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DISTRICT PHYSICAL PLANS FOR KICUKIRO AND GASABO, KIGALI, RWANDA

64

Existing Water Treatment Capacity

Table  9.4  shows  the  summary  of  individual 

water treatment plant capacity and the

water  supply  deficit  that  the  City  would  be  facing  by  Year  2025  and  Year  X .  The  deficit  is  derived  based  on  the  ultimate  design  capacity of these plants. 

Potential Water Resource

To  overcome  the  water  supply  deficit,  the 

existing  W TPs  have  to  be  expanded  and  new  water  resources  must  be  identified  to 

augment the water supply.

Besides the plan to upgrade Nyabarongo WTP  from  25,000  m 3 /d to 40,000 m 3 /d, another new water resource that is currently under planning is to abstract spring water

from  Mutobo,  Muzanse  District  near  the  northern  boundary  of  Rwanda.  The  project 

is being planned by EWSA. It is expected

to supply 120,000 m 3 /day  of  water  for  the  City  of  Kigali  and  the  surroundings  upon  completion  in  2017.  The  water  quality  is  better  than  the  surface  water  and  will 

require minimum treatment. Even with the

planned projects, the water supply will not

be sufficient to meet the future demand.

City  of  Kigali  has  an  extensive  network  of  river  and  quite  a  few  big  lakes  surrounding  it.  To  date,  only  water  from  Yanze  River, 

Nyabarongo River and Lake Mugesera is

abstracted  for  treatment  to  supply  to  the 

City. Another lake closest to the City, Lake

Muhazi,  has  the  potential  of  being  a  new  water resource for the City. 

As  there  is  limited  information  on  the  existing  water  resource  in  Rwanda,  an  estimation of the volumes of the lake serves 

as a guide to how much raw water could

be  abstracted  for  treatment.  Table  9.5 

provides  some  basic  data  of  L ake  Muhazi, 

Lake Mugesera and Nyabarongo River

which  could  be  considered  in  planning  for  water abstraction from them.

Water Distribution System

Most  of  the  water  supply  within  the  City 

would be distributed through the expansion

of  the  existing  water  supply  network.  The  planning  of  the  water  distribution  network  expansion is based on the following factors:

Planning  considerations  for  the  future  water distribution system are:

•  Topography  –  to  consider  expansion  of  network  in  areas  where  the  elevation  is  not  significantly  higher  than  the  existing  network  i.e.  where  pumping  is  s till  reasonable;

•  Coverage of e xisting network – in areas

too  remote  from  the  existing  network  or  cut  off  by  extremely  high  grounds,  it may 

not  be  feasible  or  economically  viable  to 

expand the network there

•  Water demand distribution – the

expansion  of  the  existing  water  supply 

network  should  focus  on  areas  of  high  future  demands.  In  rural  areas  where  the  water  demand  is  relatively  insignificant  and  scattered  it  would  not 

be economically viable to expand the network there

Water Demand Management

Besides  augmenting  the  water  supply,  it 

is advisable to manage the water demand

from the household level to township level. 

At the household level, installing water saving devices shall be encouraged to

reduce  the  water  use  (refer  to    Fig.9.1) 

while at the township level, the City should

be  looking  at  using  alternative  water  sources  such  as  rainwater  harvesting  (refer  to  Fig.9.2)  or treated effluent from S TP for 

non-potable use.

These  strategies,  if  implemented  properly, 

would be able to reduce the dependence

on  the  potable  water  by  10  –  20%.  Refer  to 

Table 9.6 to compare how other cities in the 

world are managing their water usage.

Fig.9.1 Water Saving Devices
Fig.9.1
Water Saving Devices

Source: Envirogadget, Plumbing4home, 

Ecobuilder

DISTRICT PHYSICAL PLANS FOR KICUKIRO AND GASABO, KIGALI, RWANDA 64 Existing Water Treatment Capacity Table  9.4 

Fig.9.2

Rainwater Harvesting Tank

Source: The Innovation Diaries

Table 9.4

Water Supply vs Projected Water Demand

Water

Raw

Water

Current

Ultimate De sign

Water Demand

Treatment Plant ( WTP)

Source

Capacity (m 3 /d)

Capacity (m 3 /d)

2025

2040

Kimisagara

Yanze River

22,000

22,000

   

Nyabarongo

Nyabarongo River

25,000

40,000

Karenge

Lake Mugesera

12,000

12,000

369,078

622,089

 

Total

59,000

74,000

                                                                                                                 Deficit

-295,078

-548,089

Table 9.5

Basic  Data of Lake Muhazi, Lake Mugesera and Nyabarongo River

 

Potential Water

 

Basic Data

Resources

   

Nyabarongo River

upstream, surface area: 2,700km 2 , annual rainfall: 1,500mm  downstream, surface area: 4,450km 2 , annual rainfall: 1,200mm

Average depth: 2 - 2.5m, Max. depth: 4.6m

Lake Muhazi

Max. length: 37 km, Max. width: 0.6 km

Surface area: 33 km 2 , Average depth: 10 m Max. depth: 14 m, Water volume: 330 million m 3

Surface elevation: 1,443 m

Lake Mugesera

Surface area: 42 km 2 , Average depth: 4 m Max. depth: 4 m, Water volume: 168 million m 3

Source: Wikipedia

Table 9.6

Water Demand Management Comparison

Water

30% of Singapore water supply comes from treated waste water (Newater)

Recycling

Tel Aviv recyles and reuses 100% of its sewage for non potable use.

California State has a law that allow the use of treated waste water for 

toilet flushing and in-building piping

Rainwater

New Zealand’s rural population, who does not have access to the municipal 

Harvesting

water supply network, depends on rainwater harvesting for both potable 

and non potable uses

Mumbai has regulation that encourages all new developments to harvest 

rain water 

Household in Melbourne typically has a rainwater harvesting tank that is 

used for non potable use

Water Saving

Singapore: 18% water demand reduction

Device

Tokyo: 20% water demand reduction

Source: Wikipedia