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Coconut Implementation Guide

for smallholders in the Philippines

Based on the Sustainable Agriculture Standard


of the Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN)
Acknowledgements
This Implementation Guide was developed, printed and distributed with the nancial support
of the D - ucleus of Change, Sustainable Coconut Oil roduction in the Philippines ro ect
funded by Cargill Oil Mills Phil. nc. BASF and Deutsche esellschaft fr International
Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH.

Implemented by:

Authors:

Carlos P. Peera, Consultant, Rainforest lliance


Reiko Enomoto, Training Manager, Sustainable griculture Division ainforest lliance

Editing and technical contribution:


Ambrosio Raul R. ller hilippine Coconut Authority
ic ichards ACDIVOCA
Rose B. Villaruel hilippine Coconut Authority
ensa Chivit avales hilippine Coconut Authority
everino . agat hilippine Coconut Authority
raceli . oyola hilippine Coconut Authority
irthe choesser, GIZ
Sophie Grunze, GIZ
Ria Stout, Rainforest lliance
Virgilio Romero, NDBRCFI

Pictures:
Carlos P. Peera, Consultant, Rainforest lliance
Madini Abdulbali, Consultant, Rainforest lliance
Raymond Quiaoit, Consultant, Rainforest lliance
oel Casidsid Cargill il ills hilippines nc.
Reiko Enomoto, Rainforest lliance
hilippine Coconut Authority

*We would like to give special thanks to the farmers who have allowed us to take pictures
and use them in this Guide.

i
Introduction

Chapter 1
Integrated Crop Management

Coconut Implementation Guide


Chapter 2:
for smallholders in the Philippines Productivity Improvement

Chapter 3:
Quality Improvement

Chapter 4:
Safe Handling of
Chemicals

Chapter 5:
Ecosystem Conservation

Chapter 6:
Water Conservation

Chapter 7:
Soil Conservation

Chapter 8:
Waste Management

Chapter 9
Good Working Conditions

Chapter 10
Farm Management

ii
Introduction

Introduction
towards sustainable agriculture
Coconut is one of the most important export crops of the Philippines, and is a source of
income for countless smallholder farmers. These farmers depend on the coconut for their
livelihood. However, if unsustainable practices are allowed to continue, the soil will be
exhausted, the environment will be contaminated, the health of the farmers will be affected,
and the harvests will drop. Coconut production cannot be sustained in the long run in such
a manner.

In order to ensure that the coconut production continues long into the future, all
stakeholders must work together to promote sustainable farming practices and to
eliminate unsustainable practices at the smallholder level. It is important to ensure that
each producer takes the responsibility to produce
coconut in a sustainable way.

How can you, as a smallholder, produce coconut in


a sustainable way? This Coconut Implementation
Guide shows simple and practical implementation
techniques of sustainable agriculture in smallholder
coconut farms in the Philippines.

The content of this guide is based on the


Sustainable Agriculture Standard published in
July 2010 by the Sustainable Agriculture Network.
This standard covers all the important areas of
sustainability. This is the basic document that
defines what producers need to comply with, if they
opt for the Rainforest Alliance certification.

1
Conditions for certification

Introduction
In order to achieve Rainforest Alliance Certification, following are
the minimum conditions.

Comply with 80% of all the criteria. (There are 99 criteria in


total.)
Comply with 50% of each principle. (There are 10 principles.)
Comply with all the critical criteria. (There are 16 critical
criteria.)

In the case of smallholders, many criteria are not applicable.


In this guide, we focus on the criteria that are applicable and
important for smallholder farms. Therefore, in the case of big
plantations, please look at the original standard to understand
the requirements.

Content of this guide


This guide consists of the following 10 chapters, each of which corresponds to a principle of
the standard

Chapter 1
Integrated Crop
Chapter 6
Management Page 3 Water Conservation Page 26

Chapter 2
Chapter 7
Productivity Improvement Page 15
Soil Conservation Page 28

Chapter 3 Chapter 8
Quality Improvement Page 19 Waste Management Page 30

Chapter 9
Chapter 4 Good working
Safe Handling of Chemicals Page 22 Conditions Page 32

Chapter 5 Chapter 10
Ecosystem Conservation Page 24 Farm Management Page 33

2
Chapter 1

Integrated Crop Management


Integrated Crop

Integrated crop management means looking at all available pest control methods and
Management

coming up with an economically viable and sustainable combination. Use of pesticide is not
the only way to control pests and diseases. When coconut trees are well-taken care of and
are strong and healthy, they cannot be easily attacked by pests and diseases. When they
are still affected, there are ways to control them without using chemicals. An important key
in controlling pest is early detection through constant monitoring.

Monitoring is observing for signs and symptoms of pest and disease infestation in the crops.
It also indicates whether a treatment is necessary at that stage or not. After treatment we
need to determine if it gave the desired result or if it needs to be replicated. In this section,
you will learn about how to prevent and manage pests and diseases in a sustainable way.

Identifying nutritional deficiencies:

Nitrogen deficiency:
There is a yellowing of all the leaves. They
appear yellowish green at first and turns to
golden yellow in the latter stages. In advance
stage, the tree is stunted, the stem tapers off,
and flowering is reduced.

Nitrogen deficient coconut tree

Potassium deficiency:
There is a general yellowing of leaves but younger
leaves are still very green, while the lower older
leaves are hanging down and reddish orange in color.
The new leaves are short and the number of flowers
and nuts are very low. Leaves appear light green
to yellowish with numerous, tiny, dark, and rust-like
spots in linear arrangement along the midrib on either
sides of the whole leaflet.

Potassium deficient coconut tree

Sulfur deficiency: As the deficiency progresses,


the color of the leaflets change from dark green to
yellowish orange particularly in the older or lower
leaves. There is premature drying of the leaflets.

Sulfur deficient coconut tree


3
Chlorine deficiency: The trees produce
small fruits with thin meat. Leaves droop
during drought and are difficult to detach
from the stem. Palms are susceptible to leaf

Integrated Crop
Management
spots.

Coconut with chlorine deficiency

Coconut with sufficient chlorine supply

Palm with leaf spots

Solutions:

1. Bring samples to the Bureau of Soils for analysis. The soil should be
analyzed every three years to monitor soil acidity and fertility levels. However,
when the initial result requires large amounts of fertilizer or lime, it is
recommended to test again after one year to see if the results are attained.
Steps in soil sampling:
Collect at least ten subsamples of the soil around the farm. Sample sites
should be scattered uniformly throughout the area. Make sure that the soil
is not too wet when getting samples.
Gather all the subsamples in a pail or basin, pulverize the soil and mix
thoroughly.
Air dry the soil.
Get 1 kg. of the sample and send to the
Bureau of Soils for analysis.
Get the result of the analysis.
2. Apply the recommended lime and fertilizer.
Follow the instructions in the soil analysis
report.
3. Apply organic fertilizers or manure if they are
available.
4. Apply salt to chlorine deficient areas.

Common Salt (Sodium Chloride) is provided


by the Philippine Coconut Authority to small
coconut farmers organizations in the country

4
How to apply fertilizers
Integrated Crop
Management

Apply fertilizer in 6 8 holes dug around the tree Another method of fertilizing is by making a
1-1.5 meters from the base. The fertilizers should band 1-1.5 meters from the base of the tree.
be 3-5 inches below the surface of the soil. Cover Place the fertilizers on the band. The fertilizers
immediately the fertilizer with soil. should be 3-5 inches below the surface of the
soil. Cover the fertilizer with soil immediately.

Comparison between organic and inorganic fertilizers

Inorganic fertilizers: Organic fertilizers:

1. Commercial fertilizers like urea, 1. Can be produced at home from organic


ammonium sulphate, Muriate of Potash, wastes of the farm and from animal
etc. manure. Common organic fertilizers are
chicken dung, cow manure, vermicast, etc.

2. Contains high concentration of 2. Contains lower concentration of


macronutrients like nitrogen, macronutrients as compared to inorganic
phosphorous and potassium. Certain fertilizers. Contains micro nutrients such
fertilizers contain sulfur (Ammonium as magnesium, calcium, boron and zinc.
sulfate).

3. Commercially available in the market. 3. Some brands are commercially available


but not common.

4. Immediate release of nutrients, 4. Slow release of nutrients, impact not


immediate impact on plants immediately observed but last long.

5. Over-application may cause soil acidity 5. The more organic fertilizers are applied,
and death of beneficial microorganisms. the better the soil becomes. Promotes
microbial and earthworm activities in the
soil. Improves soil structure.

6. No organic matter. 6. Contains high amount of organic matter

7. Volatile 7. Not volatile

5
Integrated Crop
Management
Inorganic fertilizer (urea 46-0-0) Vermicast - an organic fertilizer
It is good to apply a combination of inorganic and organic fertilizer. Inorganic fertilizers
provide an immediate boost to the plant while organic fertilizers improve the soil and
promote better growth in the long run resulting in plants with higher resistance to pests
and diseases.

Integrating livestock in the farm


It is best to incorporate livestock in the farm in the absence of intercrop. Livestock
provides for the manure that is needed by the trees. Small livestocks like goats and
chicken are more affordable to raise because it is cheaper. Cattle can generate higher
income but requires bigger investment.

Livestock can control the weeds in the farm provided that the grasses are edible to the
animals. Some weeds like hagonoy are harmful to the animals.

Goats under coconuts Cattle under coconuts

Common pests and diseases of coconuts


Coconut hispine beetle (Brontispa longissima Gistro)

Brontispa longissima is an invasive pest of


coconut and other palm species. Both larva
and adult are destructive, inhabiting in the
developing and unopened spear leaves of
the coconut where they feed on the leaf
tissues.

Young coconut tree attacked by brontispa

6
Integrated Crop
Management

Adult stage of brontispa Larvae of brontispa

Symptoms:

Young leaves starting from spear leaf appear dry and burned. Adults and larvae feed
and make long cuts parallel to the veins of unopened leaves. They infest unopened
coconut fronds as they emerge from the heart. They feed on the parenchyma and the
characteristic damage becomes apparent when the young fronds open.

Solutions:

1. Prune or cut and burn infested fronds if young plants are infested.
2. If after pruning and burning the infestation still persists in the young plants, spray
with contact insecticide. Refer to the List of Prohibited Pesticides in order to avoid
using banned pesticides.
3. Use of predator and entomopathogens: black earwigs (Chelisoches morio) and
pupal parasitoid Tetratichus sp. as bio-control agents should be done for mature
trees.

Collecting infested fronds Burning of infested fronds to kill the brontispa

7
Biological control of brontispa

Management
I ntegrated C ro p
E arw i gs - C h el i s o c h es mo ri o

Earwig (Chelisoches morio) also known as black earwig, are active at all times of the
day and prefer wet habitats. They prey on brontispa in all its developmental stage.

How to apply:
Release cultured earwigs to the infected trees. For more information on supply of cultured
earwigs and its release contact the Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA).

Tetrastichus spp is a parasitoid of brontispa. It


is very tiny and host specic. t attac s both the
larval and the pupal stages where it lays its eggs.
The parasitized beetle larvae usually pupate
before succumbing to their internal parasites.
Adult tetrastichus emerge from the parasitized
pupae ready to attack brontispa.

How to apply:
Release cultured mummied brontispa larvae into the infected trees. For more information contact
PCA.

8
Rhinoceros Beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros L.)
The rhinoceros beetle is one of the most
destructive and widely distributed pest of
Integrated Crop
Management

coconut. Its adult attacks coconut of all ages and


feeds on young developing leaves, boring into
the bud or growing point which often results to
death of the palm.

The infestation is heavy when the insects


breeding sites such as decaying coconut logs,
stumps, sawdust heaps, farmyard manure,
Adult rhinoceros beetle
sugarcane trashes, and other decaying organic
matter are abundant.

Larvae of Rhinoceros beetle

Entry point of rhinoceros beetle found in the


bud of the coconut Coconut tree attacked by Rhinoceros beetle

Symptoms and manner of attack:

Adults bore into the bud and feed on unopened leaves. Emerging fronds appear
symmetrically cut and scissors-trimmed with either single, double or triple cuts.

9
Solutions:

1. Farm sanitation; proper disposal of debris which could become breeding sites.

Integrated Crop
Management
a. Fallen coconut trees should be removed, used as firewood or cut for timber.
b. If they could not be removed, they should be covered with cover crops to
conceal them from the adult beetles.
c. Dead trunks still standing should be removed.
d. Spread accumulated sawdust heaps thinly (not more than 6 inches thick) in
the field to prevent beetle breeding.
e. Do not allow manure and other organic waste to accumulate in heaps.
2. Destroy all larvae and beetles found.
3. Inspect palms and hook out the beetles.
4. Make a log trap to attract the beetles.
a. Make a heap using coconut logs as shown in the photo.
b. Fill the area with coconut sawdust. This will lure the beetles into laying their
eggs in the site.
c. Apply green muscardine fungus (GMF) on the sawdust. GMF is available at
PCA. For more information contact PCA.

A log trap inoculated with green muscardine fungus

Inspecting palms and hooking out the beetles

Larvae of a beetle attacked by green


muscardine fungus

10
Asiatic Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus
O. and R. shach)
The Asiatic Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus O. and R. shach) vary from one
Integrated Crop

area to another. R. ferrugineus is predominant in Luzon while R. shach is in Mindanao.


Management

Young trees aged 3-15 years old are very susceptible to the attack of the weevils. The
female lays its eggs in the crevices of the coconut trunk or in any damaged portion.
Upon hatching the larvae tunnel into the soft portion by voraciously feeding until the
whole bud is consumed. The outer shell of the trunk is left intact camouflaging the
damage inside until it is too late to save the affected tree. The young crown usually wilts
when the bud is totally destroyed.

Solutions:

For control measures, all weevil encountered must be collected and destroyed.
Close watch for weevil infestation on a year round basis must be kept and
unnecessary wounding of the coconut trunks and peduncles must be avoided.
Also, plantation sanitation must be observed. In case surgery is still feasible, the
larvae must be extracted and killed by opening and enlarging th trunk tunnels
with a sharp bolo or any suitable instrument. The wound should be treated with
chemicals to avoid reinfestation.

Asiatic palm weevil pupae Attack on the base of the plant

Attack on the bud Adult Asiatic palm weevil

11
Scale insects (Aspidiotus rigidus, Chrysomphalus ficus
Armead, Aspidiotus destructor)

Management
I ntegrated C ro p
There are three known species attacking coconuts. In the province of Cebu,
Chrysomphalus cus rmead is predominant while in u on spidiotus destructor is
most often encountered. third species, spidiotus rigidus is more destructive and has
attac ed the provinces of atangas aguna ue on Cavite and asilan. The present
infestation is becoming a serious problem of the coconut producing areas as effective
control measures are still on the developmental stage.

These are tiny insects found


attached to coconut leaves and
fruits. They suck the sap even
at crawler or mobile stage. They
secrete a wax li e uid which
serves as their covering. female
scale was observed to attach itself
to the leaf and keep laying eggs for
1 months and produced as much
as 350 eggs within that period.
Eggs hatched into crawlers in 1 to
36 hours.

The insect attacks the coconut


lea et resulting in general yellowing
of the leaves hence a reduction on the photosynthetic activities. For bearing trees, the
yield may be reduced signicantly.

Other host plants include cacao, citrus, banana, nipa, rubber and other fruit and
ornamental plants.

For more information contact the Philippine Coconut uthority.

Solutions:

Current control measures are spraying banole


and cochin, pruning and burning of infected
leaves, and mass releasing of biological control
agents.

12
Rats (Rattus rattus mindanensis)
Management
I ntegrated C ro p

G I s h eet b and s p rev ent th e rats f ro m c l i mb i ng to th e


th e rats . to p o f th e c o c o nu t trees .

Symptoms:

Falling of immature nuts due to holes after rats feed at the base of the fruits.

Solutions:

1. Clear the coconut crowns of rat nests to drive away hiding rats.
2. Use galvanized iron (GI) sheets as bands at least 10 wide and install in the
coconut trunk. This will prevent the rats from returning to the crown.
3. Practice good farm sanitation.
4. Encourage owl population to increase by leaving big trees in the farm as habitat.

Leaf Spot (Pestalotiopsis palmarum and


Helminthosporium sp)

Leaf spot disease infects both young and old


palms. It affects the leaves thus, reducing
the photosynthetic activity of the plant and
affecting its food processing function. In
severe infection seedlings become unt for
planting. Leaf spots also delay bearing and
reduce the yield of coconut palms.

L eaf s p o ts o n s eed l i ngs

13
Generally, the fungi are weak parasites that thrive on poorly nourished palms which are
physiologically weak to resist fungal infection.

Symptoms:

Leaf spots appear first as small, yellowish brown, circular to oblong spots on the leaflet.

Integrated Crop
Management
The spots gradually turn brown with ashen gray center surrounded by dark brown bands.
In advance stages of infection, the spots enlarge and fuse making the leaf appear blighted
or burnt.

Solutions:

In the nursery space seedlings at a minimum of 60 x 60 cm triangular distance to


provide adequate room for developing plants thus, avoiding a condition favorable
to disease outbreak. Fertilize the seedlings to improve their vigor and resistance to
disease. Follow recommendation from PCA.
For bearing trees fertilize the soil according to the soil analysis recommendation.

Do not plant GMO (Genetically Modified Organisms)


GMOs are plants whose genes are altered in the laboratory using genetic engineering
techniques. At present only GMO corn is being allowed for cultivation in the country. The
long term effect of the GMO to the environment is not yet known. In order to ensure that
the seeds you buy are not GMO look at the label and ensure that it does not contain the
letters BT or RR.

Note:
Not Planting GMO is a
critical criterion

GMO corn planted as intercrop under the coconut


trees.

14
Chapter 2

Productivity Improvement
Improving productivity is one of the most important pillars of sustainable farming. Increasing
production compensates for the limited area of the farm. Smallholdings need higher yield
and maximum utilization of space. If the farm produce enough harvest then the income
will make farming profitable.
Improvement
Productivity

Planting coconuts as monocrop makes the farm vulnerable to constant fluctuation of


prices. Experience shows that changes in the copra prices vary widely from time to time.
Because of this it is wise to plant other crops under the coconuts. Intercropping with
permanent or short term crops provides the farmer with additional income to protect him
in case the price of copra slides.

Other practices such as replanting, proper drainage and proper distancing will improve
the stand of the crops thereby increase the harvests.

Replanting
Replace dead trees as early as possible using recommended varieties. Do not plant
seedlings that have doubtful origin. Plant new trees as replacements when the existing
coconuts are 60 years or older. Productivity of the old trees is on the decline and harvesting
costs is high.

Seedlings from reliable sources should be used for Dead trees are replaced
planting

60 year old trees

15
Selection of coconut variety:
In replanting, quality seedlings should be used. Below is a list of some PCA recommended
varieties. Contact the Philippine Coconut Authority for availability of the seedlings. In case
there is no supply, get seedlings from the farm by selecting mother plants which are prolific
nut producers with good nut size, and are resistant to pest and diseases.

Tall Dwarf

Improvement
NSIC 1996 Co 08 NSIC 1996 Co 12

Productivity
Baybay Tall Catigan Green Dwarf
NSIC 1996 Co 09 NSIC 1996 Co 14
PYT or Tahiti Tall Malayan Red Dwarf
NSIC 1996 Co 10 NSIC 1996 Co15
Laguna Tall Aromatic Green Dwarf
NSIC 1996 Co 11 NSIC 2000 Co 18
Tagnanan Tall Tacunan Green Dwarf
NSIC 1996 Co 13 Galas Green Dwarf
Bago-Oshiro Tall
NSIC 2000 Co 16 Kinabalan Green Dwarf
West African Tall (WAT)
NSIC 2000 Co 17 Magtuod Green Dwarf
Rennel Island Tall (RIT)
Makapuno Tall
San Ramon Tall
Orgullo Tall SV San
Ramon
JAVA Tall
Recommended varieties for coconut replanting

Traits Tall Dwarf

Years to start reproductive Late (5-7 years) Early (3-4 years)


maturity
Expected lifespan More than 50 years Less than 50 years
Nut size (whole) Very small to large Very small to medium
Root distribution Generally more dense and Less dense and few
plentiful
Reaction to adverse Generally less sensitive Sensitive to hyper
conditions sensitive
Cultural requirement Average High input required
Leaf and bunch Very strong Fragile
attachment
Comparison between tall and dwarf varieties of coconuts

16
The PCA developed hybrids by crossing the tall and dwarf varieties. The results were
hybrids with medium nut size requiring 3 to 4 nuts to produce 1 kg of copra. They usually
flower earlier (3-4 years from field planting) and bear nuts 1-2 years earlier than most
local cultivars. In areas that have 4 to 5 dry months per year, the hybrids have a potential
yield of 5 tons copra/hectare.

For more information please contact your nearest Philippine Coconut Authority office.

Proper distances between the coconut trees


Improvement

Use a planting system (spacing and arrangement)


Productivity

that is suitable for a wide selection or flexibility of


intercrops (annual, biennials or perennials). Wider
rows are recommended to allow the farmers to
use different crop mix. Removal of old plants
should be staggered based on the current yield
performance.

Do not allow trees to grow close to each other


in an unplanned manner as this will not produce
good fruits. Very close distances will cause
competition for sunlight resulting in tall trees with Under storey of closely spaced trees heavily shaded
few fruits and a very shaded under storey where
no crop can be grown.

Trees planted too close to each other results to 10m x 10m allows shade loving intercrops to be
poor bearing trees grown under the coconut trees

Proper distances allow other crops to be grown under the coconut trees. Select shade
loving intercrops. Coconuts may be planted in hedgerows and spaced farther apart
between rows. This will allow planting of annual crops like corn and beans, or semi
permanent crops like papaya and other sun loving plants.

Planting coconut closer within the rows Other crops like coffee planted along Two coconuts planted together and
but wider between rows the rows with coconut spaced farther to allow papaya to be
planted in between
17
17
Proper drainage
Coconuts grow poorly in water logged areas. Surface water should be removed by
constructing drainage canals. High ground water level hamper the growth of the trees
because it limit the penetration of the roots to the soil. If root development is good it
would provide the tree with enough nutrients necessary for proper growth.

Improvement
Productivity
Water logged soils Water logged soil Well drained soil

Intercropping
Plant crops between the coconut trees in order to utilize the spaces in between.
Generally, the crops would depend on the planting distance of the coconuts. Farms with
coconuts that are planted at 10 x 10 meters are good for fruits and other permanent
crops like coffee, or cacao. Intercrops should be shade loving or shade tolerant. In
farms using hedgerow planting system there is sufficient space for planting annual crops
because enough sunlight can reach the ground. Vegetables and cereals require big
amount of sunlight.

Coffee and cacao are examples of intercrops but thorough analysis should be done
considering the agronomic and market conditions of the crops.

Intercropping is good for business minded and innovative farmers since it requires
additional investments. It is a more complex operation compared to growing coconut
only.

Intercropping with vegetables Intercropping produces several kinds of Intercropping maximizes the use of
food products that can be sold or can land
provide proper nutrients for the family.

18
Chapter 3

Quality Improvement
Quality improvement is very important. Conventional copra, produced using the
traditional drying techniques, is contaminated with aflatoxin and other toxic substances.
White copra, on the other hand is free from toxic substances. Oil produced from white
copra is cleaner and safer compared to the oil from conventional copra.

In order to produce white copra proper timing of harvest and use of proper drying
equipment and technology is needed.
Improvement
Quality

Proper timing of harvesting

Harvesting of the nuts at the right age would maximize the production. The quality of the
copra is affected by immature nuts. Young nuts produce rubbery copra which has a high
moisture content and low oil recovery. Harvest only 11-12 months old nuts for best results.

Immature Nuts Mature Nuts

Rubbery copra from immature nuts

19
White copra production
The traditional tapahan or pugon produce dark copra containing harmful substances
from the smoke passing through the nuts being dried. Sun drying method produces
copra with high moisture content often accompanied by molds due to improper
drying.

olds produce a atoxin a sustance which is ha ardous to human. t remains in the


copra meal after extracting the oil content. Copra meal is an important component of
livestock feeds. atoxin could then be transferred to the animals eating the feeds
and ultimately to humans eating the meat of the animals.

I mp ro v ement
Q u al i ty
K u k u m d ry er b u i l d i ng T h e f u rnac e o f th e k u k u m d ry er

Use of Kukum Dryer


u um dryer produces white copra when properly used. t uses dry coconut hus s
as fuel. Contamination from smo e is prevented since drying is done using hot air.

C o p ra s u n d ri ed o n a p av ement

b el o w th e nu ts b ei ng d ri ed

20
Improvised tapahan without walls and roof
Improvement
Quality

Sun drying in the field

White copra produced with a kukum dryer

Moldy copra produced from improper drying by


tapahan and sun dryer

21
Chapter 4

Safe Handling of Chemicals


Coconuts do not require chemicals to control the pests and diseases except during
the early stages of growth. hen the trees are already tall it is more effective to
use biological control agents such as tetrastichos and green muscardine fungus.
However if there are intercrops that re uire agrochemical application it is necessary
to protect yourself from the effects of agrochemicals.

ate
: ropri nt
Note the a p p
u ipme
us i n g e q
Not tive is
a l p rotec p l i c a tion
n p
perso hemical a
g c
durin

S af e h and l i ng
d.

o f C h emi c al s
t a l lowe
no

n spraying chemicals wear full protective e uipment consisting of a hat cap


googles chemical lter mas long sleeves long pants gloves and boots. Chemicals
should not touch or enter any part of your body.

se chemicals according to the instructions stated in the pac age especially on the
dosage and manner of application. Do not buy fa e products because it might lead
to unintended result.

C h emi c ter mas k

t is important to wear a chemical lter mas


and not a simple dust mas . A dust mas D u s t mas k
does not protect against toxic chemicals.

22
Wear gloves when applying chemical
fertilizers. Do not touch it directly with
bare hands.

Rubber gloves

Safe storage of chemicals


Chemicals should be stored properly in
order to avoid accidents.
Rice Agrochemical Gasoline
Safe handling
of Chemicals

Proper storage of agrochemicals. It


has a lock, enough ventilation and
warning signs
Improper storage, absorbent materials and no lining

Agrochemicals should be stored away from food products. They should also be stored
away from flammable materials like gasoline, diesel, or kerosene. The shelves should
be lined with non-absorbent materials and should be locked and kept out of reach of
children.

Do not use chemicals prohibited by the SAN. Common


prohibited chemicals are carbaryl and carbofuran.

Note: chemica
ls is
h ib it e d
g pro
Not usin n
l criterio
a critica

23
Chapter 5

Ecosystem Conservation
If your farm is located next to a natural
ecosystem, such as forests, lakes, wetlands,
rivers or streams, you need to do your best to
conserve it. In this chapter, you will learn how
to conserve the ecosystem within or around
your farm.

C o c o nu t trees near f o res t

Plant native instead of exotic trees for


reforestation. Native trees are resistant to
pests and diseases and they provide food and
habitat to wildlife. Examples are Narra, Duhat,
Kamagong, and other fruit and forest tree
species.

E c o s y s tem
Plant trees in areas that are not suitable for growing
coconuts like gullies, rocky areas, and steep slopes.
These areas are ideal as conservation areas.

areas

Plant shrubs and small trees around


the house in the farm and along the
boundaries in order to increase the
biodiversity of the farm. These buffer
zones will become the habitats of natural
predators of the pests of the coconuts.

B u er z o nes

24
Plant trees along the banks
of the streams or rivers that
pass through the farm in order
to stabilize the banks and
prevent erosion.
Conservation
Ecosystem

No ecosystem destruction

Note:
Let trees that are natural habitats of Destru
ction o
ecosyst f natur
wildlife grow alongside the coconuts em is n al
in the area. allowe o t
d.

Prohibit hunting of wildlife in the farm


in order to increase its population.
Biodiversity in the farm helps control pests
that destroy the crops and carry disease
to the trees.

: is
Note i ldlife
f w
ing o
Hunt
ibited
proh

25
Chapter 6

Water Conservation
Water is fundamental for life. If the source of water becomes contaminated, it can seriously
affect peoples health and the health of the livestock. Fish and other animals in the water
would disappear. If the source of water dries out, it will be impossible to sustain peoples lives
and that of livestock. In this chapter, you will learn how to conserve water.

Washing of Equipments

Conservation
Water

After spraying chemicals do not Pour the water used for washing
wash the equipment in a lake, river, the equipments in a pit containing
or stream. Chemicals contaminate charcoal. The charcoal will adsorb
the water and affect the lives of the toxic chemicals in the solution.
the fish and animals in the water. If
the equipment is washed in water
bodies, the health of people and
animals will be affected and the fish
will be gone.

26
Collection of rainwater
Rain is an important source of water especially in areas that are dry in most times of
the year. By collecting rainwater that falls on the roof you can keep a stock of water
at home. This saves time to fetch water, and gives you an important stock of water
during the dry season.

A house collecting rainwater in a tank

No solid wastes into water bodies


Conservation
Water

Do not throw any solid waste in natural bodies of water and in water sources.
Wastewater should not be disposed in the natural bodies of water unless there
is an analysis to show that it does not contain pollutants.

Note:
Keepin
g wate
and fre r clean
e from
a critic waste
al crite is
rion

27
Chapter 7

Soil Conservation
Soil is the basis for agriculture. The top soil is very rich in nutrients and
microorganisms, and is very important for the crops. It is the place where the roots
of the plants develop. It is where the soil air and water which is essential to plant
nutrient uptake is found. However, when it is exposed to air and water, the topsoil
will easily be washed away and the nutrients will be lost. In this chapter, you will
learn how to protect the soil from erosion.

B are s o i l i n s teep s l o p e o f area and al s o c o v ers th e s o i l

In sloping areas soil should not be exposed especially when the annual rainfall is high.
Planting of annual crops which requires constant plowing for land preparation should
be discouraged. Intercropping with permanent crops like banana, cacao, coffee, or fruit
trees is recommended.

When the soil is steep, terracing or planting hedgerows across the slope is
recommended.

S o il
For farms without intercrops, planting
cover crops should be done. Legumes
like calopogonium or centrosima provide
excellent cover for the soil. They produce
high volume of biomass and x nitrogen
in the ground. This is a natural way of
enriching the soil. They also suppress the
growth of noxious weeds like cogon.

L egu mi no u s c o v er c ro p s s u p p res s th e gras s es


i n th e f arm.

28
Mulching
During copra production, excess coconut husks are produced after drying with kukum.
These materials should be used as mulch for the farm. Husks should be scattered
around the base of the trees and allowed to decompose to provide nutrients to the
trees. They also suppress the growth of weeds and keep the soil from drying during hot
weather. These also encourage multiplication of earthworms. Other waste materials for
mulching are dry leaves and midribs.

Organic wastes from cut grasses and dry


leaves as mulch Excess husks spread around the base of
the trees

No burning
Burning should not be used to prepare the soil for planting. It destroys the nutrients in the
soil. It also kills all the animals, plants, and microorganisms along its path. It exposes the
soil to erosion and can cause bush res.
S o il

Burning of area in preparation for planting

29
Chapter 8

Waste Management
There are organic and inorganic wastes in the farms. When waste is burned or badly
managed, it can affect the health of the farmer and contaminate the environment. On
the other hand, if waste is well managed, it can become a useful resource for the farm. In
this chapter, you will learn how to manage organic and inorganic waste.

Organic waste management


Organic wastes can be disposed in a compost pit to become organic fertilizer.
Composting can be done by adding enzymes that will hasten decomposition. It can also
be used as mulching materials in the farm.

Compost pit for organic wastes

Management
W as te

Plastic wastes should not be burned

Wastes are segregated. Organic wastes


and inorganic wastes (like plastics) are
collected separately for proper disposal.

30
Plastic waste management
Plastics does not decompose, so it should not be thrown on the ground. It needs to be
collected and kept until collected by a public collection system.

Empty chemical containers


Management

Do not throw away empty chemical containers anywhere. They should be triple rinsed and
W as te

kept. Manufacturers accept them if they are returned. Organize your group to collect the
empty containers and return to the suppliers for proper and safe disposal.

31
Chapter 9

Good Working Conditions


Children in school
School age children need to go to school
during the week, so however busy the
farmers are with the harvest, they should
not take them out of the school to help in
the farm.

Children cannot be employed on a farm as


a hired labor. Children can only help on the
farm outside the school hours, and they
should not help for long hours to the extent
that it affects their schooling. Children must
not do any dangerous or heavy work on the
farm.

Note:
dren
Hiring chil
ears old is
under 15 y
.
prohibited

There should be no discrimination


in hiring of workers. In choosing
workers, the race, color, gender,
age, religion, social class, political
tendencies, nationality, sexual
A boy splitting the coconuts for drying orientation and civil status should
not be used as basis for not hiring a
person.
Note: iring
c r im in a tion in h
No dis n.
a c r it ic al criterio
is
workers
w the
o r kers belo
Not pay
in g w riterion.
g e is a critical c
wa
minimum
Good Working
Conditions

Workers should be paid according to the


Regional Minimum Wage Law. Minimum
wages vary in different regions. The
Department of Labor and Employment
- National Wages and Productivity
Commission provides the different rates in Paying the worker in accordance with the
the regions of the country. minimum wage law

32
Chapter 10
Farm Management
All the things you have learned in this Guide need to be implemented on your farm. In
order to ensure the implementation of the activities, you first need to plan them. In an
action plan, you need to write down the activities, timelines for the execution and the
responsible persons.

Records of costs, yields and returns should also be kept to control the economic
viability.

As you plan your activities, a simple farm map is a very useful tool. You can indicate
on the map where you need to conduct soil erosion control, where you need to plant
trees or grasses, where you need to establish live hedges and the location of the water
sources to be protected.

Record keeping

It is recommended to document the


important activities on your farm. By
keeping records of your activities, you can
reflect on your past activities, analyze them
and find ways to improve them. By looking
at the records, the internal inspectors and
external auditors can also tell that you
have been managing your farm well.

Record keeping

The following are the basic activities to be recorded at the farm level:
Chemical spraying (if any)
Compost/ chemical fertilizer application
Tree/ grass planting
Harvesting
Training of workers (if you have workers to be trained)
Hiring of workers (if any)

What to record for chemical What to record for training What to record about hired
and fertilizer applications: of workers: workers:

Plot Date Date


Date Topic of training Name
Name of product Trainer Type of work
Quantity Names of participants Working hours
Dosage Signature/fingerprint of salary
Management

Operator name participant


Farm

Equipment used

33
Traceability
Farmers and their group should never mix non-certied with the certied copra at
any point. Certied copra needs to be separated at all stages of transaction: during
harvesting, drying, storage, and transport to the mill.

Drying of certied and non-certied copra should not be


done simultaneously.

Management
Farm

34