Você está na página 1de 22

Microsystems, Scaling,

and Integration
Amit Lal, Program Manager
MTO/DARPA

Microsystems Technology Symposium


San Jose, CA, March 6, 2007
1 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO
Form Approved
Report Documentation Page OMB No. 0704-0188

Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and
maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information,
including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington
VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it
does not display a currently valid OMB control number.

1. REPORT DATE 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED


06 MAR 2007 N/A -
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER
Microsystems, Scaling, and Integration 5b. GRANT NUMBER

5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

5e. TASK NUMBER

5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER

7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION


REPORT NUMBER
DARPA
9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITORS ACRONYM(S)

11. SPONSOR/MONITORS REPORT


NUMBER(S)

12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT


Approved for public release, distribution unlimited
13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
DARPA Microsystems Technology Symposium held in San Jose, California on March 5-7, 2007.
Presentations, The original document contains color images.
14. ABSTRACT

15. SUBJECT TERMS

16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER 19a. NAME OF
ABSTRACT OF PAGES RESPONSIBLE PERSON
a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE
UU 21
unclassified unclassified unclassified

Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98)


Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18
Progression of MEMS
Si as a mechanical material (Petersen) MicroElectroMechanical
Systems
Pressure Sensor
(Honeywell) Si Pressure
Sensor SFB Pressure Sensor
IC (Motorola) (NovaSensor) Chips-Scale Atomic Clock

Anodic Bonding DRIE !!


HNA EDP KOH SFB TMAH XeF2/BrF3

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010


Bio MEMS
Metal sacrificial PolySi beams LIGA Integrated RF-SYSTEMS
RF MEMS - RADAR
process (US Patent) (Howe, Muller)
Si Gyro (Draper)
DMD (TI)
RGT (Nathanson et al) PolySi Micromotor ADXL Accelerometer
(Tai, Muller) IR imager (Honeywell)
Metal Light Valve (RCA)
PolySi Comb Drive (Tang, Howe)
Hybrid-Insect MEMS

NEMS-CMOS: Meshing
of transistors and relays
2 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO
Two views of MEMS

MEMS for
everyone/everything?

MEMS is like
Spanish moss on
the IC industry
tree

http://www.mems-exchange.org
3 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO
MEMS for Microsystems
Insect MEMS

CSAC

Temex RMO
Vol: 230 cm3 Symmetricom CSAC Integration of
Power: 10 W Vol: 7.8 cm3 Alkali-metal
Acc: 11011 Power: 95 mW
vapor on chip for
Stab: 51011/100s atomic sensors

Contact Detail
Miniaturization/Integration SWAP
Scaling for higher performance
Multiphysics
Gate

Drain Beam Source

Biological interfaces
100 m
Gateways to nanoscale effects Universal MEMS
RF-MEMS Environmental control over sensors and package-HERMIT
switch actuators

Navigation grade
Gyroscope

0.8 cm
Embedded MEMS
- HERMIT
4 NEMS - switch
Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO
Radant Demonstrates
>900 Billion Switch Cycles
PM: Amit Lal, HERMIT
MEMS: Wins Frost & Sullivan Excellence in
Undeniable Reliability Technology Award

Demo Radar Lockheed Martin


Modified Modified APG-67 Radar Tri-Service DoD
Hardware Components APG-67 Testing Team
APG-67
RF APG-67 Processor
Feed
Ctrl / Xmtr
Interface Control
Lens Ctrl/
Interface

New /
Composite Frame
Modified
(Graphite / Epoxy)
HW/SW
2
0.4 m Azimuth Scanning
MEMS RadantTM Lens

MEMS TM
MEMSInsertion
Insertioninto
intothe
theRadant
RadantTM
Lens
LensArchitecture
ArchitecturehashasBeen
Been
Demonstrated
Demonstrated
This
This Antennaisisthe
Antenna theFirst
FirstLarge
LargeScale
Scale
Use of MEMS Switches in the World
Use of MEMS Switches in the World
5 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO 30 degree scan 0.4m2 ESA
Hybrid-Insect MEMS
VISION
Create technology to reliably
integrate microsystems payloads
on insects to enable insect
cyborgs

OBJECTIVES
Develop technology to enable highly coupled electro
mechanical interfaces to insect anatomy
Demonstrate MEMS platforms for electronic locomotion
control, power harvesting from insect, and eliminate
extraneous biological functions
6 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO
Background: Insect
Metamorphosis
Storage of energy over weeks to use later for flight

1st instar 2nd instar 3rd instar 4th instar 5th instar

7 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO


Key Experiments in 1940s

DARPA Program :
Use object
insertion ability into
pupas to reliably
insert
microsystems
(instead of glass
tube) for insect
control

Normal Pupa halved and Sectioned Pupa with pipe inserted for hormone
growth front develops into transport grows into moth shown above. Insertion of
moth chemical blocking ball bearing results in no growth
8 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO
MEMS Platform
Ultrasonic CSAC
Platform for sensors,
transducers NGIMG
actuators, and comm
Piezoelectric flaps
for power Pheromone
ejectors
Thermoelectric
Light sources power, flexible
platform

Microfluidic
port

Neural/
Muscle
probes
Moth body weight
Tissue- ~1-5 grams
anchors
Cross and across Payload ~ 0.5-5
9inserts in pupae Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO grams
HI-MEMS
Hybrid Insect MEMS
PM: Amit Lal
Boyce Thompson Institute:
Insect Sentinals
X-ray images of probes in
muscles show good tissue
growth around inserted
probes

Microsystem platform inserted into moth in pupae


stage, and successful emergence of adult moth
with microsystem

10 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO


Hybrid NEMS Electronics
Abacus
Babbage
Relay computer
(circa 1950)

+
NEMS/CMOS

Pentium (2006)

8086 (1978)
4004
(1971)
11 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO
Hybrid NEMtronics
Objectives
Ioff
Eliminate leakage power in 1

electronics to enable longer


battery life and lower power Ion
required for computing. 0
1
0
Enable high temperature 1

computing for Carnot


efficient computers and
0
eliminate need for cooling
All Mechanical Hybrid NEMS/CMOS
Approaches Computing component integration

Use NEMS switches with and GND


IN IN VDD
without transistors to reduce OUT

leakage Ion:Transistor, Ioff:


NEMS N+ N+ P+ P+

P-Substrate N-Well
NEMS can work at high
temperature, enabling high Hybrid NEMS/CMOS Device
efficiency power scavenging. integration
12 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO
Nano Switches
1 m in
0.35m,
100nm in 90
nm CMOS

Nanoscale e-
CMOS Integrated NEMS shuttle

40 nm beam

50 nm
tines
Nano-machined Nanotube/Fiber
Released FinFET NEMS
switches switches
13 switch Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO
The Problems: Max Heat Removal
Rate and Leakage Power
1E+03
Active Power Density
1E+02
gh
le i
Power (W/cm2)

i d t h
1E+01
a te ro- a ot NEMS
1E+00 in Ze k
r arn
o
1E-01
e lim t n w : C ng
1E-02 a n ren ca ures puti
1E-03 S
c Power
Passive
c ur Density M S at
r com
E M ge N E e
p nt
N ka
1E-04
m
a er
le0.01 te icie
eff
1E-05
o w 0.1 1
p Gate Length (m)

Excessive Ioff Excessive Heat Generation

Lg/VDD/VT trends increases in:


Active Power Density (VDD2) ~1.3X/generation
Passive Power Density (VDD) ~3X/generation
14 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO
The Carnot Optimized
Computer

Pext + Pin TH Si
Premove
TC

Pconv
TH TC TH TC
Pext = Pin G Pin = Pin (1 G )
TH TH
TH should be maximized for high Carnot efficiency
700C => 973-300/973 = 0.70
If 50% of Carnot => 35% power can be reclaimed
Cooling could be eliminated Past Example

Needs fast switching technology at high temp NEMS


15 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO
Self-calibrating Micro Sensors: Shoe-
Implanted Perpetual Personal Navigation
State-of-Art (without
electronics or GPS)
IMU: 14cc, 250 mW

CMOS-MEMS Micro 3-axis


accelerometer/gyro possible but have
offsets due to imprecise fab. Develop ppm
accurate sensor model using on-chip
calibration techniques eliminate temp Power scavenging
control to reduce power from motion in
1 cc, 5-mW shoe ~ 10 milliWatt
average average over
IMU mission
10x
reduction
in size,
Precision and stable
>100x
Sonic pulsing, fluid resonators provide
reduction
MEMS to sense frequency for self- in power HI-MEMS insect power
velocity directly calibration
16 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO output >5 milliWatt average
17
Control Electronics
IR sensor

acoustic
receiver sig process sensor

flight contr optical


sensor
sensors transmitter inertial nav
RF sensor
antennae

Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO


CB sensor
UAV
MTO Mostly-silicon

batteries
Distributed actuators to
pump air + solar cells +
Benefits of mostly-silicon MAV

Collision
avoidance
Weight (a.u.)

Low-power

Power (a.u.)
IR CMOS,
imaging MEMS
components
RADAR to reduce
Inertial power for RF
sense No-wiring, limited
guidance packaging

Functionality Entropy Data Bandwidth


18 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO
CMOS Avionics Nanoelectronics
microelectronics,
RF

Microfluidics Cryo-electronics
MEMS

Radioactivity Quantum
Gas/vacuum computation
devices
19 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO
Summary
MEMS offers pathways to miniaturized
and chip-scale sensor and actuator
systems for reduced SWAP and
increased functionality
Upcoming MEMS will result in
cost/performance benefits by
integrating functionality
The future for MEMS-IC symbiosis is
bright
20 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO
QUESTIONS?

21 Amit Lal, DARPA-MTO