Você está na página 1de 128

iii MAT0511/004

CONTENTS

TOPIC 1 GEOMETRY 1

Outcomes 1

Section 1.1 Lines and Angles 3

Section 1.2 Polygons 26

Section 1.3 Circles 63

Topic Summary 66

Checklist 69

TOPIC 2 PERIMETER, AREA AND


VOLUME 72

Outcomes 72

Section 2.1 Measurements of Perimeter and Area 73

Section 2.2 Surface Area and Volume of Three 87


Dimensional Objects

Topic Summary 105

Checklist 107

ANSWERS 109

REFERENCES 127
1 MAT0511/004

GEOMETRY

OUTCOMES
After studying this topic you should be able to do the following.

SECTION 1.1: Lines and angles

I Create patterns by translating an object in a given direction, over a given


distance.

I Create patterns by reflecting an object, for example in a vertical or hori-


zontal line. Recognise objects that have reflection symmetry.

I Recognise objects that have rotational symmetry. Create patterns by ro-


tating an object through a given angle between 0 and 360 .

I Define the following concepts: line, line segment, ray, angle.

I Recognise lines that are coincident, parallel, perpendicular.

I Classify angles according to measure or relationship with other angles.

I Recognise the relationship between parallel lines cut by a transversal line


and the resulting corresponding, alternate and cointerior angles.

SECTION 1.2: Polygons

I Create patterns by means of tessellating polygons.

I Draw the diagonals (if they exist) and altitudes of any polygon.

I Recognise polygons that are congruent, and identify corresponding sides


or angles of congruent polygons.

I Recognise polygons that are similar. Show that corresponding sides of


similar polygons are in proportion.

I Use the property of similarity of polygons to determine the scale factor


required when a given object needs to be enlarged or reduced.
2

I Classify triangles according to the lengths of their sides or the measure of


their angles.

I Use the Theorem of Pythagoras.

I Know and apply the four sets of conditions that triangles must satisfy in
order to be congruent. The conditions are referred to as SSS, SAS, AAS
(or ASA) and RHS.

I Recognise triangles that are similar. Use the fact that corresponding sides
of similar triangles are in proportion to calculate distance or length.

I Classify quadrilaterals according to whether opposite sides are parallel,


or equal in length.

I Use congruency of triangles to prove certain properties of quadrilater-


als.

In a kite prove that


the diagonals intersect at right angles, and the longer of the di-
agonals bisects the shorter diagonal.
In a parallelogram prove that
the diagonals bisect each other
opposite sides have equal length
opposite angles have equal measure.
In a rhombus (in addition to the properties of parallelograms) prove
that
the diagonals bisect each other at right angles
the diagonals bisect the vertices.
In a rectangle (in addition to the properties of parallelograms) prove
that
the diagonals have equal length.
In a square (in addition to the properties of a rhombus) prove that
the diagonals have equal length.

SECTION 1.3: Circles

I Use the terminology of circles: centre, radius, chord, diameter, arc, semi
circle, tangent, central angle subtended by an arc.
3 MAT0511/004

1.1
LINES AND ANGLES

1.1A
WHAT GEOMETRY MEANS
Geometry is the branch of mathematics that considers the size and shape of
things. From as early as 2 000 BC there are records of geometric activity in vari-
ous parts of the world. The Babylonians knew how to find the areas of rectangles
and some triangles, and volumes of various objects. They were also responsible
for dividing the circumference of a circle into 360 equal parts.

Geometry came into being in response to human activities such as measuring


land areas and volumes of harvested grain. Construction of the pyramids in
Egypt required extensive geometric understanding. By the time of Euclid, about
300 BC, the method of making a sequence of deductions from certain initial
clearly stated assumptions was a wellestablished mathematical practice. This
The Elements consists of
way of thinking forms the basis of Euclidean geometry and other branches of
13 separate books which in-
mathematics.
volve the study of number
theory and elementary alge-
When we hear the word geometry, most of us think about Euclidean geome-
bra, as well as geometry. Six
try. Euclid was a professor of mathematics at the University of Alexandria (in
of the books deal with much
Egypt) but it seems that he originally studied in Athens. His bestknown work
of the plane and solid geom-
is Elements which has had a significant influence on scientific thinking.
etry that has formed part of
secondary school mathemat-
Today we still study aspects of Euclidean geometry at school, although in later
ics.
mathematics we will encounter nonEuclidean geometries. At school level,
Transformation geometry transformation geometry is also sometimes studied. Transformation geometry
involves three different processes, namely translation, reflection and rotation.
We describe each of these processes by means of an example.

1.1.1

Consider the elephant motif below.

If we repeat it several times, horizontally, we obtain the design on the following


page.
4

Figure 1.1.1

Translation We say that this design has been created by horizontally shifting (or sliding or
translating) the original elephant. The distance that the original motif is shifted
may vary. For example, in Figure 1.1.2 if we translate the circle motif horizon-
tally by 2 cm, we have a pattern of separate circles; however, if we translate it
The translation distance ap- only a very short distance, we have an overlapping pattern.
plies to any point of the mo-
tif.

Figure 1.1.2

Shapes can be translated in any direction, upwards, downwards, diagonally, etc.

Symmetry Before we consider reflection we need to look at symmetry. In Book 3, the


discussion after Activity 4.1.1 deals with the symmetry of a graph in the yaxis.
Look at the butterfly in the figure below.

Figure 1.1.3

Is it possible to draw a line through the middle of the butterfly that divides the
butterfly into two identical halves? If you fold the figure along a vertical line
through the middle of the butterfly you will see that the one half lies directly on
top of the other half. We say that the one half of the butterfly is the mirror image
of the other half, and that the vertical line is the axis of symmetry of this figure.
A figure may have more than This figure thus has a vertical axis of symmetry. In Figure 1.1.4 we see an object
one axis of symmetry. with a horizontal axis of symmetry.

Figure 1.1.4
5 MAT0511/004

Figure 1.1.5 shows an object which we can fold along many possible lines that
pass through its centre in such a way that one half lies directly on top of the other
half. The object thus has an infinite number of axes of symmetry.

Figure 1.1.5

Reflection symmetry The objects in Figures 1.1.3, 1.1.4 and 1.1.5 are all symmetric about at least one
axis of symmetry. One half of the object reflects the other half in this line. For
Reflection symmetry is also this reason we say that the objects in these figures all have reflection symmetry.
called line symmetry. We can create patterns by reflecting any given object in a certain line. We may,
for example, reflect objects vertically, or horizontally. To grasp more easily
what this means, put your pencil down on a piece of paper.

Now pick it up at the point, keeping the blunt end on the paper, and let it lie down
flat again pointing the other way.

We can continue moving in the same direction as often as we choose to. In the
sketch below we have reflected the pencil three times in a vertical line.

1.1.2

Consider the following motif.

Create a design by reflecting the motif in various ways.


6

(a) Start with a vertical line through the right hand corner, then reflect the
motif five times moving to the right with no spaces between successive
motifs.

(b) Start with a horizontal line through the bottom corner, then reflect the motif
five times moving downwards with no spaces between successive motifs.

(c) Reflect the motif once in a vertical line (as in (a)), then reflect the resulting
shape once in a horizontal line through the lower corners.

SOLUTION

(a)

(b)

(c)
7 MAT0511/004

1.1.3
Consider the motif below. Create a design in the following way. First reflect the
motif downwards in a horizontal line through the bottom corner. Then translate
the resulting shape horizontally 7 times by intervals of 5 mm.

SOLUTION

Rotational symmetry We can also turn or rotate objects about a central point. If they look exactly
the same after the turn as they did before the turn, we say they have rotational
symmetry. The amount of rotation is the angle through which the object is
We discuss angles in the rotated, and it is measured in degrees. Earlier (when we discussed pie graphs in
next study unit. Topic 7 of Book 3) we mentioned that angles can be measured in degrees, and
that one complete revolution measures 360 . Hence, for example, a full circle
rotation measures 360 , a half circle rotation is a turn through 180 , and a quarter
circle rotation is a turn through 90 . When objects have rotational symmetry, the
angle of rotation will always be less than 360 , since any object will look the
same after a turn through one complete revolution.

1.1.4

The object below has rotational symmetry of 180 since it looks the same
every time we turn it through one half of a revolution about its central point.

Figure 1.1.6
8

Do you see why the angle of rotation of the object in Example 1.1.4 is not 90 ?
If we rotate it 90 (i.e. through a quarter of a revolution) we obtain the following
figure.

This figure is not the same Figure 1.1.6.

1.1.5

Through how many degrees can you rotate the object below to obtain the identi-
cal object?

SOLUTION
You can turn this 90 or 180 or 270 and still have exactly the same object.

1.1.1

(No solution is suggested for (a) and (b)).

(a) Find (in a magazine, newspaper or advertisement) any object with

(i) rotational symmetry


(ii) reflection symmetry.

Use these two items to create an interesting design.


9 MAT0511/004

(b) Look at designs in your environment, such as designs on baskets, table


cloths, walls, covers of books. Can you identify the basic motif used to
create the design? See whether each motif has reflection or rotational sym-
metry. If it has rotational symmetry, through how many degrees can the
motif be rotated? If it has reflection symmetry, in what line(s) can the
motif be reflected?

(c) Draw a capital letter E such as the one shown below. Fold along the dotted
line. Does it have line symmetry or rotational symmetry?

The object capital E has line symmetry, or reflection symmetry. It is symme-


trical about the horizontal line shown. It does not have rotational symmetry, since
we cannot rotate it through any angle other than 360 and still have exactly the
same object.

1.1B
LINES AND ANGLES
You have already worked with the number line, which we use to represent the set
of real numbers. (See Book 1, Topic 1.) We have also seen (in Book 3, Topic 1)
how this association (between points on a line and real numbers) was extended to
ordered pairs of real numbers that represent points in the Cartesian plane. When
we look at points, lines and curves in the Cartesian plane, we can describe their
behaviour in algebraic terms by using equations.
10

We now look at points and lines separately from the Cartesian plane. We are
thus no longer considering an algebraic description, but a geometric description,
which treats these entities as physical objects that we can see and measure. There
is obviously a big difference between a point on a number line and a point
on a page in your book. On the number line there are, for example, infinitely
many numbers between 0 and 1. A few of them are shown in Figure 1.1.7(a).

0 _81 _41 _1
2
1

Figure 1.1.7(a)


In the Cartesian plane we can consider the points (1, 0), 21 , 0 ; then 41 , 0 , 18 , 0 ,
and so on (see Figure 1.1.7(b)), and we soon realise that this process can also
continue indefinitely.

( _41 , 0 )

( _81 , 0 ) ( _21 , 0 ) ( 1, 0)

Figure 1.1.7(b)

However, if we physically draw a line segment, and use even a very fine pencil,
we will soon cover the number line with the dots that represent numbers; how-
ever there will be many numbers not yet shown, for which there is no space on
the number line.

A point We In use the word point in many different ways. When we look in a Math-
ematics Dictionary we are even more confused. We read that a point is an
undefined element of geometry. Euclid called it something that has position
but no nonzero dimensions. This directly contradicts the Concise Oxford En-
glish dictionarys definition of a point as a very small mark on a surface. What
is the point of all this? (Yet another use of the word!)
11 MAT0511/004

The geometry we will now study

I is based on an undefined concept (a point)

I has a structure in which the apparent contradictions are overcome through


the propositions formulated by Euclid

I is consistent with the physical world.

We will not study any of Euclids propositions, but it is helpful to remember the
role that they play.

Terminology In many sections of the MAT011K books we have used words such as point,
line, line segment, angle, and so on. We now give the specific mathematical
meaning of some of these words.

Definition 1.1.1
A line is a collection of points in a plane.
A line It extends indefinitely in two directions.
It has no width.

The line AB

Figure 1.1.8

Note that when we use the word line we mean straight line. We denote the line


by means of any two points on the line. Some authors use the notation AB where
the doubleheaded arrow indicates that the line continues indefinitely in both
directions.
12

Definition 1.1.2
A line segment A line segment is part of a line.
It has two endpoints.
Its length is the distance between the two endpoints.

The line segment AB

Figure 1.1.9

Note that some


authors
use the notation AB to denote the line segment AB ; they

may also use AB to denote the length of the line segment. We use the notation
AB to denote both the line segment and its length.

We need the following definition because we use it in the definition of an angle.

Definition 1.1.3
A ray A ray is part of a line.
It has one endpoint.
It extends indefinitely in one direction.

B
A

The ray AB

Figure 1.1.10


Some authors use the notation AB to denote a ray. We denote the ray by first writ-
ing down its endpoint (starting point), then any other point on it. For example, if
the points C, D or E also lie on the ray shown in Figure 1.1.10, then


AB, AC, AD and AE
all denote the same ray.
13 MAT0511/004

Since the context usually makes it quite clear whether we are dealing with lines,
rays, line segments, or the lengths of line segments, we avoid the sometimes
confusing notation

AB for line

AB for ray
AB for line segment

AB for the length of the line segment.

From now on we will use only AB in each case, and we depend on the context
to make it clear which meaning is intended.

When we consider the different line segments (or lines or rays) we have three
possible situations. The line segments

I are coincident
We can also use the phrase I intersect in one point (in which case they may be perpendicular)
cut each other instead of
the word intersect. I are parallel to each other.

Figure 1.1.11 illustrates the meanings of these terms.

B
B
G D
C A
B
A
F
A D C

Two coincident Line segments EF and CD Line segment AB is parallel to


line segments intersect once, at F. line segment CD.
Line segments EF and AB We write AB k CD.
intersect once, at G. The arrows denote parallel
EF is perpendicular to AB lines.
and we write EF AB.
The little block at G indicates
the right angle.

(a) (b) (c)


Figure 1.1.11
14

In Figure 1.1.11(b) we see that the line segments EF and CD intersect the line
segment AB in different ways. The difference can be considered in terms of the
angles that are made at the points of intersection.

Definition 1.1.4
An angle is formed by rotating a ray about its fixed
endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.
Note that the plural of vertex
The amount of rotation is the measure of the angle.
is vertices.

This is a mathematical con- The direction of rotation determines whether the measurement of the angle is
vention, chosen to ensure positive or negative. If the ray is rotated in an anticlockwise direction, the
consistency. We will not measurement is positive; if it is rotated in a clockwise direction, the measure-
consider negative angles in
this module. ment is negative.
We can see from Figure 1.1.11(b) that whenever two lines (or line segments or
rays) meet at some point such as G or F, they form angles whose vertex is that
point.
positive negative
angle angle

In the Concise Oxford Dictionary the word angle is given as space between
two meeting lines or planes; inclination of two lines to each other; corner; sharp
projection and a few other options. The word angle is derived from the Latin
word angulus which means corner.

End position of ray


C
B2

A Starting position of ray


vertex B1 D

The angle CAD

Figure 1.1.12

The angle shown in Figure 1.1.12 is obtained by rotating the ray with endpoint
A in an anticlockwise direction. AB1 is the starting position of the ray, and it is
rotated about the endpoint A so that the end position is the ray AB2 .
15 MAT0511/004

Notation Consider the angle with vertex A. We denote it by

I CAD (or DAC, B2 AB1 , CAB1 etc., using A and any other two points, one
on one ray, the other on the other ray; note that A is always written in the
middle)

I CAD (or DAC, B2 AB1 , etc., using A and any other two points on the
rays; once again A is written in the middle)

I A (provided there is no ambiguity about the angle).

In Figure 1.1.12 it is quite clear what we mean when we speak about the angle
A, or A. However, in Figure 1.1.13 we see that it is necessary to be more specific.

P Q R

Figure 1.1.13

In Figure 1.1.13 there are two different angles at the point Q. We have SQP and
SQR, and hence if we write just Q it will not be clear what angle we are referring
to.

Angle Measurement We mentioned previously that angles are measured in degrees. One complete
There are also other ways rotation of a ray about its endpoint is a rotation of 360 degrees. We denote this
of measuring angles, but we by 360 , and we call this one revolution.
will not discuss those here.

360o

Figure 1.1.14

In our notation we do not always specifically distinguish between the angle itself
and the measure of the angle. Suppose the angle SQP in Figure 1.1.13 measures
60 . We then usually write
SQP = 60
whereas it is more correct to write

the measure of SQP = 60 .


16

Degrees can be broken into minutes and seconds. We have

1 degree = 60 minutes (we write 600 )


1 minute = 60 seconds (we write 6000 ).

Thus, when we are measuring an angle accurately, we may have a measurement


such as 35 200 1500 . As in the case of time, where we do not work within a dec-
imal system, we need to remember that 40, 6 means 40 and 0, 6 of one degree.

We have

0, 6 degree = (0, 6 60) minutes


6
= 10 60 minutes
= 36 minutes.

We can thus write the measurement 40, 6 as 40 360 .

When we have a diagram in which several angles occur, we often use capital
letters to represent the vertices and small letters to indicate the measures of the
angles in degrees. See Figure 1.1.15.

A
B

a
e
E b
d cQ

C
D

Figure 1.1.15

From Figure 1.1.15 we understand that the measure of AQB is a, the measure of
BQC is b, and so on, where a, b, c, d and e represent specific numbers of degrees.
Since one revolution is 360 , we know that a + b + c + d + e = 360 . Although
we recognise that a, b, etc., represent measurements, it is often convenient to
refer to angle a, angle b, etc.

Although we understand that an angle is defined in terms of the rotation of a ray,


we do not usually put arrows on the ends of the line segments to denote rays. It
is also clear that angles occur whenever lines or line segments intersect, so we
need not restrict ourselves to thinking of angles only in terms of rays.
17 MAT0511/004

Revolution; straight and Angles are classified according to their measures. We have three special names
right angles for three specific measurements.
o
360
I 360 one revolution

o
180
I 180 a straight angle

o
90
I 90 a right angle

Acute, obtuse and reflex We have another three names which describe angles. In these three cases they
angles are classified according to their measures relative to 90 , 180 and 360 .

I If 0 < a < 90 then AOB is an acute angle.

a A
O

I If 90 < a < 180 then AOB is an obtuse angle.

B a
A
O

I If 180 < a < 360 then AOB is a reflex angle.

a O A

Right angles are especially important. Many of the structures we depend on


everyday make use of right angles. Walls are usually at right angles to floors.
Shelves need to be at right angles to the wall, i.e. perpendicular to the wall (and
parallel to the floor).

Let us consider two lines in the same plane that are not coincident or parallel.
When they cut each other they form angles of different measurements at the point
of intersection.
18

Note the following.

I The lines can intersect in at most one point. See Figure 1.1.16(a).

I If two lines in a plane are perpendicular to the same line, they are parallel
to each other. See Figure 1.1.16(b), where AB k CD since AB PQ and
CD PQ.

A C

A D

P Q

C B B D

(a) (b)

Figure 1.1.16

Adjacent, supplementary, We have looked at some names given to specific angles, and we now consider
complementary and some other angle names based on the relationships between two or more angles.
vertically opposite angles

I We call two angles adjacent if they have a common vertex and a common
ray.
A C D

B
ABC and CBD are adjacent angles with common vertex B and common
ray BC.

I We call two (or more) angles supplementary if their measures add up


to 180 .
A
B
120o
O
o
60
C D
AOB and COD are supplementary angles since AOB + COD = 180 . We
are usually more interested in adjacent supplementary angles, since to-
gether they form a straight angle.
19 MAT0511/004

180o
P S
Q

RQP and RQS are adjacent supplementary angles, since they are adja-
cent (common vertex Q and common ray QR ) and supplementary (since
PQR and RQS form the straight angle PQS ).

I We call two (or more) angles complementary angles if their measures add
up to 90 .
D
E

o o
A 60 30 C
B

ABD and E BC are complementary angles since ABD + E BC = 90 .


We also have adjacent complementary angles, where the measures of
two (or more) adjacent angles add up to 90 .

P
R

S
Q

PQR and RQS are adjacent complementary angles, since they have a com-
mon vertex, Q, and a common ray, QR, and PQR + RQS = 90 .

I We say that two angles are vertically opposite each other if they are non
adjacent angles formed by two intersecting lines. The measures of two
vertically opposite angles are equal.

M Q

P N

M OQ and PON are vertically opposite angles and M OQ = PON.


Similarly, M OP = QON.
20

Further relationships arise when we consider two parallel lines. Look at Figure
1.1.17, which shows two parallel lines both cut by a line AB.

B
The line AB is sometimes
referred to as a transversal p1 P p EC k FD;
E p4 p
2 C
line. 3 pi and ri
(i = 1, 2, 3, 4)
r1 R r2 represent the
F r4 r3 D
measures (in
degrees) of the
A
angles shown.

Figure 1.1.17

Corresponding, alternate
and cointerior angles
We also have: if correspon- I BPC and BRD are called corresponding angles. If two parallel lines are
ding angles are equal, then cut by another line, the corresponding angles are equal. Thus we have
the lines are parallel. p2 = r2 . Similarly p3 = r3 ; p4 = r4 and p1 = r1 .

The converse of the se- I E PR and PRD are called alternate angles. If two parallel lines are cut
cond statement is also true: by another line, the alternate angles are equal. Thus p4 = r2 . Similarly
if alternate angles are equal, p 3 = r1 .
then the lines are parallel.
I CPR and DRP are called cointerior angles. If two parallel lines are cut
The converse of the third by another line, the cointerior angles are supplementary. Thus we have
statement is also true. p3 + r2 = 180 . Similarly p4 + r1 = 180 .

1.1.6

What is the converse of the statement If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal
line then the cointerior angles so formed are supplementary.?

SOLUTION
If two lines in the same plane are cut by a transversal line and the cointerior
angles so formed are supplementary, then the two lines are parallel.
21 MAT0511/004

1.1.2

o
A c b 30 B
d a

h e
C g f D

We have AB k CD, and b = 30 . Find the measurements of all the other angles,
and give reasons for your answers.

a = 150 a and b are adjacent supplementary angles.

d = 30 b and d are vertically opposite angles.

There are several different c = 150 b and c are adjacent supplementary angles.
ways of finding these angles.
For example, e = 30 since e = 30 b and e are corresponding angles on parallel
e and d are alternate angles lines AB and CD.
on parallel lines AB and CD.
f = 150 e and f are adjacent supplementary angles.

h = 150 h and d are cointerior angles on parallel


lines AB and CD.

g = 30 g and e are vertically opposite angles.


22

1.1.3

A E
G

PC, AB, DE and FG


Px x 1 are four lines. DE k FG.
C 2
x3 x5 xi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
x4 and yi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4)
y1
y2 Q represent the measures, in
y degrees, of the angles shown.
4
y3
D
F B

Figure 1.1.18

Look at Figure 1.1.18 and complete each of the following.

(a) x2 + x3 + x4 = ........ because APB is a ........ angle.

(b) x2 = 90 . Hence APC is a ........ angle.

(c) APE and DPQ are ........ angles. Hence x1 ........x4 .

(d) DE k FG and hence x5 + y1 = ........ because E PQ and GQP are cointerior


angles on the parallel lines DE and FG.

(e) There are two pairs of alternate angles. They are ........ and ........; ........ and
........ .

(f) x2 = 90 . Hence x1 + x3 = ........ because DPE is a straight angle. Thus


APE is an ....... angle, because x1 ........ . We call x1 and x3 ........ angles.

(g) Since x1 ........ it follows that x5 ........ and x5 ........ because APB is a straight
angle. Hence we call E PQ an ........ angle.

(h) x1 = y1 because APE and PQG are ........ angles on the parallel lines DE and
FG.
23 MAT0511/004

(a) 180 straight

(b) right

(c) vertically opposite =

(d) 180

(e) DPQ and PQG ; E PQ and PQF

(f) 90 acute < 90o complementary

(g) < 90 > 90 < 180 obtuse

(h) corresponding angles

We have seen that two noncoincident lines in a plane are either parallel or cut
each other in one point. When more than two line segments are considered they
can form many different shapes. The names of the shapes often tell us something
about them. We look at some of these shapes in the next two sections.

1.1

1. Reflect the triangle ABC shown below in a vertical line through C to create
its mirror image.

B
24

2. Rotate the triangle ABC shown below through an angle of 90 about the
vertex B in

(a) a clockwise direction


(b) an anticlockwise direction.

A B

In case the word bisect is 3. Consider the following sketch, in which BPC = CPD, APD = 90 , and
unfamiliar: to bisect means PB bisects APD.
to cut in half.
A

P
B

(a) Identify all the pairs of adjacent angles.


(b) What is the measure of CPD ?
(c) Why can we say that APB, BPC and CPD are complementary angles?
(d) Suppose you include an additional point E such that E PD and DPC are
supplementary angles. What will be the measure of E PA ?

4. Write each of the following angle measurements in terms of degrees, min-


utes and seconds. (If there are no minutes, or no seconds, write the answer
as x 00 000 where x represents the number of degrees.)
(a) 28, 65 (b) 90, 055
(c) 30, 8 (d) 100, 1
25 MAT0511/004

5. In the sketch below, AB k CD and AB EF. HG bisects E PD.

E H
B
R
Q

A D

C
F
G

(a) What are the measures of


(i) E PC
(ii) E PH
(iii) CPG ?
(b) Identify four pairs of cointerior angles.
(c) Identify the pair of acute alternate angles.
(d) What kind of angle is AQR ?
(e) (i) What angle is the complement of F PG ?
(ii) What angle is the supplement of F PG ?

6. Consider the shapes below.

Show that one of the shapes has rotational symmetry as well as reflection
symmetry and that the other shape only has reflection symmetry.
26

1.2
POLYGONS

1.2A
TERMINOLOGY
In Book 1 we noted that a specific type of algebraic expression consisting of
several terms can be described in general as a polynomial.

In geometry we have a similar type of classification, in which we call a many


sided figure a polygon.

The geometric meaning of A polygon is a closed figure in a plane composed of line segments that only
polygon is different from the meet at their endpoints. The line segments are called the sides of the polygon,
statistical meaning.
and each point where two sides meet is a vertex of the polygon. So, for example,
the shape in Figure 1.2.1 represents a polygon; the shape in Figure 1.2.2 does not,
because in Figure 1.2.2 the line segments do not only meet at their endpoints.

D
A

ABCD is a polygon, since the


B line segments AB, BC, CD
C
and DA meet only at the end-
points A, B, C and D.

Figure 1.2.1

P
A D
ABCD is not a polygon since
the line segments AD and BC
B intersect at P, which is not
an endpoint of any one of the
line segments.

Figure 1.2.2

Classification of polygons Polygons are classified according to the number of angles (or sides) they have.
27 MAT0511/004

Because the sides only meet at the vertices it is clear that any polygon has exactly
the same number of angles as the number of sides.

I Three sides Triangle

I Four sides Quadrilateral

I Five sides Pentagon

I Six sides Hexagon

There are also special names for polygons with 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12 sides. For
example, an octagon is an eightsided polygon.

Regular polygons A polygon is called a regular polygon if all of its sides have the same length
and if all of its interior angles have the same measurement. Consider the three
special quadrilaterals sketched below.

A rhombus is defined later in


Study Unit 1.2C.

Rectangle Rhombus Square


(not regular) (not regular) (regular)

The rectangle has all four angles equal to right angles, but the sides are not all
equal. The rhombus has all sides equal, but not all angles equal. Thus neither
of these quadrilaterals is a regular polygon. If, however, the rectangle has equal
sides or the rhombus has equal angles we obtain a square, which is a regular
polygon.

Figure 1.2.3 shows three other regular polygons.


28

A A F
A
B E
B E

B C C D C D

Regular triangle Regular pentagon Regular hexagon

Figure 1.2.3

Polygons are usually denoted by the vertices, stated in order. Thus we refer to
the hexagon in Figure 1.2.3 as the hexagon ABCDEF.

Polygons that fit together to create a flat surface with no gaps are said to tessel-
late. A pattern formed in this way is referred to as a tessellation. Figure 1.2.4 is
a tessellation of regular hexagons.

Figure 1.2.4
Can you think of a regular
polygon that will not tessel-
Note that not all regular polygons will tessellate.
late?

Altitude is sometimes re- Polygons have altitudes and diagonals. A diagonal of a polygon is a line seg-
ferred to as height. ment whose endpoints are nonadjacent vertices. The altitude from any vertex
V to an opposite side is the line segment with endpoint V which is perpendicular
to that side. See Example 1.2.1.

1.2.1

Draw diagonals for the quadrilateral ABCD, and draw the altitude from A to CD.

C D
29 MAT0511/004

SOLUTION

C E D

AC and BD are the only two diagonals of quadrilateral ABCD. AE is the altitude
from A to CD.

When we compare different polygons, to see whether they are possibly the same
shape and size, we look at their corresponding angles, or corresponding sides.
Look at the two polygons shown in Figure 1.2.5. Can you say what kind they
are? (Since they each have five sides, they are pentagons. The sides are not all
the same length, so they are not regular pentagons.)

P T
A E

S
Not regular Pentagons B D
Q
C R

Figure 1.2.5
In polygons ABCDE and PQRST , examples of pairs of corresponding sides are

AE and PT
ED and T S
DC and SR
CB and RQ
BA and QP.
30

Similarly, pairs of corresponding angles are

A and P
B and Q
C and R
D and S
E and T .

Congruent polygons If all corresponding sides and corresponding angles of two polygons are equal,
we say the polygons are congruent. Thus congruent polygons have exactly the
same shape and size. We use the notation to denote congruency.

1.2.1

(a)
P

A C

Q R
B

The two triangles shown above appear to have the same shape and size.
List the three pairs of corresponding sides, and the three pairs of corre-
sponding angles, that we can compare to see whether or not the triangles
are congruent.

(b)
P S

A D

Q R
B C

ABCD and PQRS are both squares.


Why are they not congruent?
31 MAT0511/004

(a) Corresponding sides

AB and QP (opposite the biggest angle in each triangle)

AC and QR (opposite the smallest angle in each triangle)

CB and RP (the remaining sides of the two triangles)

Corresponding angles

C and R (the biggest angles)

B and P (the smallest angles)

A and Q (the remaining two angles)

(b) ABCD and PQRS have exactly the same shape, but PQRS is clearly bigger
than ABCD, so they do not have the same size. Thus they are not congruent.

Similar polygons When polygons have the same shape but not the same size, they are called simi-
lar polygons. Hence the two squares in Activity 1.2.1(b) are similar, even though
they are not congruent. To be certain that they have the same shape, we need
to find out whether the measurements of the corresponding angles are equal
and the lengths of the corresponding sides are in proportion. In (b) of Activity
1.2.1 we see that A = P = 90 , B = Q = 90 , C = R = 90 , D = S = 90 ; we
also have
PQ QR RS SP
= = = .
AB BC CD DA

Hence the squares ABCD and PQRS are similar.

In a sketch, if we want to show that corresponding sides or corresponding angles


have the same measurements, we mark the sides with different numbers of small
lines, and the angles with different numbers of arcs, as shown in Figure 1.2.6.
32

Figure 1.2.6

1.2.2

Assume the polygons in the sketch below have the measurements and properties
indicated. Note that they are not drawn to scale.
P
4 cm 3 cm

S
A 12 cm D
o
100
Q
9 cm
o
100
B C R

E o H
100

12 cm

F G
6 cm

(a) Which two polygons are similar, and why?

(b) Which pairs of polygons are not similar, and why not?
33 MAT0511/004

The polygons illustrated are all quadrilaterals since they have four sides.

(a) Quadrilateral ABCD is similar to quadrilateral PQRS, for the following rea-
sons.
Corresponding angles are equal.

A = R = 100 This is given.

B = Q = 80 We deduce this from the fact that AD k BC and


hence A and B are cointerior angles and thus
supplementary.
Similarly PQ k SR and Q and R are supplementary.

C = P = 100 C + B = 180 since AB k DC.


P + Q = 180 since PS k QR.

D = S = 80 A + D = 180 since AB k DC.


R + S = 180 since PS k QR.

Corresponding sides are in proportion.


AD 12
Just after Activity 1.2.8 we
= =3 Since PQ = 4 cm it also follows that
RS 4
prove that if PQ k SR and SR = 4 cm, because otherwise PS and QR
PS k QR then PQ = SR and would not be parallel.
PS = QR.
CD 9
= =3
PS 3
BC 12
= =3 BC = 12 cm since AD = 12 cm.
QP 4

AB 9
= =3 AB = 9 cm since CD = 9 cm.
QR 3
QR = 3 cm since PS = 3 cm.

(b) Quadrilateral ABCD is not similar to quadrilateral EFGH. We realise this


as soon as we try to identify corresponding sides and angles.

E o H
100

A 12 cm D
o
100 12 cm
9 cm

F G
B C 6 cm
34

If we stand the quadrilaterals on the longer of their two sides, we see that
quadrilateral ABCD leans to the right, whereas quadrilateral EFGH
leans to the left. We also see that the ratio of the longer sides is 12
12 , i.e.
9 3
1, but the ratio of the shorter sides is 6 , i.e. 2 .
Similarly quadrilateral PQRS is not similar to quadrilateral EFGH.

P
4 cm 3 cm E o H
100
S

Q 12 cm

o
100
F G
R 6 cm

The idea of similarity is important when we need to reproduce a large object on


a smaller scale, or enlarge an object. We are all familiar with maps, which are
smallscale reproductions of largescale regions. There may also be times when
we need to provide bigger representations of very small objects. Hence we can
scale things up or down, depending on the requirements of the situation.

The amount by which an object is enlarged or made smaller is known as the


Scale factor scale factor. Thus, if a figure has doubled in size, we say that the new figure has
a scale factor of 2. If an object is halved in size the new figure has a scale factor
of 12 .

1.2.3

A company wants to hang on the wall of one of its function rooms an enlarge-
ment of a photograph which is 50 cm across and 70 cm high. The available wall
space measures 0, 9 m across and 1, 5 m high. What scale factor will allow for
maximum enlargement? What will the dimensions of this enlargement be?
35 MAT0511/004

The enlargement will be similar to the original, i.e. the corresponding sides will
be in proportion. The original photograph has sides that are in the ratio 5 : 7
(when we consider the ratio of width to height). The available wall space is
0, 9 m wide and 1, 5 m high.

0,9 m

111
000
50 cm

000
111
1,5 m
70 cm

000
111
Picture

Available wall space

Since the dimensions of The enlargement cannot be more than 90 cm wide or 150 cm high. We first
the photograph are given in consider whether it is possible for the enlargement to be 90 cm wide. Let us use
centimetres it is convenient a scale factor of x.
to convert the wall space
dimensions to centimetres
as well. If

Alternatively: 50 x = 90
then
50 70 90 9
=
90 x x= = .
50x = 6300 50 5
x = 126
Thus, if we use a scale factor of 95 , the width of the enlargement will be 90 cm

and its height will be 70 59 cm, i.e. 126 cm. Thus an enlargement with this
scale factor will fit into the available wall space. If we consider a scale factor
that will make the enlargement 150 cm high, then it will be too wide to fit into
the available wall space.

The scale factor of 95 gives an enlargement that completely fits the available
width. Hence the scale factor of 59 will produce the maximum enlargement, and
the enlargement will measure 90 cm across, and 126 cm high.
36

1.2B
TRIANGLES
In Study Unit 1.2A we introduced triangles as polygons with three sides. The
name triangle suggests that triangles are shapes which have three angles (and
hence also three sides). Triangles have various characteristics. Some of these are
important when we study trigonometry (the word, literally translated from the
original Greek form, means triangle measurement). Trigonometry, in turn, is an
important foundation for other mathematical topics.

Consider the triangle in Figure 1.2.7.

b a


A B
c

Figure 1.2.7

In Study Unit 1.1B we used a, b and c to represent the measurement of an-


We use the symbol 4 to de- gles. Previously, in Topic 1 of Book 3, we worked according to the convention
note a triangle. Hence Fig- that a, b and c represent the lengths of the sides opposite the angles A, B and
ure 1.2.7 represents 4 ABC. C, respectively. When we do this we often represent the measurements of angles
, and are pronounced in a triangle by means of letters of the Greek alphabet. In Figure 1.2.7 the mea-
as alpha, beta and gamma. sure of A is denoted by , the measure of B is denoted by and the measure of
They are the first three let- C is denoted by , where , and represent numbers of degrees.
ters of the Greek alphabet.

Triangles can have different shapes, but regardless of their shape, they all have
one common characteristic.

THE ANGLE SUM OF A TRIANGLE


In any triangle the sum of the measures of the
angles is 180 .

Thus, in Figure 1.2.7, we have + + = 180 .

Like many other statements in geometry, we can prove the statement formally,
or we can illustrate it in some way. We now illustrate this statement. Draw any
triangle, on a separate piece of paper. Tear off the vertices, and arrange them
next to each other, as shown in Figure 1.2.8.
37 MAT0511/004

X P Y
Figure 1.2.8

When we arrange the angles next to one another so that the three vertices meet
Note that this is not an actual at the point P, we see that, regardless of the order in which they are arranged,
proof. the angles form a straight line. From our classification of angles, we know that
X PY is a straight angle, which measures 180 .

Another fact, which we do not prove here, is the following.

TRIANGLE INEQUALITY
The sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater
than the third side.

Thus, in Figure 1.2.7, we have

a+b > c
a+c > b
b + c > a.

Classification of triangles In Study Unit 1.1B angles are classified according to certain characteristics.
We may also classify triangles according to various characteristics, such as the
lengths of their sides. The lengths of the sides of the triangles influence the sizes
of the angles, and vice versa as we see in Figures 1.2.9, 1.2.10 and 1.2.11.

I A scalene triangle has no sides of equal length, and hence no angles of


equal size.

C
B
Scalene triangle
Figure 1.2.9

The longest side is opposite the biggest angle. Conversely, the biggest
angle is opposite the longest side.
38

I An isosceles triangle has two equal sides, and hence two equal angles.

B C
Isosceles triangle
Figure 1.2.10

If AC = AB, then the angles opposite these two sides are also equal, i.e.
B = C. Conversely, if B = C, then the sides opposite these two angles are
also equal. Hence AC = AB.

I An equilateral triangle has all three sides equal in length, and hence all
three angles equal.

A
o
60
C

B
Equilateral triangle
Figure 1.2.11

Since the angles of any triangle add up to 180 it follows that in equilateral
triangles, all angles measure 60 .
If AB = BC = AC then C = A = B = 60 .
Conversely, if A = B = C (= 60 ) then BC = AC = AB.
39 MAT0511/004

We may also classify triangles according to their angles.

I An acute angle triangle has all angles acute.

C
Acute angle triangle
Figure 1.2.12

It is clear that an acute angle triangle may be scalene, isosceles or equilat-


eral.

I An obtuse angle triangle has one obtuse angle.

C
B
Obtuse angle triangle
Figure 1.2.13

Obtuse angle triangles may be scalene or isosceles, but cannot be equilat-


eral.

I A right angle triangle (which we usually call a right triangle) has one
right angle.

C
B
Right triangle
Figure 1.2.14

A right triangle may be scalene or isosceles. In a right triangle, the side


opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse.
40

1.2.4

In 4 ABC, we have AC > BC > AB.

(a) Arrange the angles in descending order according to size.

(b) How can you classify 4 ABC?

(a) Since the longest side is AC, the angle opposite AB, i.e. B , is the biggest.
The next longest side is BC, hence the next biggest angle is the angle op-
posite BC, i.e. A. Thus in descending order we have

B, A, C.

(b) All sides have different lengths, hence 4 ABC is a scalene triangle.
All angles are acute, hence 4 ABC is an acute angle triangle.

We dealt with right triangles and the Theorem of Pythagoras in Topic 1 of Book
3. You may want to read the relevant parts of that section again, before moving
on.
41 MAT0511/004

1.2.5

Consider the right triangle PQR.

50o
Q R

Indicate which of the following statements are true or false.

If possible, correct each false statement in an appropriate way.

We use PQ2 to denote (a) PQ2 = PR2 + RQ2


(PQ)2 , etc. p
(b) QR = PQ2 PR2

(c) PQ = PR + QR

(d) PQ > PR

(e) QR > PR

(a) True This is a statement of the Theorem of Pythag-


oras for 4 PQR.

(b) False p
QR = PQ2 PR2 The statement is algebraically correct, since
if a2 = b2 + c2 then b2 = a2 c2 , and
hence b = a2 c2 .
But RQ represents length, which cannot be
negative, hence we ignore the negative root.

(c) False The length of the hypotenuse is less than the


PQ < PR + QR combined lengths of the other two sides.
See the Triangle Inequality.
42

(d) True PQ is opposite an angle that measures 90 .


PR is opposite an angle that measures 50 .

(e) False QR is opposite an angle that measures 40 .


QR > PR Since 180 (50 + 90 ) = 40 we have P = 40 .
PR is opposite an angle that measures 50 .

Congruency We discussed congruency of polygons in Study Unit 1.2A. Two triangles are
We make use of congru- congruent if they have exactly the same shape and size, i.e. if corresponding
ency to prove several im- sides are equal in length and if corresponding angles have the same measure.
portant mathematical state-
ments, and to derive rules
such as the distance formula.
However, we do not need to investigate all pairs of corresponding sides and all
pairs of corresponding angles every time that we want to show that two triangles
are congruent.

Conditions for congruency If two triangles have certain properties, then certain other properties will follow.
We have four different sets of requirements that must be satisfied in order for
triangles to be congruent.

It is clear that if correspond- (1) I Two triangles are congruent if the three sides of one triangle are equal to
ing sides are equal, then the the three corresponding sides of the other triangle. We call this the side
corresponding angles will be sideside (abbreviated SSS) condition for congruency.
equal as well.
We denote equal sides by
C Q
writing down the vertices of
corresponding angles in the A
correct order. Thus we write

AB = PQ

and not P
B R
AB = QP,
4 ABC 4 PQR
since A corresponds to P, and Figure 1.2.15
B corresponds to Q.

We see that AB = PQ, AC = PR, BC = QR.


Hence C = R, B = Q, A = P.
A (2) I Two triangles are congruent if two sides and the included angle of one
triangle are equal to two sides and the included angle of the other trian-
gle. We call this the sideangleside (abbreviated SAS) condition for
B C congruency.
B is the angle included by
the sides AB and BC.
43 MAT0511/004

R U

T V
4 RST 4WUV
Figure 1.2.16

We see that RS = WU, S = U, ST = UV .


From this it follows that RT = WV (we can show, by drawing any two such
triangles, that under these conditions the third sides of the two triangles
are equal). Thus we have the condition SSS and hence 4 RST 4WUV .
Consequently
R = W
and
T = V
since the angles are opposite equal sides.

(3) I Two triangles are congruent if two angles and one side of one triangle
are equal to two corresponding angles and the corresponding side of the
When we have AAS we au- other triangle. We call this the anglesideangle, or angleangleside
tomatically have ASA and (abbreviated ASA or AAS) condition for congruency.
vice versa: if two pairs of
angles are equal the third S
pair must also be equal.

X
P

R Q M
4 PQR 4 MXS
Figure 1.2.17

We see that P = M, Q = X, PQ = MX.


From this it follows that
S = R (angle sum of a triangle)
RP = SM
RQ = SX.
The last two properties can be shown by drawing any two triangles with
the properties shown in Figure 1.2.17.
Thus we have the SSS condition and hence 4 PQR 4 MXS.
44

(4) I Two right triangles are congruent if the lengths of the hypotenuse and
one side of one triangle are respectively equal to the lengths of the hy-
potenuse and one side of the other triangle. We call this the right angle
This is a special case of two hypotenuseside (abbreviated RHS) condition for congruency.
sides and an angle where we
do not necessarily have the A C
angle included between the M
two sides.

P T
4 MPO 4 TAC
Figure 1.2.18

We see that AC = PO, CT = OM, A = P = 90 .


From this it follows that AT = PM (by the Theorem of Pythagoras) and
hence we have the SSS condition. Thus 4 MPO 4 TAC. Consequently
C = O
and
T = M
since both pairs of angles are opposite equal sides.

In Example 1.2.2 we see why ASS is not a condition for congruency.

1.2.2
N

Y Z U

Figure 1.2.19

Figure 1.2.19 shows 4 XY Z and 4 NUT in which none of the angles is a right
angle and XY = NU, Y Z = UT, Z = T .
45 MAT0511/004

Although the lengths of two corresponding sides are equal and one pair of corres-
ponding angles is equal, we see that
We use 6 to denote is not
4 XY Z 6 4 NUT
congruent to.
since Y is acute but the corresponding angle, U, is obtuse.

Thus it is necessary that when two sides and one angle of each triangle are in-
volved we must have either RHS or SAS.

1.2.6

(a) Draw any scalene triangle PQR. Can the triangle have a diagonal? Draw
the altitude from Q to PR.

(b) Draw any equilateral triangle GEF. Draw the altitude from G to EF, so
that it meets EF in the point H. Show that 4 GEH 4GFH.

(a)
X
R P

In fact, no triangle has a di- It is impossible to draw a line from any vertex to a nonadjacent vertex.
agonal. Since a triangle has Hence 4 PQR has no diagonals.
three sides it can have three
altitudes. QX PR, hence QX is an altitude of 4 PQR.

(b)
G

E F
H
46

In 4 GEH and 4 GFH


EG = FG 4 GEF is equilateral.

GH = GH We write this to show that although GH


is one line, it serves as a side for two
different triangles.

E HG = F HG = 90 . The altitude GH is perpendicular to EF.

Thus
4 GEH 4 GFH. RHS condition is satisfied.

From the solution to Activity 1.2.6(b), since 4 GEH 4 GFH it follows that
EH = FH
and
E GH = F GH.
Thus we see that an altitude of an equilateral triangle bisects the angle at the
vertex from which it originates and bisects the opposite side of the triangle.

Similar triangles As in the case of polygons in general, we also have similar triangles. We say
that two triangles are similar if all three pairs of corresponding angles are equal.
In practice this means that we only need to show that two pairs of corresponding
We use ||| to denote similar- angles are equal, because the angles of any triangle add up to 180 .
ity.

P T L

Figure 1.2.20

In Figure 1.2.20 we have 4 MPT ||| 4 SLK. We know that when polygons are
similar, their corresponding sides are in proportion. This applies to triangles, and
thus
PT PM MT
= = .
LK LS SK
We can use this relationship to calculate the length of a side of a triangle.
47 MAT0511/004

1.2.3

At a certain time of the day a boy who is 1, 2 m tall casts a shadow that is 3, 6 m
long. At the same time a tree casts a shadow that is 7, 2 m long. How high is the
tree?

SOLUTION

In the sketch we have AB D


representing the boy, BC
representing the boys A
shadow; similarly DE
represents the tree and EF 1,2 m
the trees shadow. C F
B 3,6 m E 7,2 m

We assume that the boy and the tree both stand upright and make an angle of 90
with the horizontal ground. Since the sun is in the same position relative to both
the boy and the tree, we can also assume that C = F.

We thus have two similar triangles, i.e.

4 ABC ||| 4 DEF.

Since the triangles are similar, pairs of corresponding sides are in proportion.
Thus
DE EF DF
= = .
AB BC AC
We want to find the length of DE. Since we know nothing about DF or AC, we
use the equation
DE EF
= .
AB BC
We substitute AB = 1, 2 m, BC = 3, 6 m and EF = 7, 2 m into this equation. We
then have
DE 7, 2 m
=
1, 2 m 3, 6 m
48

and thus
1, 2 7, 2
DE = m
3, 6
12 72
= m
You may want to revise dec- 360
imal multiplication and divi-
sion. See Topic 2 of Book 1.
= 2, 4 m.

The tree is thus 2, 4 m high.

1.2C
QUADRILATERALS
As we have already pointed out, a quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides. The
angles in a triangle add up to 180 . What do you think is the angle sum of any
quadrilateral? You may want to try to work this out physically. If you draw a
few different quadrilaterals, cut off the vertices and rearrange them (as you did
in the case of a triangle in Figure 1.2.8) you will see that the angle sum of a
quadrilateral is 360 .

You can also derive this mathematically, using your knowledge of triangles. A
quadrilateral can be divided into two triangles. See Figure 1.2.21.

D
C

Figure 1.2.21
49 MAT0511/004

In quadrilateral ABCD,

A + B + C + D

= C
| AD + {z
D + DCA} + A
| CB +{z
B + BAC}
the angles in the angles in
4 ACD 4 ABC

= 180 + 180

= 360 .

Because quadrilaterals have four sides, we have two different kinds of quadrilat-
erals: one kind in which opposite sides (either one pair or both pairs) are parallel,
and the other kind in which no sides are parallel. We cannot generalise much
about quadrilaterals such at these, because if opposite sides are not parallel, then
such quadrilaterals cannot have any common properties. Figure 1.2.22 shows
three different quadrilaterals, in which no opposite sides are parallel.

A A

B
D
C

D
C B

C
B

Figure 1.2.22
50

Kite The only interesting quadrilateral in this category is a kite. A kite is a quadrilat
eral in which pairs of adjacent sides have the same length. See Figure 1.2.23.

Q
D

R P
A square and a rhombus are A C
also kites.

B S

Figure 1.2.23

1.2.7

Use congruent triangles to show that the diagonals of a kite cut each other at
When we write bisects the right angles, and that the longer of the two diagonals bisects the shorter one, and
vertex we mean bisects bisects the vertices that it joins.
the angle at the vertex.

R P
T

In 4 QPS and 4 QRS


QP = QR
PS = RS
QS = QS.
Hence
4 QPS 4 QRS. SSS
51 MAT0511/004

Hence
PQS = RQS
and
PSQ = RSQ.

Hence
QS bisects Q and S.

In 4 PQT and 4 RQT


QP = QR
QT = QT
PQT = RQT.
Hence
4 PQT 4 RQT. SAS
Hence
QT P = QT R.
Since
QT R + QT P = 180 RT P is a straight angle.
it follows that
QT R = QT P = 90 .
Thus the diagonals are perpendicular to each other.

Since 4 PQT 4 RQT it also follows that PT = RT , i.e. the longer diagonal
bisects the shorter one.

Trapezoid A trapezoid or trapesium is a quadrilateral which has two parallel sides. See
(Trapesium) Figure 1.2.24.

D E C

A F B

Figure 1.2.24

ABCD is a quadrilateral in which DC k AB. We call ABCD a trapezoid or trape-


sium. Either of the parallel sides is called a base of the trapezoid. Any perpendic-
52

ular line such as EF between DC and AB is called an altitude of the trapezoid. A


trapezoid in which the nonparallel sides are equal in length is called an isosceles
trapezoid.

Parallelogram A parallelogram is a quadrilateral in which opposite sides are parallel. In


Figure 1.2.25, we have
AB k DC and AD k BC.

D C

A B

Figure 1.2.25

1.2.8

Draw any parallelogram. Draw its diagonals. Measure its sides and its angles.
What do you notice about these line segments and angles?

(In this activity (and in others that follow) you are asked to draw parallel lines,
perpendicular lines, measure angles, construct certain angles, and so on. We
assume you will have learnt to do these constructions at school. If you are not
sure what to do, any school geometry book at grade 7 or 8 level will help you. In
this module we will not expect you to do accurate constructions.)

S T
Q

P
53 MAT0511/004

From even a rough sketch, such as the figure on the previous page, you can see
that in parallelogram SRQP

I opposite sides have equal length, i.e. PQ = RS and QR = SP

I opposite angles have equal measurement, i.e. R = P and S = Q

Note that SQ 6= PR. I the diagonals bisect each other, i.e. RT = T P and ST = T Q.

Note that these results will be the same regardless of the shape of the parallel-
ogram we draw. In fact, we can once again prove the results, using congruent
triangles.

Consider parallelogram SRQP.

S 2 1 2
R
1

2 2
1 1
P Q

Figure 1.2.26

I In 4 QSP and 4 SQR

Q1 = S2 Alternate angles.
Q2 = S1 Alternate angles.
SQ = SQ. Common to both triangles.
Hence
4 QSP 4 SQR ASA
and thus
R = P, QP = SR, PS = RQ.

I Similarly,

4 PSR 4 RQP. ASA


Hence
S = Q.
54

Since R = P and S = Q, we have shown that the opposite angles of a paral-


lelogram are equal. Since QP = SR and PS = RQ we have shown that the
opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal.
I Also
4 SRT 4 QPT ASA
so that
ST = QT
and
4 QRT 4 SPT ASA
and thus
If the line segments bisect
RT = PT.
each other, they intersect at
the midpoints of the line seg- Hence the diagonals bisect each other.
ments.

These properties of parallelograms are interdependent. Each one implies the oth-
ers, and hence in any quadrilateral, if we have any one of the following conditions
the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

I Opposite sides are equal.


I Opposite angles are equal.
I Each diagonal divides the parallelogram into two congruent triangles.
I The diagonals bisect each other.

In the following example we show that one of these conditions implies that the
quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

1.2.4

In quadrilateral ABCD we have AB = CD and AD = CB.


Show that ABCD is a parallelogram.

SOLUTION
We sketch ABCD, and draw the diagonal DB.

D C

A B
55 MAT0511/004

In 4 ABD and 4CDB we have

BD = DB Common to both triangles.


AB = CD
AD = CB.
Thus
4 ABD 4CDB. SSS

Since the triangles are congruent, all pairs of corresponding angles are equal.
Hence ABD = CDB. Thus DC k AB. (If alternate angles are equal the lines are
parallel.)

Similarly ADB = CBD and hence AD k BC.

Since opposite sides are parallel, ABCD is a parallelogram.

We have several special parallelograms.

Rhombus If all sides of a parallelogram have equal length, the parallelogram is a rhombus.
See Figure 1.2.27.

C N

L M

Figure 1.2.27

1.2.9

Draw any rhombus. Draw its diagonals. What do you notice about these diago-
nals?
56

S R

P Q

The diagonals SQ and PR bisect each other at right angles, and SQ and PR bisect
the vertices. Note that SQ 6= PR.

We can also prove these facts, once again using congruency.


PQS = QSR Alternate angles equal since PQ k SR.
But
PQS = PSQ. PS = PQ
Thus
PSQ = QSR
i.e.
SQ bisects PSR.

Similarly it follows that SQ bisects PQR, and that PR bisects SRQ and SPQ.

Now, in 4 PST and 4 RST


PS = RS
ST = ST
PST = RST. The diagonal SQ bisects the vertex S.
Hence
4 PST 4 RST SAS
and thus
PT = RT
i.e. we have shown that the diagonal SQ bisects the diagonal PR.
Also
PT S = RT S
and thus
PT S = RT S = 90 . PT R = 180 .
Hence the diagonal SQ is perpendicular to the diagonal PR.
In the same way we can show that the diagonal PR is the perpendicular bisector
of the diagonal QS.
57 MAT0511/004

Rectangle and square If one angle of a parallelogram is a right angle, then the parallelogram is a rect-
angle. If one angle of a rhombus is a right angle, then the rhombus is a square.
See Figure 1.2.28.

S R
D C

A B P Q

Rectangle Square
Figure 1.2.28

1.2.10

Show why we only have to specify that if one angle of a parallelogram is a right
angle, then the parallelogram is a rectangle.

D C

A B

ABCD is a parallelogram. Thus AB k DC, and thus ADC = 90 since the co


interior angles are supplementary.

Similarly, AD k BC and hence the cointerior angles DAB and ABC are supple-
mentary. Thus ABC = 90 .

We can also show that DCB = 90 .

A rectangle is a quadrilateral in which each angle measures 90 , and thus ABCD


is a rectangle.

Similarily we can show that we need only specify that one angle of a rhombus is
a right angle for the rhombus to be a square.
58

1.2.11

Draw the diagonals of the rectangle and square given in Figure 1.2.28. Do they
bisect each other? Do they intersect at right angles? Do they bisect the vertices?

S R
D C

A B P Q

We see that in the rectangle

I the diagonals bisect each other

I the diagonals do not intersect at right angles

I the diagonals do not bisect the vertices

I the diagonals have equal length.

In the square

I the diagonals bisect each other

The first three properties fol- I the diagonals are perpendicular to each other
low immediately from the
I the diagonals bisect the vertices
fact that a square is a rhom-
bus. I the diagonals have equal length.

By using congruency we can prove that the diagonals of a rectangle have equal
length.
59 MAT0511/004

In rectangle ABCD we have

AB = BA
AD = BC
A = B = 90 .
Hence
4 DAB 4 CBA. SAS
Thus
DB = CA

i.e. the diagonals are equal in length.

Similarily we can prove that the diagonals of a square are also equal in length.

In any square or rectangle, we can apply the Theorem of Pythagoras to calculate


the length of the diagonal.

1.2.12
Calculate the length of DB in the rectangle ABCD sketched below.

A 12 cm B

5 cm

D C

By the Theorem of Pythagoras we have

DB2 = AD2 + AB2


i.e. we have
DB2 = (52 + 122 ) cm2
= (25 + 144) cm2
= 169 cm2 .

Thus DB = 169 cm = 13 cm, since length cannot be negative.
60

1.2

1. (a) Create a design by reflecting a regular octagon with sides 1 cm, in a


horizontal line through the lower edge once, and then translating the
resulting shape twice by intervals of 3 cm to the right.
(b) Create a tessellation using right triangles.

2.
A

B C
D

Suppose 4 ABC is an isosceles triangle with AB = AC. Show that the


altitude AD bisects BC.

3.
A

B C
D

Suppose ABC is an equilateral triangle with sides of length s cm. Show


that
3
AD = s cm.
2
4. You have seen that the angle sum of a triangle is 180 , and the angle sum
of a quadrilateral is 360 . Sketch a regular octagon, and calculate the sum
of the measures of all the angles.

5. (a) See Activity 1.2.8. How many pairs of congruent triangles are there
after you have drawn both diagonals?
(b) If PQRS is any quadrilateral such that SQ divides the quadrilateral
into two congruent triangles, namely 4 QRS and 4 SPQ, show that
PQRS is a parallelogram.
61 MAT0511/004

6. Consider the trapezoid CDEF sketched below. FG is an altitude of the


trapezoid. CG is a quarter of the length of CD, and CF is one third of the
length of CD.
F E

C D
G

If the length of CD is x cm, calculate the length of FG, in terms of x.

7.
D
A C

In the figure we have

AB = DC
B = C
DB AC.

Is 4 ECD 4 ECD? Give reasons for your answer.

8. Sketch a kite in which the pairs of adjacent sides are such that the shorter
sides are half the length of the longer sides.

(a) Draw the longer of the two diagonals. Show that it cuts the kite into
two congruent triangles.
(b) Draw the shorter diagonal. Show that the longer diagonal bisects the
shorter diagonal.
62

9.
D

C A

P Q

In 4 DPQ and 4 DCA, CA k PQ.


Also, DA = AQ, DC = CP.
Show that 4 DPQ ||| 4 DCA, and that CA = 12 PQ.

10. Complete the following table.


Polygon(regular) Number Number Number Angle
of of of sum
sides vertices diagonals
Triangle
Quadrilateral
Pentagon
Hexagon
Octagon
11. Complete the following statements.

(a) The lengths of the diagonals of a rectangle are .......... .


(b) The diagonals of a rhombus make angles of ......... with each other at
their point of intersection.
(c) The diagonals of a ......... and a .......... bisect the vertices as well as
each other.
(d) (Complete the statement by choosing one of the options suggested.)
A parallelogram with diagonals that are almost the same length will
lean over (further than /less than) a parallelogram in which one di-
agonal is considerably longer than the other.
63 MAT0511/004

1.3
CIRCLES

1.3A
SOME BASIC FACTS ABOUT CIRCLES
A circle is a figure in a plane consisting of all points which are the same distance
from a fixed point called the centre of the circle. Any line segment from the
The plural of radius is radii. centre to any point on the circle is called a radius of the circle. It should be
obvious that all radii of the same circle have the same length.

Figure 1.3.1

In Figure 1.3.1 the circle has centre O and radius OP.

When two or more circles have the same centre they are called concentric
circles. Each of the circles in Figure 1.3.2 has the same centre, C.

Figure 1.3.2

If we move along a circle from one point to another, we move along an arc of
the circle.
64

If we join any two points on a circle by means of a line segment, the line segment
We pronounce this with a is called a chord. A chord which passes through the centre of the circle is called
silent h, so that it sounds a diameter of the circle. A diameter thus consists of two radii, and hence the
like kord. length of the diameter is twice the length of the radius. Algebraically we express
this as
d
d = 2r, or r =
2
where d and r represent the lengths of the diameter and radius, respectively. Any
diameter divides the circle into two semicircles.

A tangent or tangent line to a circle is any line that touches the circle at exactly
one point, i.e. it is a line that that contains exactly one point of the circle.

F
C
B
E

O
A

Figure 1.3.3

In Figure 1.3.3 we have a circle with

I centre O

I arc AB (also arcs AC, CB, BD, DA, DC, etc.)

I chord AB

I diameter CD

I radius OC (also radius OD)

I tangent EF which touches the circle at C.

In Figure 1.3.3 we note that CD EF. In fact, in any circle, the radius (or diam-
eter) is always perpendicular to the tangent to the circle at the point of contact.
65 MAT0511/004

A B

P
E C

Figure 1.3.4

Consider Figure 1.3.4 above. The arcs AB, BC, CD, DE and EA are equal in
length. If we join each of the points A, B, C, D and E on the circle to the centre
P, then we obtain five central angles. We say that angle BPC is subtended by arc
BC. By this we mean that we draw the radii PB and PC and thus create an angle
at the centre, namely BPC. Equal arcs subtend equal central angles. Thus
APB = BPC = CPD = DPE = E PA.
You can verify this yourself by drawing any circle, marking off equal arcs and
then measuring the central angles subtended by these arcs.

1.3

1. Draw any right triangle ABC with right angle at B and find the midpoint of
the hypotenuse, AC. Draw a circle using the midpoint of the hypotenuse
as centre, and the hypotenuse as diameter.

(a) Does B lie on the circle?


(b) Join A and C to any other point D on the circle, on the opposite side
of the circle to B. What does the measure of ADC appear to be?

2. Use a pair of compasses (if you have one) or draw freehand as accurately
as possible, a circle with radius 4 cm, and, using the same centre, a circle
with radius 2,5 cm. For the smaller circle, draw two diameters AB and CD
perpendicular to each other. Mark the endpoints of the two diameters by
means of A and B, C and D. Extend AB in both directions to cut the bigger
circle at Z and T . Extend CD in both directions to cut the bigger circle at
Q and W . Draw lines parallel to ZABT , through C and through D. Draw
lines parallel to QCDW , through A and through B. Write down as many as
you can find of the congruent figures that have been created.
66

Transformation

B Translation (shifting)
shifting an object in any given direction (e.g. horizontally or ver-
tically) over any given distance
B Symmetry
axis of symmetry:

vertical

horizontal

reflection (or line) symmetry: creating a mirror image of a given


object in a vertical or horizontal line
rotational symmetry: object remains identical after rotation
through any given angle less than 360

Lines

B A line is a collection of points. It extends indefinitely in two direc-


tions.
B A line segment is part of a line, and has two endpoints. The distance
between the two endpoints is its length.
B A ray is part of a line. It extends indefinitely in one direction, and
has one endpoint.
B Points of intersection
infinitely many (the lines are coincident)
none (the lines are parallel)
only one (the lines may be perpendicular)

Angles

B An angle is formed when a ray is rotated about a fixed endpoint,


called the vertex. The amount of rotation is the measure of the angle,
expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds.
67 MAT0511/004

B Classification of angles according to measure


(Suppose the measure of the angle is x, where x represents a certain
number of degrees.)
one revolution 360
reflex angle 180 < x < 360
straight angle 180
obtuse angle 90 < x < 180
right angle 90
acute angle 0 < x < 90
B Relationships between angles
adjacent angles share a common vertex and a common ray
supplementary angles have measures that add up to 180
complementary angles have measures that add up to 90
vertically opposite angles are equal
when parallel lines are cut by a transversal line, then:
corresponding angles are equal
alternate angles are equal
cointerior angles are supplementary

Polygons (in general)

B Congruent polygons have exactly the same shape and size.


B Similar polygons have exactly the same shape but different sizes.
The corresponding sides of similar polygons are in proportion.
Scale factor: the number that represents the amount by which
an object is enlarged or reduced so that it is similar to the origi-
nal.
B Polygons have
vertices: the corners of the polygon
diagonals: line segments whose endpoints are nonadjacent
vertices
altitudes: line segments from any vertex to an opposite side,
perpendicular to that side

Triangles: polygons with three sides

B Angle sum is 180 .


B Classification of triangles according to lengths of sides
scalene: no sides with equal length (and hence no equal angles)
isosceles: two equal sides (and hence two equal angles)
equilateral: three equal sides (and hence three equal angles, all
measuring 60 )
68

B Classification of triangles according to angle measure


acute angle triangle: all angles acute
obtuse angle triangle: one angle obtuse
right angle triangle: one angle a right angle (the hypotenuse is
the side opposite the right angle)

Congruency of triangles

B Conditions for congruency


side, side, side (SSS)
side, angle, side (SAS)
angle, angle, side (AAS or ASA)
right angle, hypotenuse, side (RHS)

Similar triangles

B Similar triangles have equal angles, and corresponding sides in pro-


portion.

Quadrilaterals: polygons with four sides

B Kite: pairs of adjacent sides have equal length


the diagonals cut each other at right angles, and the longer of the
two diagonals bisects the shorter one
B Trapezoid: two sides are parallel
B Parallelogram: both pairs of opposite sides are parallel
opposite sides have equal length
opposite angles have equal measurement
each diagonal divides the parallelogram into two congruent tri-
angles
the diagonals bisect each other
B Rhombus: a parallelogram in which all sides have equal length. In
addition to all the properties of parallelograms it is also true that
the diagonals bisect each other at right angles
the diagonals bisect the angles from which they originate (i.e.
the vertices).
B Rectangle: a parallelogram in which one angle is a right angle. In
addition to all the properties of parallelograms it is also true that
the diagonals have equal length.
B Square: a rhombus in which one angle is a right angle. In addition
to all the properties of a rhombus, it is also true that
the diagonals have equal length.
69 MAT0511/004

Circles: a plane figure consisting of all points equidistant from a fixed


point called the centre. Different circles with the same centre are called
concentric circles.

B Radius: any line segment from the centre to any point on the circle
B Chord: any line segment joining any two points on the circle
B Diameter: a chord through the centre, dividing the circle into two
semicircles
B Arc: any path along the circle from one point to another. An arc from
one endpoint of a diameter to the other endpoint is a semicircle. An
angle at the centre subtended by a chord or arc is a central angle.
B Tangent: a line which touches the circle at exactly one point

CHECKLIST
Now check that you can do the following.

SECTION 1.1

1. Create patterns by translating an object in a given direction, over a given


distance.
Examples 1.1.1, 1.1.3

2. Create patterns by reflecting an object, for example in a vertical or hori-


zontal line. Recognise objects that have reflection symmetry.
Examples 1.1.2, 1.1.3; Activity 1.1.1

3. Recognise objects that have rotational symmetry. Create patterns by rotat-


ing an object through a given angle between 0 and 360 .
Examples 1.1.4, 1.1.5; Activity 1.1.1

4. Define the following concepts: line, line segment, ray, angle.


Definitions 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.1.3 and 1.1.4

5. Recognise lines that are coincident, parallel, perpendicular.


Figures 1.1.11, 1.1.16

6. Classify angles according to measure or relationship with other angles.


Pages 1719; Activity 1.1.3

7. Recognise the relationship between parallel lines cut by a transversal line


and the resulting corresponding, alternate and cointerior angles.
Page 20; Example 1.1.6; Activities 1.1.2, 1.1.3
70

SECTION 1.2

1. Create patterns by means of tessellating polygons.


Figure 1.2.4

2. Draw the diagonals (if they exist) and altitudes of any polygon.
Example 1.2.1

3. Recognise polygons that are congruent, and identify corresponding sides


or angles of congruent polygons.
Activity 1.2.1

4. Recognise polygons that are similar. Show that corresponding sides of


similar polygons are in proportion.
Activity 1.2.2

5. Use the property of similarity of polygons to determine the scale factor


required when a given object needs to be enlarged or reduced.
Activity 1.2.3

6. Classify triangles according to the lengths of their sides or the measures of


their angles.
Figures 1.2.9, 1.2.10, 1.2.11, 1.2.12, 1.2.13, 1.2.14; Activity 1.2.4

7. Use the Theorem of Pythagoras.


Activities 1.2.5, 1.2.12

8. Know and apply the four sets of conditions that triangles must satisfy in
order to be congruent. The conditions are referred to as SSS, SAS, AAS
(or ASA) and RHS. You do not need to prove that each of these conditions
implies congruency.
Figures 1.2.15, 1.2.16, 1.2.17, 1.2.18 and related discussion; Example
1.2.2; Activity 1.2.6

9. Recognise triangles that are similar. Use the fact that corresponding sides
of similar triangles are in proportion to calculate distance or length.
Figure 1.2.20 and related discussion; Example 1.2.3

10. Classify quadrilaterals according to whether opposite sides are parallel, or


equal in length.
Figures 1.2.24, 1.2.25, 1.2.27, 1.2.28 and related discussion.

11. Use congruency of triangles to prove certain properties of quadrilaterals.

In a kite prove that


the diagonals intersect at right angles, and the longer of the di-
agonals bisects the shorter diagonal.
Activity 1.2.7
71 MAT0511/004

In a parallelogram prove that


the diagonals bisect each other
opposite sides have equal length
opposite angles have equal measure.
Activity 1.2.8 and the discussion that follows; Example 1.2.4
In a rhombus (in addition to the properties of parallelograms) prove
that
the diagonals bisect each other at right angles
the diagonals bisect the vertices.
Activity 1.2.9 and the discussion that follows
In a rectangle (in addition to the properties of parallelograms) prove
that
the diagonals have equal length.
Activity 1.2.11 and the discussion that follows
In a square (in addition to the properties of a rhombus) prove that
the diagonals have equal length.
Activity 1.2.11 and the discussion that follows

SECTION 1.3

1. Use the terminology of circles: centre, radius, chord, diameter, arc, semi
circle, tangent, central angle subtended by an arc.
Figures 1.3.1, 1.3.2, 1.3.3, 1.3.4 and related discussion
72

PERIMETER, AREA AND VOLUME

OUTCOMES
After studying this topic you should be able to do the following.

SECTION 2.1: Permeter and Area (Measurement)

I Calculate the perimeters of various polygons.

I Calculate the circumference of a circle.

I Calculate the horizontal distance covered by a point on a circular object.

I Calculate the areas of various regular polygons.

I Calculate the area of a circle.

I Calculate areas involving a combination of polygons and circles.

SECTION 2.2: Surface Area and Volume of 3-D objects

I Draw the net for several familiar threedimensional objects, i.e. a pyramid,
rectangular prism, cube, right circular cylinder.

I Calculate the surface area of a pyramid, rectangular prism, cube.

I Calculate the surface area of a right circular cylinder and the surface area
of a right circular cone.

I Calculate the surface area of a sphere.

I Calculate the surface area of irregularly shaped objects.

I Calculate the volume of familiar threedimensional objects, i.e. rectangu-


lar prism, cube, right circular cylinder, right circular cone, sphere.

I Calculate the volume of irregularly shaped objects, or objects that are com-
binations of other solids.
73 MAT0511/004

2.1
MEASUREMENTS OF PERIMETER AND AREA

2.1A
PERIMETER AND AREA OF TWODIMENSIONAL
OBJECTS
Perimeters of polygons We use the word perimeter to describe the total length of the edges or sides of
any polygon. In the case of a polygon that is not regular, we need to measure
the lengths of all the sides and add the measurements. For all polygons the
perimeter is the sum of the lengths of all the sides. In the case of regular
polygons, we often have a formula that we can use to calculate the perimeter.

In Table 2.1.1 we now state, without proof, the formulas for the perimeters of
the polygons we encounter most often (It is important to know these formulas by
heart.)

Polygon Perimeter

Triangle (scalene) s1 + s2 + s3 The triangle has three sides of different


lengths, s1 , s2 and s3 units.

Triangle (isosceles) 2s1 + s2 We denote the length of each of the two


equal sides by s1 units;
the length of the third side is s2 units.

Triangle (equilateral) 3s The three sides all have the same length,
s units.

Quadrilaterals (in general) s1 + s2 + s3 + s4 The four sides may have different lengths,
namely s1 , s2 , s3 and s4 units.
Special quadrilaterals

B Rectangle 2 (l + b) The length is l units.


The breadth is b units.
B Square 4s Each of the four sides measures s units.
B Parallelogram 2 (l + b) The length of one of the sides is l units;
the length of the adjacent side is b units.
B Rhombus 4s The four sides all have the same length,
s units.
B Kite 2 (s1 + s2 ) Two sides each measure s1 units and the
other two sides each measure s2 units.

Table 2.1.1
74

From the formulas given in Table 2.1.1 for the perimeter of an equilateral tri-
angle, a square and a rhombus, it is clear that, in general, the perimeter of any
regular polygon is ns units, where n is the number of sides, and s is the length of
a side.

2.1.1

Calculate the perimeter of each of the following shapes.

6m
5m
7m
2m 1m

Scalene triangle Rectangle

8 cm
2 cm
3 cm 2 cm 5 cm
2 cm
3 cm

4 cm

Regular Regular Irregular polygon


pentagon hexagon

SOLUTION
Triangle: Perimeter = (2 + 6 + 7) m = 15 m.
Rectangle: Perimeter = 2 (5 + 1) m = 12 m.
Pentagon: Perimeter = (5 3) cm = 15 cm.
Hexagon: Perimeter = (6 2) cm = 12 cm.
Irregular polygon: We deduce the lengths of the remaining edges from the
given measurements, and the fact that opposite sides are
parallel.
75 MAT0511/004

8 cm
2 cm
2 cm 5 cm

7 cm 3 cm

4 cm

13 cm

We then have
Perimeter = (7 + 2 + 2 + 8 + 5 + 3 + 4 + 13) cm = 44 cm.

Circumference of a circle In the case of a circle, the perimeter of a circle is called the circumference of
the circle. The formula for the circumference of a circle is d or 2r, where d
We also speak of the ra- and r are respectively the lengths of the diameter and radius.
dius and diameter instead
of the lengths of the radius In this module we first mentioned in connection with irrational numbers. The
and diameter, respectively.
Greek mathematicians noticed that in any circle with circumference c and diam-
eter d, the ratio dc is always a constant. They gave this constant the name , and
from this the formula c = d developed. The fact that the ratio c : d is always
constant tells us that the circumference and diameter of a circle are always in
direct proportion to each other.

Remember that is irrational. We may approximate it by 3, 14 or 227 , but it is


important to remember that these numbers are not exactly the same as .

2.1.2
Calculate the circumference of a circle with radius 5 cm. Give your answer
correct to one decimal place.

SOLUTION
Circumference = 2r
= 2 5 cm
= 10 cm
31, 4 cm
Thus the circumference is approximately 31, 4 cm.

The formula for the circumference of a circle is useful to determine the distance
covered by a point on a wheel.
76

2.1.3
The diameter of a wheel is 40 cm. How far does a point on the wheel travel when
it revolves completely, 200 times? (Assume the wheel moves smoothly and does
not slip.) Leave the answer in terms of .

SOLUTION
In one revolution any point on the wheel covers a distance equal to its circum-
ference. (If you are not sure that this is so, experiment with a coin, or saucer, or
any small circular object.)
Circumference = d cm
= 40 cm
= 40 cm
Thus in one revolution a point on the wheel travels 40 cm, and in 200 revolu-
tions it travels (200 40) cm, i.e. 8 000 cm, i.e. 80 m.

Areas of polygons For any polygon we can determine how much space in the plane it covers. This
We use the word dimen- intuitive sense of taking up space is made more exact in the concept of area. We
sions to denote length and represent area in terms of square units. Suppose the figure below is a rectangle,
breadth. with dimensions 10 cm by 6 cm.

10 cm

6 cm

Figure 2.1.1

If we divide the rectangle into equal squares with sides of 1 cm, we will have 60
such squares. We say that the area of the rectangle is 60 square centimetres. We
denote square centimetres by cm2 , and the area of the rectangle represented in
Figure 2.1.1 is thus 60 cm2 .

In the following table (Table 2.1.2) we give the formulas for the areas of the
polygons we considered earlier. We do not have a general formula for the area of
any polygon. However, we can consider irregularly shaped polygons as a combi-
nation of rectangles, triangles, etc., and calculate each of these areas separately
before combining them to obtain the total area. (Learn to know these formulas.)
77 MAT0511/004

Polygon Area A (in square units)

A Triangle (all types) A = 21 base altitude


(We use altitude for perpendicular height.)

1
B C Area of 4 ABC = 2 BC AD
D

D C
Square A = length of side length of side
= (length of side)2

A B Area of ABCD = (AB)2 = a2


a

S R
Rectangle A = length breadth

P Q Area of PQRS = PQ RQ

D C Parallelogram A = base altitude

Area of ABCD = AB DE
A E B

S R
Rhombus A = base altitude

Area of PQRS = PQ ST
P T Q

L Kite A = 21 length of first diagonal


length of second diagonal
K M
1
Area of KLMN = 2 LN KM

N Trapezoid A = 21 sum of parallel sides altitude


M L
1
Area of KLMJ = 2 (ML + JK) MN

J N K
Table 2.1.2
78

Area of a circle We also need to consider the area of a circle. You may know that
Note: Students should know
this formula by heart.
Area of a circle = r2

or 2
d
Area of a circle =
2
where r represents the radius and d represents the diameter of the circle. You
may be interested to see how the derivation of this formula can be illustrated.

The circle with centre C and radius r is divided into 8 congruent sectors. See
Figure 2.1.2.

W Q

C
V R

U S

Figure 2.1.2

We cut up the circle and arrange the sectors as shown in Figure 2.1.3.

R S T U V

r r

R Q P W V

Figure 2.1.3
79 MAT0511/004

The object in Figure 2.1.3 has two wavy sides, both denoted by RV . The
Note: It is not necessary to distance from R to V is half the circumference of the circle, i.e. r units. The
be able to deduce this for- length RR (or VV ) is the same as the radius of the circle, i.e. r units. We can
mula for examination pur- repeat this process, and cut the circle into a large number of much smaller sectors.
poses.
The smaller we make the sectors, the less curved will be the arcs that make up
the long sides of the object similar to that in Figure 2.1.3.

Thus we will eventually have an object that is almost identical to a rectangle.


The formula for the area of a rectangle is l b. In this case we have l = r units,
and b = r units. Thus, the area of the circle (even though it is no longer a circle
in shape we have not changed its area) is

(l b) square units = (r r) square units

i.e. we have
area of circle = r2 square units.

2.1.4

22
Calculate the approximate area of a circle with diameter 42 cm. (Let 7 .)

SOLUTION
2
Area = r

22 2
(21) cm2 Since d = 42 cm we have r = 21 cm
7
= 1 386 cm2

Thus the area of the circle is approximately 1 386 cm2 .

2.1.5

Calculate the area of the figure on the following page. The numbers indicate
lengths, in centimetres. All angles are 90 .
80

P 4 W

V 7
U
3
T
S

Q R

SOLUTION
For convenience we include an additional line segment, namely the line segment
joining V and S.

P 4 W

V 7 U

3
T
S

Q R

Area of the figure = Area of rectangle PQRW


PQ = (5 + 3 + 5) cm, since + Area of rectangle STUV
all angles are right angles.
= (PQ PW ) + (ST UT )
= ((13 4) + (7 3)) cm2
= (52 + 21) cm2
= 73 cm2
Thus the total area of the figure is 73 cm2 .
81 MAT0511/004

2.1.1

A landscape gardener wants to lay paving around a pond in a garden. The area
requiring paving is the shaded region shown in Figure 2.1.4. What is the ap-
proximate area, correct to two decimal places, of the section to be paved. (Let
3, 14.)

1,2 m

5m

12 m

Figure 2.1.4

Paved area = Area of rectangle Area of circle



= (12 5) (1, 2)2 m2
= (60 (1, 44)) m2
(60 (3, 14) (1, 44)) m2
= (60 4, 5216) m2
= 55, 4784 m2
55, 48 m2 (correct to two decimal places)

Thus the approximate area to be paved is 55, 48 m2 .

2.1.6

Find a formula for the area of a regular hexagon in terms of the length of one of
its sides.
82

SOLUTION

T
r

A B

Sketch a regular hexagon, with sides of length s cm. Draw the diagonals. The
diagonals intersect in only one point, T , and the lengths of the line segments
joining the vertices and T are all the same, say r cm.

Do you see that the reason The hexagon thus consists of six congruent triangles. In any one of the triangles,
for congruency is SSS? draw an altitude from T to the base. Say its length is a cm. This will be true for
each triangle, since the triangles are congruent.

Area of hexagon = 6 area of 4 AT B



= 6 12 base height cm2
= 6 12 s a cm2
= 3as cm2

We now express a in terms of s. Triangle AT B is isosceles, since AT = BT = r.



Also, AT B = 360
6 = 60 since there are six congruent triangles with common
vertex T . Thus T AB = T BA = 60 , and hence 4 AT B is an equilateral triangle.
Thus r = s.

3
From Question
3 of Exercise 1.2 we have a = 2 s. Thus the area of the hexagon

is 3 23 s s cm2 , i.e. 3 2 3 s2 cm2 .
83 MAT0511/004

2.1

1. What is the area of a kite with one diagonal that is one metre long, and the
other diagonal half a metre long?

2. The following diagram shows a circular pool with diameter 5 m.

The shaded area represents paving around the pool. The paving is 0, 5 m
wide. What is the area of the paved section? Give your answer correct to
one decimal place.

3. Find the perimeter and area of each of the following figures, correct to 2
decimal places if the answers are not exact. Assume angles drawn to look
like right angles are right angles. Assume measurements are in centime-
tres.
(a)
A F

3
5 E 2
D
2
C
B 9
(b)
D
6 4
12 C
6 4
6
A
2
6 +4
2 B
84

(c)
3
A 3 3 C

9 9

B
(d)
I
4 4

A 2 J H2 G

D
5 5

B 2 C E 2 F

4. What is the area of the shaded section in the following figure? You may
assume that AC is a diameter of the circle. Give your answer correct to the
nearest square metre.

B 6m D

5. On a vacant piece of land with area 25 000 m2 , a sports club plans to build
an athletics track, with the shape shown in the following figure.

ym

xm
85 MAT0511/004

In the figure, the two curved sections are both semicircles. In order to
accommodate competition races, the lengths of the lanes in which runners
will compete must be 400 m. One such lane is shown by means of a dashed
line on the sketch. (The starting positions of the runners are staggered so
that each runner covers the same distance.) The outer boundary of the
athletics track is shown here as the solid line. It must measure 420 m, and
each of the long straight sides must be twice as long as the diameter of
each of the curved sides.

(a) What values of x and y satisfy these requirements? Give your answer
correct to two decimal places.
(b) The club wants to plant trees in the outer section surrounding the
track. They have been advised that they should allow 50 m2 for each
tree. What is the maximum number of trees that they can plant?

6. A truck wheel (including the tyre) has a diameter of 140 cm. If the tyre
picks up a stone, approximately how far does the stone travel, if the wheel
revolves completely, 500 times? (Use 22
7 in this question.)

7. Consider a circle with diameter d1 , and area a1 . Double the diameter. Cal-
culate the relationship between the new area (a2 ) and the original area
(a1 ). Repeat the process 4 more times and note your results in a table (like
the one shown below). How would you describe the relationship between
each bigger area and the original area?

Diameter Area ai Relationship


(i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) between ai
and a1 for
i = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
d a1 =
2d a2 =
4d a3 =
8d a4 =
16d a5 =
32d a6 =

8. Calculate the area of trapezoid ABCD which is sketched below.

A 3 km D

2 km

B E C
7 km

9. A circle has an area of 64 cm2 . Find the length of the diameter (correct to
one decimal place).
86

10. Suppose a farmer has 500 m of fencing. Will a square field or a circular
field fenced with this length of fencing give him more planting space?

11. Show how the formula for the area of a triangle can be derived, if we know
the formula for the area of a rectangle.

12. Find the area of each of the following symmetrical figures. Measurements
are given in centimetres. If answers are not exact, give them correct to one
decimal place.
(a) (b)

4 1
9
2

5 2

13. Find the area (correct to one decimal place) of the shaded region in the
sketch below. The shaded portion represents what is left when a circle
with diameter 5 cm is cut from a square with sides 5 cm.

5
87 MAT0511/004

2.2
SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME OF THREE
DIMENSIONAL OBJECTS

The branch of geometry that deals with the study of figures in space (i.e. three
dimensional figures) whose faces or cross sections are for example polygons or
circles, is called solid geometry. This does not mean that an object has to be
solid. For example in solid geometry we may study an empty rectangular box,
or a solid wooden cube.

2.2A
SOME THREEDIMENSIONAL OBJECTS
Before we consider formulas for calculating volume and surface area we need
to know the names and characteristics of various objects. Table 2.2.1 on
the next page summarises some of the wellknown threedimensional objects
we encounter. Many threedimensional objects arise from the twodimensional
polygons we have already considered. When we create a threedimensional ob-
ject from twodimensional polygons, we call the twodimensional polygons the
faces of the threedimensional object. We do not only need to use polygons to
create threedimensional objects. We also have objects whose faces are circles
as well as polygons.

It is useful to create a net from which the threedimensional object can be


made. The net of an object is created by theoretically opening out the three
dimensional object so that it becomes a flat surface.
88

Name and Description Net Object

The base of a pyramid may Pyramid


be any polygon, not neces- Square base:
sarily a square. Four triangular sides, where
the triangles are congruent
and have a common vertex.

Rectangular prism
Two congruent and parallel
rectangular faces (called Base
bases); the other faces are
also rectangles, formed by Base
joining corresponding
vertices of the bases.

Cube
A rectangular prism in
which all faces are
congruent squares.

Right circular cylinder


Two circular faces (called
bases), with a rectangle
forming the curved sides
in such a way that the
sides are perpendicular
to the circular base.

Table 2.2.1

We can make models of many threedimensional shapes by drawing the relevant


net onto a piece of cardboard or paper, cutting it out and folding it along its
edges. We then need to stick the edges together.
89 MAT0511/004

2.2.1

Copy an enlarged version of the net shown in the figure below, onto a piece of
flexible cardboard. Cut it out and fold it into a threedimensional shape.

Figure 2.2.1

SOLUTION
Your shape will look like this.

Figure 2.2.2

2.2B
SURFACE AREA
Nets are twodimensional The value of being able to identify the nets from which threedimensional ob-
representations of three jects are created is that they enable us to see, in two dimensions, the shape of each
dimensional objects.
of the objects faces. This in turn helps us to identify the different components
we need to consider when we calculate the surface area of the object.

Surface area is exactly what the term suggests. It is the combined areas of the
individual surfaces that are the faces of an object.

In Table 2.2.2 we give three familiar objects, together with their surface areas.
You can refer to the nets given in Table 2.2.1 if you are not sure how these areas
are determined.
90

Suppose a, b, c, etc. indicate lengths, in centimetres. Then in each case S repre-


sents surface area, in square centimetres.

Object Surface area S (square centimeters)

Pyramid

S = 4(area
of triangular
face) + 1(area of square base)
= 4 12 b h + (b b)
h = 2bh + b2
= b (2h + b)
b

Rectangular prism

S = 2(area of base) + 2(area of long side)


c
+ 2(area of short side)
= 2 (ab) + 2 (ac) + 2 (bc)
b
a = 2 (ab + ac + bc)

Cube

S = 6(area of face)
= 6a2

Table 2.2.2

Do not try to memorise these formulas. You can always calculate surface areas
of different objects by finding the area of each of the faces, and then adding the
areas.

2.2.1

By open cylinder, we mean How much tin sheeting will you need to make an open cylinder with a height
a cylinder with a closed of 20 cm and a base that has a diameter of 10 cm? Give your answer in square
base, and open top.
metres, correct to two decimal places.
91 MAT0511/004

We first sketch the object, and the net on which it is based.

A cylinder such as this is called a right circular cylinder, because the base is a
circle, and the sides are perpendicular to the base.

20 cm

20 cm

5 cm

5 cm

Surface area = area of circle + area of rectangle whose breadth is the circumfer-
ence of the base of the cylinder, and whose length is the height of the cylinder.

Remember that the circum- Thus


ference of a circle is given
by 2r. S = (5)2 + 2(5) 20 cm2 Diameter = 10 cm
and hence radius = 5 cm.
= (25 + 200) cm2
= 225 cm2
706, 86 cm2 Using a calculator.
707 cm2 . To the nearest square centimetre.

Do you remember how to You will thus need approximately 707 cm2 of tin sheeting, i.e. 707 104 m2 ,
convert cm2 to m2 ? If not, i.e. 0, 0707 m2 , i.e. approximately 0, 07 m2 of tin sheeting.
see Book 1, Study Unit 5.

Right circular cylinder From Activity 2.2.1 can you deduce the general formula we use to calculate the
surface area of an open right circular cylinder? We know that
Surface area = area of circular base + area of rectangle.
Hence, for an open right circular cylinder where the radius of the base is r units
and the height is h units, we have surface area

S = r2 + 2rh square units.
See Figure 2.2.3 on the next page.
92

The surface area of a closed


r
right circular cylinder is
(2r2 + 2rh) square units.
Figure 2.2.3

Right circular cone We now consider another object that has a circular base. This is a right circular
cone, which is illustrated in Figure 2.2.4.

We call this a right circular


cone because it is symme-
trical about a line through h
the vertex, perpendicular to,
and through the centre of,
r
the circle that forms the
base.
Figure 2.2.4

Let us now try to draw a net for this object. We need to do this if we want to use
paper to make party hats in this shape. If the radius r of the base is 10 cm and the
height h is 12 cm then we can use the theorem of Pythagoras to find the length
of the slanting side AB. See Figure 2.2.5.

h = 12 cm

r = 10 cm
B

Figure 2.2.5

By Pythagoras we find
p
AB = h2 + r 2

= 144 + 100 cm

= 244 cm
15, 62 cm.
93 MAT0511/004

If we cut the hat along AB and flatten out the paper, we obtain the following net.

h 2 + r 2 cm

B
2 p r cm


The paper is now in the shape of a sector of a circle, with radius h2 + r2 cm.

In general, when the slanting side has length h2 + r2 units, then the area of
2 2
this sector is r h + r square units. At this stage you may not know how
Note:
this formula has been obtained. However, if you continue with mathematics and
It is not necessary to remem-
study trigonometry, you will be able to work out an area such as this.
ber these formulas for exam
purposes.
Hence the lateral surface area p (i.e. excluding the base) of a right circular cone
with radius r and height h is r h2 + r2 square units, whereas the surfacep area
of the closed right circular cone (i.e. including the base) is (r + r h2 + r2
2

square units.

Sphere We now consider a sphere. A sphere consists of a set of points in space that are
all the same distance from a fixed point called the centre. The length of a line
segment from any point on the sphere to the centre is the radius of the sphere. A
line segment through the centre joining two points on the sphere is the diameter
of the sphere.

Figure 2.2.6

We cannot draw a net for a sphere and use it to find the surface area. The deriva-
tion of the formula for the surface area of a sphere is also beyond the scope of
this module. If a sphere has radius r units, then

Surface area = 4r2 square units.


94

2.2.2

How much leather is required for a soccer ball that has a diameter of 21 cm?
Use 22
7 as an approximation for , and give your answer to the nearest square
centimetre.

SOLUTION
We assume that the soccer
ball has the shape of a sphere. Since the diameter is
21
21 cm, the radius is 2 cm. Thus
2
Surface area = 4r

22 21 21
4 cm2
7 2 2
= 1 386 cm2 .

Thus the ball requires approximately 1 386 cm2 of leather.

The answer to Example 2.2.2 is not really as simple as the solution makes it
appear. A soccer ball is usually made up of a pattern of leather pentagons and
hexagons, as shown in Figure 2.2.7.

Figure 2.2.7

Additional leather is needed for the seams, and some of the original flat piece is
wasted when the pentagons and hexagons are cut out.
95 MAT0511/004

2.2.2

Calculate the surface area of the container shown in Figure 2.2.8. All corners are
right angles.

5 cm
6 cm 3 cm
4 cm
9 cm

Figure 2.2.8

t1
s2
t2
s1
f1 s3

For convenience we call the face looking towards us the front (denoted by f1 );
the corresponding side facing away from us is the back (denoted by f2 ). The
other vertical faces (sides) are denoted by s1 , s2 and s3 ; the horizontal faces on
the top are t1 and t2 , and the base of the container is denoted by b.

The net of the container is sketched on the next page.


96

6 9

4 back ( f2 )

7 3 3 9 4

5 s1 t1 s2 t2 s3

4 front ( f1 )

5 base ( b )

15

Once we have allocated the different dimensions to the different parts of the net
it is straightforward to calculate the separate areas, and then to add them to get
the surface area of the container.

Area of f1 = ((3 6) + (4 15)) cm2 = 78 cm2 = Area of f2

Hence we have the following.

Area of f1 and f2 = 2 78 cm2 = 156 cm2


Area of base b = 5 15 cm2 = 75 cm2
Area of s1 = 5 7 cm2 = 35 cm2
Area of t1 = 5 6 cm2 = 30 cm2
Area of s2 = 3 5 cm2 = 15 cm2
Area of t2 = 5 9 cm2 = 45 cm2
Area of s3 = 4 5 cm2 = 20 cm2

Hence the total surface area is 376 cm2 .


97 MAT0511/004

2.2C
VOLUME
The volume of a solid is the number of unit cubes it contains. Suppose the block
shown below has width, height and length all 10 cm.
10 cm

10 cm

10 cm

10 cm

Figure 2.2.9

It should be easy for you to see that if we cut up the block along the lines shown
here, we will have 1 000 small blocks, or cubes, all congruent to the shaded block
in the figure above. Thus we say that the volume of the block is the number of
There are 1 000 cubes, and cubes of unit length (unit length in this case means 1 cm). There are thus 1 000
1 000 = 10 10 10. such cubes, each measuring 1 cm across, 1 cm wide and 1 cm in height. Since
there are 1 000 cubes, all measuring 1 cm by 1 cm by 1 cm, we say that the
volume of the block is 1 000 cubic centimetres.

While it is not practical to try to divide all objects into unit cubes, we give all
volumes in terms of cubic units, i.e. cubic centimetres, or cubic metres, etc.
There are 30 cubes, all mea- Hence the volume of the block shown in Figure 2.2.10 is 30 cubic centimetres.
suring 1 cm by 1 cm by
1 cm, and 30 = 5 3 2.

5 cm

2 cm
3 cm

Figure 2.2.10
98

In the same way that we denote square centimetres (or square metres, etc.) by
cm2 (or m2 , etc.), we also denote cubic centimetres (or cubic metres, etc.) by
cm3 (or m3 , etc.). It is beyond the scope of this module to derive the formulas
for volume, so we now state the volume formulas for the more common solids.

Object Volume V (in cubic units)

Rectangular prism

V = l wh
h = (l w) h
i.e. V = area of base height
w
l

Cube

V = a3
= a2 a
i.e. V = area of base height
Note:
These formulas should be
understood and remem- a
bered for exam purposes
Right circular cylinder
r
V = r2 h
i.e. V = area of base height
h

Right circular cone

V = 13 r2 h
h
i.e. V = 31 volume of right circular cylinder

Sphere

V = 43 r3
r

Table 2.2.3
99 MAT0511/004

When solids are irregular we need to identify the separate components before
trying to calculate the volume.

2.2.3

Calculate the volume of the container given in Figure 2.2.8.

SOLUTION
We can consider the container as a combination of two separate rectangular con-
tainers. One of them, with volume V1 , has faces s1 , t1 , s2 and parts of f1 , f2 and
b; the other, with volume V2 , has faces t2 , s3 and parts of f1 , f2 and b.

Hence
Volume V = V1 +V2
= (6 5 7) + (5 9 4) cm3
= (210 + 180) cm3
= 390 cm3 .

In Example 2.2.3 we considered the container as a combination of two rectan-


gular containers. In the next activity the container consists of a combination of
rectangular and cylindrical containers.

2.2.3

Calculate the volume of the container shown in Figure 2.2.11. It is a rectangular


box, with a curved lid that is a cylinder sliced down the middle. Give your answer
to the nearest cubic centimetre.

6 cm

8 cm
10 cm

Figure 2.2.11
100

Volume = Volume of box + Volume of halfcylinder


1
= (l b h) + r2 h
2
The diameter of the
1 2
= (10 8 6) + (4) 10 cm3 cylinder is 8 cm, hence
2
its radius is 4 cm.
3
= (480 + 80) cm

731 cm3

When we consider how much liquid a container holds, we often refer to the
volume in millilitres (ml), or litres (` ) instead of cubic centimetres. We have the
relationships
1 ` = 1 000 ml = 1 000 cm3
i.e.
1 ml = 1 cm3 and 1 ` = 1 000 cm3 = 103 m3

In the next activity we also need to calculate the volume of an irregular container,
in this case a swimming pool. We noted in Table 2.2.3 that we can determine the
volume of certain objects by calculating

area of base perpendicular height.

In the next activity, think carefully about the following.

We use the word solid to de- I Separating the solid into two or more appropriate solids whose volumes
scribe the object whose vol- we can find.
ume we want to find.
I Considering what base we should use for each of the solids identified.

2.2.4

Calculate the volume of water needed to fill a swimming pool with the dimen-
sions shown in the figure on the next page.
101 MAT0511/004

10 m
6m

1m 2m
5m

We divide the pool into two separate parts, namely the shallow part (with volume
V1 ):

6m

1m

5m

and the deeper part (with volume V2 ):

6m 5m
B C
1m 2m
A

Now, volume of pool = V1 +V2 .

We draw the deep end of the pool again so that one of the sides becomes the
base.

1m 2m
5m
6m 6m
6m

A D
1m
2m
B 5m C
102

The base is a trapezoid with parallel sides 1 m and 2 m, and height 5 m (the
side that is 5 m long is perpendicular to the sides that are 1 m and 2 m long). The
area of a trapezoid is given by
1
A = h (a + b)
2
Do not confuse the height, or where a and b are the lengths of the parallel sides and h is the perpendicular
altitude, of the base, with the height, or altitude. We thus have
height of the solid itself.

1
A= (5) (1 + 2) m2 = 7, 5 m2 .
2

Thus

V2 = Area of base perpendicular height


= (7, 5 6) m3
= 45 m3 .

We also have

V1 = l b h
= (5 6 1) m3
= 30 m3 .

Hence the volume of the pool is

V = V1 +V2 = 75 m3 .

Since 1 ` = 103 m3 we Thus in order to fill the pool to the top we need 75 m3 of water, i.e. 75 103
have 1 m3 = 103 `. litres of water.
103 MAT0511/004

2.2

Where necessary, round answers to one decimal place.

1. A circular pipe has a diameter of 3 m. How many litres (to the nearest
litre) of oil can fit into a section of pipe that is 50 m long.

2.

1 cm 15 cm

5 cm

The metal block shown above has a cylindrical hole bored through the
centre. The open ends have square faces and the remaining four sides are
rectangular. How much liquid (to the nearest cubic centimetre) can the
block hold at any given time.

3. Consider two cylinders, cylinder C1 with radius r1 cm and height h1 cm;


and cylinder C2 with radius r2 cm and height h2 cm. If C2 must have the
same height as C1 , but contain twice the volume of C1 , how much bigger
must r2 be than r1 ?

4. Consider the two cubes shown below.

ks1
s1

The sides of the smaller cube measure s1 units. The sides of the bigger
cube measure ks1 units, where k is a constant. Find the value of k so that
the bigger cube will have double the volume of the smaller cube.
104

5. An office has a water dispenser with paper cups in the shape of cones, with
diameter 6 cm and depth 8 cm. How many times must one paper cup be
used to fill an empty kettle up to the 2 ` mark?

6. A milk carton contains 500 ml of milk. The carton is damaged and the
contents must be poured into a can that is 8 cm across and 9 cm high.
Will all the milk fit into the can? If not, how much milk (in ml) will be
left?

7. 24 cheese wedges are packed into a box, in three layers. The cheese
wedges are 0, 5 cm thick, and 2, 5 cm along the straight edges. Assume
no space is left between the wedges, or between the top and bottom layers,
and the box. The cardboard used to make the box is 1 mm thick. What is
the surface area of the box?

2,5 cm

8. How much wood is wasted if we carve a ball with diameter 9 cm out of a


block of wood in the shape of a cube, with sides 10 cm?
105 MAT0511/004

Perimeters of polygons
If the lengths of the sides are denoted by s, s1 , s2 , s3 and s4 , where the
lengths are measured in units such as centimetres, then we have the fol-
lowing formulas.

B Triangle:
scalene triangle: Perimeter = s1 + s2 + s3
isosceles triangles: Perimeter = 2s1 + s2
equilateral triangles: Perimeter = 3s
B Quadrilateral: Perimeter = s1 + s2 + s3 + s4
rectangle and parallelogram: Perimeter = 2 (s1 + s2 )
square and rhombus: Perimeter = 4s
kite: Perimeter = 2 (s1 + s2 )
B Pentagon (regular): Perimeter = 5s
B Hexagon (regular): Perimeter 6s
B Irregular figures: Perimeter = sum of the lengths of all the sides

Circumference of circles
Circumference = 2r = d, where r is the radius, d is the diameter, and
is an irrational number, at times approximated by 22
7 or 3, 14.

Areas of polygons

B Triangle: Area = 12 base altitude


B Rectangle: Area = length breadth
B Square: Area = (length of side)2
B Parallelogram and rhombus: Area = base altitude
B Kite: Area = 12 length of first diagonal length of second diagonal
Note: B Trapezoid: Area = 12 sum of parallel sides altitude
The formula for the area
of an hexagon need not be B Hexagon (regular): Area = 6 21 base altitude (where base
memorised. and altitude refer to the base and altitude of any
one of the six congru-
3 3
ent triangles that make up the hexagon) = 2 ( length of side)2 .
B Irregularly shaped polygons: We can break them up into triangles
and quadrilaterals, whose areas are easy to calculate.
B Circles
2
Area = r2 = d2 , where r is the radius and d the diameter.
106

Threedimensional objects: some examples

B Pyramid (square base): has four sides that are congruent triangles
with one common vertex.
B Rectangular prism: has two congruent and parallel rectangular faces
called bases; the other sides are also rectangles formed by joining
corresponding vertices of the bases.
B Cube: a rectangular prism in which all faces are congruent squares.
B Right circular cylinder: a circular top and base, with a rectangle
forming the curved sides, in such a way that the sides are perpendic-
ular to the base.
B Right circular cone: an object with vertex directly above the centre
of its circular base, symmetrical about the perpendicular line joining
the vertex to the circular base.
B Sphere: an object in which each point is equidistant from a fixed
point called the centre.

Surface area of threedimensional objects

B Pyramid: Surface area = 4 area of triangle + area of square base


B Rectangular prism: Surface area = 2 area of base + 2 area of
long side + 2 area of short side
B Cube: Surface area = 6 area of one face
B Right circular cylinder (closed):
Surface area = 2 area of circle + area of rectangle
In an open right circular cylinder:
Surface area = 1 area of circle + area of rectangle
In both cases note that the breadth of the rectangle is equal to the
circumference of the circle.

Note: B Right circular cone: Lateral surface area = r h2 + r2 , where r is
It is not necessary to me- the radius of the circle forming the base and h is the perpendicular
morise the surface area of a
distance from the vertex to the centre of the base.
right circular cone.
In a closed right circular cone: Surface area = r h2 + r2 + r2
B Sphere: Surface area = 4r2 , where r is the radius of the sphere.
B Irregularlyshaped object: We break it up into several shapes whose
surface areas we can calculate, and combine the separate areas.

Volume of threedimensional objects

B Rectangular prism: Volume = area of rectangular base height


B Cube: Volume = (length of side)3
B Right circular cylinder: Volume = area of circular base height
107 MAT0511/004

B Right circular cone:


V = 13 (volume of cylinder with the same circular base and height)
= 13 r2 h, where r is the radius of the circular base and h is the
height.
B Sphere: Volume = 43 r3 , where r is the radius.
B Irregularlyshaped object: We break the object into several objects
whose volumes we can calculate, and combine the separate volumes.

CHECKLIST
Now check that you can do the following.

SECTION 2.1

1. Calculate the perimeters of various polygons.


Table 2.1.1, Example 2.1.1

2. Calculate the circumference of a circle.


Example 2.1.2

3. Calculate the horizontal distance covered by a point on a circular object.


Example 2.1.3

4. Calculate the areas of various regular polygons.


Table 2.1.2

5. Calculate the area of a circle.


Example 2.1.4

6. Calculate areas involving a combination of polygons and circles.


Examples 2.1.5, 2.1.6; Activity 2.1.1

SECTION 2.2

1. Draw the net for several familiar threedimensional objects, i.e. a pyramid,
rectangular prism, cube, right circular cylinder.
Table 2.2.1, Example 2.2.1

2. Calculate the surface area of a pyramid, rectangular prism, cube.


Table 2.2.2
108

3. Calculate the surface area of a right circular cylinder and the surface area
of a right circular cone.
Activity 2.2.1; Figures 2.2.3, 2.2.4, 2.2.5 and the related discussion

4. Calculate the surface area of a sphere.


Figure 2.2.6 and the related discussion; Example 2.2.2

5. Calculate the surface area of irregularly shaped objects.


Activity 2.2.2

6. Calculate the volume of familiar threedimensional objects, i.e. rectangu-


lar prism, cube, right circular cylinder, right circular cone, sphere.
Table 2.2.3

7. Calculate the volume of irregularly shaped objects, or objects that are com-
binations of other solids.
Example 2.2.3; Activities 2.2.3, 2.2.4
109 MAT0511/004

ANSWERS
TOPIC 1
Exercise 1.1

1.
A A1

B B1

4 A1 B1C is the mirror image of 4 ABC in the vertical line through C.

2. (a)
A
C

(b)
B

C A

3. (a) DPC is adjacent to CPB.


CPB is adjacent to BPA.
(b) CPD = 22 300
(c) APB + BPC +CPD = 90

(d) E PA = 112 300 (Since E PA = 180 APB + BPC
= 180 (45 + 22 300 )
= 112 300 .)
110

4. (a) 28 390 000 (b) 90 30 1800


(c) 30 480 000 (c) 100 60 000

5. (a) (i) 90
(ii) 45
(iii) 45
(b) Pairs of cointerior angles:
AQP and CPQ
BRP and DPR
RQP and DPQ
ARP and CPR
Note that it is possible to denote the angles differently: for example
AQP and AQF refer to the same angle, similarly ARG and QRP refer
to the same angle.
(c) ARP and DPR
(d) AQR is a straight angle.
(e) (i) GPC
(ii) GPQ or F PR

6. The flower has rotational symmetry. It can be rotated through 90 , 180


and 270 about its central point without any change taking place. It also
has reflection symmetry. It can be reflected in any one of the four dashed
lines shown.

The face has reflection symmetry. It can be reflected in a vertical line


through the centre of the face.

However, it does not have rotational symmetry, since rotation through any
number of degrees results in a different picture. For example, rotation
through 180 gives the same face, but upside down.
111 MAT0511/004

Exercise 1.2

1. (a)

(b)

2. 4 ABD 4 ACD RHS: AB = AC


BD = BD
ADB = ADC = 90
Hence BD = CD.

3. AB = BC = AC = s since 4 ABC is equilateral.


AD bisects BC. (See question 2 above, or the discussion that follows Ac-
tivity 1.2.6.)
Hence BD = CD = 12 s cm.
According to the Theorem of Pythagoras

AD2 = AB2 BD2

i.e. we have
1
AD2 = s2 ( s)2
2
1
= s2 s2
4
3 2
= s
4

and hence
r
3 2
AD = s
4

3
= s.
2
112

4.

The octagon consists of eight congruent triangles.


The angle sum of each triangle is 180 .
Thus the angle sum of all eight triangles is

8 180 = 1 440 .

But the sum of the central angles of the triangles is 360 . Hence the angle
sum of the octagon is

1 440 360 = 1 080 .

5. (a) There are four pairs of congruent triangles:


4 ST P 4 QT R
4 ST R 4 QT P
4 SRQ 4 QPS
4 PSR 4 RQP
(b)
P Q

S R

4 QRS 4 SPQ
Thus QSR = SQP.
Hence PQ k RS. Alternate angles are equal.
Similarly PSQ = RQS.
Hence PS k RQ. Alternate angles equal.
Hence PQRS is a parallelogram. Opposite sides are parallel.
113 MAT0511/004

6. By Pythagoras
FG2 +CG2 = FC2 .
Hence

FG2 = FC2 CG2


2 2
= 13 CD 41 CD
2
x 2 x
= m2
3 4
2 2
x x
= m2
9 16

16x2 9x2
= m2
144
7x 2
= m2
144
and thus
x
FG = 7 m2 .
12
7. 4 ABD 6 4 ECD. If 4 ABD 4 ECD then AB = EC. Since EC is the
hypotenuse of 4 EBC it follows that EC > DC. Hence EC > AB since
DC = AB. Consequently 4 ABD 6 4 ECD.

8. (a)
A
x
B D

2x

In 4 ABC and 4 ADC

AB = AD
BC = DC.

AC is common to both.
Thus
4 ABC 4 ADC. SSS
114

(b)
A
E
B D

C
Consider 4 BAE and 4 DAE.
Since 4 ABC 4 ADC it follows that

BAE = DAE.

Since AB = AD and AE is common to both triangles we have


4 BAE 4 DAE. SAS
Hence
BE = ED

i.e. diagonal AC bisects diagonal BD.

9. In 4 DCA and 4 DPQ


DCA = DPQ and DAC = DQP. Corresponding angles are equal.
D is common to both triangles.
Thus
4 DCA ||| 4 DPQ.
Because the triangles are similar, the corresponding sides are in proportion,
and thus
DC CA DA
= = .
DP PQ DQ
Let DC = x.
We then have
x CA
= ,
2x PQ
i.e. we have
CA 1
=
PQ 2
and hence
CA = 12 PQ.
115 MAT0511/004

10.
Do you notice a pattern in Polygon Number Number of Number of Angle
the angle sum? (regular) of sides vertices diagonals sum
Triangle 3 3 0 180
Quadrilateral 4 4 2 360
Pentagon 5 5 5 540
Hexagon 6 6 9 720
Octagon 8 8 20 1 080

11. (a) the same


(b) 90
(c) rhombus square
(d) less than

Exercise 1.3

1.

B C

(a) B lies on the circle

(b) We choose D on the circle and draw AD and DC.


Then ADC = 90 .
116

2.
Q
P R

K C J
N S

Z T
A O B

Y U
L D M

X V
W

We label all points where the lines described intersect with the outer circle
by means of the letters N, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y and Z. The addi-
tional points of intersection of the lines are denoted by J , K, L and M. We
see that the figures bounded by
line segments AK, KC, and arc AC
line segments BJ, JC, and arc BC
line segments MB, MD, and arc BD
line segments DL, LA, and arc AD.
are all congruent.
Similarly the figures bounded by
arc NZ and line segments NK, KA and AZ
arc Y Z and line segments Y L, LA and AZ
arc UT and line segments UM, MB and BT
arc ST and line segments SJ, JB and BT
arc PQ and line segments PK, KC and CQ
arc RQ and line segments RJ, JC and CQ
arc XW and line segments XL, LD and DW
arc VW and line segments V M, MD and DW
are all congruent.
We also have the congruent figures bounded by
arc Y X and line segments Y L and LX
arc UV and line segments UM and MV
arc RS and line segments RJ and JS
arc PN and line segments PK and NK.
117 MAT0511/004

We also have the four congruent circle sectors,

AOC, BOC, BOD and AOD.

There are many other congruent figures which are formed by combining
certain smaller congruent figures. For example, ZXA, TV B, ZPA, and
T RB are all congruent.

TOPIC 2
Exercise 2.1

1.
A

_1
2 m
B D
E
1m

Area of kite = area of 4 ABC + area of 4 ADC


= 2 (area of 4 ABC) . 4 ABC 4 ADC.

Thus
1
Area of kite = 2 (base) altitude
21
= 2 2 AC EB

= 2 21 (1) 14 m2 AC bisects BD.

= 2 81 m2
1 2
= 4 m

1
i.e. the area of the kite is 4 m2 .

2.

Paved area = total area area of pool



= (3)2 (2, 5)2 m2
= ( (9 6, 25)) m2
= 2, 75 m2
8, 6 m2
118

3. (a)
7
A F
3
E 2
5 G D
2
C
B 9

Perimeter = (5 + 9 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 7) cm
= 28 cm
Total area = area of rectangle AGEF + area of rectangle GBCD
= (21 + 18) cm2
= 39 cm2

(b)
D
6 4
12 C
6 4
6
A
6 +4
2 2 B

Perimeter = AB
p + BC +CD + DA
= 62 + 42 + 6 + 4 + 12 cm

= 22 + 52 cm
(22 + 7, 21) cm
= 29, 21 cm
Total area = area of 4 ABD + area of 4 DBC
1 1
2
= 2 (12 4) + 2 (6 4) cm
= 36 cm2

(c)
3
A 3 3 C
D

9 9

B
119 MAT0511/004

Perimeter = semicircle AC + BC + BA
= ((3) + 9 + 9) cm
27, 42 cm
Total area = area of semicircle + area of 4 ABC
1 2 2 1
= 2 (3) cm + 2 (6) (BD)

By Pythagoras, BD = 92 32 = 72 8, 485 cm.
Hence
9
Total area 2 + 3 (8, 485) cm2
(14, 137 + 25, 455) cm2
= 39, 592 cm2
39, 59 cm2 .

(d)
I
4 4

A 2 J H2 G

D
5 5

B 2 C E 2 F

Perimeter = 34 cm
JH = CE since JCEH is a rectangle. Thus
4 JHI 4 CED. SSS
Hence
total area = area of rectangle ABFG
i.e.
total area = AG AB.
By Pythagoras
p
JH = JI 2 + IH 2 cm

= 16 + 16 cm

= 32 cm.
120

Hence

AE = 2 + 32 + 2 cm

= 4 + 32 cm.

Total area = 5 4 + 32 cm2

= 20 + 5 32 cm2
(20 + 28, 284) cm2
48, 28 cm2

4.
A

B 6m D

C
ABCD is a parallelogram.
Hence AD = BG.
But BC = AB (given), hence ABCD is a rhombus.
From the answer to question 1 of Exercise 1.3, we know that since AC is a
diameter, ABC and ADC are both right angles.
Hence ABCD is a square.
By Pythagoras
AB2 + BC2 = AC2
i.e.
2 (AB)2 = 36 m2 .
Thus
AB2 = 18 m
i.e.
AB = 18 m.

Shaded area = area of circle area of square



= (3)2 18. 18 m2
= (9 18) m2
10, 27 m2
10 m2
121 MAT0511/004

5. (a) We have x = 2y and the perimeter = 420 m.



Hence 2 2y + (2x) = 420.
But x = 2y, and thus
y
2 + (2 2y) = 420.
2
Now
y
2 + 4y = 420
2
y + 4y = 420
y ( + 4) = 420

420
y= .
+4
Thus
y 58, 81.

Hence x 117, 62 and y 58, 81.


(b)

Total area = 25 000 m2


Track area = area of circle + area of rectangle

y 2
= + xy m2
2
!
58, 81 2
+ (117, 62 58, 81) m2
2
(2 716, 39 + 6 917, 23) m2
= 9 633, 62 m2
9 634 m2

Area available for trees = total area track area


(25 000 9 634) m2
= 15 366 m2

Maximum number of trees that can be planted


tree area
=
area required for one tree
15 366

50
307
122

6. Over one revolution of the wheel the stone covers a distance equal to the
outer circumference of the wheel (i.e. circumference of wheel together
with the tyre).
Distance covered over one revolution = 2 (70) cm
Distance covered over 500 revolutions

= 500 2 70 cm
22
500 2 70 cm
7
= 220 000 cm
= 2 200 m

7.
Diameter Area ai Relationship between
(i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) ai and a1
for i = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
d 2
d a1 = 2 = 4 d 2
2d 2
2d a2 = 2 = d 2 a2 = 4a1
4d 2
4d a3 = 2 = 4d 2 a3 = 16a1
8d 2
8d a4 = 2 = 16d 2 a4 = 64a1
16d 2
16d a5 = 2 = 64d 2 a5 = 256a1
32d 2
32d a6 = 2 = 256d 2 a6 = 1 024a1

From the pattern

a2 = 4a1
a3 = (4)2 a1
a4 = (4)3 a1
a5 = (4)4 a1
a6 = (4)5 a1

we see that each time the diameter is doubled, the area increases by a factor
of 4.

8. Area = 12 (AD + BC) DE = 10 km2


d 2
9. Area of circle = r2 = 2
123 MAT0511/004

d 2
Thus, if 2 = 64 cm2 , we have
2
d 64
= cm2
2
i.e.
d 8
= cm
2
i.e.
16
d = 9, 0 cm.

10. If the perimeter of a square is 500 m, each side has length 125 m. Hence

area of square = 15 625 m2 .

250
If the circumference of a circle is 500 m, its radius is m.

250 2 2
Area of circle = m

62 500 2
= m

19 894, 37 m2

Thus a circular field provides more planting space than a square field.

11.
F A E

B D C

ABC is a triangle, and BCEF, BDAF and DCEA are rectangles.


Now

Area of 4 ABC = Area of 4 ABD + Area of 4 ADC


and
Area of FBCE = Area of FBDA + Area of DCEA.
Also
Area of 4 ABD = 12 Area of FBDA
and
Area of 4 ADC = 12 Area of DCEA.
124

Hence
Area of 4 ABC = 12 Area of FBCE
= 12 BC FB
= 12 BC AD.

12. (a) 19 cm2


(b) 39 cm2
13.
Shaded area = area of square area of circle
2
= 25 52 cm2
5, 4 cm2

Exercise 2.2

1. The circular pipe has the shape of a cylinder with diameter 3 m. We are
interested in a 50 m length of pipe, i.e. we regard 50 m as the height of the
cylinder.
Volume of cylinder = r2 h
2
= 23 50 m3
353, 42917 m3

Since
1 m = 100 cm = 102 cm
we know that

1 m3 = 1 000 000 cm3 = 106 cm3 .

Also
1 ` = 1 000 ml = 1 000 cm3 .

Hence
1 m3 = 1 000 ` = 103 `.
Hence
353, 42917 m3 = 353, 42917 103 `
353 429 `.

Thus the pipe contains approximately 353 429 litres of oil.


125 MAT0511/004

2. Volume of cylindrical hole = r2 h


Square faces have sides of 5 cm, but there is a space of 1 cm between the
hole and each of the edges of the block. Thus the diameter of the hole is
3 cm. The length of the hole is 15 cm. Hence
3 2
Volume = 2 15 cm3
106 cm3

3.

Volume of C1 = V1 = (r1 )2 h1
Volume of C2 = V2 = (r2 )2 h2

We must have
V2 = 2V1
i.e.
(r2 )2 h2 = 2 (r1 )2 h1 .
Since h2 = h1 we have
(r2 )2 = 2 (r1 )2
i.e.
r2 = 2r1 .

Thus r2 must be 2 times bigger than r1 .

4. Volume of bigger cube = Vb = (ks1 )3 cubic units = k3 s31 cubic units


Volume of smaller cube = Vs = s31 cubic units
If
Vb = 2Vs
then
k3 s31 = 2s31
i.e. we have
k3 = 2
i.e. we have
3
k=2.

Thus if the constant k is the number 3 2 then the bigger cube will have
sides 3 2 times bigger than the sides of the smaller cube, and the volume
of the bigger cube will be double the volume of the smaller cube.
126

5.
1 2
Volume of one cup = 3 r h
2
= 1
3 (3) 8 cm3
3
= 24 cm
= 24 ml

Now the kettle requires 2 ` of water, i.e. 2 000 ml of water.


2 000
Number of cups required =
24
26, 53

Hence we need to use the paper cup 27 times to fill the kettle, 26 times
using a full cup and once using just over half a cup.
6.
Volume of can = r2 h
= (4)2 9 cm3
452 cm3
= 452 ml

The milk will not fit into the can. There will be approximately
(500 452) ml, i.e. approximately 48 ml, of milk left.
7.
Surface area = area of sides (including thickness of cardboard)
+area of top (including thickness of cardboard)
+area of bottom (including thickness of cardboard)

= (2r 1, 7) + r2 + r2 cm2

= (2 2, 6 1, 7) + 2 (2, 6)2 cm 2
(27, 77 + 42, 77) cm2
= 70, 54 cm2

8.
Volume of cube = (10 10 10) cm3
= 1 000 cm3

4 3
Volume of ball = 3 r
4 3
= 3 (4, 5)
381, 7 cm3

Wasted wood (1 000 381, 7) cm3


= 618, 3 cm3
127 MAT0511/004

REFERENCES

1. Eves, H.: An Introduction to the History of Mathematics (4th edition),


Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976.

2. Freeman, R.: How to Learn Maths, National Extension College, 1994.

3. James G. and James R.C.: Mathematics Dictionary (3rd edition), D. van


Nostrand Company, Inc., 1968.

4. Poole, B.: Basic Mathematics, PrenticeHall, 1994.

5. Sykes, J.B.: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of current English (6th edi-
tion), Oxford University Press, 1976.