dimen- intuitive sense of taking up space is made more exact in the concept of area. We

sions to denote length and represent area in terms of square units. Suppose the figure below is a rectangle,

breadth. with dimensions 10 cm by 6 cm.

10 cm

6 cm

Figure 2.1.1

If we divide the rectangle into equal squares with sides of 1 cm, we will have 60

such squares. We say that the area of the rectangle is 60 square centimetres. We

denote square centimetres by cm2 , and the area of the rectangle represented in

Figure 2.1.1 is thus 60 cm2 .

In the following table (Table 2.1.2) we give the formulas for the areas of the

polygons we considered earlier. We do not have a general formula for the area of

any polygon. However, we can consider irregularly shaped polygons as a combi-

nation of rectangles, triangles, etc., and calculate each of these areas separately

before combining them to obtain the total area. (Learn to know these formulas.)

77 MAT0511/004

(We use altitude for perpendicular height.)

1

B C Area of 4 ABC = 2 BC AD

D

D C

Square A = length of side length of side

= (length of side)2

a

S R

Rectangle A = length breadth

P Q Area of PQRS = PQ RQ

Area of ABCD = AB DE

A E B

S R

Rhombus A = base altitude

Area of PQRS = PQ ST

P T Q

length of second diagonal

K M

1

Area of KLMN = 2 LN KM

M L

1

Area of KLMJ = 2 (ML + JK) MN

J N K

Table 2.1.2

78

Area of a circle We also need to consider the area of a circle. You may know that

Note: Students should know

this formula by heart.

Area of a circle = r2

or 2

d

Area of a circle =

2

where r represents the radius and d represents the diameter of the circle. You

may be interested to see how the derivation of this formula can be illustrated.

The circle with centre C and radius r is divided into 8 congruent sectors. See

Figure 2.1.2.

W Q

C

V R

U S

Figure 2.1.2

We cut up the circle and arrange the sectors as shown in Figure 2.1.3.

R S T U V

r r

R Q P W V

Figure 2.1.3

79 MAT0511/004

The object in Figure 2.1.3 has two wavy sides, both denoted by RV . The

Note: It is not necessary to distance from R to V is half the circumference of the circle, i.e. r units. The

be able to deduce this for- length RR (or VV ) is the same as the radius of the circle, i.e. r units. We can

mula for examination pur- repeat this process, and cut the circle into a large number of much smaller sectors.

poses.

The smaller we make the sectors, the less curved will be the arcs that make up

the long sides of the object similar to that in Figure 2.1.3.

The formula for the area of a rectangle is l b. In this case we have l = r units,

and b = r units. Thus, the area of the circle (even though it is no longer a circle

in shape we have not changed its area) is

i.e. we have

area of circle = r2 square units.

2.1.4

22

Calculate the approximate area of a circle with diameter 42 cm. (Let 7 .)

SOLUTION

2

Area = r

22 2

(21) cm2 Since d = 42 cm we have r = 21 cm

7

= 1 386 cm2

2.1.5

Calculate the area of the figure on the following page. The numbers indicate

lengths, in centimetres. All angles are 90 .

80

P 4 W

V 7

U

3

T

S

Q R

SOLUTION

For convenience we include an additional line segment, namely the line segment

joining V and S.

P 4 W

V 7 U

3

T

S

Q R

PQ = (5 + 3 + 5) cm, since + Area of rectangle STUV

all angles are right angles.

= (PQ PW ) + (ST UT )

= ((13 4) + (7 3)) cm2

= (52 + 21) cm2

= 73 cm2

Thus the total area of the figure is 73 cm2 .

81 MAT0511/004

2.1.1

A landscape gardener wants to lay paving around a pond in a garden. The area

requiring paving is the shaded region shown in Figure 2.1.4. What is the ap-

proximate area, correct to two decimal places, of the section to be paved. (Let

3, 14.)

1,2 m

5m

12 m

Figure 2.1.4

= (12 5) (1, 2)2 m2

= (60 (1, 44)) m2

(60 (3, 14) (1, 44)) m2

= (60 4, 5216) m2

= 55, 4784 m2

55, 48 m2 (correct to two decimal places)

2.1.6

Find a formula for the area of a regular hexagon in terms of the length of one of

its sides.

82

SOLUTION

T

r

A B

Sketch a regular hexagon, with sides of length s cm. Draw the diagonals. The

diagonals intersect in only one point, T , and the lengths of the line segments

joining the vertices and T are all the same, say r cm.

Do you see that the reason The hexagon thus consists of six congruent triangles. In any one of the triangles,

for congruency is SSS? draw an altitude from T to the base. Say its length is a cm. This will be true for

each triangle, since the triangles are congruent.

= 6 12 base height cm2

= 6 12 s a cm2

= 3as cm2

Also, AT B = 360

6 = 60 since there are six congruent triangles with common

vertex T . Thus T AB = T BA = 60 , and hence 4 AT B is an equilateral triangle.

Thus r = s.

3

From Question

3 of Exercise 1.2 we have a = 2 s. Thus the area of the hexagon

is 3 23 s s cm2 , i.e. 3 2 3 s2 cm2 .

83 MAT0511/004

2.1

1. What is the area of a kite with one diagonal that is one metre long, and the

other diagonal half a metre long?

The shaded area represents paving around the pool. The paving is 0, 5 m

wide. What is the area of the paved section? Give your answer correct to

one decimal place.

3. Find the perimeter and area of each of the following figures, correct to 2

decimal places if the answers are not exact. Assume angles drawn to look

like right angles are right angles. Assume measurements are in centime-

tres.

(a)

A F

3

5 E 2

D

2

C

B 9

(b)

D

6 4

12 C

6 4

6

A

2

6 +4

2 B

84

(c)

3

A 3 3 C

9 9

B

(d)

I

4 4

A 2 J H2 G

D

5 5

B 2 C E 2 F

4. What is the area of the shaded section in the following figure? You may

assume that AC is a diameter of the circle. Give your answer correct to the

nearest square metre.

B 6m D

5. On a vacant piece of land with area 25 000 m2 , a sports club plans to build

an athletics track, with the shape shown in the following figure.

ym

xm

85 MAT0511/004

In the figure, the two curved sections are both semicircles. In order to

accommodate competition races, the lengths of the lanes in which runners

will compete must be 400 m. One such lane is shown by means of a dashed

line on the sketch. (The starting positions of the runners are staggered so

that each runner covers the same distance.) The outer boundary of the

athletics track is shown here as the solid line. It must measure 420 m, and

each of the long straight sides must be twice as long as the diameter of

each of the curved sides.

(a) What values of x and y satisfy these requirements? Give your answer

correct to two decimal places.

(b) The club wants to plant trees in the outer section surrounding the

track. They have been advised that they should allow 50 m2 for each

tree. What is the maximum number of trees that they can plant?

6. A truck wheel (including the tyre) has a diameter of 140 cm. If the tyre

picks up a stone, approximately how far does the stone travel, if the wheel

revolves completely, 500 times? (Use 22

7 in this question.)

7. Consider a circle with diameter d1 , and area a1 . Double the diameter. Cal-

culate the relationship between the new area (a2 ) and the original area

(a1 ). Repeat the process 4 more times and note your results in a table (like

the one shown below). How would you describe the relationship between

each bigger area and the original area?

(i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) between ai

and a1 for

i = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

d a1 =

2d a2 =

4d a3 =

8d a4 =

16d a5 =

32d a6 =

A 3 km D

2 km

B E C

7 km

9. A circle has an area of 64 cm2 . Find the length of the diameter (correct to

one decimal place).

86

10. Suppose a farmer has 500 m of fencing. Will a square field or a circular

field fenced with this length of fencing give him more planting space?

11. Show how the formula for the area of a triangle can be derived, if we know

the formula for the area of a rectangle.

12. Find the area of each of the following symmetrical figures. Measurements

are given in centimetres. If answers are not exact, give them correct to one

decimal place.

(a) (b)

4 1

9

2

5 2

13. Find the area (correct to one decimal place) of the shaded region in the

sketch below. The shaded portion represents what is left when a circle

with diameter 5 cm is cut from a square with sides 5 cm.

5

87 MAT0511/004

2.2

SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME OF THREE

DIMENSIONAL OBJECTS

The branch of geometry that deals with the study of figures in space (i.e. three

dimensional figures) whose faces or cross sections are for example polygons or

circles, is called solid geometry. This does not mean that an object has to be

solid. For example in solid geometry we may study an empty rectangular box,

or a solid wooden cube.

2.2A

SOME THREEDIMENSIONAL OBJECTS

Before we consider formulas for calculating volume and surface area we need

to know the names and characteristics of various objects. Table 2.2.1 on

the next page summarises some of the wellknown threedimensional objects

we encounter. Many threedimensional objects arise from the twodimensional

polygons we have already considered. When we create a threedimensional ob-

ject from twodimensional polygons, we call the twodimensional polygons the

faces of the threedimensional object. We do not only need to use polygons to

create threedimensional objects. We also have objects whose faces are circles

as well as polygons.

made. The net of an object is created by theoretically opening out the three

dimensional object so that it becomes a flat surface.

88

be any polygon, not neces- Square base:

sarily a square. Four triangular sides, where

the triangles are congruent

and have a common vertex.

Rectangular prism

Two congruent and parallel

rectangular faces (called Base

bases); the other faces are

also rectangles, formed by Base

joining corresponding

vertices of the bases.

Cube

A rectangular prism in

which all faces are

congruent squares.

Two circular faces (called

bases), with a rectangle

forming the curved sides

in such a way that the

sides are perpendicular

to the circular base.

Table 2.2.1

net onto a piece of cardboard or paper, cutting it out and folding it along its

edges. We then need to stick the edges together.

89 MAT0511/004

2.2.1

Copy an enlarged version of the net shown in the figure below, onto a piece of

flexible cardboard. Cut it out and fold it into a threedimensional shape.

Figure 2.2.1

SOLUTION

Your shape will look like this.

Figure 2.2.2

2.2B

SURFACE AREA

Nets are twodimensional The value of being able to identify the nets from which threedimensional ob-

representations of three jects are created is that they enable us to see, in two dimensions, the shape of each

dimensional objects.

of the objects faces. This in turn helps us to identify the different components

we need to consider when we calculate the surface area of the object.

Surface area is exactly what the term suggests. It is the combined areas of the

individual surfaces that are the faces of an object.

In Table 2.2.2 we give three familiar objects, together with their surface areas.

You can refer to the nets given in Table 2.2.1 if you are not sure how these areas

are determined.

90

sents surface area, in square centimetres.

Pyramid

S = 4(area

of triangular

face) + 1(area of square base)

= 4 12 b h + (b b)

h = 2bh + b2

= b (2h + b)

b

Rectangular prism

c

+ 2(area of short side)

= 2 (ab) + 2 (ac) + 2 (bc)

b

a = 2 (ab + ac + bc)

Cube

S = 6(area of face)

= 6a2

Table 2.2.2

Do not try to memorise these formulas. You can always calculate surface areas

of different objects by finding the area of each of the faces, and then adding the

areas.

2.2.1

By open cylinder, we mean How much tin sheeting will you need to make an open cylinder with a height

a cylinder with a closed of 20 cm and a base that has a diameter of 10 cm? Give your answer in square

base, and open top.

metres, correct to two decimal places.

91 MAT0511/004

A cylinder such as this is called a right circular cylinder, because the base is a

circle, and the sides are perpendicular to the base.

20 cm

20 cm

5 cm

5 cm

Surface area = area of circle + area of rectangle whose breadth is the circumfer-

ence of the base of the cylinder, and whose length is the height of the cylinder.

ference of a circle is given

by 2r. S = (5)2 + 2(5) 20 cm2 Diameter = 10 cm

and hence radius = 5 cm.

= (25 + 200) cm2

= 225 cm2

706, 86 cm2 Using a calculator.

707 cm2 . To the nearest square centimetre.

Do you remember how to You will thus need approximately 707 cm2 of tin sheeting, i.e. 707 104 m2 ,

convert cm2 to m2 ? If not, i.e. 0, 0707 m2 , i.e. approximately 0, 07 m2 of tin sheeting.

see Book 1, Study Unit 5.

Right circular cylinder From Activity 2.2.1 can you deduce the general formula we use to calculate the

surface area of an open right circular cylinder? We know that

Surface area = area of circular base + area of rectangle.

Hence, for an open right circular cylinder where the radius of the base is r units

and the height is h units, we have surface area

S = r2 + 2rh square units.

See Figure 2.2.3 on the next page.

92

r

right circular cylinder is

(2r2 + 2rh) square units.

Figure 2.2.3

Right circular cone We now consider another object that has a circular base. This is a right circular

cone, which is illustrated in Figure 2.2.4.

cone because it is symme-

trical about a line through h

the vertex, perpendicular to,

and through the centre of,

r

the circle that forms the

base.

Figure 2.2.4

Let us now try to draw a net for this object. We need to do this if we want to use

paper to make party hats in this shape. If the radius r of the base is 10 cm and the

height h is 12 cm then we can use the theorem of Pythagoras to find the length

of the slanting side AB. See Figure 2.2.5.

h = 12 cm

r = 10 cm

B

Figure 2.2.5

By Pythagoras we find

p

AB = h2 + r 2

= 144 + 100 cm

= 244 cm

15, 62 cm.

93 MAT0511/004

If we cut the hat along AB and flatten out the paper, we obtain the following net.

h 2 + r 2 cm

B

2 p r cm

The paper is now in the shape of a sector of a circle, with radius h2 + r2 cm.

In general, when the slanting side has length h2 + r2 units, then the area of

2 2

this sector is r h + r square units. At this stage you may not know how

Note:

this formula has been obtained. However, if you continue with mathematics and

It is not necessary to remem-

study trigonometry, you will be able to work out an area such as this.

ber these formulas for exam

purposes.

Hence the lateral surface area p (i.e. excluding the base) of a right circular cone

with radius r and height h is r h2 + r2 square units, whereas the surfacep area

of the closed right circular cone (i.e. including the base) is (r + r h2 + r2

2

square units.

Sphere We now consider a sphere. A sphere consists of a set of points in space that are

all the same distance from a fixed point called the centre. The length of a line

segment from any point on the sphere to the centre is the radius of the sphere. A

line segment through the centre joining two points on the sphere is the diameter

of the sphere.

Figure 2.2.6

We cannot draw a net for a sphere and use it to find the surface area. The deriva-

tion of the formula for the surface area of a sphere is also beyond the scope of

this module. If a sphere has radius r units, then

94

2.2.2

How much leather is required for a soccer ball that has a diameter of 21 cm?

Use 22

7 as an approximation for , and give your answer to the nearest square

centimetre.

SOLUTION

We assume that the soccer

ball has the shape of a sphere. Since the diameter is

21

21 cm, the radius is 2 cm. Thus

2

Surface area = 4r

22 21 21

4 cm2

7 2 2

= 1 386 cm2 .

The answer to Example 2.2.2 is not really as simple as the solution makes it

appear. A soccer ball is usually made up of a pattern of leather pentagons and

hexagons, as shown in Figure 2.2.7.

Figure 2.2.7

Additional leather is needed for the seams, and some of the original flat piece is

wasted when the pentagons and hexagons are cut out.

95 MAT0511/004

2.2.2

Calculate the surface area of the container shown in Figure 2.2.8. All corners are

right angles.

5 cm

6 cm 3 cm

4 cm

9 cm

Figure 2.2.8

t1

s2

t2

s1

f1 s3

For convenience we call the face looking towards us the front (denoted by f1 );

the corresponding side facing away from us is the back (denoted by f2 ). The

other vertical faces (sides) are denoted by s1 , s2 and s3 ; the horizontal faces on

the top are t1 and t2 , and the base of the container is denoted by b.

96

6 9

4 back ( f2 )

7 3 3 9 4

5 s1 t1 s2 t2 s3

4 front ( f1 )

5 base ( b )

15

Once we have allocated the different dimensions to the different parts of the net

it is straightforward to calculate the separate areas, and then to add them to get

the surface area of the container.

Area of base b = 5 15 cm2 = 75 cm2

Area of s1 = 5 7 cm2 = 35 cm2

Area of t1 = 5 6 cm2 = 30 cm2

Area of s2 = 3 5 cm2 = 15 cm2

Area of t2 = 5 9 cm2 = 45 cm2

Area of s3 = 4 5 cm2 = 20 cm2

97 MAT0511/004

2.2C

VOLUME

The volume of a solid is the number of unit cubes it contains. Suppose the block

shown below has width, height and length all 10 cm.

10 cm

10 cm

10 cm

10 cm

Figure 2.2.9

It should be easy for you to see that if we cut up the block along the lines shown

here, we will have 1 000 small blocks, or cubes, all congruent to the shaded block

in the figure above. Thus we say that the volume of the block is the number of

There are 1 000 cubes, and cubes of unit length (unit length in this case means 1 cm). There are thus 1 000

1 000 = 10 10 10. such cubes, each measuring 1 cm across, 1 cm wide and 1 cm in height. Since

there are 1 000 cubes, all measuring 1 cm by 1 cm by 1 cm, we say that the

volume of the block is 1 000 cubic centimetres.

While it is not practical to try to divide all objects into unit cubes, we give all

volumes in terms of cubic units, i.e. cubic centimetres, or cubic metres, etc.

There are 30 cubes, all mea- Hence the volume of the block shown in Figure 2.2.10 is 30 cubic centimetres.

suring 1 cm by 1 cm by

1 cm, and 30 = 5 3 2.

5 cm

2 cm

3 cm

Figure 2.2.10

98

In the same way that we denote square centimetres (or square metres, etc.) by

cm2 (or m2 , etc.), we also denote cubic centimetres (or cubic metres, etc.) by

cm3 (or m3 , etc.). It is beyond the scope of this module to derive the formulas

for volume, so we now state the volume formulas for the more common solids.

Rectangular prism

V = l wh

h = (l w) h

i.e. V = area of base height

w

l

Cube

V = a3

= a2 a

i.e. V = area of base height

Note:

These formulas should be

understood and remem- a

bered for exam purposes

Right circular cylinder

r

V = r2 h

i.e. V = area of base height

h

V = 13 r2 h

h

i.e. V = 31 volume of right circular cylinder

Sphere

V = 43 r3

r

Table 2.2.3

99 MAT0511/004

When solids are irregular we need to identify the separate components before

trying to calculate the volume.

2.2.3

SOLUTION

We can consider the container as a combination of two separate rectangular con-

tainers. One of them, with volume V1 , has faces s1 , t1 , s2 and parts of f1 , f2 and

b; the other, with volume V2 , has faces t2 , s3 and parts of f1 , f2 and b.

Hence

Volume V = V1 +V2

= (6 5 7) + (5 9 4) cm3

= (210 + 180) cm3

= 390 cm3 .

gular containers. In the next activity the container consists of a combination of

rectangular and cylindrical containers.

2.2.3

box, with a curved lid that is a cylinder sliced down the middle. Give your answer

to the nearest cubic centimetre.

6 cm

8 cm

10 cm

Figure 2.2.11

100

1

= (l b h) + r2 h

2

The diameter of the

1 2

= (10 8 6) + (4) 10 cm3 cylinder is 8 cm, hence

2

its radius is 4 cm.

3

= (480 + 80) cm

731 cm3

When we consider how much liquid a container holds, we often refer to the

volume in millilitres (ml), or litres (` ) instead of cubic centimetres. We have the

relationships

1 ` = 1 000 ml = 1 000 cm3

i.e.

1 ml = 1 cm3 and 1 ` = 1 000 cm3 = 103 m3

In the next activity we also need to calculate the volume of an irregular container,

in this case a swimming pool. We noted in Table 2.2.3 that we can determine the

volume of certain objects by calculating

We use the word solid to de- I Separating the solid into two or more appropriate solids whose volumes

scribe the object whose vol- we can find.

ume we want to find.

I Considering what base we should use for each of the solids identified.

2.2.4

Calculate the volume of water needed to fill a swimming pool with the dimen-

sions shown in the figure on the next page.

101 MAT0511/004

10 m

6m

1m 2m

5m

We divide the pool into two separate parts, namely the shallow part (with volume

V1 ):

6m

1m

5m

6m 5m

B C

1m 2m

A

We draw the deep end of the pool again so that one of the sides becomes the

base.

1m 2m

5m

6m 6m

6m

A D

1m

2m

B 5m C

102

The base is a trapezoid with parallel sides 1 m and 2 m, and height 5 m (the

side that is 5 m long is perpendicular to the sides that are 1 m and 2 m long). The

area of a trapezoid is given by

1

A = h (a + b)

2

Do not confuse the height, or where a and b are the lengths of the parallel sides and h is the perpendicular

altitude, of the base, with the height, or altitude. We thus have

height of the solid itself.

1

A= (5) (1 + 2) m2 = 7, 5 m2 .

2

Thus

= (7, 5 6) m3

= 45 m3 .

We also have

V1 = l b h

= (5 6 1) m3

= 30 m3 .

V = V1 +V2 = 75 m3 .

Since 1 ` = 103 m3 we Thus in order to fill the pool to the top we need 75 m3 of water, i.e. 75 103

have 1 m3 = 103 `. litres of water.

103 MAT0511/004

2.2

1. A circular pipe has a diameter of 3 m. How many litres (to the nearest

litre) of oil can fit into a section of pipe that is 50 m long.

2.

1 cm 15 cm

5 cm

The metal block shown above has a cylindrical hole bored through the

centre. The open ends have square faces and the remaining four sides are

rectangular. How much liquid (to the nearest cubic centimetre) can the

block hold at any given time.

and cylinder C2 with radius r2 cm and height h2 cm. If C2 must have the

same height as C1 , but contain twice the volume of C1 , how much bigger

must r2 be than r1 ?

ks1

s1

The sides of the smaller cube measure s1 units. The sides of the bigger

cube measure ks1 units, where k is a constant. Find the value of k so that

the bigger cube will have double the volume of the smaller cube.

104

5. An office has a water dispenser with paper cups in the shape of cones, with

diameter 6 cm and depth 8 cm. How many times must one paper cup be

used to fill an empty kettle up to the 2 ` mark?

6. A milk carton contains 500 ml of milk. The carton is damaged and the

contents must be poured into a can that is 8 cm across and 9 cm high.

Will all the milk fit into the can? If not, how much milk (in ml) will be

left?

7. 24 cheese wedges are packed into a box, in three layers. The cheese

wedges are 0, 5 cm thick, and 2, 5 cm along the straight edges. Assume

no space is left between the wedges, or between the top and bottom layers,

and the box. The cardboard used to make the box is 1 mm thick. What is

the surface area of the box?

2,5 cm

block of wood in the shape of a cube, with sides 10 cm?

105 MAT0511/004

Perimeters of polygons

If the lengths of the sides are denoted by s, s1 , s2 , s3 and s4 , where the

lengths are measured in units such as centimetres, then we have the fol-

lowing formulas.

B Triangle:

scalene triangle: Perimeter = s1 + s2 + s3

isosceles triangles: Perimeter = 2s1 + s2

equilateral triangles: Perimeter = 3s

B Quadrilateral: Perimeter = s1 + s2 + s3 + s4

rectangle and parallelogram: Perimeter = 2 (s1 + s2 )

square and rhombus: Perimeter = 4s

kite: Perimeter = 2 (s1 + s2 )

B Pentagon (regular): Perimeter = 5s

B Hexagon (regular): Perimeter 6s

B Irregular figures: Perimeter = sum of the lengths of all the sides

Circumference of circles

Circumference = 2r = d, where r is the radius, d is the diameter, and

is an irrational number, at times approximated by 22

7 or 3, 14.

Areas of polygons

B Rectangle: Area = length breadth

B Square: Area = (length of side)2

B Parallelogram and rhombus: Area = base altitude

B Kite: Area = 12 length of first diagonal length of second diagonal

Note: B Trapezoid: Area = 12 sum of parallel sides altitude

The formula for the area

of an hexagon need not be B Hexagon (regular): Area = 6 21 base altitude (where base

memorised. and altitude refer to the base and altitude of any

one of the six congru-

3 3

ent triangles that make up the hexagon) = 2 ( length of side)2 .

B Irregularly shaped polygons: We can break them up into triangles

and quadrilaterals, whose areas are easy to calculate.

B Circles

2

Area = r2 = d2 , where r is the radius and d the diameter.

106

B Pyramid (square base): has four sides that are congruent triangles

with one common vertex.

B Rectangular prism: has two congruent and parallel rectangular faces

called bases; the other sides are also rectangles formed by joining

corresponding vertices of the bases.

B Cube: a rectangular prism in which all faces are congruent squares.

B Right circular cylinder: a circular top and base, with a rectangle

forming the curved sides, in such a way that the sides are perpendic-

ular to the base.

B Right circular cone: an object with vertex directly above the centre

of its circular base, symmetrical about the perpendicular line joining

the vertex to the circular base.

B Sphere: an object in which each point is equidistant from a fixed

point called the centre.

B Rectangular prism: Surface area = 2 area of base + 2 area of

long side + 2 area of short side

B Cube: Surface area = 6 area of one face

B Right circular cylinder (closed):

Surface area = 2 area of circle + area of rectangle

In an open right circular cylinder:

Surface area = 1 area of circle + area of rectangle

In both cases note that the breadth of the rectangle is equal to the

circumference of the circle.

Note: B Right circular cone: Lateral surface area = r h2 + r2 , where r is

It is not necessary to me- the radius of the circle forming the base and h is the perpendicular

morise the surface area of a

distance from the vertex to the centre of the base.

right circular cone.

In a closed right circular cone: Surface area = r h2 + r2 + r2

B Sphere: Surface area = 4r2 , where r is the radius of the sphere.

B Irregularlyshaped object: We break it up into several shapes whose

surface areas we can calculate, and combine the separate areas.

B Cube: Volume = (length of side)3

B Right circular cylinder: Volume = area of circular base height

107 MAT0511/004

V = 13 (volume of cylinder with the same circular base and height)

= 13 r2 h, where r is the radius of the circular base and h is the

height.

B Sphere: Volume = 43 r3 , where r is the radius.

B Irregularlyshaped object: We break the object into several objects

whose volumes we can calculate, and combine the separate volumes.

CHECKLIST

Now check that you can do the following.

SECTION 2.1

Table 2.1.1, Example 2.1.1

Example 2.1.2

Example 2.1.3

Table 2.1.2

Example 2.1.4

Examples 2.1.5, 2.1.6; Activity 2.1.1

SECTION 2.2

1. Draw the net for several familiar threedimensional objects, i.e. a pyramid,

rectangular prism, cube, right circular cylinder.

Table 2.2.1, Example 2.2.1

Table 2.2.2

108

3. Calculate the surface area of a right circular cylinder and the surface area

of a right circular cone.

Activity 2.2.1; Figures 2.2.3, 2.2.4, 2.2.5 and the related discussion

Figure 2.2.6 and the related discussion; Example 2.2.2

Activity 2.2.2

lar prism, cube, right circular cylinder, right circular cone, sphere.

Table 2.2.3

7. Calculate the volume of irregularly shaped objects, or objects that are com-

binations of other solids.

Example 2.2.3; Activities 2.2.3, 2.2.4

109 MAT0511/004

ANSWERS

TOPIC 1

Exercise 1.1

1.

A A1

B B1

2. (a)

A

C

(b)

B

C A

CPB is adjacent to BPA.

(b) CPD = 22 300

(c) APB + BPC +CPD = 90

(d) E PA = 112 300 (Since E PA = 180 APB + BPC

= 180 (45 + 22 300 )

= 112 300 .)

110

(c) 30 480 000 (c) 100 60 000

5. (a) (i) 90

(ii) 45

(iii) 45

(b) Pairs of cointerior angles:

AQP and CPQ

BRP and DPR

RQP and DPQ

ARP and CPR

Note that it is possible to denote the angles differently: for example

AQP and AQF refer to the same angle, similarly ARG and QRP refer

to the same angle.

(c) ARP and DPR

(d) AQR is a straight angle.

(e) (i) GPC

(ii) GPQ or F PR

and 270 about its central point without any change taking place. It also

has reflection symmetry. It can be reflected in any one of the four dashed

lines shown.

through the centre of the face.

However, it does not have rotational symmetry, since rotation through any

number of degrees results in a different picture. For example, rotation

through 180 gives the same face, but upside down.

111 MAT0511/004

Exercise 1.2

1. (a)

(b)

BD = BD

ADB = ADC = 90

Hence BD = CD.

AD bisects BC. (See question 2 above, or the discussion that follows Ac-

tivity 1.2.6.)

Hence BD = CD = 12 s cm.

According to the Theorem of Pythagoras

i.e. we have

1

AD2 = s2 ( s)2

2

1

= s2 s2

4

3 2

= s

4

and hence

r

3 2

AD = s

4

3

= s.

2

112

4.

The angle sum of each triangle is 180 .

Thus the angle sum of all eight triangles is

8 180 = 1 440 .

But the sum of the central angles of the triangles is 360 . Hence the angle

sum of the octagon is

4 ST P 4 QT R

4 ST R 4 QT P

4 SRQ 4 QPS

4 PSR 4 RQP

(b)

P Q

S R

4 QRS 4 SPQ

Thus QSR = SQP.

Hence PQ k RS. Alternate angles are equal.

Similarly PSQ = RQS.

Hence PS k RQ. Alternate angles equal.

Hence PQRS is a parallelogram. Opposite sides are parallel.

113 MAT0511/004

6. By Pythagoras

FG2 +CG2 = FC2 .

Hence

2 2

= 13 CD 41 CD

2

x 2 x

= m2

3 4

2 2

x x

= m2

9 16

16x2 9x2

= m2

144

7x 2

= m2

144

and thus

x

FG = 7 m2 .

12

7. 4 ABD 6 4 ECD. If 4 ABD 4 ECD then AB = EC. Since EC is the

hypotenuse of 4 EBC it follows that EC > DC. Hence EC > AB since

DC = AB. Consequently 4 ABD 6 4 ECD.

8. (a)

A

x

B D

2x

AB = AD

BC = DC.

AC is common to both.

Thus

4 ABC 4 ADC. SSS

114

(b)

A

E

B D

C

Consider 4 BAE and 4 DAE.

Since 4 ABC 4 ADC it follows that

BAE = DAE.

4 BAE 4 DAE. SAS

Hence

BE = ED

DCA = DPQ and DAC = DQP. Corresponding angles are equal.

D is common to both triangles.

Thus

4 DCA ||| 4 DPQ.

Because the triangles are similar, the corresponding sides are in proportion,

and thus

DC CA DA

= = .

DP PQ DQ

Let DC = x.

We then have

x CA

= ,

2x PQ

i.e. we have

CA 1

=

PQ 2

and hence

CA = 12 PQ.

115 MAT0511/004

10.

Do you notice a pattern in Polygon Number Number of Number of Angle

the angle sum? (regular) of sides vertices diagonals sum

Triangle 3 3 0 180

Quadrilateral 4 4 2 360

Pentagon 5 5 5 540

Hexagon 6 6 9 720

Octagon 8 8 20 1 080

(b) 90

(c) rhombus square

(d) less than

Exercise 1.3

1.

B C

Then ADC = 90 .

116

2.

Q

P R

K C J

N S

Z T

A O B

Y U

L D M

X V

W

We label all points where the lines described intersect with the outer circle

by means of the letters N, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y and Z. The addi-

tional points of intersection of the lines are denoted by J , K, L and M. We

see that the figures bounded by

line segments AK, KC, and arc AC

line segments BJ, JC, and arc BC

line segments MB, MD, and arc BD

line segments DL, LA, and arc AD.

are all congruent.

Similarly the figures bounded by

arc NZ and line segments NK, KA and AZ

arc Y Z and line segments Y L, LA and AZ

arc UT and line segments UM, MB and BT

arc ST and line segments SJ, JB and BT

arc PQ and line segments PK, KC and CQ

arc RQ and line segments RJ, JC and CQ

arc XW and line segments XL, LD and DW

arc VW and line segments V M, MD and DW

are all congruent.

We also have the congruent figures bounded by

arc Y X and line segments Y L and LX

arc UV and line segments UM and MV

arc RS and line segments RJ and JS

arc PN and line segments PK and NK.

117 MAT0511/004

There are many other congruent figures which are formed by combining

certain smaller congruent figures. For example, ZXA, TV B, ZPA, and

T RB are all congruent.

TOPIC 2

Exercise 2.1

1.

A

_1

2 m

B D

E

1m

= 2 (area of 4 ABC) . 4 ABC 4 ADC.

Thus

1

Area of kite = 2 (base) altitude

21

= 2 2 AC EB

= 2 21 (1) 14 m2 AC bisects BD.

= 2 81 m2

1 2

= 4 m

1

i.e. the area of the kite is 4 m2 .

2.

= (3)2 (2, 5)2 m2

= ( (9 6, 25)) m2

= 2, 75 m2

8, 6 m2

118

3. (a)

7

A F

3

E 2

5 G D

2

C

B 9

Perimeter = (5 + 9 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 7) cm

= 28 cm

Total area = area of rectangle AGEF + area of rectangle GBCD

= (21 + 18) cm2

= 39 cm2

(b)

D

6 4

12 C

6 4

6

A

6 +4

2 2 B

Perimeter = AB

p + BC +CD + DA

= 62 + 42 + 6 + 4 + 12 cm

= 22 + 52 cm

(22 + 7, 21) cm

= 29, 21 cm

Total area = area of 4 ABD + area of 4 DBC

1 1

2

= 2 (12 4) + 2 (6 4) cm

= 36 cm2

(c)

3

A 3 3 C

D

9 9

B

119 MAT0511/004

Perimeter = semicircle AC + BC + BA

= ((3) + 9 + 9) cm

27, 42 cm

Total area = area of semicircle + area of 4 ABC

1 2 2 1

= 2 (3) cm + 2 (6) (BD)

By Pythagoras, BD = 92 32 = 72 8, 485 cm.

Hence

9

Total area 2 + 3 (8, 485) cm2

(14, 137 + 25, 455) cm2

= 39, 592 cm2

39, 59 cm2 .

(d)

I

4 4

A 2 J H2 G

D

5 5

B 2 C E 2 F

Perimeter = 34 cm

JH = CE since JCEH is a rectangle. Thus

4 JHI 4 CED. SSS

Hence

total area = area of rectangle ABFG

i.e.

total area = AG AB.

By Pythagoras

p

JH = JI 2 + IH 2 cm

= 16 + 16 cm

= 32 cm.

120

Hence

AE = 2 + 32 + 2 cm

= 4 + 32 cm.

Total area = 5 4 + 32 cm2

= 20 + 5 32 cm2

(20 + 28, 284) cm2

48, 28 cm2

4.

A

B 6m D

C

ABCD is a parallelogram.

Hence AD = BG.

But BC = AB (given), hence ABCD is a rhombus.

From the answer to question 1 of Exercise 1.3, we know that since AC is a

diameter, ABC and ADC are both right angles.

Hence ABCD is a square.

By Pythagoras

AB2 + BC2 = AC2

i.e.

2 (AB)2 = 36 m2 .

Thus

AB2 = 18 m

i.e.

AB = 18 m.

= (3)2 18. 18 m2

= (9 18) m2

10, 27 m2

10 m2

121 MAT0511/004

Hence 2 2y + (2x) = 420.

But x = 2y, and thus

y

2 + (2 2y) = 420.

2

Now

y

2 + 4y = 420

2

y + 4y = 420

y ( + 4) = 420

420

y= .

+4

Thus

y 58, 81.

(b)

Track area = area of circle + area of rectangle

y 2

= + xy m2

2

!

58, 81 2

+ (117, 62 58, 81) m2

2

(2 716, 39 + 6 917, 23) m2

= 9 633, 62 m2

9 634 m2

(25 000 9 634) m2

= 15 366 m2

tree area

=

area required for one tree

15 366

50

307

122

6. Over one revolution of the wheel the stone covers a distance equal to the

outer circumference of the wheel (i.e. circumference of wheel together

with the tyre).

Distance covered over one revolution = 2 (70) cm

Distance covered over 500 revolutions

= 500 2 70 cm

22

500 2 70 cm

7

= 220 000 cm

= 2 200 m

7.

Diameter Area ai Relationship between

(i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) ai and a1

for i = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

d 2

d a1 = 2 = 4 d 2

2d 2

2d a2 = 2 = d 2 a2 = 4a1

4d 2

4d a3 = 2 = 4d 2 a3 = 16a1

8d 2

8d a4 = 2 = 16d 2 a4 = 64a1

16d 2

16d a5 = 2 = 64d 2 a5 = 256a1

32d 2

32d a6 = 2 = 256d 2 a6 = 1 024a1

a2 = 4a1

a3 = (4)2 a1

a4 = (4)3 a1

a5 = (4)4 a1

a6 = (4)5 a1

we see that each time the diameter is doubled, the area increases by a factor

of 4.

d 2

9. Area of circle = r2 = 2

123 MAT0511/004

d 2

Thus, if 2 = 64 cm2 , we have

2

d 64

= cm2

2

i.e.

d 8

= cm

2

i.e.

16

d = 9, 0 cm.

10. If the perimeter of a square is 500 m, each side has length 125 m. Hence

250

If the circumference of a circle is 500 m, its radius is m.

250 2 2

Area of circle = m

62 500 2

= m

19 894, 37 m2

Thus a circular field provides more planting space than a square field.

11.

F A E

B D C

Now

and

Area of FBCE = Area of FBDA + Area of DCEA.

Also

Area of 4 ABD = 12 Area of FBDA

and

Area of 4 ADC = 12 Area of DCEA.

124

Hence

Area of 4 ABC = 12 Area of FBCE

= 12 BC FB

= 12 BC AD.

(b) 39 cm2

13.

Shaded area = area of square area of circle

2

= 25 52 cm2

5, 4 cm2

Exercise 2.2

1. The circular pipe has the shape of a cylinder with diameter 3 m. We are

interested in a 50 m length of pipe, i.e. we regard 50 m as the height of the

cylinder.

Volume of cylinder = r2 h

2

= 23 50 m3

353, 42917 m3

Since

1 m = 100 cm = 102 cm

we know that

Also

1 ` = 1 000 ml = 1 000 cm3 .

Hence

1 m3 = 1 000 ` = 103 `.

Hence

353, 42917 m3 = 353, 42917 103 `

353 429 `.

125 MAT0511/004

Square faces have sides of 5 cm, but there is a space of 1 cm between the

hole and each of the edges of the block. Thus the diameter of the hole is

3 cm. The length of the hole is 15 cm. Hence

3 2

Volume = 2 15 cm3

106 cm3

3.

Volume of C1 = V1 = (r1 )2 h1

Volume of C2 = V2 = (r2 )2 h2

We must have

V2 = 2V1

i.e.

(r2 )2 h2 = 2 (r1 )2 h1 .

Since h2 = h1 we have

(r2 )2 = 2 (r1 )2

i.e.

r2 = 2r1 .

Thus r2 must be 2 times bigger than r1 .

Volume of smaller cube = Vs = s31 cubic units

If

Vb = 2Vs

then

k3 s31 = 2s31

i.e. we have

k3 = 2

i.e. we have

3

k=2.

Thus if the constant k is the number 3 2 then the bigger cube will have

sides 3 2 times bigger than the sides of the smaller cube, and the volume

of the bigger cube will be double the volume of the smaller cube.

126

5.

1 2

Volume of one cup = 3 r h

2

= 1

3 (3) 8 cm3

3

= 24 cm

= 24 ml

2 000

Number of cups required =

24

26, 53

Hence we need to use the paper cup 27 times to fill the kettle, 26 times

using a full cup and once using just over half a cup.

6.

Volume of can = r2 h

= (4)2 9 cm3

452 cm3

= 452 ml

The milk will not fit into the can. There will be approximately

(500 452) ml, i.e. approximately 48 ml, of milk left.

7.

Surface area = area of sides (including thickness of cardboard)

+area of top (including thickness of cardboard)

+area of bottom (including thickness of cardboard)

= (2r 1, 7) + r2 + r2 cm2

= (2 2, 6 1, 7) + 2 (2, 6)2 cm 2

(27, 77 + 42, 77) cm2

= 70, 54 cm2

8.

Volume of cube = (10 10 10) cm3

= 1 000 cm3

4 3

Volume of ball = 3 r

4 3

= 3 (4, 5)

381, 7 cm3

= 618, 3 cm3

127 MAT0511/004

REFERENCES

Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976.

Nostrand Company, Inc., 1968.

5. Sykes, J.B.: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of current English (6th edi-

tion), Oxford University Press, 1976.

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