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WRITE THE CORRECT PASSIVE FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS:

A Short History of Ice-Cream:

It .......................... (know) that sweet dishes ............................ (cool)


with snow and ice in ancient times. These ........................... (enjoy) by
the rich and powerful such as Alexander the great, the Egyptian Pharaohs,
and the Emperor Nero.
Sorbets, or water ices, .............................. (know) since the 16 th century,
when they ........................ (introduce) in Florence. However, real ice-
cream, made with fresh cream or milk, ............................. (produce) for
the first time in the 1630s by Gerald Tissain, the French chef of the British
king, Charles I.
During the 18th century, ice-cream .................................. (eat) regularly
at fashionable ice-cream cafs in London, Paris and other great cities. It
was still a great luxury, though. It .............................. (know), for
example, that George Washington spent $200 on ice-cream in just two
months in 1790.
The cost ......................... (reduce) when the first ice-cream
factory ................................. (open) in 1851 by another American,
George Fussel. Since the 19 th century, though, it has been the Italians
who ............................ (see) as the great ice-cream makers. In the mid-
19th century, for example, ice-cream .................................... (sell) in the
streets of London by as many as 30,000 Italians. The Italian
methods ............................. (learn) by many others since those days, and
so today excellent ice-cream ............................. (make)
and ................................... (enjoy) all over the world.

COMPLETE THE TEXT. WRITE THE PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE FORM


OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS:

Glass-making:

Champagne, the king of wines and wine of kings, tastes all the better when
it .............................. (drink) from an elegant, fine-quality glass. That,
however, is only one of thousands of ways glass ......................... (use)
today. And for all those different uses, many different types of
glass ........................... (produce). Glass products ...............................
(manufacture) in different ways.
Today, glass ............................ (blow) by hand in the traditional way
which the Romans first developed, but now this work ............................
(do) by robots, too. Generally, in industry, much faster methods of mass
production .................................. (need). Often, for example,
glass ............................. (press) into the necessary shape by machine.
Glass .............................. (shape) in other ways too. For example,
it ............................. (make) into long, very thin fibres. Fibres like
these ................................ (require) to make the fibre optic cables that
help to build the Information Super-Highway around the world.

COMPLETE THIS DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS OF MAKING


CHAMPAGNE. USE THE PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE FORM OF THE
VERB IN BRACKETS:

First, the grapes ................................ (pick) by hand and checked


carefully. Only perfect grapes ........................... (use) to make
champagne. Then, the grapes ............................ (press). 160 kilos of
grapes ......................... (use) to produce 100 litres of juice. After that, the
juice ........................... (leave) to ferment and become wine.
Next, different wines ................................ (blend) to produce the house
style. Yeast and sugar ............................... (add) to the wine and
it ............................ (bottle). This results in a second fermentation, and
bubbles ............................... (produce). A sediment .............................
(produce) by the second fermentation. This .............................. (remove)
in two stages, first remuage, then dgorgement.
The remuage ................................ (carry out) either with computer-
controlled machines or by hand with the traditional remueurs. The bottles of
champagne ............................... (turn) at regular intervals until they are
upside down.
In the next stage, dgorgement, the neck of the champagne
bottle ................................. (freeze), and the frozen
sediment .................................. (remove). Then, a little champagne and
sugar ............................... (add), and the champagne ...........................
(leave) to mature.
Finally, the bottles .................................. (label) and the
corks ............................... (insert). Then the
champagne ............................. (sell) all over the world!

Champagne Facts. Did you know...?

Since the beginning of the 20 th century, more


champagne ....................................... (export) to the UK than to any
other country, except in 1992. In that year, the highest
total ................................ (sell) to Germany.
In the 17th century, many bottles of
champagne ........................................ (lose) because the glass was not
strong enough to resist the pressure. The problem ...............................
(solve) when verre anglais .................................. (introduce). This was a
much stronger glass which ................................. (produce) in Britain in
the 17th century.
Some champagne houses ................................ (hit) very badly by the
Russian Revolution. Ten per cent of total champagne
production ................................... (import) by Russian royalty and
aristocracy before the Revolution. This market disappeared overnight.
Champagne ................................. (sell) in eleven different bottle sizes.
The smallest is a quarter bottle and it contains twenty centilitres. The
biggest, which ............................. (call) a Nebuchadnezzar, contains
sixteen litres, and is the equivalent of twenty normal 75 centilitre bottles.
KEY:

Ice-cream: is known/ were cooled/ were enjoyed/ have been known/ were
introduced/ was produced/ was eaten/ is known/ was reduced/ was opened/
have been seen/ was sold/ have been learnt/ is made/ is enjoyed.

Glass-making: is drunk/ is used/ are produced/ are manufactured/ is


blown/ is done/ are needed/ is pressed/ is shaped/ is made/ are required.

Champagne: are picked/ are used/ are pressed/ are used/ is left/ are
blended/ are added/ is bottled/ are produced/ is produced/ are removed/ is
carried out/ are turned/ is frozen/ is removed/ are added/ is left/ are
labelled/ are inserted/ is sold.

Champagne facts: has been exported/ was sold/ were lost/ was solved/
was introduced/ was produced/ were hit/ was imported/ is sold/ is called.