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PriemEd LET Review




Identify the proponents of theories of development.

Apply and evaluate theories and principles of growth and development to learning situations.


I. Basic Concepts

A. Definition of Terms

The early stage in the existence or development of an individual.
Time of innocence.
Time of closeness with parents.

A period of transition from childhood to adulthood.
A stage where an individual experiences dramatic changes - biologically, socially,
Onset of adolescence sees children as having completed elementary school and are about to
enter secondary education.
Ages of adolescence vary by culture
o WHO defines adolescence as the period of life between 10 and 19 years of age.
o In the US, adolescence is the period that begins between 12 and 14 and ends at 19 or 20.
o In the Philippines, adolescence is the period that begins at the age of 13 and ends at 19.

The progressive increase in an individuals size, as in weight and height.
Changes which can be measured quantitatively.

Refers to the biological and psychological changes that occur in human beings beginning
from conception.
Changes could be observed, but could not be measured quantitatively.

Types of human development

o Physical includes the performance of tasks and abilities, such as walking,
running, writing, etc.
o Cognitive changes in the way children think, reason, use language and
process information.
o Socio-emotional changes in the way children see themselves and how they
act and behave towards other people.
o Moral changes in the way children determine what is right or wrong.

Indicates the readiness of the individual to perform a certain task or behaviour in
coordination with the nervous system.

The totality of the surrounding conditions that influence an individuals growth and
development, which includes basic social units such as the family, school, and

Developmental Task
Refers to the behaviours that are expected to be manifested at a certain period of an
individuals life which will lead to success in later tasks. Performance of these tasks
depend largely on physical maturation, cultural pressure, and learning practices.

Stages of Development
The periods that divide a life span.
Each period emphasizes a given type of behaviour.

B. Principles of Development

1. Development is holistic; it consists of inter-dependent dimensions.

2. Development begins prenatally and learning begins at birth.
3. The first eight years of a childs life form the foundation for all later development; early attention to the childs
needs is critical.
4. Childrens needs differ across the early childhood years.
5. Development is multi-determined, and varied as a function of the childs nutritional and biomedical status,
genetic inheritance, and social and cultural context.
6. Childrens development is cumulative in nature, and not necessarily progressive.
7. Children are active participants in their on development and learning.
8. Development and learning occur as a result of the child interacting with people and objects in his/her
9. Children live within a context family, community, culture and their needs are most effectively addressed in
relation to that context.
Principles of Development (Bustos, 1996)

1. Development follows an orderly sequence which is predictable.

2. The rate of development is unique to each individual.
3. Development involves change.
4. Early development is more critical than later development.
5. Development is the product of maturation and learning.
6. There are individual differences in development.
7. There are social expectations for every developmentl period which are often referred to as developmental

C. Rights of Children and Young Person (PD 603)

The Child is one of the most important assets of the nation. Every effort should be exerted to promote their welfare
and enhance their opportunities for a useful and happy life.
(PD No. 603: The Child and Youth Welfare Code. Article 1)

In order for the child to grow and develop into a valued Filipino citizen, each child has the legal right:
o To be born, to have a name and nationality;
o To have a family of his/her own who will provide love, care, understanding, guidance and counseling,
moral and material security;
o To a well-rounded development of his personality to the end that he may become a happy, useful, and
active member of society;
o To a balanced diet, adequate clothing, sufficient shelter, proper medical attention, and all the basic
physical requirements of a healthy and vigorous life;
o To be brought up in an atmosphere of morality, and rectitude for the enrichment and the strengthening of
his/her character;
o To an education commensurate with his/her abilities and to the development of his/her skills for the
improvement of his/her capacity for service to him/herself and his/her fellowmen;
o To full opportunities for safe and wholesome recreation and activities, individual as well as social, for the
wholesome use of his/her leisure hours;
o To protection against exploitation, improper influences, hazards, and other conditions or circumstances
prejudicial to his/her physical, mental, emotional, social, and moral development;
o To live in a community and a society that can offer an environment free from pernicious influences and
conducive to the promotion of his/her health and the cultivation of his/her desirable traits and attributes;
o To the care, assistance, and protection of the state, particularly when his/her parents or guardians fail or
are unable to provide him/her with his/her fundamental needs for growth, development, and
o To an efficient and honest government that will deepen his/her faith in democracy and inspire him/her
with the morality of the constituted authorities both in their public and private lives;
o To grow up as a free individual in an atmosphere of peace, understanding, tolerance, and universal
brotherhood and with the determination to contribute his/her share in the building of a better world.

II. Stages of Development

A. Infancy (Birth to 2 years)

Stage of tremendous growth
o Infants doubles in height and increases their weight four times.
o Bodily proportions change from the head being about one quarter of the bodys length to a more
balanced adult-like appearance.
o Will begin learning gross motor skills such as sitting, crawling, walking, toilet training, holding a
spoon and scribbling.
o Infants understand their world through their senses such as touching, tasting, listening, looking and
o Infants knowledge is based on physical actions.
o Infants understanding is contained to the present or immediate past.
If the infant is loved and well-handled, they will develop trust, security and optimism.

B. Early Childhood (3-7 years)

Time of continued rapid physical growth, fine-motor and gross-motor development.
Physical Development
o At age 3, children have higher level of activity; they can walk and run, which make them curious .
o Between 3-6 years, fine-motor skills begins to develop as well as their gross-motor skills.
They can control pencils for beginning writing and drawing skills.
They can skip, balance on one foot, climb and dance.
o Physical growth slows down between 5-8 years while other motor skills improve and become more
Cognitive development
o Cognitive development is rapid because of the acquisition of language skills.
Vocabulary has grown to 1,500 words by the age of 5 years.
Socio-emotional development
o The healthy developing child learns to
Imagine and broaden skills through active play;
Cooperate with others; and
Lead as well as follow.
o Play is important because
it enables them to use their developing language, thinking, and social skills; and
contribute to their general personality development.
o Growth in socioemotional skills include the following:
Formation of peer relationships;
Gender identification; and
Development of a sense of right and wrong.

C. Middle Childhood (8 years puberty)

The developmental task of this stage is integration.
o Child integrates ones development as well as integrating him/herself into a wider social context.
Physical Development
o Growth is slow and steady until the beginning of puberty.
o Baby teeth are replaced by permanent ones.
Cognitive development
o Development is slow and steady.
o Build skills gained in early childhood.
o Reasoning skills are based on rules.
o They need concrete, hands-on learning activities.
o Gain enthusiasm for learning and work.
o Achievements can be motivating as they work on building competence and self-esteem.
Socio-emotional development
o Time when children develop their interpersonal skills and social relationships.
Best friends are important but still strongly influenced by the family.
Increased independence, friendships and developing interests in sports, music, and arts.

D. Adolescence

Begins when an individual reaches sexual maturity (puberty) and ends when they become an adult within their
cultural and social context.
o In some cultures, this stage may not exist or may be short because reaching puberty may coincide
with responsibilities of becoming an adult (getting married and having children)
Physical development
o Marked with rapid physical growth.
o Growth happens in growth spurts (2 years of fast growth followed by 3 or more years of slow but
steady growth).
o Sexual maturity (puberty) is the most significant physical development.
Females mature between 11-13 years
Males mature at about 15 years.
Cognitive development
o Changes in the way they think and reason about problems and ideas.
Early adolescence (12-15 years)
Adolescents think logically about concrete objects and consider more than one
viewpoint at one time.
Adolescents benefit more from direct experiences than from abstract ideas and
Late adolescence (16-21 years)
Complex cognitive skills have developed.
Adolescents begin to solve more abstract and hypothetical (what if?) problems.
Plan for the future and reflect on their thoughts
Begin to be aware of the limitations of their thinking.
Can think about ideas that are outside of their experiences.
Socio-emotional development
o Adolescents try new roles, new ways of thinking and behaving.
o Rely more on their peer group for direction as they try to become more independent.
o Begin to pull away from their family influence for identity.
o Emotional development
Mood swings as caused by hormone changes or reactions to social, physical, cognitive
changes experienced.
Struggles on issues about their self-esteem as they search for their identity.

Implications for schooling

o Teachers must be aware of how children develop.
o Teachers must be aware of how growth is influenced by context (how the structure and expectations
of the school influence the way children grow and learn.)

III. Theories of Development

A. Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud
Personality forms during lifes first years
Children pass through psychosexual stages where the Id is focused on pleasure-sensitive areas of the body called
erogenous zones.

Stage Age Range Characteristic Implication

1. Oral 0 18 months Pleasure is focused on When needs are not met through oral
sucking, biting, chewing, activities, the needs may continue to
etc. resurface later in life through eating or
2. Anal 1836 months The sphincter muscle Over-attention or lack of attention to
becomes sensitive and toilet training may be a cause of some
controllable, so bladder fixated behaviours.
and bowel become a
source of gratification
3. Phallic 3-6 years Pleasure zones shift to Unconscious sexual desire of the child to
the genitals. Self- a parent of the opposite sex.
stimulation of the - Oedipus complex, where young
genitals produce boys regard their father as sex rival
pleasure. - Electra complex, where young girls
sees their mother as sex rival for
fathers attention

4. Latency 6-12 years Sexual feelings are Children play with peers of the same sex.
5. Genital 12 years onwards Sexual feelings toward Maturation of sexual interests
the opposite sex are
B. The Psychosocial Theory Erik Erikson
Erikson believes that people go through 8 stages during their human development.
Each stage provides certain challenges or crises to resolve. People who manage these challenges successfully
develop certain positive virtues or strengths. Those who dont experience difficulties later in life.

Stages Crisis Favorable Outcome Unfavorable Outcome

1st Year Trust vs Mistrust Faith in the environment and Suspicion, fear of future events
future events
2nd year Autonomy vs. Doubt A sense of self-control and Feelings of shame and self-doubt
3rd-5th years Initiative vs. Guilt Ability to be a self-starter; to A sense of guilt and inadequacy to
initiate ones own activities be on ones own
6th year-puberty Industry vs. Inferiority Ability to learn how things A sense of inferiority at
work, to understand and to understanding and organizing
Transition Years
Adolescence Identity vs. Role Seeing oneself as a unique and Confusion over who and what one
Confusion integrated person really is
Early Adulthood Intimacy vs. Isolation Ability to make commitments Inability to form affectionate
to others relationship
Middle Age Generativity vs. Concern for family and society Concern only for self- ones own well-
Stagnation in general being and prosperity
Old age Integrity vs. Despair A sense of integrity and Dissatisfaction with life; despair over
fulfilment; willing to face prospect of death

Encouraging Initiative in Pre-School Child

Encourage children to make and to act on choices.

Make sure that each child has to experience success.
Encourage make-believe with a variety of roles.
Be tolerant of accidents and mistakes, especially when children are attempting to do things on their own

Encouraging Industry

Make sure that students have opportunities to set and work toward realistic goals.
Give students a chance to show their independence and responsibility.
Provide support to students who are discouraged.

Encouraging Identity Formation

Give students models for career choice and other adult roles.
Help students find resources for working out personal problems.
Be tolerant of teenage fads as long as they dont offend others or interfere with learning.
Give students realistic feedback about themselves.

Encouraging Self-esteem
Value and accept pupils for their attempts as well as for their accomplishments.
Create a climate that is physically and psychologically safe for everyone.
Be aware of your own personal biases and expectations.
Make standards of evaluation clear and help students evaluate their own accoplishments.
Avoid destructive comparison and competitions.
Accept a student even when you have to reject a particular behavior or outcome.

Supporting Social and Personal Development

Help students examine the kinds of dilemmas they are currently facing or will face in the near future.
Help students see the perspective of others.
Help students make connections between expressed values and actions.
Make sure students are listening to each other.
Make sure that as much as possible your class reflects concern for moral issues and other values.

C. Cognitive Development Theory Jean Piaget

Views children as active explorers who respond to the environment according to their understanding of its essential

Piagets key ideas

o Adaptation Knowing the world through
Assimilation The process by which a person takes material into their mind from the
environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit.
Accommodation The difference made to one's mind or concepts by the process of
Note that assimilation and accommodation go together: you can't have one without
the other.

o Classification
The ability to group objects together on the basis of common features.
o Class Inclusion
The understanding, more advanced than simple classification, that some classes or sets of
objects are also sub-sets of a larger class. (E.g. there is a class of objects called dogs. There is
also a class called animals. But all dogs are also animals, so the class of animals includes that
of dogs)
o Conservation
The realisation that objects or sets of objects stay the same even when they are changed about
or made to look different.
o Decentration
The ability to move away from one system of classification to another one as appropriate.
o Egocentrism
The belief that you are the centre of the universe and everything revolves around you: the
corresponding inability to see the world as someone else does and adapt to it. Not moral
"selfishness", just an early stage of psychological development.
o Operation
The process of working something out in your head. Young children (in the sensorimotor and
pre-operational stages) have to act, and try things out in the real world, to work things out (like
count on fingers): older children and adults can do more in their heads.
o Schema (or scheme)
The representation in the mind of a set of perceptions, ideas, and/or actions, which go

Divides cognitive development into four major stages

Stage and Age Description Feature Educational Implication

Sensorimotor Stage Differentiates self from Learning is basically Egocentric
(Birth-2 years) objects determined by actual Object permanence
Recognizes self as agent perception of the Concepts of time and space are
of action and begins to senses developed as they reach for
act intentionally objects
Achieves object Identifying causes of things in
permanence the environment
Pre-operational State Learns to use language Ability to store words Egocentric; views of others are
(2-7 years) and to represent objects and language insignificant
by images and words structures; fantasy, Centering: focuses on one
Thinking is still talking to toys; object activity
egocentric: has difficulty symbolic thinking Irreversibility: thinking cant
taking the viewpoint of be reversed
Classifies objects by a
single feature: e.g. groups
together all the red
blocks regardless of
shape or all the square
blocks regardless of

Concrete Operational Can think logically about Logical thinking Conservation

(7-11 years) objects and events develops in relation to Seriation
Achieves conservation of function; application Classification
number (age 6), mass of principles; basically Number concepts
(age 7), and weight (age literal
Classifies objects
according to several
features and can order
them in series along a
single dimension such as

Formal Operational Can think logically about Capability for Separates the real from the
(11 years and up) abstract propositions and hypothesis testing; possible
test hypotheses Perspective of thought Can look for and try
systematically is formed possibilities for probem
Becomes concerned with Awareness of others solving
the hypothetical, the point of view Propositional: deals with
future, and ideological Capacity for self- abstract concept that contains
problems reflection concrete statements or
Comprehension of propositions
figurative and Much information is gathered
symbolic written when solving a problem

How to Teach a Pre-operational Child

Use concrete props and visual aids

Make instructions relatively short, using actions as well as words
Dont expect them to be consistent in their ability to see the world from somebodys point of view
Give children a great deal of hand-on practice on skills that serve as building blocks for more complex skills

How to Teach a Concrete Operational Child

Continue using visual aids/concrete props, especially when dealing with sophisticated materials
Continue to give students a chance to manipulate or test objects
Presentations must be brief and well-organized
Use familiar examples to explain more complex ideas
Give opportunities to classify and group objects and ideas on increasingly complex levels.
Present problems that require logical, analytical thinking.

Helping Students Use Formal Operations

Use concrete-operational teaching strategies and materials.

Give opportunities for students to explore many hypothetical questions.
Give opportunities to solve problems and reason scientifically.
Teach broad concepts rather than facts, using materials and ideas relevant to students lives.

Implications of Piagets Theory for Teaching

Focuses on the process of childrens thinking, not just its products.

Recognition of the crucial role of childrens active involvement in learning activities.
Promotion of child-centered teaching and learning practices.
Acceptance of individual differences in the developmental processes.

D. Socio-Cultural Theory of Cognitive Development Lev Vgotsky

Cognitive (thinking and reasoning) development is understood only in terms of the historical and cultural contexts
children experience.
Cognitive development depends on the sign systems that the individual grows up with: the symbols that cultures
create to help people think, communicate and solve problems.
Cognitive development is dependent on a childs interaction with those around him; social stimulation aids mental
and language development.
Concepts of Vgotsky
o Self-regulation through self-talk or private speech.
o Zone of Proximal Development
The distance between a childs actual development level and a higher potential development
obtained through adult guidance
o Scaffolding
A system of providing a lot of support at the beginning of a new learning task and then
gradually withdraw as learning takes place
o Cooperative Learning
Children work together to help each other learn.
Implications for Teaching
o Curriculum must be developmentally appropriate.
o The use of cooperative learning arrangements
o The use of scaffolding.

E. Cognitive Development by Jerome Bruner

The human mind gains inputs through the senses, processes them through cognitive abilities and produces outputs
employing language and creative expression.
Stages in the cognitive development by Bruner
o Enactive stage (0-18 months) children respond to sensory stimuli
o Iconic stage (18 months-6 years) children view the world through concrete representations
o Symbolic stage (6 years onwards) the individual can handle abstract representations, using his thinking
skills to understand things.

F. The Behaviorist Theory of Development John Watson

Basic premise of Watsons behaviorism

o The mind of an infant is tabula rasa and that learned associations between stimuli and responses are the
building blocks of human development.
o Development does not proceed through series of stages; it is a continuous process marked by the gradual
acquisition of new and more sophisticated behavioral pattern or habits.
o Only the simplest human reflexes are inborn and that important behavioral tendencies, including traits,
talents, values and aspirations are learned.

G. Moral Development Theory Lawrence Kohlberg

Level 1: Precoventional Morality

o Young children do not really understand the conventions or rules of a society
o Manifested by avoiding punishment and receiving benefits in return
Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation
Perspective: Ones own
Motive: Ones needs
Standards: Other people
Criteria: Consequences
Stage 2: Reward Orientation
Perspective: Ones own and anothers
Motive: Satisfy own needs and those of others
Standards: Other peoples behavior
Criteria: Fairness; reciprocity
Level 2: Conventional Morality
o Individuals 9-20 years old conform to the conventions or rules of society
o Manifested by respecting authority
Stage 3: Good Boy/Good Girl Orientation
Perspective: Another persons
Motive: Approval
Standards: Internalized rules of what is proper
Criteria: Living up to expectations
Stage 4: Authority Orientation/Authority
Maintaining Morality
Perspective: Society/community
Motive: Uphold the law
Standards: Rules and laws of behavior
Criteria: Compliance with the law

Level 3: Postconventional Morality

o Moral principles that underlie the conventions of a society are understood
o Manifested through mutual agreement and consistent principles
Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation/
Morality Contract & Democracy
Perspective: Societys
Motive: Maintain social order
Standards: Law
Criteria: Justice
Stage 6: Ethical Principle Orientation/
Morality of the Individual
Principles of Conscience
Perspective: Society
Motive: Human rights for all
Standards: Personal principle
Criteria: Universal moral code

IV. Brain Development

The brains ability to change from experience is known as plasticity.

o The human brain is especially plastic early in life, which is why the nurture part of the equation is
o Throughout life the brain continues to be plastic which is the mechanism for learning. This however,
declines in adulthood.

A. Parts of the Brain

a. Frontal lobe
i. Helps control skilled muscle movements, mood, planning for the future, setting goals and
judging priorities.
b. Medulla oblongata
i. Contains centers for the control of vital processes such as heart rate, respiration, blood
pressure, and swallowing.
c. Occipital lobe
i. Helps process visual information
d. Parietal lobe
i. Receives and processes information about temperature, taste, touch, and movement coming
from the rest of the body. Reading and arithmetic are also processed in this region.
e. Pons
i. Contains centers for the control of vital processes, including respiration and cardiovascular
functions. It also is involved in the coordination of eye movement and balance.
f. Temporal lobe
i. Processes hearing, memory and language functions.

B. The Infant Brain

1) Facts
a) A childs brain is developing from the moment of conception.
i) Most of the childs brain cells are produced between the 4th and 7th month of pregnancy.
ii) Increase in weight of the infants brain is due to the development of dendrites and axons and
connections between neurons and the myelin coverings of the axons, referred to as the neural

b) Neural network
i) These are synaptic connections between neurons.
ii) The number of connections increases after birth.
iii) Pruning is the removal of excess or weak connections.
(1) At birth, there is some visual ability;
(2) At age 2-3 months there is a rapid synaptic development in the area of the brain responsible for
processing visual input;
(3) The area responsible for controlling emotions or making decisions occurs later.
2) Motor development follows a consistent pattern
a) Pattern of motor development
i) From top to bottom (cephalocaudal)
(1) Control over the head and eyes (top) occurs before control over the arms and legs (bottom).
ii) From inner to outer (proximodistal)
(1) Control over the arms (inner) occurs before control of the hands and fingers (outer)
3) Sensory Motor System
a) Describes how the brain processes and controls the motor activities (movement) and sensory experiences.
i) Sensory experiences and motor experiences are closely intertwined in the brain. Thus it is
important that infants spend time
(1) developing relationships with other people;
(2) playing and exploring different materials; and
(3) doing activities involving movement.
b) Myelinisation
i) The process of developing the myelin sheath which starts before birth, proceeds quickly until about
4 years and is completed in adolescence.
ii) Continues along connections between the area of the brain which controls movement and the area
which produces movement which takes until about age 4 years to complete.
(1) Fine motor skills wont be complete until about 4 years of age.

C. The Childhood Brain

1) Assisting the childhood brain development
a) Between ages 2-5 years, the childs neural network is still expanding. The following experiences assist
with their brain development:
i) unstructured exploratory (free) play time
ii) parents should read to the child often
iii) teach them rhyming games and the alphabet
iv) choose high touch toys instead of toys with batteries
v) provide simple toys that encourage imagination
vi) talk to them and ask questions
b) The brain of the child weighs about 90% of the adult brain by 10 years old.
c) The brain of the child between 5-12 years is ready to learn how to read, write, calculate, and reason.
d) The 5-12-year old child has developed more social awareness and a wider awareness of the world around
e) Can already know what he/she likes and develops interests in hobbies and sports.
f) Synapses have reached the maximum number and there is heavy pruning of the weak or rarely used
g) Motor skills become refined through play.
i) The child improves his/her running, climbing, jumping, skipping, riding a bicycle and playing
ii) Better handwriting skill indicates the development of motor control.

D. The Adolescent Brain

1) Significant structural changes in an adolescents brain:

a) There is brain cell thickening.
i) Massive changes in the synaptic reorganization is completed by 30 years of age.
ii) A brain in this condition can be unstable, unpredictable, and volatile.
b) Refining of gross and motor skills.
c) Peak physical motor development is reached between 18-30 years of age.
2) Chemical changes in the adolescent brain
a) Melatonin which is associated with sleep regulation is found to at a low level.
i) Most adolescents will want to go to bed later and get up later.
3) Four periods of rapid brain development
a) The first year of life
b) 7-8 year old
c) 11-12 years old
d) 18-19 years old
i) Exposure to proper stimulation and learning experiences can facilitate a rapid rate of learning

V. Exceptional Development

Exceptional Development
o Individuals whose physical, sensory, mental or behavioral performance is different from the norm or the
average (either lower or higher)
o The condition these individuals have require additional services or assistance to meet their special needs

Who are the exceptional learners?

o Those who are gifted
o Those with physical disabilities
o Those with sensory impairments
o Those with mental retardation
o Those with mental or emotional disorders
o Those with learning disabilities

Impairment or disability
o Terms used when exceptional development is lower than the norm

A. Definition of Terms

1. Giftedness
a. It is defined in terms of multiple qualities, not all of which is intellectual. It also includes
motivation and creativity.
2. Impairment
a. Describes a part of the body that is missing or not working properly

3. Disability
a. The inability to do something because of an impairment
4. Handicap
a. How a disability affects the persons life, which is imposed by society, the environment or the
persons attitude.

B. Physical Disabilities

1. Disabilities that cripple

a. Impairment of the bone and muscles system which affects mobility and manual dexterity difficult and
b. Impairment of the nerve and muscle systems making mobility awkward and uncoordinated
c. Deformities or absence of body organs and systems necessary for mobility
2. Types of physical disability
a. Genetic or inborn
i. Cerebral palsy
1. Difficulty moving and coordinating their body due to brain damage before or during
childbirth or during infancy.
ii. Spina Bifida
1. Malformed or badly formed vertebrae at birth
iii. Muscular Dystrophy
1. Hereditary weakness and wasting of the skeletal muscles
iv. Spinal Cord injury
b. Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)
i. Physical and motor skill disorders not related to brain damage or cerebral palsy.
ii. Manifestations of DCD
1) Childs performance of activities requiring motor coordination is below what would be
expected for their age.
2) Childs academic achievement and daily living activities are disturbed because of
developmental delay.
3) The delay in development is not caused by any known physical disorder.
3. In the general classroom, students who have physical disabilities include
b. Those who have difficulty holding things or moving their hands or arms, but can
walk and talk.
c. Those who have difficulty walking on one leg or both, but can hold things and talk.
d. Those who have difficulty moving one arm and one leg; sometimes having difficulty
e. Those who cannot walk, but can use their arms. Usually these children can talk.

C. Sensory Disabilities
1. Sensory disabilities
a. Involve the lack of ability to process information through the senses.
2. Visual Impairment
a. Describe people who cannot see very well.
b. Low vision a person who can see little
c. Functionally blind a person who sees very little or nothing at all
d. Indicators of visual impairment
i. Holding books either very close or very far from their eyes.
ii. Squinting and rubbing eyes often and saying their eyes are burning or itching.
iii. Reading incorrectly print on the board.
iv. Saying their vision is blurred or sensitive to light.
v. Holding their heads at an angle.

Strategies to help those with VI

o Encourage student to use the vision he/she may have left, no matter how little
o Seat the student near the board and next to a helpful classmate
o Use lots of verbal (or spoken) feedback instead of written comments
o Include group activities which the child can take part in and develop their listening skills
o Keep the classroom layout simple and clear of obstructions
o Give verbal instructions
o Arrange things in the room consistently so the student knows where to go to find things
they need
o Work with the student so that he/she is able to move around the classroom and school
grounds independently
o Keep chalkboards clean and writing in large bold letters suing yellow chalk instead of
white (yellow is much easier to see)
o Talk to the class facing a bright light source such as a window or door so the students can
see you more clearly.

3. Hearing Impairment

a. Describe people who cannot hear very well

1. Hard of hearing a person who can hear a little
2. Deaf or Profoundly deaf a person who only hears very loud sounds and cannot talk
b. Kinds of deafness
1. Prelingual
2. Postlingual

c. Classification of Hearing Impairment

1. According to age at onset of deafness
a. Congenitally deaf
b. Adventitiously
2. According to language development
a. Prelingually deaf
b. Postlingually deaf
3. According to place of impairment
a. Conductive hearing loss
b. Sensory neural hearing loss
c. Mixed hearing loss
4. According to degree of hearing loss
a. Slight
b. Mild
c. Moderate
d. Severe
e. profound
d. Indicators of hearing impairment
1. Turns one ear towards the speaker
2. Misunderstands conversation when the speakers face is not seen
3. Unable to follow instructions accurately
4. Appears to be distracted or confused at times
5. Asks people to repeat what has been said
6. Says new words incorrectly
7. Avoids participation in class discussion
8. May have frequent earaches, sinus infections, or allergies
Strategies to help students with HI
o Train students to use the limited hearing they have and use lip reading
o Develop some simple signing skills
o Gain the childs attention to look at you before giving instruction or information
o Use diagrams, pictures and clear demonstration
o Use visual cues when giving instructions
o Use technology, like computers

4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

o Difficulty of a student to maintain attention and engagement on a task because of a
limited ability to concentrate.
o Includes impulsive actions, attention deficits and sometimes hyperactive behaviors
o Symptoms of ADHD
Inattention and/or
Excessive restlessness
o Indicators of ADHD
Makes careless mistakes with no close attention to details
Has difficulty in sustaining attention in play activities
Does not seem to listen when spoken directly
Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the
Avoids tasks that require sustained mental effort
Loses things that are necessary for tasks or activities
Is easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
Is forgetful of daily activities
o Impulsivity indicators
o Blurts out the answer before the question is completed
o Has difficulty waiting to take their turn
o Interrupts or intrudes on others in conversations or games without being invited or asked to
join in
o Hyperactivity indicators
o Fiddles and fidgets with hands or feet or wriggles in seat
o Leaves seat in classroom or cannot stay seated in other situations when it is expected
o Runs about or climbs excessively (more than is normal) in situations which are inappropriate
o Has difficulty playing quietly or engaging in leisure activities quietly
o Talks excessively (nore than normal)
o On the go or often acts as if driven by a motor and cannot stay still

Strategies to help students with ADHD

o Ensure that the student clearly understands the classroom rules and procedures
o Consider the seating arrangements carefully to prevent distractions and to be close to the teacher
o Shorten all learning activities
o Give them few problems or sentences at a time with clear instructions and expectations
o Fewer pupils per teacher
o Allow students who are hyperactive to have many opportunities to be active
o Reward the student for appropriate behavior; avoid punishment or threats for inappropriate behavior
o Adapt the curriculum for the ADHD student to suit their specific learning needs
o Establish learning objectives that are SMART
o Give short, clear, specific direct instructions with extra help with memory strategies and motivation
o Teach students to manage their own behaviors

D. Learning Disabilities

1. Aphasia

a. It is a disorder that interferes with speech and language processing.

b. It is a symptom of brain damage resulting from a brain tumor, infection, head injury or dementia.
c. Types of aphasia
i. Expressive aphasia difficulty in conveying thoughts through speech or writing.
ii. Receptive aphasia difficulty understanding spoken or written language.
iii. Anomic or amnesia aphasia difficulty in using the correct names for particular objects,
people, places, or events
iv. Global aphasia results from severe or extensive damage of the language areas of the brain.

d. Implications for teaching

i. Simplify language by using short, uncomplicated sentences.
ii. Repeat the content words or write down key words to clarify meaning as needed.
iii. Maintain natural conversational manner appropriate for the child.
iv. Minimize distractions, such as loud noises and movement inside the classroom, when possible.
v. Encourage and praise any type of communication, whether it is speech, gesture or drawing.
vi. Allow the child plenty time to talk.

2. Dyslexia
a. It is a type specific learning disability in which a child has difficulty learning to read and understand
written language.
b. Symptoms
i. Confusion over the direction letters face
ii. Difficulties with left and right
iii. Difficulties in keeping organized
iv. Difficulties in spelling
v. Difficulties with direction
vi. Missing out words when reading
c. Implications to Teaching
i. Teach in direct and structured methods, with lot of teacher guidance.
ii. Alphabetic code should be broken into small units, with extra practice in hearing and
manipulating the individual sounds.
iii. Learning activities should use all (or most) of the senses. This will help students to remember
their learning.
iv. The same material needs to be presented many times to enable dyslexic students to learn.