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CHAPTER 16 INTEGRATION IN VECTOR FIELDS

16.1 LINE INTEGRALS

1. r ti  ("  t)j x t and y 1  t y 1  x (c)

2. r i  j  tk x 1, y 1, and z t (e)

3. r (2 cos t)i  (2 sin t)j x 2 cos t and y 2 sin t x#  y# 4 (g)

4. r ti x t, y 0, and z 0 (a)

5. r ti  tj  tk x t, y t, and z t (d)

6. r tj  (2  2t)k y t and z 2  2t z 2  2y (b)

z#
7. r at#  1b j  2tk y t#  1 and z 2t y 4  1 (f)

8. r (2 cos t)i  (2 sin t)k x 2 cos t and z 2 sin t x#  z# 4 (h)

9. r(t) ti  (1  t)j , 0 t 1 dr
dt i  j ddtr 2 j ; x t and y 1  t x  y t  ("  t) 1

'C f(x y z) ds '0 f(t 1  t 0) ddtr dt '0 (1) 2 dt 2 t 2


1 1 "

10. r(t) ti  (1  t)j  k , 0 t 1 dr


dt i  j ddtr 2; x t, y 1  t, and z 1 x  y  z  2
t  (1  t)  1  2 2t  2 'C f(x y z) ds '01 (2t  2) 2 dt 2 ct#  2td "! 2

11. r(t) 2ti  tj  (2  2t)k , 0 t 1 dr


dt 2i  j  2k ddtr 4  1  4 3; xy  y  z
(2t)t  t  (2  2t) 'C f(x y z) ds '0 a2t#  t  2b 3 dt 3  23 t$  "# t#  2t ! 3 23 
1 " "
#  2 13
#

12. r(t) (4 cos t)i  (4 sin t)j  3tk , 21 t 21 dr


dt (4 sin t)i  (4 cos t)j  3k
ddtr 16 sin# t  16 cos# t  9 5; x#  y# 16 cos# t  16 sin# t 4 'C f(x y z) ds 'c2211 (4)(5) dt
c20td ##
1
1 801

13. r(t) (i  2j  3k)  t(i  3j  2k) (1  t)i  (2  3t)j  (3  2t)k , 0 t 1 dr


dt  i  3 j  2k
ddtr 1  9  4 14 ; x  y  z (1  t)  (2  3t)  (3  2t) 6  6t 'C f(x y z) ds
'0 (6  6t) 14 dt 614 t  t2 614 "# 314
1 # "

3 3 3
14. r(t) ti  tj  tk , 1 t _ dr
dt i  j  k ddtr 3 ; x #  y #  z# t#  t#  t# 3t#
_
'C f(x y z) ds '1 3t#3 3 dt   1t " lim  b"  1 1
_
b_

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


998 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

15. C" : r(t) ti  t# j , 0 t 1 dr


dt i  2tj ddtr 1  4t# ; x  y  z# t  t#  0 t  ktk 2t

since t 0 'C f(x y z) ds '0 2t1  4t# dt "6 a"  4t# b


1
$# "
" " "
6 (5)$#  6 6 55  1 ;
" !
C# : r(t) i  j  tk, 0 t 1 dr
dt k ddtr 1; x  y  z# 1  1  t# 2  t#

'C f(x y z) ds '0 a2  t# b (1) dt 2t  "3 t$ ! 2  ; therefore 'C f(x y z) ds


1 " "
3 5
3
#

'C f(x y z) ds  'C f(x y z) ds 5


6
5  3
#
" #

16. C" : r(t) tk , 0 t 1 dr


dt k ddtr 1; x  y  z# 0  0  t# t#

'C f(x y z) ds '0 at# b (1) dt  t3  "3 ;


1 $ "

" !
C# : r(t) tj  k, 0 t 1 dr
dt j ddtr 1; x  y  z# 0  t  1 t  1

'C f(x y z) ds '0 t  1 (1) dt  23 t$#  t !


1 " 2
3  1  "3 ;
#

C$ : r(t) ti  j  k , 0 t 1 dr
dt i ddtr 1; x  y  z# t  1  1 t

'C f(x y z) ds '0 (t)(1) dt t2 'C f(x y z) ds 'C f ds  'C f ds  'C f ds  "3   3" 
1 # "
" "
# #
$ ! " # $

 "6

xyz ttt
17. r(t) ti  tj  tk , 0  a t b dr
dt i  j  k ddtr 3 ; x #  y #  z# t#  t#  t# 1
t

'C f(x y z) ds 'ab 1t 3 dt 3 ln ktk b 3 ln ba , since 0  a b


a

18. r(t) (a cos t) j  (a sin t) k , 0 t 21 dr


dt (a sin t) j  (a cos t) k ddtr a# sin# t  a# cos# t kak ;

'C f(x y z) ds '0  kak# sin t dt  '1 kak# sin t dt


 kak sin t, 0 t 1 1 21
x#  z# 0  a# sin# t
kak sin t, 1 t 21
1 #1
ca# cos td !  ca# cos td 1 ca# (1)  a# d  ca#  a# (1)d 4a#

x#
2x 'C f ds
#
x$
19. r(x) xi  yj xi  # j, 0 x 2 dr
dx i  xj dx
dr
1  x# ; f(x y) f x x# #
x#

'0 (2x)1  x# dx 23 a1  x# b
2
$# # 105  2
2
3
5$#  1 3
!

a1  tb  14 a1  tb4
20. r(t) a1  tbi  1# a1  tb2 j, 0 t 1 ddtr 1  a1  tb# ; f(x y) f a1  tb 1# a1  tb2
1  a1  tb#

'C f ds '01 a1  tb  4 a1  tb
1

#
4
1  a1  tb# dt ' a1  tb  14 a1  tb4 dt  "# a1  tb2 
1
1
20 a1  tb5
"

1  a1  tb 0 !

0  "#  "
#0 11
#0

1
21. r(t) (2 cos t) i  (2 sin t) j , 0 t # dr
dt (2 sin t) i  (2 cos t) j ddtr 2; f(x y) f(2 cos t 2 sin t)
2 cos t  2 sin t 'C f ds '0 (2 cos t  2 sin t)(2) dt c4 sin t  4 cos td !
12
1#
4  (4) 8

1
22. r(t) (2 sin t) i  (2 cos t) j , 0 t 4 dr
dt (2 cos t) i  (2 sin t) j ddtr 2; f(x y) f(2 sin t 2 cos t)
4 sin# t  2 cos t 'C f ds '014 a4 sin# t  2 cos t b (2) dt c4t  2 sin 2t  4 sin td 01%
1  21  2

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.1 Line Integrals 999

2tj  2k ddtr 2t#  1; M 'C $ (x y z) ds '0 $ (t) 2t#  1 dt


1
23. r(t) at#  1b j  2tk , 0 t 1 dr
dt

'0 3# t 2t#  1 dt at#  1b 2$#  1 22  1


1
3/2 "

24. r(t) at#  1b j  2tk , 1 t 1 ddtr 2tj  2k


dr 2t#  1; M ' $ (x y z) ds
dt
C

'c1 15at#  1b  2 2t#  1 dt


1

'c1 30 at#  1b dt 30 t3  t
1 $ "
60 "3  1 80;
"

Mxz 'C y$ (x y z) ds 'c1 at#  1b c30 at#  1bd dt


1

'c1 30 at%  1b dt 30 t5  t
1 & "
60 "5  1
"

48 y Mxz
M  48 ' '
80  5 ; Myz C x$ (x y z) ds C 0 $ ds 0 x 0; z 0 by symmetry (since $ is
3

independent of z) (x y z) !  35 0

25. r(t) 2t i  2t j  a4  t# b k , 0 t 1 dr
dt 2i  2j  2tk ddtr 2  2  4t# 21  t# ;

(a) M 'C $ ds '0 (3t) 21  t# dt 2 a1  t# b


1
$# "
2 2$#  1 42  2
!

M 'C $ ds '0 (1) 21  t# dt t1  t#  ln t  1  t# 2  ln 1  2  (0  ln 1)


1 "
(b)
!

2  ln 1  2

26. r(t) ti  2tj  23 t$# k , 0 t 2 dr


dt i  2j  t"# k ddtr 1  4  t 5  t;
M 'C $ ds '0 35  t 5  t dt '0 3(5  t) dt  32 (5  t)# !
2 # 2
3
# a7#  5# b 3
# (24) 36;

Myz 'C x$ ds '0 t[3(5  t)] dt '0 a15t  3t# b dt  "25 t# 


2 2 #
t$ ! 30  8 38;

Mxz 'C y$ ds '0 2t[3(5  t)] dt 2 '0 a15t  3t# b dt 76; Mxy 'C z$ ds '0
2 2 2
2 $#
3 t [3(5  t)] dt

'0 10t$#  2t&# dt 4t&#  4 (# #


2
4(2)&#  47 (2)(# 162  2 2 x
32 144 Myz
7 t ! 7 7 M
Mxy 1442 2
38
36 19
18 ,y Mxz
M 76
36 19
9 , and z M 736 4
7

27. Let x a cos t and y a sin t, 0 t 21. Then dx


dt a sin t, dy
dt a cos t, dz
dt 0

dz dt a dt; Iz ' ax#  y# b $ ds ' aa# sin# t  a# cos# tb a$ dt


# # # 21
dx
dt
 dy
dt  dt C 0

'0 a$ $ dt 21$ a$ ; M 'C $ (x y z) ds '0 $ a dt 21$ a Rz M


21 21 $
Iz
2211aa$$ a.

j  2k ddtr 5; M 'C $ ds '0 $ 5 dt $ 5;


1
28. r(t) tj  (2  2t)k , 0 t 1 dr
dt

Ix 'C ay#  z# b $ ds '0 ct#  (2  2t)# d $ 5 dt '0 a5t#  8t  4b $ 5 dt $ 5  53 t$  4t#  4t !


1 1
" 5
3 $ 5 ;

Iy 'C ax#  z# b $ ds '0 c0#  (2  2t)# d $ 5 dt '0 a4t#  8t  4b $ 5 dt $ 5  43 t$  4t#  4t !


1 1
" 4
3 $ 5 ;

Iz 'C ax#  y# b $ ds '0 a0#  t# b $ 5 dt $ 5 t3


1 $ "
" I
3 $ 5 Rx M
Ix
35 , Ry My 34 2
3 ,
!
"
and Rz M
Iz
3

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1000 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

29. r(t) (cos t)i  (sin t)j  tk , 0 t 21 dr


dt ( sin t)i  (cos t)j  k ddtr sin# t  cos# t  1 2;
(a) M 'C $ ds '0 $ 2 dt 21$ 2; Iz 'C ax#  y# b $ ds '0 acos# t  sin# tb $ 2 dt 21$ 2
21 21

Rz M
Iz
1

(b) M 'C $ (x y z) ds '0 $ 2 dt 41$ 2 and Iz 'C ax#  y# b $ ds '0 $ 2 dt 41$ 2


41 41

Rz M
Iz
1

22 $#
30. r(t) (t cos t)i  (t sin t)j  3 t k, 0t1 dr
dt (cos t  t sin t)i  (sin t  t cos t)j  2t k
ddtr (t  1)# t  1 for 0 t 1; M 'C $ ds '0 (t  1) dt  "2 (t  1)# !
" 1
"
# a2#  1# b 3
# ;

Mxy 'C z$ ds '0 2 3 2 t$# (t  1) dt '0 t&#  t$# dt 23 2


2 2  27 t(#  25 t&# "
1 1

3 !
2 2 2 2 162
; Iz 'C ax#  y# b $ ds
Mxy 322
3
72  52 3 35
24 35 z M 1635 2 23 105

'0 at# cos# t  t# sin# tb (t  1) dt '0 at$  t# b dt t4  t3


1 1 % $ "
" "
4  3 7
12 Rz M
Iz
18
7
!

31. $ (x y z) 2  z and r(t) (cos t)j  (sin t)k , 0 t 1 M 21  2 as found in Example 4 of the text;
also ddtr 1; Ix 'C ay#  z# b $ ds '0 acos# t  sin# tb (2  sin t) dt '0 (2  sin t) dt 21  2 Rx M
1 1
Ix

22 $# t#
32. r(t) ti  3 t j  # k, 0 t 2 dr
dt i  2 t"# j  tk ddtr 1  2t  t# (1  t)# 1  t for

0 t 2; M 'C $ ds '0 t"1 (1  t) dt '0 dt 2; Myz 'C x$ ds '0 t t"1 (1  t) dt t2 2;


2 2 2 # #

Mxz 'C y$ ds ' ; Mxy 'C z$ ds '0


# $ #
22 $#
2 2 #
%
4152 t&#
Myz
3 t dt 32
15
t
# dt t6 3 x M 1,
0 ! !

; Ix 'C ay#  z# b $ ds '0 89 t$  4" t% dt 29 t% 


2 #
Mxy # t&
y Mxz
M 16
15 , and z M 3 20 ! 32
9  32
20 232
45 ;

Iy 'C ax#  z# b $ ds '0 t#  "4 t% dt t3  ; Iz 'C ax#  y# b $ ds


2 $ #
t&
20 ! 8
3  32
20 64
15

'0 t#  89 t$ dt t3  92 t%
2 $ #
Iy
8
3  32
9 56
9 Rx M
Ix
2
3 5 , Ry
29 M 15
32
, and
!

Rz M
Iz
2 7
3

33-36. Example CAS commands:


Maple:
f := (x,y,z) -> sqrt(1+30*x^2+10*y);
g := t -> t;
h := t -> t^2;
k := t -> 3*t^2;
a,b := 0,2;
ds := ( D(g)^2 + D(h)^2 + D(k)^2 )^(1/2): # (a)
'ds' = ds(t)*'dt';
F := f(g,h,k): # (b)
'F(t)' = F(t);
Int( f, s=C..NULL ) = Int( simplify(F(t)*ds(t)), t=a..b ); # (c)
`` = value(rhs(%));
Mathematica: (functions and domains may vary)
Clear[x, y, z, r, t, f]
f[x_,y_,z_]:= Sqrt[1  30x2  10y]

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.2 Vector Fields, Work, Circulation, and Flux 1001

{a,b}= {0, 2};


x[t_]:= t
y[t_]:= t2
z[t_]:= 3t2
r[t_]:= {x[t], y[t], z[t]}
v[t_]:= D[r[t], t]
mag[vector_]:=Sqrt[vector.vector]
Integrate[f[x[t],y[t],z[t]] mag[v[t]], {t, a, b}]
N[%]

16.2 VECTOR FIELDS, WORK, CIRCULATION, AND FLUX

"# `f $# $#


1. f(x y z) ax#  y#  z# b `x  "# ax#  y#  z# b (2x) x ax#  y#  z# b ; similarly,
`f # $# `f # $# x i  y j  z k
`y  y a x#  y #  z b and `z  z a x#  y #  z b f
ax#  y#  z# b$#

" `f "
2. f(x y z) ln x#  y#  z# # ln ax#  y#  z# b `x # x# y"# z# (2x) x
x #  y #  z# ;
`f `f x i  y j  zk
similarly, `y y
x #  y #  z# and `z z
x #  y #  z# f x#  y#  z#

`g `g `g
3. g(x y z) ez  ln ax#  y# b `x  x# 2x
 y# , `y  x# 2y
 y# and `z ez
g x#2xy# i  x# 2y
 y# j  e k
z

`g `g `g
4. g(x y z) xy  yz  xz `x y  z, `y x  z, and `z y  x g (y  z)i  (B  z)j  (x  y)k

5. kFk inversely proportional to the square of the distance from (x y) to the origin (M(x y))#  (N(x y))#
x
k
x#  y# , k  0; F points toward the origin F is in the direction of n x#  y# i y
x#  y# j
ax ay
F an , for some constant a  0. Then M(x y) x#  y# and N(x y) x#  y#
kx
(M(x y))#  (N(x y))# a a k
x#  y# F i ky
j , for any constant k  0
ax#  y# b$# ax#  y# b$#

6. Given x#  y# a#  b# , let x a#  b# cos t and y a#  b# sin t. Then


r a#  b# cos t i  a#  b# sin t j traces the circle in a clockwise direction as t goes from 0 to 21

v a#  b# sin t i  a#  b# cos t j is tangent to the circle in a clockwise direction. Thus, let
F v F yi  xj and F(0 0) 0 .

7. Substitute the parametric representations for r(t) x(t)i  y(t)j  z(t)k representing each path into the vector
field F , and calculate the work W 'C F dr
dt .

9t W '0 9t dt
1
(a) F 3ti  2tj  4tk and dr
dt ijk F dr
dt
9
#

7t#  16t( W '0 a7t#  16t( b dt  73 t$  2t) !


1 "
(b) F 3t# i  2tj  4t% k and dr
dt i  2tj  4t$ k F dr
dt
7
3 2 13
3

5t W" '0 5t dt
1
(c) r" ti  tj and r# i  j  tk ; F" 3ti  2tj and d r"
dt i  j F" d r"
dt
5
# ;

4t W# '0 4t dt 2 W W"  W#
1
F# 3i  2j  4tk and d r#
dt k F# d r#
dt
9
#

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1002 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

8. Substitute the parametric representation for r(t) x(t)i  y(t)j  z(t)k representing each path into the vector
field F, and calculate the work W 'C F dr
dt .

W '0
1
" " " " 1
(a) F t#  1 j and
dr
dt ijk F dr
dt t#  1 t#  1 dt ctan" td ! 4

'0
1
" "
(b) F t#  1 j and
dr
dt i  2tj  4t$ k F dr
dt
t#  1 W
2t 2t
t#  1 dt cln at#  1bd ! ln 2
" " "
(c) r" ti  tj and r# i  j  tk ; F" t#  1 j and ddtr" i  j F" ddtr" t#  1 ; F# # j and d r#
dt k
0 W '0
1
" 1
F# d r#
dt t#  1 dt 4

9. Substitute the parametric representation for r(t) x(t)i  y(t)j  z(t)k representing each path into the vector
field F, and calculate the work W 'C F dr
dt .

2t  2t W '0 2t  2t dt  43 t$#  t# !
1 " "
(a) F ti  2tj  tk and dr
dt ijk F dr
dt 3

4t%  3t# W '0 a4t%  3t# b dt  45 t&  t$ !  "5


1 "
(b) F t# i  2tj  tk and dr
dt i  2tj  4t$ k F dr
dt

2t W" '0 2t dt


1
(c) r" ti  tj and r# i  j  tk ; F" 2tj  t k and d r"
dt i  j F" d r"
dt

1 W# '0 dt 1 W W"  W# 0
1
1; F# ti  2j  k and d r#
dt k F# d r#
dt

10. Substitute the parametric representation for r(t) x(t)i  y(t)j  z(t)k representing each path into the vector
field F, and calculate the work W 'C F dr
dt .

3t# W '0 3t# dt 1


1
(a) F t# i  t# j  t# k and dr
dt ijk F dr
dt

t$  2t(  4t) W '0 at$  2t(  4t) b dt


1
(b) F t$ i  t' j  t& k and dr
dt i  2tj  4t$ k F dr
dt
% "
t)
t4  4  94 t* 17
18
!

t# W" '0 t# dt
1
"
(c) r" ti  tj and r# i  j  tk ; F" t# i and d r"
dt i  j F" d r"
dt 3 ;

t W# '0 t dt
1
"
F# i  tj  tk and d r#
dt k F# d r#
dt # W W"  W# 5
6

11. Substitute the parametric representation for r(t) x(t)i  y(t)j  z(t)k representing each path into the vector
field F, and calculate the work W 'C F dr
dt .

3t#  1 W '0 a3t#  1b dt ct$  td ! 2


1
"
(a) F a3t#  3tb i  3tj  k and dt i  j  k F
dr
dr
dt
(b) F a3t#  3tb i  3t% j  k and ddtr i  2tj  4t$ k & $ #
dt 6t  4t  3t  3t
dr
F
' 1 "
W 0 a6t&  4t$  3t#  3tb dt t'  t%  t$  3# t# ! 3#
(c) r" ti  tj and r# i  j  tk ; F" a3t#  3tb i  k and ddtr" i  j F" ddtr" 3t#  3t
'
1 "
W" 0 a3t#  3tb dt t$  32 t# !  "# ; F# 3tj  k and ddtr# k F# ddtr# 1 W# '0 dt 1
1

W W"  W# 12

12. Substitute the parametric representation for r(t) x(t)i  y(t)j  z(t)k representing each path into the vector
field F, and calculate the work W 'C F dr
dt .

6t W '0 6t dt c3t# d ! 3
1
"
(a) F 2ti  2tj  2tk and dr
dt ijk F dr
dt
(b) F at#  t% b i  at%  tb j  at  t# b k and dr
dt i  2tj  4t$ k F dr
dt 6t&  5t%  3t#
W '0 a6t&  5t%  3t# b dt ct'  t&  t$ d ! 3
1
"

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.2 Vector Fields, Work, Circulation, and Flux 1003

2t W" '0 2t dt ";


1
(c) r" ti  tj and r# i  j  tk ; F" ti  tj  2tk and dr"
dt i  j F" d r"
dt

2 W# '0 2 dt 2 W W"  W# 3
1
F# (1  t)i  (t  1)j  2k and d r#
dt k F# d r#
dt

13. r ti  t# j  tk , 0 t 1, and F xyi  yj  yzk F t$ i  t# j  t$ k and dr


dt i  2tj  k
2t$ work '0 2t$ dt
1
"
F dr
dt #

14. r (cos t)i  (sin t)j  6t k , 0 t 21, and F 2yi  3xj  (x  y)k
F (2 sin t)i  (3 cos t)j  (cos t  sin t)k and dr
dt ( sin t)i  (cos t)j  6" k F dr
dt

sin t work '0 3 cos# t  2 sin2 t 


21
" " " "
3 cos# t  2sin2 t  6 cos t  6 6 cos t  6 sin t dt
" " #1
 32 t  3
4 sin 2t  t  sin 2t
2  6 sin t  6 cos t ! 1

15. r (sin t)i  (cos t)j  tk , 0 t 21, and F zi  xj  yk F ti  (sin t)j  (cos t)k and
t cos t  sin# t  cos t work '0 at cos t  sin# t  cos tb dt
21
dr
dt (cos t)i  (sin t)j  k F dr
dt
#1
cos t  t sin t  t
2  sin 2t
4  sin t ! 1

16. r (sin t)i  (cos t)j  6t k , 0 t 21, and F 6zi  y# j  12xk F ti  acos# tbj  (12 sin t)k and
dr
dt (cos t)i  (sin t)j  "6 k F dr
dt t cos t  sin t cos# t  2 sin t
work '0 at cos t  sin t cos# t  2 sin tb dt cos t  t sin t 
21 #1
1
3 cos$ t  2 cos t ! 0

17. x t and y x# t# r ti  t# j , 1 t 2, and F xyi  (x  y)j F t$ i  at  t# b j and


t$  a2t#  2t$ b 3t$  2t# 'C xy dx  (x  y) dy 'C F dt 'c" a3t$  2t# b dt
#
dr
dt i  2tj F dr
dt
dr
dt
#
 34 t%  23 t$ " 12  16
3  34  23 45
4  18
3 69
4

18. Along (0 0) to (1 0): r ti , 0 t 1, and F (x  y)i  (x  y)j F ti  tj and dr


dt i F dr
dt t;
Along (1 0) to (0 1): r (1  t)i  tj , 0 t 1, and F (x  y)i  (x  y)j F (1  2t)i  j and
dt i  j F dt 2t;
dr dr

Along (0 1) to (0 0): r (1  t)j , 0 t 1, and F (x  y)i  (x  y)j F (t  1)i  (1  t)j and


t  1 'C (x  y) dx  (x  y) dy '0 t dt  '0 2t dt  '0 (t  1) dt '0 (4t  1) dt
1 1 1 1
dr
dt j F dr
dt
"
c2t#  td ! 2  1 1

19. r xi  yj y# i  yj , 2 y 1, and F x# i  yj y% i  yj dr


dy 2yi  j and F dr
dy 2y&  y
c1 c1
'C F T ds '2 F dr
dy dy '2 a2y&  yb dy  3" y'  #" y# # 3"  #"  64
"
3  #
4 3
#  63
3  39
#

1
20. r (cos t)i  (sin t)j , 0 t # , and F yi  xj F (sin t)i  (cos t)j and dr
dt ( sin t)i  (cos t)j
F dr
dt  sin# t  cos# t 1 'C F dr '0 12
(1) dt  1#

21. r (i  j)  t(i  2j) (1  t)i  (1  2t)j , 0 t 1, and F xyi  (y  x)j F a1  3t  2t# b i  tj and
1  5t  2t# work 'C F dt '0 a1  5t  2t# b dt t  52 t#  23 t$ !
1 "
dr
dt i  2j F dr
dt
dr
dt
25
6

22. r (2 cos t)i  (2 sin t)j , 0 t 21, and F f 2(x  y)i  2(x  y)j
F 4(cos t  sin t)i  4(cos t  sin t)j and ddtr (2 sin t)i  (2 cos t)j F dr
dt

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1004 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

8 asin t cos t  sin# tb  8 acos# t  cos t sin tb 8 acos# t  sin# tb 8 cos 2t work 'C f dr

'C F dt '0 8 cos 2t dt c4 sin 2td #!1 0


21
dr
dt

23. (a) r (cos t)i  (sin t)j , 0 t 21, F" xi  yj , and F# yi  xj dr
dt ( sin t)i  (cos t)j ,
F" (cos t)i  (sin t)j , and F# ( sin t)i  (cos t)j F" dr
dt 0 and F# dr
dt sin# t  cos# t 1
Circ" '0 0 dt 0 and Circ# '0 dt 21; n (cos t)i  (sin t)j F" n cos# t  sin# t 1 and
21 21

F# n 0 Flux" '0 dt 21 and Flux# '0 0 dt 0


21 21

(b) r (cos t)i  (4 sin t)j , 0 t 21 dr


dt ( sin t)i  (4 cos t)j , F" (cos t)i  (4 sin t)j , and
4 Circ" '0 15 sin t cos t dt
21
F# (4 sin t)i  (cos t)j F" dr
dt 15 sin t cos t and F# dr
dt

 "25 sin# t ! 0 and Circ# '0 4 dt 81; n 417 cos t i  "17 sin t j F" n
#1 21

sin# t and F# n  1517 sin t cos t Flux" '0 (F" n) kvk dt '0 417 17 dt
21 21
4
17 cos# t  4
17

81 and Flux# '0 (F# n) kvk dt '0  1517 sin t cos t 17 dt  15


21 21
# #1
2 sin t ! 0

24. r (a cos t)i  (a sin t)j , 0 t 21, F" 2xi  3yj , and F# 2xi  (x  y)j dr
dt (a sin t)i  (a cos t)j ,
F" (2a cos t)i  (3a sin t)j , and F# (2a cos t)i  (a cos t  a sin t)j n kvk (a cos t)i  (a sin t)j ,
F" n kvk 2a# cos# t  3a# sin# t, and F# n kvk 2a# cos# t  a# sin t cos t  a# sin# t
Flux" '0 a2a# cos# t  3a# sin# tb dt 2a#  2t 
21
sin 2t #1 sin 2t #1
4 !
 3a#  2t  4 !
1a# , and

Flux# '0 a2a# cos# t  a# sin t cos t  a# sin# tb dt 2a#  2t 


21
sin 2t #1 a# #1 sin 2t #1
4 !
 # csin# td !  a#  2t  4 !
1a#

25. F" (a cos t)i  (a sin t)j , d r"


dt (a sin t)i  (a cos t)j F" d r"
dt 0 Circ" 0; M" a cos t,
N" a sin t, dx a sin t dt, dy a cos t dt Flux" 'C M" dy  N" dx '0 aa# cos# t  a# sin# tb dt
1

'0 a# dt a# 1;
1

t Circ# 'ca t dt 0; M# t, N# 0, dx dt, dy 0 Flux#


a
F # ti , d r#
dt i F# d r#
dt

'C M# dy  N# dx 'ca 0 dt 0; therefore, Circ Circ"  Circ# 0 and Flux Flux"  Flux# a# 1
a

26. F" aa# cos# tb i  aa# sin# tb j , d r"


dt (a sin t)i  (a cos t)j F" d r"
dt a$ sin t cos# t  a$ cos t sin# t
Circ" '0 aa$ sin t cos# t  a$ cos t sin# tb dt  2a3 ; M" a# cos# t, N" a# sin# t, dy a cos t dt,
1 $

dx a sin t dt Flux" 'C M" dy  N" dx '0 aa$ cos$ t  a$ sin$ tb dt


1
4
3 a$ ;
t# Circ# 'ca t# dt
a
2a$
F # t# i , d r#
dt i F# d r#
dt 3 ; M# t# , N# 0, dy 0, dx dt
Flux# 'C M# dy  N# dx 0; therefore, Circ Circ"  Circ# 0 and Flux Flux"  Flux# 4
3 a$

27. F" (a sin t)i  (a cos t)j , d r"


dt (a sin t)i  (a cos t)j F" d r"
dt a# sin# t  a# cos# t a#
Circ" '0 a# dt a# 1 ; M" a sin t, N" a cos t, dx a sin t dt, dy a cos t dt
1

Flux" 'C M" dy  N" dx '0 aa# sin t cos t  a# sin t cos tb dt 0; F# tj ,
1
dr#
dt i F# d r#
dt 0
Circ# 0; M# 0, N# t, dx dt, dy 0 Flux# 'C M# dy  N# dx 'ca t dt 0; therefore,
a

Circ Circ"  Circ# a# 1 and Flux Flux"  Flux# 0

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.2 Vector Fields, Work, Circulation, and Flux 1005

28. F" aa# sin# tb i  aa# cos# tb j , d r"


dt (a sin t)i  (a cos t)j F" d r"
dt a$ sin$ t  a$ cos$ t
Circ" '0 aa$ sin$ t  a$ cos$ tb dt
1
4
3 a$ ; M" a# sin# t, N" a# cos# t, dy a cos t dt, dx a sin t dt
Flux" 'C M" dy  N" dx '0 aa$ cos t sin# t  a$ sin t cos# tb dt
1
2
3 a$ ; F# t# j , d r#
dt i F# d r#
dt 0
Circ# 0; M# 0, N# t# , dy 0, dx dt Flux# 'C M# dy  N# dx 'ca t# dt  23 a$ ; therefore,
a

Circ Circ"  Circ# 4


3 a$ and Flux Flux"  Flux# 0

29. (a) r (cos t)i  (sin t)j , 0 t 1, and F (x  y)i  ax#  y# b j dr


dt (sin t)i  (cos t)j and
F (cos t  sin t)i  acos# t  sin# tb j F dr
dt  sin t cos t  sin# t  cos t 'C F T ds
'0 a sin t cos t  sin# t  cos tb dt  "2 sin# t 
1
1
4  sin t !  #
sin 2t 1 t
# 
(b) r (1  2t)i , 0 t 1, and F (x  y)i  ax#  y# b j ddtr 2i and F (1  2t)i  (1  2t)# j
1
' "'
F ddtr 4t  2 C F T ds 0 (4t  2) dt c2t#  2td ! 0
(c) r" (1  t)i  tj , 0 t 1, and F (x  y)i  ax#  y# b j ddtr" i  j and F (1  2t)i  a1  2t  2t# b j
(2t  1)  a1  2t  2t# b 2t# Flow" 'C F '0 2t# dt
1
F d r"
dt
dr"
dt
2
3 ; r# ti  (t  1)j ,
"

0 t 1, and F (x  y)i  ax#  y# b j dr#


dt i  j and F i  at#  t#  2t  1b j
1  a2t#  2t  1b 2t  2t# Flow# 'C F '0 a2t  2t# b dt
1
i  a2t#  2t  1b j F dr#
dt
dr#
dt
#
" " "
t#  23 t$ ! 3 Flow Flow"  Flow# 2
3  3 1

30. From (1 0) to (0 1): r" (1  t)i  tj , 0 t 1, and F (x  y)i  ax#  y# b j d r"


dt i  j ,
F i  a1  2t  2t# b j , and n" kv" k i  j F n" kv" k 2t  2t# Flux" '0 a2t  2t# b dt
1

" "
t#  23 t$ ! 3 ;
From (0 1) to (1 0): r# ti  (1  t)j , 0 t 1, and F (x  y)i  ax#  y# b j d r#
dt i  j ,
F (1  2t)i  a1  2t  2t b j , and n# kv# k i  j F n# kv# k (2t  1)  a1  2t  2t# b 2  4t  2t#
#

Flux# '0 a2  4t  2t# b dt 2t  2t#  23 t$ !  23 ;


1 "

From (1 0) to (1 0): r$ (1  2t)i , 0 t 1, and F (x  y)i  ax#  y# b j d r$


dt 2i ,
# #
F (1  2t)i  a1  4t  4t b j , and n$ kv$ k 2j F n$ kv$ k 2 a1  4t  4t b
Flux$ 2 '0 a1  4t  4t# b dt 2 t  2t#  43 t$ !
1 " " "
2
3 Flux Flux"  Flux#  Flux$ 3  2
3  2
3 3

31. F  x#y y# i  x
x#  y# j on x#  y# 4;
at (2 0), F j ; at (0 2), F i ; at (2 0),

F j ; at (! 2), F i ; at 2 2 , F  #3 i  "# j ;
3
at 2 2 , F # i  "# j ; at 2 2 ,
3 3
F # i  "# j ; at 2 2 , F # i  "# j

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1006 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

32. F xi  yj on x#  y# 1; at (1 0), F i ;
at (1 0), F i ; at (0 1), F j ; at (0 1),
3 3
F j ; at "# # , F "
# i # j;
3 3
at  "# # , F  "# i  # j;
3 3
at "#  # , F "
# i # j;
3 3
at  "#  # , F  "# i  # j.

33. (a) G P(x y)i  Q(x y)j is to have a magnitude a#  b# and to be tangent to x#  y# a#  b# in a
counterclockwise direction. Thus x#  y# a#  b# 2x  2yyw 0 yw  xy is the slope of the tangent
line at any point on the circle yw  ba at (a b). Let v bi  aj kvk a#  b# , with v in a
counterclockwise direction and tangent to the circle. Then let P(x y) y and Q(x y) x
G yi  xj for (a b) on x#  y# a#  b# we have G bi  aj and kGk a#  b# .
(b) G x#  y# F a#  b# F .

34. (a) From Exercise 33, part a, yi  xj is a vector tangent to the circle and pointing in a counterclockwise
direction yi  xj is a vector tangent to the circle pointing in a clockwise direction G yxi #xjy#
is a unit vector tangent to the circle and pointing in a clockwise direction.
(b) G F

35. The slope of the line through (x y) and the origin is y


x v xi  yj is a vector parallel to that line and
xi  yj
pointing away from the origin F  x#  y# is the unit vector pointing toward the origin.

36. (a) From Exercise 35,  xxi #yjy# is a unit vector through (x y) pointing toward the origin and we want

kFk to have magnitude x#  y# F x#  y#  xxi #yjy# xi  yj .

(b) We want kFk C


x#  y# where C 0 is a constant F C
x#  y#  xxi #yjy# C xx#i  yj
 y# .

12t$ Flow '0 12t$ dt c3t% d ! 48


2
#
37. F 4t$ i  8t# j  2k and dr
dt i  2tj F dr
dt

72t# Flow '0 72t# dt c24t$ d ! 24


1
"
38. F 12t# j  9t# k and dr
dt 3j  4k F dr
dt

39. F (cos t  sin t)i  (cos t)k and dr


dt ( sin t)i  (cos t)k F dr
dt  sin t cos t  1
Flow '0 ( sin t cos t  1) dt  "2 cos# t 
1 1
t ! "#  1  "#  0 1

40. F (2 sin t)i  (2 cos t)j  2k and dr


dt (2 sin t)i  (2 cos t)j  2k F dr
dt 4 sin# t  4 cos# t  4 0
Flow 0

1
41. C" : r (cos t)i  (sin t)j  tk , 0 t # F (2 cos t)i  2tj  (2 sin t)k and dr
dt ( sin t)i  (cos t)j  k
F dr
dt 2 cos t sin t  2t cos t  2 sin t  sin 2t  2t cos t  2 sin t

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.2 Vector Fields, Work, Circulation, and Flux 1007

Flow" '0
12 1#
( sin 2t  2t cos t  2 sin t) dt  "2 cos 2t  2t sin t  2 cos t  2 cos t ! 1  1 ;
1 1
C# : r j  # (1  t)k , 0 t 1 F 1(1  t)j  2k and dr
dt  k F
#
dr
dt 1
Flow# '0 1 dt c1td "! 1;
1

C$ : r ti  (1  t)j , 0 t 1 F 2ti  2(1  t)k and dr


dt ij F dr
dt 2t
Flow$ '0 2t dt ct# d ! 1 Circulation (1  1)  1  1 0
1
"

` f dx ` f dy ` f dz "
42. F dr
dt x dx
dt y dy
dt z dz
dt ` x dt  ` y dt  ` z dt , where f(x y z) # ax#  y#  x# b F dr
dt d
dt afaratbbb

by the chain rule Circulation 'C F dt 'a


b
dr
dt
d
dt afaratbbb dt farabbb  faraabb. Since C is an entire ellipse,
rabb raab, thus the Circulation 0.

43. Let x t be the parameter y x# t# and z x t r ti  t# j  tk , 0 t 1 from (0 0 0) to (1 1 1)


t$  2t$  t$ 2t$ Flow '0 2t$ dt
1
dr
dt i  2tj  k and F xyi  yj  yzk t$ i  t# j  t$ k F dr
dt
"
#

44. (a) F axy# z$ b F dr


dt ` f dx
` x dt  ` f dy
` y dt  ` z dz
` z dt df
dt , where f(x y z) xy# z$ )C F dr
dt dt

'a
b
d
dt afaratbbb dt farabbb  faraabb 0 since C is an entire ellipse.
211
(b) 'C F ddtr '111 d
dt
#""
axy# z$ b dt cxy# z$ d """ (2)(1)# (1)$  (1)(1)# (1)$ 2  1 3

45. Yes. The work and area have the same numerical value because work 'C F dr 'C yi dr
'b [f(t)i] i 
a
df
dt j dt [On the path, y equals f(t)]

'a f(t) dt Area under the curve


b
[because f(t)  0]

46. r xi  yj xi  f(x)j dr
dx i  f w (x)j ; F k
x#  y# (xi  yj) has constant magnitude k and points away
kyf (x)
w
kx  kf(x)f (x)
w
x#  [f(x)]# , by the chain rule
from the origin F dr
dx kx
x#  y#  x#  y# x#  [f(x)]# k d
dx

'C F T ds 'C F dr
dx dx 'a k
b
d
dx
x#  [f(x)]# dx k x#  [f(x)]# b
a

k b#  [f(b)]#  a#  [f(a)]# , as claimed.

47-52. Example CAS commands:


Maple:
with( LinearAlgebra );#47
F := r -> < r[1]*r[2]^6 | 3*r[1]*(r[1]*r[2]^5+2) >;
r := t -> < 2*cos(t) | sin(t) >;
a,b := 0,2*Pi;
dr := map(diff,r(t),t); # (a)
F(r(t)); # (b)
q1 := simplify( F(r(t)) . dr ) assuming t::real; # (c)
q2 := Int( q1, t=a..b );
value( q2 );
Mathematica: (functions and bounds will vary):
Exercises 47 and 48 use vectors in 2 dimensions
Clear[x, y, t, f, r, v]
f[x_, y_]:= {x y6 , 3x (x y5  2)}

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1008 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

{a, b}={0, 21};


x[t_]:= 2 Cos[t]
y[t_]:= Sin[t]
r[t_]:={x[t], y[t]}
v[t_]:= r'[t]
integrand= f[x[t], y[t]] . v[t] //Simplify
Integrate[integrand,{t, a, b}]
N[%]
If the integration takes too long or cannot be done, use NIntegrate to integrate numerically. This is suggested for exercises
49 - 52 that use vectors in 3 dimensions. Be certain to leave spaces between variables to be multiplied.
Clear[x, y, z, t, f, r, v]
f[x_, y_, z_]:= {y  y z Cos[x y z], x2  x z Cos[x y z], z  x y Cos[x y z]}
{a, b}={0, 21};
x[t_]:= 2 Cos[t]
y[t_]:= 3 Sin[t]
z[t_]:= 1
r[t_]:={x[t], y[t], z[t]}
v[t_]:= r'[t]
integrand= f[x[t], y[t],z[t]] . v[t] //Simplify
NIntegrate[integrand,{t, a, b}]

16.3 PATH INDEPENDENCE, POTENTIAL FUNCTIONS, AND CONSERVATIVE FIELDS

`P `N `M `P `N `M
1. `y x `z , `z y `x , `x z `y Conservative

`P `N `M `P `N `M
2. `y x cos z `z , `z y cos z `x , `x sin z `y Conservative

`P `N `N `M
3. `y 1 1 `z Not Conservative 4. `x 1 1 `y Not Conservative

`N `M
5. `x 01 `y Not Conservative

`P `N `M `P `N `M
6. `y 0 `z , `z 0 `x , `x ex sin y `y Conservative

`f `f `g 3y# 3y#
7. `x 2x f(x y z) x#  g(y z) `y `y 3y g(y z) #  h(z) f(x y z) x#  #  h(z)
#
`f
`z hw (z) 4z h(z) 2z#  C f(x y z) x#  3y
#  2z#  C

`f `f `g `g
8. `x y  z f(x y z) (y  z)x  g(y z) `y x `y xz `y z g(y z) zy  h(z)
`f w w
f(x y z) (y  z)x  zy  h(z) `z x  y  h (z) x  y h (z) 0 h(z) C f(x y z)
(y  z)x  zy  C

`f `f `g `g
9. `x ey2z f(x y z) xey2z  g(y z) `y xey2z  `y xey2z `y 0 f(x y z)
y2z `f y2z w y2z
xe  h(z) `z 2xe  h (z) 2xe h (z) 0 h(z) C f(x y z) xey2z  C
w

`f `f `g `g
10. `x y sin z f(x y z) xy sin z  g(y z) `y x sin z  `y x sin z `y 0 g(y z) h(z)
`f w w
f(x y z) xy sin z  h(z) `z xy cos z  h (z) xy cos z h (z) 0 h(z) C f(x y z)
xy sin z  C

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.3 Path Independence, Potential Functions, and Conservative Fields 1009
`f " `f `g
11. `z z
y #  z# f(x y z) # ln ay#  z# b  g(x y) `x `x ln x  sec# (x  y) g(x y)
"
(x ln x  x)  tan (x  y)  h(y) f(x y z) # ln ay#  z b  (x ln x  x)  tan (x  y)  h(y)
#

`f
`y y
y #  z#  sec# (x  y)  hw (y) sec# (x  y)  y
y #  z# hw (y) 0 h(y) C f(x y z)
" # #
# ln ay  z b  (x ln x  x)  tan (x  y)  C

`f `f `g
12. `x y
1  x# y# f(x y z) tan" (xy)  g(y z) `y x
1  x# y#  `y x
1  x# y#  z
1  y # z#
`g
`y z
1  y # z# g(y z) sin" (yz)  h(z) f(x y z) tan" (xy)  sin" (yz)  h(z)
`f " "
`z y
1  y # z#  hw (z) y
1  y # z#  z hw (z) z h(z) ln kzk  C
" "
f(x y z) tan (xy)  sin (yz)  ln kzk  C

`P `N `M `P `N `M
13. Let F(x y z) 2xi  2yj  2zk `y 0 `z `z 0 `x , `x 0 `y
, M dx  N dy  P dz is
`f `f `g
exact; `x 2x f(x y z) x#  g(y z) #
` y ` y 2y g(y z) y  h(z) f(x y z) x#  y# h(z)

`f
`z hw (z) 2z h(z) z#  C f(x y z) x#  y#  z#  C '02030 6 2x dx  2y dy  2z dz
f(2 3 6)  f(! ! !) 2#  3#  (6)# 49

`P `N `M `P `N `M
14. Let F(x y z) yzi  xzj  xyk `y x `z , `z y `x , `x z `y M dx  N dy  P dz is
`f `f `g `g
exact; `x yz f(x y z) xyz  g(y z) `y xz  `y xz `y 0 g(y z) h(z) f(x y z)
`f
xyz  h(z) `z xy  hw (z) xy hw (z) 0 h(z) C f(x y z) xyz  C
350
'112 yz dx  xz dy  xy dz f(3 5 0)  f(1 1 2) 0  2 2

`P `N `M `P `N `M
15. Let F(x y z) 2xyi  ax#  z# b j  2yzk `y 2z `z , `z 0 `x , `x 2x `y
`f `f `g `g
M dx  N dy  P dz is exact; `x 2xy f(x y z) x# y  g(y z) `y x#  `y x#  z# `y z#
`f
g(y z) yz#  h(z) f(x y z) x# y  yz#  h(z) `z 2yz  h (z) 2yz hw (z) 0 h(z) C
w

f(x y z) x# y  yz#  C '000 2xy dx  ax#  z# b dy  2yz dz f(" # $)  f(! ! !) 2  2(3)# 16
123

`P `N `M `P `N `M
16. Let F(x y z) 2xi  y# j  1 4 z# k `y 0 `z , `z 0 `x , `x 0 `y
$
`f `f `g
M dx  N dy  P dz is exact; `x 2x f(x y z) x#  g(y z) `y `y y# g(y z)  y3  h(z)
y$ `f
f(x y z) x#  3  h(z) `z hw (z)  1 4 z# h(z) 4 tan" z  C f(x y z)

 4 tan" z  C '000 2x dx  y# dy 
331
y$
x#  3
4
1  z# dz f(3 3 1)  f(! ! !)
1
9  27
3 4 4  (!  !  0) 1

`P `N `M `P `N `M
17. Let F(x y z) (sin y cos x)i  (cos y sin x)j  k `y 0 `z , `z 0 `x , `x cos y cos x `y
`f `f `g
M dx  N dy  P dz is exact; `x sin y cos x f(x y z) sin y sin x  g(y z) `y cos y sin x  `y
`g `f
cos y sin x `y 0 g(y z) h(z) f(x y z) sin y sin x  h(z) `z hw (z) 1 h(z) z  C

f(x y z) sin y sin x  z  C ' 100101


sin y cos x dx  cos y sin x dy  dz f(0 1 1)  f(1 ! !)
(0  1)  (0  0) 1

18. Let F(x y z) (2 cos y)i  "y  2x sin y j  "z k `P


`y 0 `N
`z , `M
`z 0 `P
`x , `N
`x 2 sin y `M
`y
`f `f `g
M dx  N dy  P dz is exact; `x 2 cos y f(x y z) 2x cos y  g(y z) `y 2x sin y  `y
" `g " `f "
y  2x sin y `y y g(y z) ln kyk  h(z) f(x y z) 2x cos y  ln kyk  h(z) `z hw (z) z

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1010 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

h(z) ln kzk  C f(x y z) 2x cos y  ln kyk  ln kzk  C


'021
1122
2 cos y dx  "y  2x sin y dy  "
z dz f 1 1# 2  f(! # ")
1 1
2 0  ln #  ln 2  (0 cos 2  ln 2  ln 1) ln #

#
`P `N `M `P `N `M
19. Let F(x y z) 3x# i  zy j  (2z ln y)k `y 2z
y `z , `z 0 `x , `x 0 `y
`f `f `g z#
M dx  N dy  P dz is exact; `x 3x# f(x y z) x$  g(y z) `y `y y g(y z) z# ln y  h(z)
`f
f(x y z) x$  z# ln y  h(z) `z 2z ln y  hw (z) 2z ln y hw (z) 0 h(z) C f(x y z)
x$  z# ln y  C '111 3x# dx 
123
z#
y dy  2z ln y dz f(1 2 3)  f(" " ")
(1  9 ln 2  C)  (1  0  C) 9 ln 2

#
`P `N `M `P `N `M
20. Let F(x y z) (2x ln y  yz)i  xy  xz j  (xy)k `y x `z , `z y `x , `x 2x
y z `y
`f `f x# `g
M dx  N dy  P dz is exact; `x 2x ln y  yz f(x y z) x# ln y  xyz  g(y z) `y y  xz  `y
x# `g `f
y  xz `y 0 g(y z) h(z) f(x y z) x# ln y  xyz  h(z) `z xy  hw (z) xy hw (z) 0

h(z) C f(x y z) x# ln y  xyz  C '121 (2x ln y  yz) dx  xy  xz dy  xy dz


211
#

f(2 1 1)  f(" 2 1) (4 ln 1  2  C)  (ln 2  2  C)  ln 2

21. Let F(x y z) "y i  1z  x


y# j  zy# k `P
`y  z"# `N
`z , `M
`z 0 `P
`x , `N
`x  y1# `M
`y
`f " `f `g "
M dx  N dy  P dz is exact; `x y f(x y z) x
y  g(y z) `y  yx#  `y z  x
y#
`g " `f
`y z g(y z) y
z  h(z) f(x y z) x
y  y
z  h(z) `z  zy#  hw (z)  zy# hw (z) 0 h(z) C

 C '111
222
"
f(x y z) x
y  y
z y dx  1z  x
y# dy  y
z# dz f(2 2 2)  f(" 1 1) 2#  2
#  C  1"  "
1  C
0

2xi  2yj  2zk `3 `3 `3


22. Let F(x y z) x #  y #  z# and let 3# x#  y#  z# `x x
3 , `y y
3 , `z 3z
`P `N `M `P `N `M
`y  4yz
3%
`z , `z  4xz
3%
`x , `x  4xy
3%
`y M dx  N dy  P dz is exact;
`f `f `g
`x
x#  y#  z# f(x y z)
2x
ln ax#  y#  z# b  g(y z) `y 2y
x #  y #  z#  `y 2y
x #  y #  z#

`` gy 0 g(y z) h(z) f(x y z) ln ax#  y#  z# b  h(z) `f


`z 2z
x #  y #  z#  hw (z)
w
x#  2z
y#  z# h (z) 0 h(z) C f(x y z) ln ax#  y#  z# b  C
222
'111 2x dx  2y dy  2z dz
x #  y #  z# f(2 2 2)  f(" 1 1) ln 12  ln 3 ln 4

23. r (i  j  k)  t(i  2j  2k) (1  t)i  (1  2t)j  (1  2t)k, 0 t 1 dx dt, dy 2 dt, dz 2 dt


231
'111 y dx  x dy  4 dz '0 (2t  1) dt  (t  1)(2 dt)  4(2) dt '0 (4t  5) dt c2t#  5td ! 3
1 1
"

24. r t(3j  4k), 0 t 1 dx 0, dy 3 dt, dz 4 dt ' 000304



x# dx  yz dy  y# dz
#

'0 a12t# b (3 dt)  9t# (4 dt) '0 54t# dt c18t# d ! 18


1 1
# "

`P `N `M `P `N `M
25. `y 0 `z , `z 2z `x , `x 0 `y M dx  N dy  P dz is exact F is conservative
path independence

`P `N `M `P `N `M
26. `y  yz
$ `z , `z  xz
$ `x , `x  xy
$ `y
x #  y #  z# x #  y #  z# x #  y #  z#

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.3 Path Independence, Potential Functions, and Conservative Fields 1011

M dx  N dy  P dz is exact F is conservative path independence

`P `N `M `P `N `M
27. `y 0 `z , `z 0 `x , `x  2x
y# `y F is conservative there exists an f so that F f;
# #
`f `f 1  x# "
`x 2x
y f(x y) x
y  g(y) `y  yx#  gw (y) y# gw (y) y# g(y)  "y  C
x# " #
1
f(x y) y  y  C F x y

`P `N `M `P `N ex `M
28. `y cos z `z , `z 0 `x , `x y `y F is conservative there exists an f so that F f;
`f `f ex `g ex `g
`x e ln y f(x y z) e ln y  g(y z)
x x
`y y  `y y  sin z `y sin z g(y z)
`f
y sin z  h(z) f(x y z) e ln y  y sin z  h(z) x
`z y cos z  h (z) y cos z hw (z) 0
w

h(z) C f(x y z) ex ln y  y sin z  C F ae ln y  y sin zb x

`P `N `M `P `N `M
29. `y 0 `z , `z 0 `x , `x 1 `y F is conservative there exists an f so that F f;
`f " `f `g `g "
`x x#  y f(x y z) 3 x$  xy  g(y z) `y x `y y#  x `y y# g(y z) 3 y$  h(z)
" $ " `f
f(x y z) 3 x  xy  y$  h(z)
3 hw (z) zez h(z) zez  e  C f(x y z)
`z
z

" " $
3 x$  xy  3 y  ze
z
 ez  C F 3" x$  xy  3" y$  zez  ez
(a) work 'A F dt 'A F dr  "3 x$  xy  3" y$  zez  ez "!! 3"  0  0  e  e  3"  0  0  1
B B "!"
dr
dt
1
(b) work 'A F dr  "3 x$  xy  3" y$  zez  ez "!! 1
B "!"

(c) work 'A F dr  "3 x$  xy  3" y$  zez  ez "!! 1


B "!"

Note: Since F is conservative, 'A F dr is independent of the path from (1 0 0) to (1 0 1).


B

`P `N `M `P `N `M
30. `y xeyz  xyzeyz  cos y `z , `z yeyz `x , `x zeyz `y F is conservative there exists an f so
`f `f `g `g
that F f; `x eyz f(x y z) xeyz  g(y z) `y xzeyz  `y xzeyz  z cos y `y z cos y
`f w
g(y z) z sin y  h(z) f(x y z) xe  z sin y  h(z) yz
`z xye  sin y  h (z) xyeyz  sin y
yz

hw (z) 0 h(z) C f(x y z) xeyz  z sin y  C F axeyz  z sin yb


(a) work 'A F dr cxeyz  z sin yd "!"
B
"1#!
(1  0)  (1  0) 0

(b) work 'A F dr cxeyz  z sin yd "!"


B
"1#!
0

(c) work 'A F dr cxeyz  z sin yd "!"


B
"1#!
0

Note: Since F is conservative, 'A F dr is independent of the path from (1 0 1) to 1 1# 0 .


B

31. (a) F ax$ y# b F 3x# y# i  2x$ yj ; let C" be the path from (1 1) to (0 0) x t  1 and
y t  1, 0 t 1 F 3(t  1)# (t  1)# i  2(t  1)$ (t  1)j 3(t  1)% i  2(t  1)% j
and r" (t  1)i  (t  1)j dr" dt i  dt j 'C F dr" '0 c3(t  1)%  2(t  1)% d dt
1

"

'0 5(t  1)% dt c(t  1)& d ! 1; let C# be the path from (0 0) to (1 1) x t and y t,
1
"

0 t 1 F 3t% i  2t% j and r# ti  tj dr# dt i  dt j 'C F dr# '0 a3t%  2t% b dt


1

'0 5t% dt 1 'C F dr 'C F dr"  'C


1
F dr# 2
" #
11
(b) Since f(x y) x$ y# is a potential function for F, '11 F dr f(1 1)  f(1 1) 2

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1012 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields
`P `N `M `P `N `M
32. `y 0 `z , `z 0 `x , `x 2x sin y `y F is conservative there exists an f so that F f;
`f `f `g `g
`x 2x cos y f(x y z) x# cos y  g(y z) `y x# sin y  `y x# sin y `y 0 g(y z) h(z)
`f
f(x y z) x# cos y  h(z) `z hw (z) 0 h(z) C f(x y z) x# cos y  C F ax# cos yb
(a) 'C 2x cos y dx  x# sin y dy cx# cos yd !"
"! 0  1 1

(b) 'C 2x cos y dx  x# sin y dy cx# cos yd "!


"1 1  (1) 2

(c) 'C 2x cos y dx  x# sin y dy cx# cos yd "!


"! 1  1 0

(d) 'C 2x cos y dx  x# sin y dy cx# cos yd "!


"! 1  1 0

`P `N `M `P
33. (a) If the differential form is exact, then `y `z 2ay cy for all y 2a c, `z `x 2cx 2cx for
`N `M
all x, and `x `y by 2ay for all y b 2a and c 2a
(b) F f the differential form with a 1 in part (a) is exact b 2 and c 2

34. F f g(x y z) '000 F dr '000 f dr f(x y z)  f(0 0 0)


xyz xyz
`g `f `g `f
`x `x  0, `y `y  0, and
`g `f
`z `z  0 g f F, as claimed

35. The path will not matter; the work along any path will be the same because the field is conservative.

36. The field is not conservative, for otherwise the work would be the same along C" and C# .

37. Let the coordinates of points A and B be axA , yA , zA b and axB , yB , zB b, respectively. The force F ai  bj  ck is
conservative because all the partial derivatives of M, N, and P are zero. Therefore, the potential function is
fax, y, zb ax  by  cz  C, and the work done by the force in moving a particle along any path from A to B is
faBb  faAb f axB , yB , zB b  faxA , yA , zA b aaxB  byB  czB  Cb  aaxA  byA  czA  Cb

aaxB  xA b  bayB  yA b  cazB  zA b F BA

38. (a) Let GmM C F C x


i y
j z
k
ax#  y#  z# b$# ax#  y#  z# b$# ax#  y#  z# b$#
`P 3yzC `N `M 3xzC `P `N 3xyC `M
`y `z , `z `x , `x `y F f for
ax#  y#  z# b&# ax#  y#  z# b&# ax#  y#  z# b&#
`f `f `g
some f; `x xC
f(x y z)  C
 g(y z) `y yC
 `y
ax#  y#  z# b$# ax#  y#  z# b"# ax#  y#  z# b$#

yC
`` gy 0 g(y z) h(z) `f
`z zC
 hw (z) zC
ax#  y#  z# b$# ax#  y#  z# b$# ax#  y#  z# b$#
h(z) C" f(x y z)  C
 C" . Let C" 0 f(x y z) GmM
is a potential
ax#  y#  z# b"# ax#  y#  z# b"#
function for F.
(b) If s is the distance of (x y z) from the origin, then s x#  y#  z# . The work done by the gravitational field
F is work 'P F dr x#GmM
P# T#
 y #  z#
GmM
s#  GmM
s" GmM s"#  "
s" , as claimed.
" T"

16.4 GREEN'S THEOREM IN THE PLANE

`M `M `N
1. M y a sin t, N x a cos t, dx a sin t dt, dy a cos t dt `x 0, `y 1, `x 1, and
`N
`y 0;

Equation (11): )C M dy  N dx '021 [(a sin t)(a cos t)  (a cos t)(a sin t)] dt '021 0 dt 0;
' ' ``Mx  ``Ny dx dy ' ' 0 dx dy 0, Flux
R R

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.4 Green's Theorem in the Plane 1013

Equation (12): )C M dx  N dy '021 [(a sin t)(a sin t)  (a cos t)(a cos t)] dt '021 a# dt 21a# ;
a c x
' ' ``Nx  ``My dx dy ' ' 2 dy dx 'ca 4a#  x# dx 4 x2 a#  x# 
a # # a a
a#
ca cc # sin" xa
R ca
2a # 1#  1
#
#
2a 1, Circulation

`M `M `N `N
2. M y a sin t, N 0, dx a sin t dt, dy a cos t dt `x 0, `y 1, `x 0, and `y 0;

Equation (11): )C M dy  N dx '0 21


a# sin t cos t dt a#  "2 sin# t ! 0; ' ' 0 dx dy 0, Flux
#1

R
Equation (12): )C M dx  N dy '0 aa# sin# tb dt a#  2t  sin4 2t ! 1a# ; ' ' ``Nx  ``My dx dy
21 #1

R
' ' 1 dx dy '0 '0 r dr d) '0 
21 a 21
a# #
# d) 1a , Circulation
R

`M `M `N
3. M 2x 2a cos t, N 3y 3a sin t, dx a sin t dt, dy a cos t dt `x 2, `y 0, `x 0, and
`N
`y 3;

Equation (11): )C M dy  N dx '021 [(2a cos t)(a cos t)  (3a sin t)(a sin t)] dt
'0 a2a# cos# t  3a# sin# tb dt 2a#  2t 
21
sin 2t #1 sin 2t #1
4 !
 3a#  2t  4 !
21a#  31a# 1a# ;
' ' ``Mx  ``Ny ' ' 1 dx dy ' ' r dr d) '  a## d) 1a# , Flux
21 a 21

0 0 0
R R
Equation (12): )C M dx  N dy '021 [(2a cos t)(a sin t)  (3a sin t)(a cos t)] dt
'0 a2a# sin t cos t  3a# sin t cos tb dt 5a#  12 sin# t ! 0; ' ' 0 dx dy 0, Circulation
21 #1

4. M x# y a$ cos# t, N xy# a$ cos t sin# t, dx a sin t dt, dy a cos t dt


``Mx 2xy, ``My x2 , ``Nx y# , and ``Ny 2xy;

Equation (11): )C M dy  N dx '021 aa% cos$ t sin t  a% cos t sin$ tb a4 %


cos% t  a%
4 sin% t
#1
0;
!
' ' ``Mx  ``Ny dx dy ' ' (2xy  2xy) dx dy 0, Flux
R R
Equation (12): )C M dx  N dy '021 aa% cos# t sin# t  a% cos# t sin# tb dt '021 a2a% cos# t sin# tb dt
'0 "# a% sin# 2t dt a4 '0 sin# u du a4  u2  sin42u ! 1#a ; ' ' ``Nx  ``My dx dy ' ' ay#  x# b dx dy
21 41 % %1 % %

R R
'0 '0 r# r dr d) '0 a4
21 a 21 %
1 a%
d) # , Circulation

1 Flux ' ' 2 dx dy '0 '01 2 dx dy 2;


1
`M `M `N `N
5. M x  y, N y  x `x 1, `y 1, `x 1, `y
R
Circ ' ' [1  (1)] dx dy 0
R

6. M x#  4y, N x  y# `M
`x 2x, `M
`y 4, `N
`x 1, `N
`y 2y Flux ' ' (2x  2y) dx dy
R
'0 '0 (2x  2y) dx dy '0 cx#  2xyd ! dy '0 (1  2y) dy cy  y# d ! 2; Circ ' ' (1  4) dx dy
1 1 1 1
" "

R
'0 '0 3 dx dy 3
1 1

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1014 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

7. M y#  x# , N x#  y# `M
`x 2x, `M
`y 2y, `N
`x 2x, `N
`y 2y Flux ' ' (2x  2y) dx dy
R
'0 '0 (2x  2y) dy dx '0 a2x#  x# b dx  "3 x$ ! 9; Circ ' ' (2x  2y) dx dy
3 x 3 $

R
'0 '0 (2x  2y) dy dx '0 x# dx 9
3 x 3

8. M x  y, N  ax#  y# b `M
`x 1, `M
`y 1, `N
`x 2x, `N
`y 2y Flux ' ' (1  2y) dx dy
R
'0 '0 (1  2y) dy dx '0 ax  x b dx ; Circ ' ' (2x  1) dx dy '0 '0 (2x  1) dy dx
1 x 1 1 x
# "
6
R
'0 a2x#  xb dx  76
1

`M `M `N `N
9. M x  ex sin y, N x  ex cos y `x 1  ex sin y, `y ex cos y, `x 1  ex cos y, `y ex sin y
14 cos 2)
Flux ' ' dx dy 'c14 '0 r dr d) '14 "# cos 2) d)  4" sin 2) 1%
1 4
1% "
# ;
R
14 cos 2)
Circ ' ' a1  ex cos y  ex cos yb dx dy ' ' dx dy 'c14 '0 r dr d) '14 "# cos 2) d)
1 4
"
#
R R

`M y `M `N `N
10. M tan" y
x , N ln ax#  y# b `x x#  y# , `y x
x#  y# , `x 2x
x#  y# , `y 2y
x#  y#

dx dy '0 '12 r sinr ) r dr d) '01 sin ) d) 2;


1
Flux ' ' x#yy#  2y
x#  y# #
R
dx dy '0 '1 r dr d) '0 cos ) d) 0
1 1
Circ ' ' x# 2x
2
)
 y# 
x r cos
x#  y# r#
R

2y Flux ' ' (y  2y) dy dx '0 'xx 3y dy dx


1
`M `M `N `N
11. M xy, N y# `x y, `y x, `x 0, `y #
R
'0 3x#  ; Circ ' ' x dy dx '0 'xx x dy dx '01 ax#  x$ b dx  1"#
1 # 1
3x% "
# dx 5 #
R

`M `M `N `N
12. M  sin y, N x cos y `x 0, `y  cos y, `x cos y, `y x sin y

Flux ' ' (x sin y) dx dy '0 '0 (x sin y) dx dy '0  18 sin y dy  18 ;
12 12 12 # #

Circ ' ' [cos y  ( cos y)] dx dy '0 '0 2 cos y dx dy '0 1 cos y dy c1 sin yd ! 1
12 12 12
1#

`M " `N "
13. M 3xy  x
1  y# , N ex  tan " y `x 3y  1  y# , `y 1  y#

Flux ' ' 3y  "


1  y#  "
1  y# dx dy ' ' 3y dx dy '0
21
'0a1  cos )
(3r sin )) r dr d)
R R

'0 a$ (1  cos ))$ (sin )) d)  a4 (1  cos ))%


21 $ #1
4a$  a4a$ b 0
!

ex `M ex `N ex
Circ ' ' ey  1  dx dy ' ' (1) dx dy
x
ex
14. M y  ex ln y, N y `y 1 y , `x y y
R R
3 c x#
'c1 'x% b 1  dy dx  'c1 ca3  x b  ax  1bd dx 'c1 ax  x  2b dx 
1 1 1
# % % # 44
15

15. M 2xy$ , N 4x# y# `M


`y 6xy# , `N
`x 8xy# work )C 2xy$ dx  4x# y# dy ' ' a8xy#  6xy# b dx dy
R

'0 '0 2xy dy dx '


1 x$ 1
# "!
2
0 3
x dx 2
33

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.4 Green's Theorem in the Plane 1015

16. M 4x  2y, N 2x  4y `M
`y 2, `N
`x 2 work )C (4x  2y) dx  (2x  4y) dy
' ' [2  (2)] dx dy 4 ' ' dx dy 4(Area of the circle) 4(1 4) 161
R R

17. M y# , N x# `M
`y 2y, `N
`x 2x )C y# dx  x# dy ' ' (2x  2y) dy dx
R
1cx
'0 '0 (2x  2y) dy dx '0 a3x  4x  1b dx cx  2x#  xd ! 1  2  1 0
1 1
# $ "

2 )C 3y dx  2x dy ' ' (2  3) dx dy '0 '0sin x 1 dy dx


1
`M `N
18. M 3y, N 2x `y 3, `x
R
'0 sin x dx 2
1

19. M 6y  x, N y  2x `M
`y 6, `N
`x 2 )C (6y  x) dx  (y  2x) dy ' ' (2  6) dy dx
R
4(Area of the circle) 161

20. M 2x  y# , N 2xy  3y `M
`y 2y, `N
`x 2y )C a2x  y# b dx  (2xy  3y) dy ' ' (2y  2y) dx dy 0
R

21. M x a cos t, N y a sin t dx a sin t dt, dy a cos t dt Area "


#
)C x dy  y dx

"
#
'0 21
aa# cos# t  a# sin# tb dt "
#
'0
21
a# dt 1a#

22. M x a cos t, N y b sin t dx a sin t dt, dy b cos t dt Area "


#
)C x dy  y dx
"
#
'021 aab cos# t  ab sin# tb dt "# '021 ab dt 1ab

23. M x a cos$ t, N y sin$ t dx 3 cos# t sin t dt, dy 3 sin# t cos t dt Area "
#
)C x dy  y dx
"
#
'0 21
a3 sin# t cos# tb acos# t  sin# tb dt "
#
'0 21
a3 sin# t cos# tb dt 3
8
'0 21
sin# 2t dt 3
16
'041
sin# u du
sin 2u %1
3
16
 u2  4 !
3
8 1

24. M x t# , N y t$
3  t dx 2t dt, dy at#  1b dt Area "
#
)C x dy  y dx

"
#
'c33 t# at#  1b  t3  t (2t) dt "# 'c33 3" t%  t# dt 12  151 t& 
$ $
 31 t$ $ "
15 93  153
8 3
5

25. (a) M f(x), N g(y) `M


`y 0, `N
`x 0 )C f(x) dx  g(y) dy ' ' ``Nx  `M
`y dx dy
R
' ' 0 dx dy 0
R
(b) M ky, N hx `M
`y k, `N
`x h )C ky dx  hx dy ' ' ``Nx  `M
`y dx dy
R
' ' (h  k) dx dy (h  k)(Area of the region)
R

26. M xy# , N x# y  2x `M
`y 2xy, `N
`x 2xy  2 )C xy# dx  ax# y  2xb dy ' ' ``Nx  `M
`y dx dy
R
' ' (2xy  2  2xy) dx dy 2 ' ' dx dy 2 times the area of the square
R R

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1016 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

27. The integral is 0 for any simple closed plane curve C. The reasoning: By the tangential form of Green's
Theorem, with M 4x$ y and N x% , )C 4x$ y dx  x% dy ' ' ``x ax% b  `
`y a4x$ yb dx dy
R
' '
a4x$  4x$ b dx dy 0.
R
0

28. The integral is 0 for any simple closed curve C. The reasoning: By the normal form of Green's theorem, with

M x$ and N y$ , )C y$ dy  x$ dx ' '


` $ `
` x ay b 
$
` y ax b dx dy 0.
R
0 0

29. Let M x and N 0 `M


`x 1 and `N
`y 0 )C M dy  N dx ' ' ``Mx  ``Ny dx dy )C x dy
R
' ' (1  0) dx dy Area of R ' ' dx dy )C x dy; similarly, M y and N 0 `M
`y 1 and
R R
`N
`x 0 )C M dx  N dy ' ' ``Nx  `M
`y dy dx )C y dx ' ' (0  1) dy dx  )C y dx
R R
' ' dx dy Area of R
R

30. 'ab f(x) dx Area of R )C y dx, from Exercise 29

' ' x $ (xy) dA ' ' x dA ' ' x dA


31. Let $ (x y) 1 x My
M 'R ' $ (xy) dA
'R ' dA
R
A Ax ' ' x dA ' ' (x  0) dx dy
R R R R

)C x# dy, Ax ' ' x dA ' ' (0  x) dx dy  ) xy dx, and Ax ' ' x dA ' ' 23 x  3" x dx dy
#

R R C R R

) "
C 3
#
x dy  xy dx "
3
"
#
)C x #
dy )C xy dx "
3
)C x #
dy  xy dx Ax

32. If $ (x y) 1, then Iy ' ' x# $ (x y) dA ' ' x# dA ' ' ax#  0b dy dx "
3
)C x$ dy,
R R R
' ' x# dA ' ' a0  x# b dy dx  ) x# y dx, and ' ' x# dA ' ' 34 x#  "4 x# dy dx
C
R R R R
) "
C 4
$
x dy  x y dx "
4
# "
4
)C x $ #
dy  x y dx "
3
)C x $
dy  )C x# y dx "
4
)C x$ dy  x# y dx Iy

` #f
 `` xf# )C dy ' '  `` xf# 
# #
`f ` #f
33. M `y , N  `` xf `M
`y ` y# , `N
`x
`f
`y dx  `f
`x ` y# dx dy 0 for such
R
curves C

"
34. M 4 x# y  3" y$ , N x `M
`y 1
4 x#  y# , `N
`x 1 Curl `N
`x  `M
`y 1  "4 x#  y#  0 in the interior of

the ellipse "


4 x#  y# 1 work 'C F dr ' ' 1  4" x#  y# dx dy will be maximized on the region
R
"
R {(x y) | curl F} 0 or over the region enclosed by 1 4 x#  y#

35. (a) f x# 2x
 y# i  x#  y# j M
2y 2x
x#  y# ,N 2y
x#  y# ; since M, N are discontinuous at (0 0), we

compute 'C f n ds directly since Green's Theorem does not apply. Let x a cos t, y a sin t dx a sin t dt,

dy a cos t dt, M 2
a cos t, N 2
a sin t, 0 t 21, so 'C f n ds 'C M dy  N dx

'0  2a cos taa cos tb  2a sin taa sin tb dt '0 2acos2 t  sin2 tbdt 41. Note that this holds for any
21 21

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.4 Green's Theorem in the Plane 1017

a  0, so 'C f n ds 41 for any circle C centered at a0, 0b traversed counterclockwise and 'C f n ds 41
if C is traversed clockwise.
(b) If K does not enclose the point (0 0) we may apply Green's Theorem: 'C f n ds 'C M dy  N dx

' ' ``Mx  dx dy ' ' ax2  y2 b2  dx dy ' ' 0 dx dy 0. If K does enclose the point
`N 2 y 2  x 2 2 x 2  y 2
`y ax 2  y 2 b 2

R R R
(0 0) we proceed as in Example 6:
Choose a small enough so that the circle C centered at (0 0) of radius a lies entirely within K. Green's Theorem
applies to the region R that lies between K and C. Thus, as before, 0 ' ' ``Mx  `N
`y dx dy
R
'K M dy  N dx  'C M dy  N dx where K is traversed counterclockwise and C is traversed clockwise.

Hence by part (a) 0 ' M dy  N dx  41 41 'K M dy  N dx 'K f n ds. We have shown:


K

'K f n ds 0 if (0 0) lies inside K


41 if (0 0) lies outside K

36. Assume a particle has a closed trajectory in R and let C" be the path C" encloses a simply connected region
R" C" is a simple closed curve. Then the flux over R" is )C F n ds 0, since the velocity vectors F are
"

tangent to C" . But 0 )C F n ds )C M dy  N dx ' ' ``Mx  `N


`y dx dy Mx  Ny 0, which is a
" "
R"
contradiction. Therefore, C" cannot be a closed trajectory.

37. 'gg yy
#
`N
`x dx dy N(g# (y) y)  N(g" (y) y) 'cd 'gg yy ``Nx dx dy 'cd [N(g# (y) y)  N(g" (y) y)] dy
#

" "

'c N(g# (y) y) dy  'c N(g" (y) y) dy 'c N(g# (y) y) dy  'd N(g" (y) y) dy 'C N dy  'C N dy
d d d c

# "

)C dy )C N dy ' ' `N
`x dx dy
R

38. 'ab 'cd `M


`y dy dx 'a [M(x d)  M(x c)] dx 'a M(x d) dx  'a M(x c) dx 'C M dx  'C M dx.
b b b

3 "

Because x is constant along C# and C% , 'C M dx 'C M dx 0


# %

 'C M dx  'C M dx  'C M dx  'C M dx  )C M dx 'a 'cd dy dx )C M dx.


b
`M
`y
" # $ %

39. The curl of a conservative two-dimensional field is zero. The reasoning: A two-dimensional field F Mi  Nj
can be considered to be the restriction to the xy-plane of a three-dimensional field whose k component is zero,
and whose i and j components are independent of z. For such a field to be conservative, we must have
`N `M `N `M
` x ` y by the component test in Section 16.3 curl F ` x  ` y 0.

40. Green's theorem tells us that the circulation of a conservative two-dimensional field around any simple closed
curve in the xy-plane is zero. The reasoning: For a conservative field F Mi  Nj , we have ``Nx ``My
`N `M
(component test for conservative fields, Section 16.3, Eq. (2)), so curl F `x  `y 0. By Green's theorem,
the counterclockwise circulation around a simple closed plane curve C must equal the integral of curl F over the
region R enclosed by C. Since curl F 0, the latter integral is zero and, therefore, so is the circulation.
The circulation )C F T ds is the same as the work )C F dr done by F around C, so our observation that
circulation of a conservative two-dimensional field is zero agrees with the fact that the work done by a
conservative field around a closed curve is always 0.

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1018 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

41-44. Example CAS commands:


Maple:
with( plots );#41
M := (x,y) -> 2*x-y;
N := (x,y) -> x+3*y;
C := x^2 + 4*y^2 = 4;
implicitplot( C, x=-2..2, y=-2..2, scaling=constrained, title="#41(a) (Section 16.4)" );
curlF_k := D[1](N) - D[2](M): # (b)
'curlF_k' = curlF_k(x,y);
top,bot := solve( C, y ); # (c)
left,right := -2, 2;
q1 := Int( Int( curlF_k(x,y), y=bot..top ), x=left..right );
value( q1 );
Mathematica: (functions and bounds will vary)
The ImplicitPlot command will be useful for 41 and 42, but is not needed for 43 and 44. In 44, the equation of the line
from (0, 4) to (2, 0) must be determined first.
Clear[x, y, f]
<<Graphics`ImplicitPlot`
f[x_, y_]:= {2x  y, x  3y}
curve= x2  4y2 ==4
ImplicitPlot[curve, {x, 3, 3},{y, 2, 2}, AspectRatio Automatic, AxesLabel {x, y}];
ybounds= Solve[curve, y]
{y1, y2}=y/.ybounds;
integrand:=D[f[x,y][[2]], x]  D[f[x,y][[1]], y]//Simplify
Integrate[integrand, {x, 2, 2}, {y, y1, y2}]
N[%]
Bounds for y are determined differently in 43 and 44. In 44, note equation of the line from (0, 4) to (2, 0).
Clear[x, y, f]
f[x_, y_]:= {x Exp[y], 4x2 Log[y]}
ybound = 4  2x
Plot[{0, ybound}, {x, 0,2. 1}, AspectRatio Automatic, AxesLabel {x, y}];
integrand:=D[f[x, y][[2]], x]  D[f[x, y][[1]], y]//Simplify
Integrate[integrand, {x, 0, 2}, {y, 0, ybound}]
N[%]

16.5 SURFACE AREA AND SURFACE INTEGRALS

1. p k , f 2xi  2yj  k k f k (2x)#  (2y)#  (1)# 4x#  4y#  1 and k f pk 1;


z 2 x#  y# 2; thus S ' ' kf k dA ' ' 4x#  4y#  1 dx dy
kfpk
R R
2 #
' ' 4r# cos# )  4r# sin# )  1 r dr d) '0 '0 4r#  1 r dr d) ' " a4r#  1b$#
21 21

12 d)
R
0 !

'0
21
13
6 d) 13
3 1

2. p k , f 2xi  2yj  k k f k 4x#  4y#  1 and k f pk 1; 2 x#  y# 6



dA ' ' 4x#  4y#  1 dx dy ' ' 4r#  1 r dr d) '0 '26 4r#  1 r dr d)
21
S'' kf k
kfpk
R R R
'
' d) '0
21 21
" $#
12 a4r#  1b 49
6 d) 49
3 1
0 #

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.5 Surface Area and Surface Integrals 1019

3. p k , f i  2j  2k k f k 3 and k f pk 2; x y# and x 2  y# intersect at (1 1) and (1 1)


2 c y#
S'' dA ' ' dx dy 'c1 'y# dx dy 'c1 a3  3y# b dy 4
1 1
kf k 3 3
kfpk # #
R R

4. p k , f 2xi  2k k f k 4x#  4 2x#  1 and k f pk 2 S ' ' kf k


kfpk dA
R
3 3 $
'' 2 x#  1
dx dy '0 '0x x#  1 dy dx '0 $#
# xx#  1 dx "3 ax#  1b "
3 (4)$#  "
3 7
3
R !

5. p k , f 2xi  2j  2k k f k (2x)#  (2)#  (2)# 4x#  8 2x#  2 and k f pk 2


S'' dA ' ' 2 x # 2
dx dy '0 '03x x#  2 dy dx '02 3xx#  2 dx ax#  2b$# #
2
kf k
kfpk # !
R R
66  22

6. p k , f 2xi  2yj  2zk k f k 4x#  4y#  4z# 8 22 and k f pk 2z; x#  y#  z# 2 and


z x#  y# x#  y# 1; thus, S ' ' kf k
kfpk dA ' ' 2 2
#z dA 2 ' ' "
z dA
R R R
dA 2 '0 '01 r dr d) 2 '0 1  2 d) 21 2  2
21 21
2 ' ' "
2  ax #  y # b 2  r#
R

7. p k , f ci  k k f k c#  1 and k f pk 1 S ' ' kf k


kfpk dA ' ' c#  1 dx dy
R R
'0 '0 c#  1 r dr d) '
21 1 21 c#  1
0 # d) 1c#  1

8. p k , f 2xi  2zj k f k (2x)#  (2z)# 2 and k f pk 2z for the upper surface, z 0


12 12 12
S'' kf k
kfpk dA ' ' 2
#z dA ' ' "
1  x# dy dx 2'c12 '0 1
1  x# dy dx '12 "
1  x# dx
R R R
"# 1
csin" xd "# 6   16 1
3

9. p i , f i  2yj  2zk k f k 1#  (2y)#  (2z)# 1  4y#  4z# and k f pk 1; 1 y#  z# 4


dA ' ' 1  4y#  4z# dy dz '0 '12 1  4r# cos# )  4r# sin# ) r dr d)
21
S'' kf k
kfpk
R R

'0 '1 1  4r# r dr d) '021 12" a1  4r# b$# # d) '021 1"# 1717  55 d) 16 1717  55
21 2

"

10. p j , f 2xi  j  2zk k f k 4x#  4z#  1 and k f pk 1; y 0 and x#  y  z# 2 x#  z# 2;


2
dA ' ' 4x#  4z#  1 dx dz '0 '0 4r#  1 r dr d) '
21 21
thus, S ' ' kf k
kfpk 0
13
6 d) 13
3 1
R R

# # #
11. p k , f 2x  2x i  15 j  k k f k 2x  2x  15  (1)# 4x#  8  4
x# 2x  2x

2x  2x , on 1 x 2 and k f pk 1 S ' ' k f k


kfpk dA ' ' a2x  2x" b dx dy
R R
'0 '1 a2x  2x" b dx dy '0 cx#  2 ln xd " dy '0 (3  2 ln 2) dy 3  2 ln 2
1 2 1 1
#

12. p k , f 3x i  3y j  3k k f k 9x  9y  9 3x  y  1 and k f pk 3

S'' dA ' ' x  y  1 dx dy '0 '01 x  y  1 dx dy '01  23 (x  y  1)$# "! dy


1
kf k
kfpk
R R
'0  23 (y  2)$#  32 (y  1)$# dy  15
1 "
4
(y  2)&#  15
4
(y  1)&# ! 15
4 
(3)&#  (2)&#  (2)&#  1

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1020 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

4
15 93  82  1

13. The bottom face S of the cube is in the xy-plane z 0 g(x y 0) x  y and f(x y z) z 0 p k
and f k k f k 1 and k f pk 1 d5 dx dy ' ' g d5 ' ' (x  y) dx dy
S R
'0 '0 (x  y) dx dy '0 a#
a a a #
 ay dy a . Because of symmetry, we also get a$ over the face of the cube
$

in the xz-plane and a$ over the face of the cube in the yz-plane. Next, on the top of the cube, g(x y z)
g(x y a) x  y  a and f(x y z) z a p k and f k k f k 1 and k f pk 1 d5 dx dy
' ' g d5 ' ' (x  y  a) dx dy ' ' (x  y  a) dx dy ' ' (x  y) dx dy  ' ' a dx dy 2a$ .
a a a a a a

0 0 0 0 0 0
S R
Because of symmetry, the integral is also 2a$ over each of the other two faces. Therefore,
' ' (x  y  z) d5 3 aa$  2a$ b 9a$ .
cube

14. On the face S in the xz-plane, we have y 0 f(x y z) y 0 and g(x y z) g(x 0 z) z p j and
' ' g d5 ' ' (y  z) d5 ' ' z dx dz ' 2z dz
1 2 1
f j k f k 1 and k f pk 1 d5 dx dz 0 0 0
S S
1.
On the face in the xy-plane, we have z 0 f(x y z) z 0 and g(x y z) g(x y 0) y p k and
f k k f k 1 and k f pk 1 d5 dx dy ' ' g d5 ' ' y d5 '0 '02 y dx dy 1.
1

S S
On the triangular face in the plane x 2 we have f(x y z) x 2 and g(x y z) g(2 y z) y  z p i and
1cy
' ' g d5 ' ' (y  z) d5 ' ' (y  z) dz dy
1
f i k f k 1 and k f pk 1 d5 dz dy 0 0
S S

'0 "# a1  y# b dy 3" .


1

On the triangular face in the yz-plane, we have x 0 f(x y z) x 0 and g(x y z) g(0 y z) y  z
p i and f i k f k 1 and k f pk 1 d5 dz dy ' ' g d5 ' ' (y  z) d5
S S
1cy
'0 '0
1
"
(y  z) dz dy 3 .
Finally, on the sloped face, we have y  z 1 f(x y z) y  z 1 and g(x y z) y  z 1 p k and
f j  k k f k 2 and k f pk 1 d5 2 dx dy ' ' g d5 ' ' (y  z) d5
S S

'0 '0 2 dx dy 22. Therefore, ' ' g(x y z) d5 1  1  "3  3"  22 38  22


1 2

wedge

15. On the faces in the coordinate planes, g(x y z) 0 the integral over these faces is 0.
On the face x a, we have f(x y z) x a and g(x y z) g(a y z) ayz p i and f i k f k 1
' ' g d5 ' ' ayz d5 ' ' ayz dy dz
c b
ab# c#
and k f pk 1 d5 dy dz 0 0 4 .
S S
On the face y b, we have f(x y z) y b and g(x y z) g(x b z) bxz p j and f j k f k 1
' ' g d5 ' ' bxz d5 ' ' bxz dx dz
c a
a# bc#
and k f pk 1 d5 dx dz 0 0 4 .
S S
On the face z c, we have f(x y z) z c and g(x y z) g(x y c) cxy p k and f k k f k 1
' ' g d5 ' ' cxy d5 ' ' cxy dx dy
b a
a# b# c
and k f pk 1 d5 dy dx 0 0 4 . Therefore,
S S
' ' g(x y z) d5 abc(ab  ac  bc)
4 .
S

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.5 Surface Area and Surface Integrals 1021

16. On the face x a, we have f(x y z) x a and g(x y z) g(a y z) ayz p i and f i k f k 1
' ' g d5 ' ' ayz d5 ' ' ayz dz dy 0. Because of the symmetry
b c
and k f pk 1 d5 dz dy cb cc
S S
of g on all the other faces, all the integrals are 0, and ' ' g(x y z) d5 0.
S

17. f(x y z) 2x  2y  z 2 f 2i  2j  k and g(x y z) x  y  (2  2x  2y) 2  x  y p k ,


k f k 3 and k f pk 1 d5 3 dy dx; z 0 2x  2y 2 y 1  x ' ' g d5 ' ' (2  x  y) d5
S S
1cx
3 '0 '0 (2  x  y) dy dx 3 '0 (2  x)(1  x)  "# (1  x)# dx 3 '0 3#  2x  x# dx 2
1 1 1 #

18. f(x y z) y#  4z 16 f 2yj  4k k f k 4y#  16 2y#  4 and p k k f pk 4


dx dy ' ' g d5 'c4 '0 xy#  4 dx dy 'c4 '0
2 y#  4 y#  4
4 1 4 1
x ay #  4 b
d5 4 # # dx dy
S

'c4
4 $ %
" " "
4 ay#  4b dy # y3  4y # 3  16
64 56
3
!

19. g(x y z) z, p k g k k gk 1 and k g pk 1 Flux ' ' F n d5 ' ' (F k) dA


S R

'0 '0
2 3
3 dy dx 18

20. g(x y z) y, p j g j k gk 1 and k g pk 1 Flux ' ' F n d5 ' ' (F j) dA


S R

'c1 '2 2 dz dx 'c1 2(7  2) dx 10(2  1) 30


2 7 2

2xi  2yj  2zk x i  y j  zk z#


21. g 2xi  2yj  2zk k gk 4x#  4y#  4z# 2a; n #x#  y#  z#
a Fn a ;

dA Flux ' ' za az dA ' ' z dA ' ' a#  ax#  y# b dx dy


#
k g kk 2z d5 2a
2z
R R R

'0 '0 a#  r# r dr d)
12 a
1a$
6

2xi  2yj  2zk x i  y j  zk xy


22. g 2xi  2yj  2zk k gk 4x#  4y#  4z# 2a; n #x#  y#  z#
a Fn a  xy
a

0; k g kk 2z d5 2a
2z dA Flux ' ' F n d5 ' ' 0 d5 0
S S

23. From Exercise 21, n x i  y j  zk


a and d5 a
z dA F n xy
a  xy
a  z
a z
a Flux ' ' za az dA
R
' ' 1 dA 1a#
4
R

x i  y j  zk zx# zy# z$ #
 y #  z#
24. From Exercise 21, n a and d5 a
z dA F n a  a  a z x a az
Flux ' ' (za) az dx dy ' ' a dx dy a (Area of R)
# # "
4 1a %
R R

x i  y j  zk x# y# z#
25. From Exercise 21, n a and d5 a
z dA F n a  a  a a Flux
dA '0 '0 a
12
' ' a az dA ' ' dA ' '
# # a #
a a
a #  ax #  y # b r dr d)
z a#  r#
R R R

'0 a# a#  r# d)
12 a
1a$
! #

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1022 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields
# y# z# #
xa  a  a aa
x i  y j  zk
26. From Exercise 21, n a and d5 a
z dA F n x #  y #  z# a 1

dx dy '0 '0
12
Flux ' ' dx dy ' '
a
1 a#
a
z
a
a #  ax #  y # b
a
a#  r# r dr d) #
R R

2yj  k
27. g(x y z) y#  z 4 g 2yj  k k gk 4y#  1 n 4y#  1
2xy  3z
Fn 4y#  1 ; p k k g pk 1 d5 4y#  1 dA Flux

' '
2xy  3z
4y#  1
4y#  1 dA ' ' (2xy  3z) dA; z 0 and z 4  y# y# 4
R R

Flux ' ' c2xy  3 a4  y bd dA '0 'c2 a2xy  12  3y# b dy dx '0 cxy#  12y  y$ d # dx
1 2 1
# #

R
'0 32 dx 32
1

28. g(x y z) x#  y#  z 0 g 2xi  2yj  k k gk 4x#  4y#  1 4 ax#  y# b  1


2xi  2yj  k 8x#  8y#  2
n 4 ax #  y # b  1 Fn 4 ax #  y # b  1 ; p k k g pk 1 d5 4 ax#  y# b  1 dA

Flux ' ' 8x 4 ax#  y# b  1 dA ' ' a8x#  8y#  2b dA; z 1 and x#  y# z
# #
 8y  2
4 ax #  y # b  1
R R
x  y 1 Flux '0 '0 a8r
21 1
# # #
 2b r dr d) 21

ex i  j 2ex  2y
29. g(x y z) y  ex 0 g ex i  j k gk e2x  1 n e2x  1 Fn e2x  1 ;pi

dA Flux ' ' 2e2x 2y dA ' '


e2x 1 x e2x  1 2ex  2ex
k g pk ex d5 ex ex ex dA
e 1
R R
' ' 4 dA '0 '12 4 dy dz 4
1

1  x#
30. g(x y z) y  ln x 0 g  "x i  j k gk x"#  1 x since 1 x e
 " i  j i  x j 1  x#
n 1  x#
x
1  x# Fn 2xy
1  x# ; p j k g p k 1 d5 x dA
x 

Flux ' ' 2xy # dA '0 '1e 2y dx dz '1e '01 2 ln x dz dx '1e 2 ln x dx


1  x# 1

1x x
R
2 cx ln x  xd e" 2(e  e)  2(0  1) 2

31. On the face z a: g(x y z) z g k k gk 1; n k F n 2xz 2ax since z a;


d5 dx dy Flux ' ' 2ax dx dy '0 '0 2ax dx dy a% .
a a

R
On the face z 0: g(x y z) z g k k gk 1; n k F n 2xz 0 since z 0;
d5 dx dy Flux ' ' 0 dx dy 0.
R
On the face x a: g(x y z) x g i k gk 1; n i F n 2xy 2ay since x a;
d5 dy dz Flux '0 '0 2ay dy dz a% .
a a

On the face x 0: g(x y z) x g i k gk 1; n i F n 2xy 0 since x 0


Flux 0.
On the face y a: g(x y z) y g j k gk 1; n j F n 2yz 2az since y a;
d5 dz dx Flux '0 '0 2az dz dx a% .
a a

On the face y 0: g(x y z) y g j k gk 1; n j F n 2yz 0 since y 0


Flux 0. Therefore, Total Flux 3a% .

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.5 Surface Area and Surface Integrals 1023

32. Across the cap: g(x y z) x#  y#  z# 25 g 2x i  2yj  2zk k gk 4x#  4y#  4z# 10
g x i  y j  zk x# z y# z
n kg k 5 Fn 5  5  5z ; p k k g pk 2z since z 0 d5 10
2z dA

 5z 5z dA ' ' ax#  y#  1b dx dy '0 '0 ar#  1b r dr d)


21
Fluxcap ' ' F n d5 ' ' x5z 
4
# y# z
5
cap R R
'0 72 d) 1441.
21

Across the bottom: g(x y z) z 3 g k k gk 1 n k F n 1; p k k g pk 1


d5 dA Fluxbottom ' ' F n d5 ' ' 1 dA 1(Area of the circular region) 161. Therefore,
bottom R
Flux Fluxcap  Fluxbottom 1281

33. f 2x i  2yj  2zk k f k 4x#  4y#  4z# 2a; p k k f pk 2z since z 0 d5 2a


2z dA
dA; M ' ' $ d5 8$ (surface area of sphere) ; Mxy ' ' z$ d5 $ ' ' z za dA
#
a $1a
z #
S S R

a$ ' ' dA a$ '0 '0


12 a
$1a$ $
$14a $12a#
Mxy
r dr d) 4 z M a
# . Because of symmetry, x y
R
a
2 the centroid is #a #a #a .

34. f 2y j  2zk k f k 4y#  4z# 4 ay#  z# b 6; p k k f kk 2z since z 0 d5 6


2z dA
3
z dA; M ' ' 1 d5 'c3 '0
3 3
3
z dx dy 'c3 '03 3
3
9  y# dx dy 91; Mxy ' ' z d5
S S
'c33 '03 z 3z dx dy 54; Mxz ' ' y d5 'c33 '03 y 3z dx dy 'c33 '03 3y
9  y# dx dy 0;
S

Myz ' ' x d5 'c3 '0


3 3 27
# 1
3x
9  y# dx dy 27
# 1. Therefore, x 91 3
# , y 0, and z 54
91 6
1
S

35. Because of symmetry, x y 0; M ' ' $ d5 $ ' ' d5 (Area of S)$ 312 $ ; f 2x i  2yj  2zk
S S
2 x #  y #  z#
k f k 4x#  4y#  4z# 2x#  y#  z# ; p k k f pk 2z d5 #z dA

2 x#  y# 2 x#  y#
dA Mxy $ ' ' z
x #  y #  ax #  y # b
z dA z z dA
R
141 2 $
$ ' ' 2 x#  y# dA $ '0 '1 2 r# dr d)
21
1412
2 3
$ z 14
3 31 2 $ 9
R
2 x#  y#
ax y zb 0 0 14
9 . Next, Iz
' ' ax#  y# b $ d5 ' ' ax#  y# b z $ dA
S R

$ 2 ' ' ax#  y# b dA $ 2 '0 '12 r$ dr d) 151#2 $


21 10
Rz M
Iz
#
R

36. f(x y z) 4x#  4y#  z# 0 f 8xi  8yj  2zk k f k 64x#  64y#  4z#
2 5 z
216x#  16y#  z# 24z#  z# 25 z since z 0; p k k f pk 2z d5 2z dA 5 dA
Iz ' ' ax#  y# b $ d5 $ 5 ' ' ax#  y# b dx dy $ 5 'c12 '0
12 2 cos )
351$
r$ dr d) #
S R

37. (a) Let the diameter lie on the z-axis and let f(x y z) x#  y#  z# a# , z 0 be the upper hemisphere
f 2xi  2yj  2zk k f k 4x#  4y#  4z# 2a, a  0; p k k f pk 2z since z 0
dA a$ '0 '0a r
21
dA Iz ' ' $ ax#  y# b az d5 a$ ' ' x#  y# #
d5 a
a #  ax #  y # b r dr d)
z a #  r#
S R
a$ '0 r# a#  r#  23 aa#  r# b d) a$ '0
21 21
$# a 41 81
2
3 a$ d) 3 a% $ the moment of inertia is 3 a% $ for
!

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1024 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

the whole sphere


(b) IL Ic.m.  mh# , where m is the mass of the body and h is the distance between the parallel lines; now,
Ic.m. 831 a% $ (from part a) and m# ' ' $ d5 $ ' ' az dA a$ ' ' # " # # dy dx a  ax  y b
S R R

a$ '0 '0 r dr d) a$ '0 a#  r# d) a$ '0 a d) 21a# $ and h a


21 a 21 a 21
"
a# r#
!
81 201
IL 3 a $  41a# $ a#
%
3 a% $

38. (a) Let z h x#  y# be the cone from z 0 to z h, h  0. Because of symmetry, x 0 and y 0;


a
h# 2xh# 2yh#
z h
a
x#  y# f(x y z)
a# ax#  y# b  z# 0 f a# i a# j  2zk
# % 4y# h% % h# # #
k f k 4xa%h  a%
 4z# 2 ha% ax#  y# b  a# ax#  y# b 2 ha# ax#  y# b ha#  1
#  a# 2z h #  a#
2z# h a# 2za h#  a# since z 0; p k k f pk 2z d5 a
2z dA

dA; M ' ' d5 ' '


h #  a# h #  a# h #  a#
a a dA a a1a# b 1ah#  a# ;
S R

Mxy ' ' z d5 ' ' z


h #  a#
a dA
h #  a#
a
' ' ha x#  y# dx dy h h #  a#
a#
'021 '0a r# dr d)
S R R
21ahh#  a# Mxy
3 z M 2h
3 the centroid is 0 0 2h
3

(b) The base is a circle of radius a and center at (0 0 h) (0 0 h) is the centroid of the base and the mass is
M ' ' d5 1a# . In Pappus' formula, let c" 2h k , c# hk , m" 1ah#  a# , and m# 1a# 3
S
1ah#  a# 2h #
3 k  1 a hk 2hh#  a#  3ah # #
c k the centroid is ! ! 2h h # a # 3ah 
1 a h #  a#  1 a# 3 h#  a#  a 3 h  a  a

(c) If the hemisphere is sitting so its base is in the plane z h, then its centroid is 0 0 h  #a and its mass is
21a# . In Pappus' formula, let c" 2h k , c# h  a k , m" 1ah#  a# , and m# 21a#
3 #
1ah#  a# 2h # a
3 k  21 a h  # k 2hh#  a#  6ah  3a#
c 1 a h #  a#  2 1 a#
k the centroid is
3 h#  a#  2a

2hh#  a#  6ah  3a#


! ! 3 h#  a#  2a 
. Thus, for the centroid to be in the plane of the bases we must have z h

2hh#  a#  6ah  3a#


h 2hh#  a#  6ah  3a# 3hh#  a#  6ah 3a# hh#  a#
3 h#  a#  2a

37  " a# 237  2
9a% h# ah#  a# b h%  a# h#  9a% 0 h# # (the positive root) h # a

39. fx (x y) 2x, fy (x y) 2y fx#  fy#  1 4x#  4y#  1 Area ' ' 4x#  4y#  1 dx dy
R
3
'0 '0
21
4r#  1 r dr d) 1
6 1313  1

40. fy (y z) 2y, fz (y z) 2z fy#  fz#  1 4y#  4z#  1 Area ' ' 4y#  4z#  1 dy dz
R
'0 '0 4r#  1 r dr d) 16 55  1
21 1

# y#
41. fx (x y) x
x#  y# , fy (x y) y
x#  y# fx#  fy#  1 x# x y#  x#  y#  1 2

Area ' ' 2 dx dy 2(Area between the ellipse and the circle) 2(61  1) 512
Rxy

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.6 Parameterized Surfaces 1025

42. Over Rxy : z 2  23 x  2y fx (x y)  23 , fy (x y) 2 fx#  fy#  1 49  4  1 7


3

Area '' 7
3 dA 7
3 (Area of the shadow triangle in the xy-plane) 73 3# 7
# .
Rxy

Over Rxz : y 1  13 x  "# z fx (x z)  13 , fz (x z)  "# fx#  fz#  1 19  "


4 1 7
6

Area '' 7
6 dA 7
6 (Area of the shadow triangle in the xz-plane) 76 (3) 7
# .
Rxz

Over Ryz : x 3  3y  3# z fy (y z) 3, fz (y z)  3# fy#  fz#  1 9  9


4 1 7
#

Area ' ' 7


2 dA 7
2 (Area of the shadow triangle in the yz-plane) 72 (1) 7
# .
Ryz

43. y 2
3 z$# fx (x z) 0, fz (x z) z"# fx#  fz#  1 z  1 ; y 16
3 16
3 2
3 z$# z 4
Area '0 '0 z  1 dx dz '0 z  1 dz 23 55  1
4 1 4

4 c z#
' ' 2 dA ' '
2
44. y 4  z fx (x z) 0, fz (x z) 1 fx#  fz#  1 2 Area 0 0
2 dx dz
Rxz

2 '0 a4  z# b dz 162
2

16.6 PARAMETRIZED SURFACES

#
1. In cylindrical coordinates, let x r cos ), y r sin ), z x#  y# r# . Then
r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  r# k , 0 r 2, 0 ) 21.

2. In cylindrical coordinates, let x r cos ), y r sin ), z 9  x#  y# 9  r# . Then


r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  a9  r# b k ; z 0 9  r# 0 r# 9 3 r 3, 0 ) 21. But
3 r 0 gives the same points as 0 r 3, so let 0 r 3.

x#  y#
3. In cylindrical coordinates, let x r cos ), y r sin ), z # z #r . Then
r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  #r k . For 0 z 3, 0 # 3 0 r 6; to
r
get only the first octant, let
1
0) # .

4. In cylindrical coordinates, let x r cos ), y r sin ), z 2x#  y# z 2r. Then


r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  2rk . For 2 z 4, 2 2r 4 1 r 2, and let 0 ) 21.

5. In cylindrical coordinates, let x r cos ), y r sin ) since x#  y# r2 z# 9  ax#  y# b 9  r#


z 9  r# , z 0. Then r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  9  r# k . Let 0 ) 21. For the domain
#
of r: z x#  y# and x#  y#  z# 9 x#  y#  x#  y# 9 2 ax#  y# b 9 2r# 9
r 3
2 0r 3
2 .

6. In cylindrical coordinates, r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  4  r# k (see Exercise 5 above with x#  y#  z# 4,
instead of x#  y#  z# 9). For the first octant, let 0 ) 1# . For the domain of r: z x#  y# and
#
x#  y#  z# 4 x#  y#  x#  y# 4 2 ax#  y# b 4 2r# 4 r 2. Thus, let 2 r 2
(to get the portion of the sphere between the cone and the xy-plane).

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1026 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

7. In spherical coordinates, x 3 sin 9 cos ), y 3 sin 9 sin ), 3 x#  y#  z# 3# 3 3 3


3 " 1 3 3
z 3 cos 9 for the sphere; z # 3 cos 9 cos 9 # 9 3 ;z #  # 3 cos 9
cos 9  "# 9 21
3 . Then r(9 )) 3 sin 9 cos ) i  3 sin 9 sin ) j  3 cos 9 k ,
1 21
3 9 3 and 0 ) 21.

8. In spherical coordinates, x 3 sin 9 cos ), y 3 sin 9 sin ), 3 x#  y#  z# 3# 8 3 8 22


x 22 sin 9 cos ), y 22 sin 9 sin ), and z 22 cos 9. Thus let
r(9 )) 22 sin 9 cos ) i  22 sin 9 sin ) j  22 cos 9 k ; z 2 2 22 cos 9
cos 9  "2 9 31
4 ; z 22 22 22 cos 9 cos 9 1 9 0. Thus 0 9 31
4 and
0 ) 21 .

9. Since z 4  y# , we can let r be a function of x and y r(x y) xi  yj  a4  y# b k . Then z 0


0 4  y# y 2. Thus, let 2 y 2 and 0 x 2.

10. Since y x# , we can let r be a function of x and z r(x z) xi  x# j  zk . Then y 2


x# 2 x 2. Thus, let 2 x 2 and 0 z 3.

11. When x 0, let y#  z# 9 be the circular section in the yz-plane. Use polar coordinates in the yz-plane
y 3 cos ) and z 3 sin ). Thus let x u and ) v r(u,v) ui  (3 cos v)j  (3 sin v)k where
0 u 3, and 0 v 21.

12. When y 0, let x#  z# 4 be the circular section in the xz-plane. Use polar coordinates in the xz-plane
x 2 cos ) and z 2 sin ). Thus let y u and ) v r(u,v) (2 cos v)i  uj  (3 sin v)k where
2 u 2, and 0 v 1 (since we want the portion above the xy-plane).

13. (a) x  y  z 1 z 1  x  y. In cylindrical coordinates, let x r cos ) and y r sin )


z 1  r cos )  r sin ) r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  (1  r cos )  r sin ))k , 0 ) 21 and
0 r 3.
(b) In a fashion similar to cylindrical coordinates, but working in the yz-plane instead of the xy-plane, let
y u cos v, z u sin v where u y#  z# and v is the angle formed by (x y z), (x 0 0), and (x y 0)
with (x 0 0) as vertex. Since x  y  z 1 x 1  y  z x 1  u cos v  u sin v, then r is a
function of u and v r(u v) (1  u cos v  u sin v)i  (u cos v)j  (u sin v)k , 0 u 3 and 0 v 21.

14. (a) In a fashion similar to cylindrical coordinates, but working in the xz-plane instead of the xy-plane, let
x u cos v, z u sin v where u x#  z# and v is the angle formed by (x y z), (y 0 0), and (x y 0)
with vertex (y 0 0). Since x  y  2z 2 y x  2z  2, then r(u v)
(u cos v)i  (u cos v  2u sin v  2)j  (u sin v)k , 0 u 3 and 0 v 21.
(b) In a fashion similar to cylindrical coordinates, but working in the yz-plane instead of the xy-plane, let
y u cos v, z u sin v where u y#  z# and v is the angle formed by (x y z), (x 0 0), and (x y 0)
with vertex (x 0 0). Since x  y  2z 2 x y  2z  2, then r(u v)
(u cos v  2u sin v  2)i  (u cos v)j  (u sin v)k , 0 u 2 and 0 v 21.

15. Let x w cos v and z w sin v. Then (x  2)#  z# 4 x#  4x  z# 0 w# cos# v  4w cos v  w# sin# v
0 w#  4w cos v 0 w 0 or w  4 cos v 0 w 0 or w 4 cos v. Now w 0 x 0 and y 0,
which is a line not a cylinder. Therefore, let w 4 cos v x (4 cos v)(cos v) 4 cos# v and z 4 cos v sin v.
Finally, let y u. Then r(u v) a4 cos# vb i  uj  (4 cos v sin v)k ,  1# v 1# and 0 u 3.

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.6 Parameterized Surfaces 1027

16. Let y w cos v and z w sin v. Then y#  (z  5)# 25 y#  z#  10z 0


w# cos# v  w# sin# v  10w sin v 0 w#  10w sin v 0 w(w  10 sin v) 0 w 0 or
w 10 sin v. Now w 0 y 0 and z 0, which is a line not a cylinder. Therefore, let w 10 sin v
y 10 sin v cos v and z 10 sin# v. Finally, let x u. Then r(u v) ui  (10 sin v cos v)j  a10 sin# vb k ,
0 u 10 and 0 v 1.

17. Let x r cos ) and y r sin ). Then r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  2  r#sin ) k , 0 r 1 and 0 ) 21
rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  sin# ) k and r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j  r cos
#
)
k
i j k

 sin# )
rr r) cos ) sin )
)
r sin ) r cos )  r cos #
(sin ))(r cos )) #
r cos# )
r sin#) cos )  # i  r sin# )
 # j  ar cos# )  r sin# )b k r
# j  rk

A '0 '01 dr d) '0 d) '0 d)


# 5 r 21 5 r 21 5 r# " 21
15
krr r) k r4  r# # # 4 ! #

18. Let x r cos ) and y r sin ) z x r cos ), 0 r 2 and 0 ) 21. Then


r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  (r cos ))k rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  (cos ))k and
r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j  (r sin ))k

i j k

rr r) cos ) sin )  cos )

r sin ) r cos ) r sin )
ar sin# )  r cos# )b i  (r sin ) cos )  r sin ) cos ))j  ar cos# )  r sin# )b k ri  rk
krr r) k r#  r# r2 A '0 '02 r2 dr d) '021 r 2 2 # d) '021 22 d) 412
21 #

19. Let x r cos ) and y r sin ) z 2x#  y# 2r, 1 r 3 and 0 ) 21. Then
r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  2rk rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  2k and r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j

i j k

rr r) cos ) sin ) 2 (2r cos ))i  (2r sin ))j  ar cos# )  r sin# )b k

r sin ) r cos ) 0
(2r cos ))i  (2r sin ))j  rk krr r) k 4r# cos# )  4r# sin# )  r# 5r# r5
A '0 '13 r5 dr d) '021 r 2 5 $ d) '021 45 d) 815
21 #

"

x#  y#
20. Let x r cos ) and y r sin ) z 3 3r , 3 r 4 and 0 ) 21. Then
r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  3r k rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  3" k and r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j

i j k
" " " # #
rr r) cos ) sin ) 3  3 r cos ) i  3 r sin ) j  ar cos )  r sin )b k


r sin ) r cos ) 0
# r10
 "3 r cos ) i  3" r sin ) j  rk krr r) k 9" r# cos# )  9" r# sin# )  r# 10r
9 3

A '0 '34 r310 dr d) '021 r 6 10 % d) '021 7610 d) 713 10


21 #

21. Let x r cos ) and y r sin ) r# x#  y# 1, 1 z 4 and 0 ) 21. Then


r(z )) (cos ))i  (sin ))j  zk rz k and r) ( sin ))i  (cos ))j

i j k

r) rz  sin ) cos ) 0 (cos ))i  (sin )) j kr) rz k cos# )  sin# ) 1

0 0 1

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1028 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

A '0 '14 1 dr d) '021 3 d) 61


21

22. Let x u cos v and z u sin v u# x#  z# 10, 1 y 1, 0 v 21. Then


r(y v) (u cos v)i  yj  (u sin v)k 10 cos v i  yj  10 sin v k
i j k

10 cos v
rv 10 sin v i  10 cos v k and ry j rv ry 10 sin v 0

0 1 0

10 cos v i  10 sin v k krv ry k 10 A '0 'c11 10 du dv '021 10u "


21
dv
"

'0 210 dv 4110


21

23. z 2  x#  y# and z x#  y# z 2  z# z#  z  2 0 z 2 or z 1. Since z x#  y# 0,


we get z 1 where the cone intersects the paraboloid. When x 0 and y 0, z 2 the vertex of the
paraboloid is (0 0 2). Therefore, z ranges from 1 to 2 on the cap" r ranges from 1 (when x#  y# 1) to 0
(when x 0 and y 0 at the vertex). Let x r cos ), y r sin ), and z 2  r# . Then
r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  a2  r# b k , 0 r 1, 0 ) 21 rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  2rk and

i j k

r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j rr r) cos ) sin ) 2r

r sin ) r cos ) 0
a2r# cos )b i  a2r# sin )b j  rk krr r) k 4r% cos# )  4r% sin# )  r# r4r#  1
A '0 '01 r4r#  1 dr d) '021 12" a4r#  1b$# " d) '021 515# " d) 16 55  1
21

24. Let x r cos ), y r sin ) and z x#  y# r# . Then r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  r# k , 1 r 2,
0 ) 21 rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  2rk and r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j

i j k

rr r) cos ) sin ) 2r a2r# cos )b i  a2r# sin )b j  rk krr r) k

r sin ) r cos ) 0

4r% cos# )  4r% sin# )  r# r4r#  1 A '0 '12 r4r#  1 dr d) '021 12" a4r#  1b$# # d)
21

"

'
21
0
17 171# 5 5 d) 1
6 1717  55

25. Let x 3 sin 9 cos ), y 3 sin 9 sin ), and z 3 cos 9 3 x#  y#  z# 2 on the sphere. Next,
x#  y#  z# 2 and z x#  y# z#  z# 2 z# 1 z 1 since z 0 9 14 . For the lower
portion of the sphere cut by the cone, we get 9 1. Then
1
r(9 )) 2 sin 9 cos ) i  2 sin 9 sin ) j  2 cos 9 k , 4 9 1 , 0 ) 21

r9 2 cos 9 cos ) i  2 cos 9 sin ) j  2 sin 9 k and r) 2 sin 9 sin ) i  2 sin 9 cos ) j
i j k


r9 r) 2 cos 9 cos ) 2 cos 9 sin ) 2 sin 9

2 sin 9 sin ) 2 sin 9 cos ) 0
# #
a2 sin 9 cos )b i  a2 sin 9 sin )b j  (2 sin 9 cos 9)k
kr9 r) k 4 sin% 9 cos# )  4 sin% 9 sin# )  4 sin# 9 cos# 9 4 sin# 9 2 ksin 9k 2 sin 9
A '0 '114 2 sin 9 d9 d) '021 2  2 d) 4  22 1
21

26. Let x 3 sin 9 cos ), y 3 sin 9 sin ), and z 3 cos 9 3 x#  y#  z# 2 on the sphere. Next,
3
z 1 1 2 cos 9 cos 9  "# 9 21
3 ; z 3 3 2 cos 9 cos 9 # 9 1
6 . Then

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.6 Parameterized Surfaces 1029
1 21
r(9 )) (2 sin 9 cos ))i  (2 sin 9 sin ))j  (2 cos 9)k , 6 9 3 , 0 ) 21
r9 (2 cos 9 cos ))i  (2 cos 9 sin ))j  (2 sin 9)k and
r) (2 sin 9 sin ))i  (2 sin 9 cos )) j

i j k

r9 r) 2 cos 9 cos ) 2 cos 9 sin ) 2 sin 9

2 sin 9 sin ) 2 sin 9 cos ) 0
a4 sin# 9 cos )b i  a4 sin# 9 sin )b j  (4 sin 9 cos 9)k
kr9 r) k 16 sin% 9 cos# )  16 sin% 9 sin# )  16 sin# 9 cos# 9 16 sin# 9 4 ksin 9k 4 sin 9
A '0 '12163 4 sin 9 d9 d) '021 2  23 d) 4  43 1
21


i j k

27. Let the parametrization be r(x z) xi  x# j  zk rx i  2xj and rz k rx rz 1 2x 0

0 0 "
' ' G(x y z) d5 ' ' x4x#  1 dx dz ' 12" a4x#  1b$# dz
3 2 3 #
2xi  j krx rz k 4x#  1
S
0 0 0 !

'0 1717  "


3
"
1# 1717  1 dz 4

28. Let the parametrization be r(x y) xi  yj  4  y# k , 2 y 2 rx i and ry j  y


4  y# k
i j k

1 0 #
rx ry 0 y j  k krx ry k 4 y y#  1 42 y#
0 1  y 4  y#
4  y#

' ' G(x y z) d5 ' ' 4  y# 2 # dy dx 24


4 2
1 c2 4y
S

29. Let the parametrization be r(9 )) (sin 9 cos ))i  (sin 9 sin ))j  (cos 9)k (spherical coordinates with 3 1
on the sphere), 0 9 1, 0 ) 21 r9 (cos 9 cos ))i  (cos 9 sin ))j  (sin 9)k and

i j k

r) ( sin 9 sin ))i  (sin 9 cos ))j r9 r) cos 9 cos ) cos 9 sin )  sin 9

 sin 9 sin ) sin 9 cos ) 0
asin# 9 cos )b i  asin# 9 sin )b j  (sin 9 cos 9)k kr9 r) k sin% 9 cos# )  sin% 9 sin# )  sin# 9 cos# 9
sin 9; x sin 9 cos ) G(x y z) cos# ) sin# 9 ' ' G(x y z) d5 '0 '01 acos# ) sin# 9b (sin 9) d9 d)
21

'0
21
'0 1
acos# )b a1  cos# 9b (sin 9) d9 d);
u cos 9
'021 '1c1 acos# )b au#  1b du d)
du  sin 9 d9

'021 acos# )b u3 $
 u
"
d) 4
3
'021 cos# ) d) 43  2)  sin42) #!1 431
"

30. Let the parametrization be r(9 )) (a sin 9 cos ))i  (a sin 9 sin ))j  (a cos 9)k (spherical coordinates with
3 a, a 0, on the sphere), 0 9 1# (since z 0), 0 ) 21
r9 (a cos 9 cos ))i  (a cos 9 sin ))j  (a sin 9)k and

i j k

r) (a sin 9 sin ))i  (a sin 9 cos ))j r9 r) a cos 9 cos ) a cos 9 sin ) a sin 9

a sin 9 sin ) a sin 9 cos ) 0
aa# sin# 9 cos )b i  aa# sin# 9 sin )b j  (a# sin 9 cos 9)k
kr9 r) k a% sin% 9 cos# )  a% sin% 9 sin# )  a% sin# 9 cos# 9 a# sin 9; z a cos 9
' ' G(x y z) d5 ' '
21 12
G(x y z) a# cos# 9 0 0
aa# cos# 9b aa# sin 9b d9 d) 2
3 1a%
S

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1030 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

31. Let the parametrization be r(x y) xi  yj  (4  x  y)k rx i  k and ry j  k



i j k
rx ry 1 0 1 i  j  k krx ry k 3 ' ' F(x y z) d5 '0 '0 (4  x  y) 3 dy dx
1 1


0 1 " S

'0 3 4y  xy  dx '0 3 #7  x dx 3 27 x 
1 " 1 "
y# x#
2 ! # ! 33

32. Let the parametrization be r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  rk , 0 r 1 (since 0 z 1) and 0 ) 21

i j k

rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  k and r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j rr r) cos ) sin ) "

r sin ) r cos ) 0
(r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  rk krr r) k (r cos ))#  (r sin ))#  r# r2; z r and x r cos )
' ' F(x y z) d5 ' ' (r  r cos )) r2 dr d) 2 ' ' (1  cos )) r# dr d)
21 1 21 1
F(x y z) r  r cos ) 0 0 0 0
S
21 2
3

33. Let the parametrization be r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  a1  r# b k , 0 r 1 (since 0 z 1) and 0 ) 21

i j k

rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  2rk and r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j rr r) cos ) sin ) 2r

r sin ) r cos ) 0

a2r# cos )b i  a2r# sin )b j  rk krr r) k a2r# cos )b#  a2r# sin )b  r# r1  4r# ; z 1  r# and
x r cos ) H(x y z) ar# cos# )b 1  4r# ' ' H(x y z) d5
S

'0 '0 dr d) '0 '01 r$ a1  4r# b cos# ) dr d) 11121


21 1 21
# #
ar cos )b 1  4r# r1  4r#

34. Let the parametrization be r(9 )) (2 sin 9 cos ))i  (2 sin 9 sin ))j  (2 cos 9)k (spherical coordinates with
3 2 on the sphere), 0 9 1 ; x#  y#  z# 4 and z x#  y# z#  z# 4 z# 2 z 2 (since
4
2 1
z 0) 2 cos 9 2 cos 9 9
, 0 ) 21; r9 (2 cos 9 cos ))i  (2 cos 9 sin ))j  (2 sin 9)k
# 4

i j k

and r) (2 sin 9 sin ))i  (2 sin 9 cos ))j r9 r) 2 cos 9 cos ) 2 cos 9 sin ) 2 sin 9

2 sin 9 sin ) 2 sin 9 cos ) 0
a4 sin# 9 cos )b i  a4 sin# 9 sin )b j  (4 sin 9 cos 9)k
kr9 r) k 16 sin% 9 cos# )  16 sin% 9 sin# )  16 sin# 9 cos# 9 4 sin 9; y 2 sin 9 sin ) and
' ' H(x y z) d5 ' ' (4 cos 9 sin 9 sin ))(4 sin 9) d9 d)
21 14
z 2 cos 9 H(x y z) 4 cos 9 sin 9 sin ) 0 0
S

'0 '0 16 sin# 9 cos 9 sin ) d9 d) 0


21 14

35. Let the parametrization be r(x y) xi  yj  a4  y# b k , 0 x 1, 2 y 2; z 0 0 4  y#



i j k

y 2; rx i and ry j  2yk rx ry 1 0 0 2yj  k F n d5

0 1 2y
krx ry k dy dx (2xy  3z) dy dx c2xy  3a4  y# bd dy dx ' ' F n d5
r x r y
F kr x r y k
S

'0 'c2 a2xy  3y#  12b dy dx '0 cxy#  y$  12yd # dx '0 32 dx 32
1 2 1 1
#

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.6 Parameterized Surfaces 1031

36. Let the parametrization be r(x y) xi  x# j  zk , 1 x 1, 0 z 2 rx i  2xj and rz k



i j k

rx rz 1 2x 0 2xi  j F n d5 F krrxx #
rz k krx rz k dz dx x dz dx
rz

0 0 1
' ' F n d5 ' ' x# dz dx  43
1 2
c1 0
S

37. Let the parametrization be r(9 )) (a sin 9 cos ))i  (a sin 9 sin ))j  (a cos 9)k (spherical coordinates with
3 a, a 0, on the sphere), 0 9 1# (for the first octant) 0 ) 1# (for the first octant)
r9 (a cos 9 cos ))i  (a cos 9 sin ))j  (a sin 9)k and r) (a sin 9 sin ))i  (a sin 9 cos ))j

i j k

r9 r) a cos 9 cos ) a cos 9 sin ) a sin 9

a sin 9 sin ) a sin 9 cos ) 0
r 9 r )
aa# sin# 9 cos )b i  aa# sin# 9 sin )b j  aa# sin 9 cos 9b k F n d5 F kr 9 r ) k kr9 r) k d) d9
' ' F n d5 ' '0
12 12
1a$
a$ cos# 9 sin 9 d) d9 since F zk (a cos 9)k 0
a$ cos# 9 sin 9 d9 d) 6
S

38. Let the parametrization be r(9 )) (a sin 9 cos ))i  (a sin 9 sin ))j  (a cos 9)k (spherical coordinates with
3 a, a 0, on the sphere), 0 9 1, 0 ) 21
r9 (a cos 9 cos ))i  (a cos 9 sin ))j  (a sin 9)k and r) (a sin 9 sin ))i  (a sin 9 cos ))j

i j k

r9 r) a cos 9 cos ) a cos 9 sin ) a sin 9

a sin 9 sin ) a sin 9 cos ) 0
r 9 r )
aa# sin# 9 cos )b i  aa# sin# 9 sin )b j  aa# sin 9 cos 9b k F n d5 F kr 9 r ) k kr9 r) k d) d9
$ $ # $ $ # $ # $
aa sin 9 cos 9  a sin 9 sin )  a sin 9 cos 9b d) d9 a sin 9 d) d9 since F xi  yj  zk
(a sin 9 cos ))i  (a sin 9 sin ))j  (a cos 9)k ' ' F n d5 '0 '01 a$ sin 9 d9 d) 41a$
21

39. Let the parametrization be r(x y) xi  yj  (2a  x  y)k , 0 x a, 0 y a rx i  k and ry j  k



i j k
r r
rx ry 1 0 1 i  j  k F n d5 F krxx ryyk krx ry k dy dx

0 1 1
[2xy  2y(2a  x  y)  2x(2a  x  y)] dy dx since F 2xyi  2yzj  2xzk
2xyi  2y(2a  x  y)j  2x(2a  x  y)k ' ' F n d5
S
'0 '0 [2xy  2y(2a  x  y)  2x(2a  x  y)] dy dx '0 '0 a4ay  2y#  4ax  2x#  2xyb dy dx
a a a a

'0 43 a$  3a# x  2ax# dx 43  #3  23 a% 13a


a %
6

40. Let the parametrization be r() z) (cos ))i  (sin ))j  zk , 0 z a, 0 ) 21 (where r x#  y# 1 on

i j k

the cylinder) r) ( sin ))i  (cos ))j and rz k r) rz  sin ) cos ) 0 (cos ))i  (sin ))j

0 0 1
r ) r z
F n d5 F kr ) r z k kr) rz k dz d) acos# )  sin# )b dz d) dz d), since F (cos ))i  (sin ))j  zk
' ' F n d5 ' ' 1 dz d) 21a
21 a
0 0
S

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1032 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

41. Let the parametrization be r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  rk , 0 r 1 (since 0 z 1) and 0 ) 21

i j k

rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  k and r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j r) rr r sin ) r cos ) 0

cos ) sin ) 1
r ) r r
(r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  rk F n d5 F kr ) r r k kr) rr k d) dr ar$ sin ) cos# )  r# b d) dr since

F ar# sin ) cos )b i  rk ' ' F n d5 '0 '01 ar$ sin ) cos# )  r# b dr d) '021 "4 sin ) cos# )  "3 d)
21

S
" #1
 12 cos$ )  3) ! 21
3

42. Let the parametrization be r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  2rk , 0 r 1 (since 0 z 2) and 0 ) 21

i j k

rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  2k and r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j r) rr r sin ) r cos ) 0

cos ) sin ) 2
r ) r r
(2r cos ))i  (2r sin ))j  rk F n d5 F kr ) r r k kr) rr k d) dr
$ # $
a2r sin ) cos )  4r cos ) sin )  rb d) dr since
F ar# sin# )b i  a2r# cos )b j  k ' ' F n d5 '0 '01 a2r$ sin# ) cos )  4r$ cos ) sin )  rb dr d)
21

S
'0
21 #1
"2 #
sin ) cos )  cos ) sin )  "
2 d)  6" sin$ )  1
2 sin# )  #" ) ! 1

43. Let the parametrization be r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  rk , 1 r 2 (since 1 z 2) and 0 ) 21

i j k

rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  k and r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j r) rr r sin ) r cos ) 0

cos ) sin ) 1
r ) r r
(r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  rk F n d5 F kr ) r r k kr) rr k d) dr ar# cos# )  r# sin# )  r$ b d) dr

ar#  r$ b d) dr since F (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  r# k ' ' F n d5 '0 '12 ar#  r$ b dr d)  7361
21

44. Let the parametrization be r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  r# k , 0 r 1 (since 0 z 1) and 0 ) 21

i j k

rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  2rk and r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j r) rr r sin ) r cos ) 0

cos ) sin ) 2r
r ) r r
a2r# cos )b i  a2r# sin )b j  rk F n d5 F kr ) r r k kr) rr k d) dr a8r$ cos# )  8r$ sin# )  2rb d) dr

a8r$  2rb d) dr since F (4r cos ))i  (4r sin ))j  2k ' ' F n d5 '0 '01 a8r$  2rb dr d) 21
21

1 1
45. Let the parametrization be r(9 )) (a sin 9 cos ))i  (a sin 9 sin ))j  (a cos 9)k , 0 9 # ,0) #
r9 (a cos 9 cos ))i  (a cos 9 sin ))j  (a sin 9)k and r) (a sin 9 sin ))i  (a sin 9 cos ))j

i j k

r9 r) a cos 9 cos ) a cos 9 sin ) a sin 9

a sin 9 sin ) a sin 9 cos ) 0
aa# sin# 9 cos )b i  aa# sin# 9 sin )b j  aa# sin 9 cos 9b k
kr9 r) k a% sin% 9 cos# )  a% sin% 9 sin# )  a% sin# 9 cos# 9 a% sin# 9 a# sin 9. The mass is
M ' ' d5 '0 '012 aa# sin 9b d9 d) a#1 ; the first moment is Myz ' ' x d5
12 #

S S
$
a 41
'0 '0
12 12 $
a 1
(a sin 9 cos )) aa# sin 9b d9 d) x # a
# the centroid is located at #a , a
# , #a by
4 a #1

symmetry

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.6 Parameterized Surfaces 1033

46. Let the parametrization be r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  rk , 1 r 2 (since 1 z 2) and 0 ) 21

i j k

rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  k and r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j r) rr r sin ) r cos ) 0

cos ) sin ) 1
(r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  rk kr) rr k r# cos# )  r# sin# )  r# r2. The mass is
M ' ' $ d5 '0 '12 $ r2 dr d) 32 1$ ; the first moment is Mxy ' ' $ z d5 '0 '12 $ rr2 dr d)
21 21

S S
142 1$
1421$  3 
z 14
the center of mass is located at 0 0 14
9 by symmetry. The
3 32 1$ 9

2 1$
moment of inertia is Iz ' ' $ ax#  y# b d5 '0 '12 $ r# r2 dr d) 15
21

# the radius of gyration is


S
Rz M
Iz
#5

47. Let the parametrization be r(9 )) (a sin 9 cos ))i  (a sin 9 sin ))j  (a cos 9)k , 0 9 1, 0 ) 21
r9 (a cos 9 cos ))i  (a cos 9 sin ))j  (a sin 9)k and r) (a sin 9 sin ))i  (a sin 9 cos ))j

i j k

r9 r) a cos 9 cos ) a cos 9 sin ) a sin 9

a sin 9 sin ) a sin 9 cos ) 0
aa# sin# 9 cos )b i  aa# sin# 9 sin )b j  aa# sin 9 cos 9b k
kr9 r) k a% sin% 9 cos# )  a% sin% 9 sin# )  a% sin# 9 cos# 9 a% sin# 9 a# sin 9. The moment of
inertia is Iz ' ' $ ax#  y# b d5 '0 '01 $ c(a sin 9 cos ))#  (a sin 9 sin ))# d aa# sin 9b d9 d)
21

'0 '0 $ aa# sin# 9b aa# sin 9b d9 d) '0 '0 $ a% sin$ 9 d9 d) '0 $ a%  "3 cos 9 asin# 9  2b ! d) 8$13 a
21 1 21 1 21 1 %

48. Let the parametrization be r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  rk , 0 r 1 (since 0 z 1) and 0 ) 21

i j k

rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  k and r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j r) rr r sin ) r cos ) 0

cos ) sin ) 1
(r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  rk kr) rr k r# cos# )  r# sin# )  r# r2. The moment of inertia is
Iz ' ' $ ax#  y# b d5 '0 '01 $ r# r2 dr d) 1$#2
21

49. The parametrization r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  rk


at P! 2 2 2 ) 1 , r 2, 4
2
rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  k i  #2 j  k and
#
r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j 2i  2j
i j k


rr r) 2/2 2/2 1

 2 2 0
2i  2j  2k the tangent plane is
0 2i  2j  2k x  2 i  y  2 j  (z  2)k 2x  2y  2z 0, or x  y  2z 0.
The parametrization r(r )) x r cos ), y r sin ) and z r x#  y# r# z# the surface is z x#  y# .

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1034 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

50. The parametrization r(9 ))


(4 sin 9 cos ))i  (4 sin 9 sin ))j  (4 cos 9)k
at P! 2 2 23 3 4 and z 23
1
4 cos 9 9 6 ; also x 2 and y 2
1
) 4 . Then r9
(4 cos 9 cos ))i  (4 cos 9 sin ))j  (4 sin 9)k
6i  6j  2k and
r) (4 sin 9 sin ))i  (4 sin 9 cos ))j
i j k


2i  2j at P! r9 r) 6 6 2

 2 2 0
22i  22j  43k the tangent plane is
22i  22j  43k x  2 i  y  2 j  z  23 k 0 2x  2y  23z 16,
or x  y  6z 82. The parametrization x 4 sin 9 cos ), y 4 sin 9 sin ), z 4 cos 9
the surface is x#  y#  z# 16, z 0.

51. The parametrization r() z) (3 sin 2))i  a6 sin# )b j  zk


1
at P! 3 # 3 9# 0 ) 3 and z 0. Then
r) (6 cos 2))i  (12 sin ) cos ))j
3i  33j and rz k at P!
i j k


r) rz 3 33 0 33i  3j

0 0 1
the tangent plane is

33i  3j x  3 3 i  y  9 j  (z  0)k 0
# #

3x  y 9. The parametrization x 3 sin 2)


#
and y 6 sin# ) x#  y# 9 sin# 2)  a6 sin# )b
9 a4 sin# ) cos# )b  36 sin% ) 6 a6 sin# )b 6y x#  y#  6y  9 9 x#  (y  3)# 9

52. The parametrization r(x y) xi  yj  x# k at


P! (1 2 1) rx i  2xk i  2k and ry j at P!

i j k

rx ry 1 0 2 2i  k the tangent plane

0 " 0
is (2i  k) [(x  1)i  (y  2)j  (z  1)k] 0
2x  z 1. The parametrization x x, y y and
z x# the surface is z x#

53. (a) An arbitrary point on the circle C is (x z) (R  r cos u, r sin u) (x y z) is on the torus with
x (R  r cos u) cos v, y (R  r cos u) sin v, and z r sin u, 0 u 21, 0 v 21

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.7 Stoke's Theorem 1035

(b) ru (r sin u cos v)i  (r sin u sin v)j  (r cos u)k and rv ((R  r cos u) sin v)i  ((R  r cos u) cos v)j

i j k

ru rv r sin u cos v r sin u sin v r cos u

(R  r cos u) sin v (R  r cos u) cos v 0
(R  r cos u)(r cos v cos u)i  (R  r cos u)(r sin v cos u)j  (r sin u)(R  r cos u)k
kru rv k# (R  r cos u)# ar# cos# v cos# u  r# sin# v cos# u  r# sin# ub kru rv k r(R  r cos u)
A '0 '021 arR  r# cos ub du dv '0 21rR dv 41# rR
21 21

54. (a) The point (x y z) is on the surface for fixed x f(u) when y g(u) sin 1#  v and z g(u) cos 1#  v
x f(u), y g(u) cos v, and z g(u) sin v r(u v) f(u)i  (g(u) cos v)j  (g(u) sin v)k , 0 v 21,
aub
(b) Let u y and x u# f(u) u# and g(u) u r(u v) u# i  (u cos v)j  (u sin v)k , 0 v 21, 0 u

z# x# y#
55. (a) Let w#  c# 1 where w cos 9 and z
c sin 9 a#  b# cos# 9 x
a cos 9 cos ) and y
b cos 9 sin )
x a cos ) cos 9, y b sin ) cos 9, and z c sin 9
r() 9) (a cos ) cos 9)i  (b sin ) cos 9)j  (c sin 9)k
(b) r) (a sin ) cos 9)i  (b cos ) cos 9)j and r9 (a cos ) sin 9)i  (b sin ) sin 9)j  (c cos 9)k

i j k

r) r9 a sin ) cos 9 b cos ) cos 9 0

a cos ) sin 9 b sin ) sin 9 c cos 9
abc cos ) cos# 9b i  aac sin ) cos# 9b j  (ab sin 9 cos 9)k
kr) r9 k# b# c# cos# ) cos% 9  a# c# sin# ) cos% 9  a# b# sin# 9 cos# 9, and the result follows.
A '0 '01 kr) r9 k d9 d) '021 '01 c a# b# sin# 9 cos# 9  b# c# cos# ) cos% 9  a# c# sin# ) cos% 9 d1/2 d9 d)
21

56. (a) r() u) (cosh u cos ))i  (cosh u sin ))j  (sinh u)k
(b) r() u) (a cosh u cos ))i  (b cosh u sin ))j  (c sinh u)k

57. r() u) (5 cosh u cos ))i  (5 cosh u sin ))j  (5 sinh u)k r) (5 cosh u sin ))i  (5 cosh u cos ))j and
ru (5 sinh u cos ))i  (5 sinh u sin ))j  (5 cosh u)k

i j k

r) ru 5 cosh u sin ) 5 cosh u cos ) 0

5 sinh u cos ) 5 sinh u sin ) 5 cosh u
a25 cosh# u cos )b i  a25 cosh# u sin )b j  (25 cosh u sinh u)k. At the point (x! y! 0), where x#0  y#0 25
we have 5 sinh u 0 u 0 and x! 25 cos ), y! 25 sin ) the tangent plane is
5(x! i  y! j) [(x  x! )i  (y  y! )j  zk] 0 x! x  x#0  y! y  y#0 0 x! x  y! y 25

z# x# y#
58. Let c#  w# 1 where z
c cosh u and w sinh u w# a#  b# x
a w cos ) and y
b w sin )
x a sinh u cos ), y b sinh u sin ), and z c cosh u
r() u) (a sinh u cos ))i  (b sinh u sin ))j  (c cosh u)k , 0 ) 21, _  u  _

16.7 STOKES' THEOREM

i j k

`
1. curl F F ``x `
`y ` z 0i  0j  (2  0)k 2k and n k curl F n 2 d5 dx dy
#
x 2x z#
)C F dr ' ' 2 dA 2(Area of the ellipse) 41
R

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1036 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields
i j k

`
2. curl F F ``x `
`y ` z 0i  0j  (3  2)k k and n k curl F n 1 d5 dx dy

2y 3x z#
)C F dr ' ' dx dy Area of circle 91
R

i j k

`
3. curl F F ``x `
`y ` z xi  2xj  (z  1)k and n
ijk
3 curl F n

y xz x#
dA )C F dr ' '
" 3 "
3 (x  2x  z  1) d5 1 3 (3x  z  1) 3 dA
R
'0'01cx [3x  (1  x  y)  1] dy dx '01 '01cx (4x  y) dy dx '01  4x(1  x)  "# (1  x)# dx
1

'0 "#  3x  7# x# dx  56
1

i j k

` ` ` ijk
4. curl F F ` x `y `z (2y  2z)i  (2z  2x)j  (2x  2y)k and n 3
#
y  z# x#  z# x#  y#
curl F n "
3 (2y  2z  2z  2x  2x  2y) 0 )C F dr ' ' 0 d5 0
S

i j k


5. curl F F ``x `
`y
`
`z 2yi  (2z  2x)j  (2x  2y)k and n k
#
y  z# x#  y# #
x y #

curl F n 2x  2y d5 dx dy )C F dr 'c1 'c1 (2x  2y) dx dy 'c1 cx#  2xyd " dy


1 1 1
"

'c1 4y dy 0
1

i j k

`
6. curl F F ``x `
`y
# #
` z 0i  0j  3x y k and n
2xi  2yj  2zk
2 x #  y #  z#
x i  y j  zk
4
# $
x y 1 z
curl F n  x y z; d5 3
4
# # 4
z dA (Section 16.5, Example 5, with a 4) )C F dr

' '  34 x# y# z 4z dA 3 '0 '02 ar# cos# )b ar# sin# )b r dr d) 3'021 r6 # (cos ) sin ))# d)
21 '

R !

32 '0 sin# 2) d) 4 '0 sin# u du 4  u2 


21 41
" sin 2u %1
4 4 !
81

7. x 3 cos t and y 2 sin t F (2 sin t)i  a9 cos# tb j  a9 cos# t  16 sin% tb sin e6 sin t cos t0 k at the
base of the shell; r (3 cos t)i  (2 sin t)j dr (3 sin t)i  (2 cos t)j F ddtr 6 sin# t  18 cos$ t
' ' F n d5 ' a6 sin# t  18 cos$ tb dt 3t  32 sin 2t  6(sin t) acos# t  2b #!1 61
21
0
S


i j k
` ` `

8. curl F F `x `y `z
2j ; f(x y z) 4x#  y  z# f 8xi  j  2zk

z  " tan "
y x  4 " z
#x
f kf k " 2
n kf k and p j k f pk 1 d5 kfpk dA k f k dA; F n kf k (2j f) kf k

F n d5 2 dA ' ' F n d5 ' ' 2 dA 2(Area of R) 2(1 1 2) 41, where R


S R
is the elliptic region in the xz-plane enclosed by 4x#  z# 4.

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.7 Stoke's Theorem 1037

9. Flux of F ' ' F n d5 )C F dr, so let C be parametrized by r (a cos t)i  (a sin t)j ,
S
0 t 21 dr
dt (a sin t)i  (a cos t)j F dr
dt ay sin t  ax cos t a# sin# t  a# cos# t a#
Flux of F )C F dr '0 a# dt 21a#
21

i j k

` f 2xi  2yj  2zk
10. (yi) ``x `
`y ` z k ; n kf k 2 x #  y #  z#
xi  yj  zk

y 0 0
(yi) n z; d5 "
z dA (Section 16.5, Example 5, with a 1) ' ' (yi) n d5
S
' ' (z) "z dA  ' ' dA 1, where R is the disk x#  y# 1 in the xy-plane.
R R

11. Let S" and S# be oriented surfaces that span C and that induce the same positive direction on C. Then
' ' F n" d5" ) F dr ' ' F n# d5#
C
S" S#

12. ' ' F n d5 ' ' F n d5  ' ' F n d5, and since S" and S# are joined by the simple
S S" S#
closed curve C, each of the above integrals will be equal to a circulation integral on C. But for one surface
the circulation will be counterclockwise, and for the other surface the circulation will be clockwise. Since the
integrands are the same, the sum will be 0 ' ' F n d5 0.
S

i j k


13. F ``x ``y ``z 5i  2j  3k ; rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j  2rk and r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j

2z 3x 5y

i j k

rr r) cos ) sin ) 2r a2r# cos )b i  a2r# sin )b j  rk ; n krrrr
r) k and d5 krr r) k dr d)
r)

r sin ) r cos ) 0
F n d5 ( F) (rr r) ) dr d) a10r# cos )  4r# sin )  3rb dr d) ' ' F n d5
S

'0 '0 a10r# cos )  4r# sin )  3rb dr d) '0  "30 r$ cos )  43 r$ sin )  #3 r# ! d)
21 2 21 #

'0 80
21

3 cos )  3 sin )  6 d) 6(21) 121


32

i j k

` ` ` # #
14. F ` x `y ` z i  2j  2k ; rr r) a2r cos )b i  a2r sin )b j  rk and

y  z z  x x  z
F n d5 ( F) (rr r) ) dr d) (see Exercise 13 above) ' ' F n d5
S
'0 '0 a2r# cos )  4r# sin )  2rb dr d) '0  23 r$ cos )  43 r$ sin )  r# ! d)
21 3 21 $

'0 a18 cos )  36 sin )  9b d) 9(21) 181


21

i j k
i j k

15. F ``x `
`y
` $ #
` z 2y i  0j  x k ; rr r) cos ) sin ) 1
#
x y 2y z $
3z r sin ) r cos ) 0
(r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  rk and F n d5 ( F) (rr r) ) dr d) (see Exercise 13 above)
' ' F n d5 ' ' a2ry$ cos )  rx# b dr d) ' ' a2r% sin3 ) cos )  r$ cos# )b dr d)
21 1
0 0
S R

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1038 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

'0 25 sin3 ) cos ) 


21
" " sin 2) #1
4 cos# ) d)  10 sin4 )  4" #)  4 !
 14

i j k
i j k
` ` `
16. F ` x `y ` z i  j  k ; rr r) cos ) sin ) 1

x  y y  z z  x r sin ) r cos ) 0
(r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  rk and F n d5 ( F) (rr r) ) dr d) (see Exercise 13 above)
' ' F n d5 ' ' (r cos )  r sin )  r) dr d) ' (cos )  sin )  1) r## d) 25# (21) 251
21 5 21 &

S
0 0 0 !

i j k

` ` `
17. F ` x `y `z 0i  0j  5k ;

3y 5  2x z#  2
i j k


r9 r) 3 cos 9 cos ) 3 cos 9 sin ) 3 sin 9

3 sin 9 sin ) 3 sin 9 cos ) 0
# #
a3 sin 9 cos )b i  a3 sin 9 sin )b j  (3 sin 9 cos 9)k ; F n d5 ( F) (r9 r) ) d9 d) (see Exercise
' ' F n d5 ' ' 15 cos 9 sin 9 d9 d) '  152 cos# 9 1! # d) '  15# d) 151
21 1/2 21 21
13 above) 0 0 0 0
S

i j k

`
18. F ` x ` y ``z 2zi  j  2yk ;
`
#
y z# x

i j k

r9 r) 2 cos 9 cos ) 2 cos 9 sin ) 2 sin 9

2 sin 9 sin ) 2 sin 9 cos ) 0
a4 sin# 9 cos )b i  a4 sin# 9 sin )b j  (4 sin 9 cos 9)k ; F n d5 ( F) (r9 r) ) d9 d) (see Exercise
13 above) ' ' F n d5 ' ' a8z sin# 9 cos )  4 sin# 9 sin )  8y sin 9 cos )b d9 d)
S R

'0 '0
21 1/2
a16 sin 9 cos 9 cos )  4 sin# 9 sin )  16 sin# 9 sin ) cos )b d9 d)
#

'0  "36 sin$ 9 cos )  4 9# 


21 1#
sin 29
4 (sin ))  16 9#  sin 29
4 (sin ) cos )) ! d)

'0  16
21
 "6 # #1
3 cos )  1 sin )  41 sin ) cos ) d)  3 sin )  1 cos )  21 sin ) ! 0

19. (a) F 2xi  2yj  2zk curl F 0 )C F dr ' ' F n d5 ' ' 0 d 5 0
S S
# # $
(b) Let f(x y z) x y z F f 0 curl F 0 )C F dr ' ' F n d5
S
' ' 0 d5 0
S
(c) F (xi  yj  zk) 0 F 0 )C F dr ' ' F n d5 ' ' 0 d5 0
S S
(d) F f F f 0 )C F dr ' ' F n d5 ' ' 0 d5 0
S S

$# $# $#


20. F f  "# ax#  y#  z# b (2x)i  "# ax#  y#  z# b (2y)j  "# ax#  y#  z# b (2z)k
# $# # $# # $#
x ax#  y#  z b i  y a x#  y#  z b j  z a x#  y #  z b k
(a) r (a cos t)i  (a sin t)j , 0 t 21 dr
dt (a sin t)i  (a cos t)j
$# $#
F dr
dt x ax#  y#  z# b (a sin t)  y ax#  y#  z# b (a cos t)
 a cos t
a$ ( a sin t)  a sin
a$
t
(a cos t) 0 )C F dr 0

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Section 16.8 The Divergence Theorem and a Unified Theory 1039

(b) )C F dr ' ' F n d5 ' ' f n d5 ' ' 0 n d5 ' ' 0 d 5 0


S S S S

i j k

` 2i  2j  k
21. Let F 2yi  3zj  xk F ``x `
`y ` z  3i  j  2k ; n 3

2y 3z x
F n 2 )C 2y dx  3z dy  x dz )C F dr ' ' F n d5 ' ' 2 d5
S S
2 ' ' d5, where ' ' d5 is the area of the region enclosed by C on the plane S: 2x  2y  z 2
S S

i j k

`
22. F ``x `
`y `z 0

x y z

23. Suppose F Mi  Nj  Pk exists such that F `` Py  `N


`z i  ``Mz  `P
`x j  ``Nx  `M
`y k

` ` #P ` #N
xi  yj  zk . Then `x `` Py  `N
`z `
`x (x) ` x` y  ` x` z 1. Likewise, `
`y
``Mz  `P
`x `
`y (y)
` #M ` #P ` ` #N ` #M
` y` z  ` y` x 1 and `z ``Nx  `M
`y `
`z (z) ` z` x  ` z` y 1. Summing the calculated equations
# # # # # #
``x`Py  ` P
` y` x  ``z`Nx  ` N
` x` z  ``y`Mz  ` M
` z` y 3 or 0 3 (assuming the second mixed partials are
equal). This result is a contradiction, so there is no field F such that curl F xi  yj  zk .

24. Yes: If F 0 , then the circulation of F around the boundary C of any oriented surface S in the domain of
F is zero. The reason is this: By Stokes's theorem, circulation )C F dr ' ' F n d5 ' ' 0 n d5
S S
0.

#
25. r x#  y# r% ax#  y# b F ar% b 4x ax#  y# b i  4y ax#  y# b j Mi  Nj
)C ar% b n ds )C F n ds )C M dy  N dx ' ' ``Mx  `N
`y dx dy
R
' ' c4 ax#  y# b  8x#  4 ax#  y# b  8y# d dA ' ' 16 ax#  y# b dA 16 ' ' x# dA  16 ' ' y# dA
R R R R
16Iy  16Ix .

y#  x# y#  x# # #
y#  x#
26. `P
`y 0, `N
`z 0, `M
`z 0, `P
`x 0, `N
`x ax #  y # b #
, `M
`y a x #  y # b#
curl F axy# yx# b#  a x #  y # b#
k 0.
However, x#  y# 1 r (cos t)i  (sin t)j dr
dt (sin t)i  (cos t)j
#1

F a sin tb i  acos tb j F dr
dt sin# t  cos# t 1 )C F dr ) 1 dt 21 which is
!

not zero.

16.8 THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM AND A UNIFIED THEORY

y i  x j xy  xy
1. F x#  y# div F 0 2. F xi  yj div F 1  1 2
ax#  y# b$#

# $# "#
 y#  z# b  3x# ax#  y#  z# b
3. F  GM(x
#
i  yj  zk)
# # $#
div F GM ax ax #  y #  z # b $
ax  y  z b

# $# "# $# "#
 y#  z# b  3y# ax#  y#  z# b ax#  y#  z# b  3z# ax#  y#  z# b
 GM ax ax #  y #  z # b $  GM a x #  y #  z # b$

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1040 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields
# # # # # # # # # #
GM 3 ax y z b # 3 ax# y #(#
z b ax  y  z b
0
ax  y  z b

4. z a#  r# in cylindrical coordinates z a#  ax#  y# b v aa#  x#  y# b k div v 0

(y  x) 0 F 2 Flux 'c1 'c1 'c1 2 dx dy dz 2 a2$ b


1 1 1
` ` `
5. `x (y  x) 1, `y (z  y) 1, `z
16

` ` `
6. `x ax# b 2x, `y ay# b 2y, `x az# b 2z F 2x  2y  2z

(a) Flux '0 '01 '01 (2x  2y  2z) dx dy dz '01 '01 cx#  2x(y  z)d "! dy dz '01 '01 (1  2y  2z) dy dz
1

'0 cy(1  2z)  y# d ! dz '0 (2  2z) dz c2z  z# d ! 3


1 1
" "

Flux 'c1 'c1 'c1 (2x  2y  2z) dx dy dz 'c1 'c1 cx#  2x(y  z)d " dy dz 'c1 'c1 (4y  4z) dy dz
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
"
(b)

'c1 c2y#  4yzd " dz 'c1 8z dz c4z# d " 0


1 1
" "

(c) In cylindrical coordinates, Flux ' ' ' (2x  2y  2z) dx dy dz


D
'0 '0 '0 (2r cos )  2r sin )  2z) r dr d) dz '0 '0  23 r$ cos )  23 r$ sin )  zr# ! d) dz
1 21 2 1 21 #

'0 '0 16 ' 1  "36 sin )  163 cos )  4z) #!1 dz '01 81z dz c41z# d "! 41
1 21

3 cos )  3 sin )  4z d) dz 0
16

` ` `
7. `x (y) 0, `y (xy) x, `z (z) 1 F x  1; z x#  y# z r# in cylindrical coordinates

Flux ' ' ' (x  1) dz dy dx '0 '02 '0r (r cos )  1) dz r dr d) '0 '02 ar$ cos )  r# b r dr d)
21 #
21

'0 r5 cos )  r4 d) '0 32


21 # 21
#1
& %
5 cos )  4 d) 5 sin )  4) ! 81
 32
!

8. `
`x ax# b 2x, `
`y (xz) 0, `
`z (3z) 3 F 2x  3 Flux ' ' ' (2x  3) dV
D

'0 '0 '0 (23 sin 9 cos )  3) a3# sin 9b d3 d9 d) '0 '0 32
21 1 2 21 1 % #
sin 9 cos )  3$ sin 9 d9 d)
!

'0 '0 (8 sin 9 cos )  8) sin 9 d9 d) ' cos )  8 cos 9 ! d) '0 (41 cos )  16) d)
21 1 21 1 21
8 92  sin 29
4
0

321

9. `
`x ax# b 2x, `
`y (2xy) 2x, `
`z (3xz) 3x Flux ' ' ' 3x dx dy dz
D

'0 '0 '0 (33 sin 9 cos )) a3 sin 9b d3 d9 d) '0 '0 12 sin# 9 cos ) d9 d) '0 31 cos ) d) 31
12 12 2 12 12 12
#

` ` `
10. `x a6x#  2xyb 12x  2y, `y a2y  x# zb 2, `z a4x# y$ b 0 F 12x  2y  2

Flux ' ' ' (12x  2y  2) dV '0 '012 '02 (12r cos )  2r sin )  2) r dr d) dz
3

'0 '0 32 cos )  16 ' 3


3 12
3 sin )  4 d) dz 0 32  21  3 dz 112  61
16

11. `
`x (2xz) 2z, `
`y (xy) x, `
`z az# b 2z F x Flux ' ' ' x dV
D
16 c 4x 4cy 16 c 4x
'0 '0 '0 x dz dy dx '0 '0 (xy  4x) dy dx '0 12 x a16  4x# b  4x16  4x# dx
2 # 2 # 2

$# #
4x#  "2 x%  "3 a16  4x# b  40
3
!

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Section 16.8 The Divergence Theorem and a Unified Theory 1041
` ` `
12. `x ax$ b 3x# , `y ay$ b 3y# , `z az$ b 3z# F 3x#  3y#  3z# Flux ' ' ' 3 ax#  y#  z# b dV
D
3 '0 '0 '0 3 a3 sin 9b d3 d9 d) 3 '0 ' sin 9 d9 d) 3 '0
21 1 a 21 1 21
# # a& 2a& 121a&
0 5 5 d) 5

`3 `3 `3
13. Let 3 x#  y#  z# . Then `x x
3 , `y y
3 , `z z
3 `
`x (3x) `` 3x x  3 x#
3 3, `
`y (3y) `` 3y y  3
y# x #  y #  z#
3  3, `
`z (3z) `` 3z z  3 z#
3 3 F 3  33 43, since 3 x#  y#  z#
2
Flux ' ' ' 43 dV '0 '01 '1 (43) a3# sin 9b d3 d9 d) '0 '01 3 sin 9 d9 d) '021 6 d) 121
21 21

`3 `3 `3 ` " `3 x#
14. Let 3 x#  y#  z# . Then `x x
3 , `y y
3 , `z z
3 `x 3x 3  3x# `x 1
3  3$ . Similarly,
# # # # #
` " ` " x y z
`y 3y 3  y
3$ and `z 3z 3  z
3$ F 3
3  3$ 2
3

dV '0 '01 '12 32 a3# sin 9b d3 d9 d) '021 '01 3 sin 9 d9 d) '021 6 d) 121
21
Flux ' ' ' 2
3
D

` ` `
15. `x a5x$  12xy# b 15x#  12y# , `y ay$  ey sin zb 3y#  ey sin z, `z a5z$  ey cos zb 15z#  ey sin z
2
F 15x#  15y#  15z# 153# Flux ' ' ' 153# dV '0 '01 '1
21
a153# b a3# sin 9b d3 d9 d)
D
'0 '01 122  3 sin 9 d9 d) '021 242  6 d) 482  12 1
21

"x
` ` `
16. `x cln ax#  y# bd x#
2x
 y# , ` y
 2z
x tan
" y
x  x
2z y #  x#  y# ,
2z
`z
zx#  y# x#  y#
1  x

F 2x
x#  y#  2z
x#  y#  x#  y# Flux ' ' ' x# 2x
 y# 
2z
x#  y#  x#  y# dz dy dx
D
2
'0 '1 2 'c21  r dz r dr d) '0 '1
21 21
)
2r cos
r#  2z
r#
6 cos )  3
r  3r# dr d)

'0 6 2  1 cos )  3 ln 2  22  1 d) 21  3# ln 2  22  1
21

17. (a) G Mi  Nj  Pk G curl G `` Py  `N


`z i  ``Mz  `P
`x k  ``Nx  `M
`y k G
`
div(curl G) `x `` Py  `N
`z  `
`y
``Mz  `P
`x  `
`z ``Nx  `M
`y
` #P ` #N ` #M ` #P ` #N ` #M
` x` y  ` x` z  ` y` z  ` y` x  ` z` x  ` z` y 0 if all first and second partial derivatives are continuous
(b) By the Divergence Theorem, the outward flux of G across a closed surface is zero because
outward flux of G ' ' ( G) n d5
S
' ' ' G dV [Divergence Theorem with F G]
D
' ' ' (0) dV 0 [by part (a)]
D

18. (a) Let F" M" i  N" j  P" k and F# M# i  N# j  P# k aF"  bF#
(aM"  bM# )i  (aN"  bN# )j  (aP"  bP# )k (aF"  bF# )
` M"
a `x  b ``Mx#  a ` N"
`y  b ``Ny#  a ` P"
`z  b ``Pz#

a ``Mx"  ` N"
`y  ` P"
`z  b ``Mx#  ` N#
`y  ` P#
`z a( F" )  b( F# )
(b) Define F" and F# as in part a (aF"  bF# )
a ``Py"  b ``Py#  a ``Nz"  b ``Nz# i  a ``Mz"  b ``Mz#  a ``Px"  b ``Px# j

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1042 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

 a ``Nx"  b ``Nx#  a ``My"  b ``My# k a ``Py"  ` N"


`z i  ``Mz"  ` P"
`x j  ``Nx"  ` M"
` y k

 b ``Py#  ``Nz# i  ``Mz#  ``Px# j  ``Nx#  ``My# k a F"  b F#



i j k

(c) F" F# M" N" P" (N" P#  P" N# )i  (M" P#  P" M# )j  (M" N#  N" M# )k (F" F# )

M# N# P#
[(N" P#  P" N# )i  (M" P#  P" M# )j  (M" N#  N" M# )k]
` N" ` P# ` P" ` N#
``x (N" P#  P" N# )  ``y (M" P#  P" M# )  ``z (M" N#  N" M# ) P# `x  N" `x  N# `x  P" `x
` P# ` M" ` M# ` P" ` N# ` M" ` M# ` N"
 M" `y  P# `y  P" `y  M# `y  M" `z  N# `z  N" `z  M# `z

M# ``Py"  ` N"
`z  N# ``Mz"  ` P"
`x  P# ``Nx"  ` M"
`y  M" ``Nz#  ` P#
`y  N" ``Px#  ` M#
`z

 P" ``My#  ` N#
`x F# F"  F" F#

19. (a) div(gF) gF `


`x (gM)  `
`y (gN)  `
`z (gP) g ``Mx  M `` xg  g ``Ny  N `` yg  g ``Pz  P `` gz

M `` gx  N `` gy  P `` gz  g ``Mx  `N
`y  `P
`z g F gF

(b) (gF) ``y (gP)  `


`z (gN) i   ``z (gM)  `
`x (gP) j  ``x (gN)  `
`y (gM) k

P `` gy  g `` Py  N `` gz  g ``Nz i  M `` gz  g ``Mz  P `` gx  g `` Px j  N `` gx  g ``Nx  M `` gy  g ``My k

P `` gy  N `` gz i  g `` Py  g ``Nz i  M `` gz  P `` xg j  g ``Mz  g `` Px j  N `` gx  M `` gy k

 g ``Nx  g ``My k g F  g F

20. Let F" M" i  N" j  P" k and F# M# i  N# j  P# k .


(a) F" F# (N" P#  P" N# )i  (P" M#  M" P# )j  (M" N#  N" M# )k (F" F# )
``y (M" N#  N" M# )  `
`z (P" M#  M" P# ) i   ``z (N" P#  P" N# )  `
`x (M" N#  N" M# ) j

 ``x (P" M#  M" P# )  `


`y (N" P#  P" N# ) k
` `
and consider the i-component only: ` y (M" N#  N" M# )  ` z (P" M#  M" P# )
` M" ` N# ` N"
N# `y  M" `y  M# `y  N" ``My#  M# ``Pz"  P" ``Mz#  P# ``Mz"  M" ``Pz#
` M" ` M" ` M# ` M#
N# `y  P# `z  N" `y  P" `z  ``Ny#  ` P#
` z M"  ``Ny"  ` P"
` z M#
` M" ` M" ` M" ` M# ` M# ` M#
M# `x  N# `y  P# `z  M" `x  N" `y  P" `z  ``Mx#  ` N#
`y  ` P#
` z M"

 ``Mx"  ` N"
`y  ` P"
` z M# . Now, i-comp of (F# )F" M# `
`x  N# `
`y  P# `
` z M"
` M" ` M" ` M" ` M# ` M# ` M#
M# `x  N# `y  P# `z ; likewise, i-comp of (F" )F# M" `x  N" `y  P" `z ;

i-comp of ( F# )F" ``Mx#  ` N#


`y  ` P#
` z M" and i-comp of ( F" )F# ``Mx"  ` N"
`y  ` P"
` z M# .

Similar results hold for the j and k components of (F" F# ). In summary, since the corresponding
components are equal, we have the result
(F " F # ) (F # )F "  (F " )F #  ( F # )F "  ( F " )F #
(b) Here again we consider only the i-component of each expression. Thus, the i-comp of (F" F# )
``x (M" M#  N" N#  P" P# ) M" ``Mx#  M# ``Mx"  N" ``Nx#  N# ``Nx"  P" ``Px#  P# ``Px"
` M# ` M# ` M#
i-comp of (F" )F# M" `x  N" `y  P" `z ,
` M" ` M" ` M"
i-comp of (F# )F" M# `x  N# `y  P# `z ,

i-comp of F" ( F# ) N" ``Nx#  ` M#


`y  P" ``Mz#  ` P#
`x , and

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Section 16.8 The Divergence Theorem and a Unified Theory 1043

i-comp of F# ( F" ) N# ``Nx"  ` M"


`y  P# ``Mz"  ` P"
`x .

Since corresponding components are equal, we see that


(F" F# ) (F" )F#  (F# )F"  F" ( F# )  F# ( F" ), as claimed.

21. The integral's value never exceeds the surface area of S. Since kFk 1, we have kF nk kFk knk (1)(1) 1 and
' ' ' F d5 ' ' F n d 5 [Divergence Theorem]
D S
' ' kF nk d5 [A property of integrals]
S
' ' (1) d5 ckF nk 1d
S
Area of S.

22. Yes, the outward flux through the top is 5. The reason is this: Since F (xi  2yj  (z  3)k
1  2  1 0, the outward flux across the closed cubelike surface is 0 by the Divergence Theorem. The flux
across the top is therefore the negative of the flux across the sides and base. Routine calculations show that
the sum of these latter fluxes is 5. (The flux across the sides that lie in the xz-plane and the yz-plane are 0, while the flux
across the xy-plane is 3.) Therefore the flux across the top is 5.

23. (a) `
`x (x) 1, `
`y (y) 1, `
`z (z) 1 F 3 Flux ' ' ' 3 dV 3 ' ' ' dV
D D
3(Volume of the solid)
(b) If F is orthogonal to n at every point of S, then F n 0 everywhere Flux ' ' F n d5 0.
S
But the flux is 3(Volume of the solid) 0, so F is not orthogonal to n at every point.

24. F 2x  4y  6z  12 Flux '0 '0 '01 (2x  4y  6z  12) dz dy dx


a b

'0 '0b (2x  4y  9) dy dx '0a a2xb  2b#  9bb dx a# b  2ab#  9ab ab(a  2b  9) f(a b);
a

`f `f `f `f
`a 2ab  2b#  9b and `b a#  4ab  9a so that `a 0 and `b 0 b(2a  2b  9) 0 and
a(a  4b  9) 0 b 0 or 2a  2b  9 0, and a 0 or a  4b  9 0. Now b 0 or a 0
Flux 0; 2a  2b  9 0 and a  4b  9 0 3a  9 0 a 3 b 3# so that f 3 3# 27
# is the
maximum flux.

25. ' ' F n d5 ' ' ' F dV ' ' ' 3 dV "
3
' ' F n d5 ' ' ' dV Volume of D
S D D S D

26. F C F 0 Flux ' ' F n d5 ' ' ' F dV ' ' ' 0 dV 0
S D D

27. (a) From the Divergence Theorem, ' ' f n d5 ' ' ' f dV ' ' ' # f dV ' ' ' 0 dV 0
S D D D
(b) From the Divergence Theorem, ' ' f f n d5 ' ' ' f f dV. Now,
S D
# # # # # #
`f `f `f
f f f `x i  f `y j  f `z k f f f `` xf#  `` xf  f `` yf#  `` yf  f `` zf#  `` zf

f # f  k f k# 0  k f k# since f is harmonic ' ' f f n d5 ' ' ' k f k# dV, as claimed.


S D

28. From the Divergence Theorem, ' ' f n d5 ' ' ' f dV ' ' ' `` xf# 
#
` #f ` #f
` y#  ` z# dV. Now,
S D D
" `f `f `f
f(x y z) ln x#  y#  z# # ln ax#  y#  z# b `x x
x #  y #  z# , `y y
x #  y #  z# , `z z
x #  y #  z#

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1044 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

` #f x #  y #  z # ` #f x #  y #  z# ` #f x# y# z# ` #f ` #f ` #f
` x# ax #  y #  z # b #
, ` y# a x #  y #  z # b#
, ` z# a x #  y #  z# b #
, ` x#  ` y#  ` z#

'0 '012 '0a 3


12
x # y #  z #
"
' ' f n d5 ' ' ' dV #
sin 9
d 3 d9 d )
ax #  y #  z # b # x #  y #  z# x #  y #  z# 3#
S D

'0 '012 a sin 9 d9 d) '012 ca cos 9d 1! # d) '012 a d) 1#a


12

29. ' ' f g n d5 ' ' ' f g dV ' ' ' f `g


`x i  f `` gy j  f `` gz k dV
S D D
' ' ' f `` xg# 
# # #
`f `g
`x `x  f `` yg#  `f `g
`y `y  f `` zg#  `f `g
`z `z dV
D
' ' ' f `` xg#  dV ' ' ' af # g  f gb dV
#
` #g ` #g `g `f `g `f `g
` y#  ` z#  `` xf `x  `y `y  ` z ` z
D D

30. By Exercise 29, ' ' f g n d5 ' ' ' af # g  f gb dV and by interchanging the roles of f and g,
S D
' ' g f n d5 ' ' ' ag # f  g f b dV. Subtracting the second equation from the first yields:
S D
' ' a f g  g f b n d5 ' ' ' af # g  g # f b dV since f g g f
S D

31. (a) The integral ' ' ' p(t x y z) dV represents the mass of the fluid at any time t. The equation says that
D
the instantaneous rate of change of mass is flux of the fluid through the surface S enclosing the region D:
the mass decreases if the flux is outward (so the fluid flows out of D), and increases if the flow is inward
(interpreting n as the outward pointing unit normal to the surface).
(b) ''' `p
`t dV d
dt
' ' ' p dV  ' ' pv n d5  ' ' ' pv dV `3
`t  pv
D D S D
`p
Since the law is to hold for all regions D, pv  `t 0, as claimed

32. (a) T points in the direction of maximum change of the temperature, so if the solid is heating up at the
point the temperature is greater in a region surrounding the point T points away from the point
 T points toward the point  T points in the direction the heat flows.
(b) Assuming the Law of Conservation of Mass (Exercise 31) with k T pv and c3T p, we have
d
dt
' ' ' c3T dV  ' ' k T n d5 the continuity equation, (k T)  ``t (c3T) 0
D S
c3 ``Tt  (k T) k # T `T
`t k
c3 # T K # T, as claimed

CHAPTER 16 PRACTICE EXERCISES

1. Path 1: r ti  tj  tk x t, y t, z t, 0 t 1 f(g(t) h(t) k(t)) 3  3t# and dx


dt 1, dy
dt 1,

dz # dt 3 dt ' f(x y z) ds ' 3 a3  3t# b dt 23


#
#  dy
1
dz
dt 1 dx
dt dt  dt C 0

Path 2: r" ti  tj , 0 t 1 x t, y t, z 0 f(g(t) h(t) k(t)) 2t  3t#  3 and dx


dt 1, dy
dt 1,

dz # dt 2 dt ' f(x y z) ds ' 2 a2t  3t#  3b dt 32 ;


#
#  dy
1
dz
dt 0 dx
dt dt  dt 0
C"

r# i  j  tk x 1, y 1, z t f(g(t) h(t) k(t)) 2  2t and dx


dt 0, dy
dt 0, dz
dt 1

dx
dt
 dy #
dt  dt
dz dt dt
# #
'C f(x y z) ds '0 (2  2t) dt 1
1

'C f(x y z) ds 'C f(x y z) ds  'C f(x y z) 32  1


" #

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Chapter 16 Practice Exercises 1045

2. Path 1: r" ti x t, y 0, z 0 f(g(t) h(t) k(t)) t# and dx


dt 1, dy
dt 0, dz
dt 0

dz dt dt ' f(x y z) ds ' t# dt


# # # 1
"
dx
dt
 dy
dt  dt C 0 3 ;
"

r# i  tj x 1, y t, z 0 f(g(t) h(t) k(t)) 1  t and dx


dt 0, dy
dt 1, dz
dt 0

dx
dt
 dy #
dt  dt
#
dz dt dt #
'C f(x y z) ds '0 (1  t) dt
1
3
2 ;
#

r$ i  j  tk x 1, y 1, z t f(g(t) h(t) k(t)) 2  t and dx


dt 0, dy
dt 0, dz
dt 1

dx
dt
 dy #
dt  dt
#
dz dt dt #
'C f(x y z) ds '0 (2  t) dt
1
3
2
$

'Path 1 f(x y z) ds 'C f(x y z) ds  'C f(x y z) ds  'C f(x y z) ds 10


3
" # $

Path 2: r% ti  tj x t, y t, z 0 f(g(t) h(t) k(t)) t#  t and dx


dt 1, dy
dt 1, dz
dt 0

dz # dt 2 dt ' f(x y z) ds ' 2 at#  tb dt


#
#  dy
1
dx 2;
dt  dt
5
dt C 0 % 6

r$ i  j  tk (see above) 'C f(x y z) ds 3


2
$

'Path 2 f(x y z) ds 'C f(x y z) ds  'C f(x y z) ds 5


6
2  3
# 5 2  9
6
$ %

Path 3: r& tk x 0, y 0, z t, 0 t 1 f(g(t) h(t) k(t)) t and dx


dt 0, dy
dt 0, dz
dt 1

dx
dt
 dy #
dt  dt
#
dz dt dt #
'C f(x y z) ds '0 t dt  2" ;
1

&

r' tj  k x 0, y t, z 1, 0 t 1 f(g(t) h(t) k(t)) t  1 and dx


dt 0, dy
dt 1, dz
dt 0

dx
dt
 dy #
dt  dt
#
dz dt dt #
'C f(x y z) ds '0 (t  1) dt  12 ;
1

'

r( ti  j  k x t, y 1, z 1, 0 t 1 f(g(t) h(t) k(t)) t# and dx


dt 1, dy
dt 0, dz
dt 0

dx
dt
 dy #
dt  dt
#
dz dt dt #
'C f(x y z) ds '0 t# dt
1
1
3
(

'Path 3 f(x y z) ds 'C f(x y z) ds  'C f(x y z) ds  'C f(x y z) ds  "#  "
#  "
3  23
& ' (

3. r (a cos t)j  (a sin t)k x 0, y a cos t, z a sin t fag(t) h(t) k(t)b a# sin# t a ksin tk and
# # #
dx
dt 0, dy
dt a sin t, dz
dt a cos t dx
dt
 dy
dt  dt
dz dt a dt

'C f(x y z) ds '021 a# ksin tk dt '01 a# sin t dt  '121 a# sin t dt 4a#

4. r (cos t  t sin t)i  (sin t  t cos t)j x cos t  t sin t, y sin t  t cos t, z 0
fag(t) h(t) k(t)b (cos t  t sin t)#  (sin t  t cos t)# 1  t# and dx  sin t  sin t  t cos t dt
#
t cos t, dy
dt cos t  cos t  t sin t t sin t, dz
dt 0 dx
dt
#  dy
dt  dt
dz dt #

3
t# cos# t  t# sin# t dt ktk dt t dt since 0 t 3 'C f(x y z) ds '0 t1  t# dt 7
3

`P
5. `y  "# (x  y  z)$# `N
`z , `M
`z  "# (x  y  z)$# `P
`x , `N
`x  "# (x  y  z)$# `M
`y
`f " `f " `g
M dx  N dy  P dz is exact; `x x  y  z f(x y z) 2x  y  z  g(y z) `y x  y  z  `y
" `g `f "
x  y  z `y 0 g(y z) h(z) f(x y z) 2x  y  z  h(z) `z x  y  z  hw (z)
430
"
hw (x) 0 h(z) C f(x y z) 2x  y  z  C '111
x  y  z
dx  dy  dz
x  y  z

f(4 3 0)  f(1 1 1) 21  21 0

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1046 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields
`P
6. `y  #"yz `N
`z , `M
`z 0 `P
`x , `N
`x 0 `M
`y M dx  N dy  T dz is exact; `f
`x 1 f(x y z)
`f `g
x  g(y z) `y `y  yz g(y z) 2yz  h(z) f(x y z) x  2yz  h(z)
`f
`z  yz  hw (z)  yz hw (z) 0 h(z) C f(x y z) x  2yz  C

' 1101 13 3

dx  yz dy  yz dz f(10 3 3)  f(1 1 1) (10  2 3)  (1  2 1) 4  1 5

`M `P
7. `z y cos z y cos z `x F is not conservative; r a2 cos tbi  a2 sin tbj  k, 0 t 21
dr a2 sin tbi  a2 cos tbj 'C F dr '0 c a2 sin tbasina1bba2 sin tb  a2 cos tbasina1bba2 cos tbd dt
21

4 sina1b'0 asin2 t  cos2 tbdt 81 sina1b


21

8. `P
`y 0 `N
`z , `M
`z 0 `P
`x , `N
`x 3x# `M
`y F is conservative 'C F dr 0

9. Let M 8x sin y and N 8y cos x `M


`y 8x cos y and `N
`x 8y sin x 'C 8x sin y dx  8y cos x dy
' ' (8y sin x  8x cos y) dy dx '0 '01/2 (8y sin x  8x cos y) dy dx '0 a1# sin x  8xb dx
1/2 1/2

R
1 #  1 # 0

10. Let M y# and N x# `M


`y 2y and `N
`x 2x 'C y# dx  x# dy ' ' (2x  2y) dx dy
R
'0 '02 (2r cos )  2r sin )) r dr d) '021
21
16
3 (cos )  sin )) d) 0

11. Let z 1  x  y fx (x y) 1 and fy (x y) 1 fx#  fy#  1 3 Surface Area ' ' 3 dx dy


R
3(Area of the circular region in the xy-plane) 13

12. f 3i  2yj  2zk , p i k f k 9  4y#  4z# and k f pk 3


3 9  4r#
dy dz '0 '0 '021 47 21  49 d) 16 721  9
21
Surface Area ' '
9  4y#  4z# "
3 3 r dr d) 3
R

13. f 2xi  2yj  2zk , p k k f k 4x#  4y#  4z# 2x#  y#  z# 2 and k f pk k2zk 2z since
2
dx dy '0 '01
21
z 0 Surface Area ' ' 2
2z dA ' ' "
z dA ' ' "
1  x#  y#
"
1  r# r dr d)
R R R
#
'021 1  r# " d) '0 1 
21
"
2 d) 21 1  "
2
!

14. (a) f 2xi  2yj  2zk , p k k f k 4x#  4y#  4z# 2x#  y#  z# 4 and k f pk 2z since
dA 2 '0 '02 cos
1/2 )
z 0 Surface Area ' ' 4
2z dA ' ' 2
z
2
4  r# r dr d) 41  8
R R
(b) r 2 cos ) dr 2 sin ) d); ds# r# d)#  dr# (Arc length in polar coordinates)
ds# (2 cos ))# d)#  dr# 4 cos# ) d)#  4 sin# ) d)# 4 d)# ds 2 d); the height of the
cylinder is z 4  r# 4  4 cos# ) 2 ksin )k 2 sin ) if 0 ) 1 #

Surface Area 'c11/22 h ds 2 '01/2 (2 sin ))(2 d)) 8

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Chapter 16 Practice Exercises 1047

15. f(x y z) x
a  y
b  z
c 1 f "a i  b" j  "c k k f k a"#  "
b#  "
c# and p k k f pk "
c
" " "
 
since c  0 Surface Area ' ' a# b# c#
dA c a"#  "
b#  "
c#
' ' dA #" abc a"#  b"#  c"# ,
"c
R R
"
since the area of the triangular region R is # ab. To check this result, let v ai  ck and w ai  bj; the area can be
"
found by computing # kv w k.

16. (a) f 2yj  k , p k k f k 4y#  1 and k f pk 1 d5 4y#  1 dx dy


' ' g(x y z) d5 ' ' yz# 4y#  1 dx dy ' ' y ay#  1b dx dy ' ' ay$  yb dx dy
1 3
4y  1 c1 0
S R R

'c1 3 ay$  yb dy
1 % "
y#
3 y4  # " 0

' ' g(x y z) d5 ' ' 4y#  1 dx dy ' '03 ay#  1b dx dy 'c11 3 ay#  1b dy
1
z
(b) 4y#  1 c1
S R
$ "
3 y3  y 4
"

17. f 2yj  2zk , p k k f k 4y#  4z# 2y#  z# 10 and k f pk 2z since z 0


d5 102z dx dy z dx dy
5 ' ' g(x y z) d5 ' ' ax% yb ay#  z# b 5z dx dy
S R

' ' ax% yb (25) 255 y# dx dy '0 '0 x dx dy '0


4 1 4
%
125y
25  y#
25y
25  y# dy 50
R

18. Define the coordinate system so that the origin is at the center of the earth, the z-axis is the earth's axis (north
is the positive z direction), and the xz-plane contains the earth's prime meridian. Let S denote the surface
"#
which is Wyoming so then S is part of the surface z aR#  x#  y# b . Let Rxy be the projection of S onto
#
the xy-plane. The surface area of Wyoming is ' ' 1 d5 ' ' 1  `` xz  `` yz dA
#

S Rxy

dA ') 'RRsinsin4549 R aR#  r# b"# r dr d)


)#
'' x#
R #  x#  y#  y#
R #  x#  y#  1 dA ' ' R
aR #  x#  y# b"# "
Rxy Rxy
(where )" and )# are the radian equivalent to 1043w and 1113w , respectively)
') R aR#  r# b ') R aR#  R# sin# 45b
)# )#
"# R sin 49 "# "#
 R aR#  R# sin# 49b d)
" R sin 45 "

71 71
()#  )" )R# (cos 45  cos 49) 180 R# (cos 45  cos 49) 180 (3959)# (cos 45  cos 49)
97,751 sq. mi.

19. A possible parametrization is r(9 )) (6 sin 9 cos ))i  (6 sin 9 sin ))j  (6 cos 9)k (spherical coordinates);
now 3 6 and z 3 3 6 cos 9 cos 9  " 9 21 and z 33 33 6 cos 9 # 3
3 1 1 21
cos 9 # 9 6 6 9 3 ; also 0 ) 21

#
20. A possible parametrization is r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  r# k (cylindrical coordinates);
# #
now r x#  y# z  r# and 2 z 0 2  r# 0 4 r# 0 0 r 2 since r 0;
also 0 ) 21

21. A possible parametrization is r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  (1  r)k (cylindrical coordinates);
now r x#  y# z 1  r and 1 z 3 1 1  r 3 0 r 2; also 0 ) 21

22. A possible parametrization is r(x y) xi  yj  3  x  y# k for 0 x 2 and 0 y 2

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1048 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

23. Let x u cos v and z u sin v, where u x#  z# and v is the angle in the xz-plane with the x-axis
r(u v) (u cos v)i  2u# j  (u sin v)k is a possible parametrization; 0 y 2 2u# 2 u# 1
0 u 1 since u 0; also, for just the upper half of the paraboloid, 0 v 1

1
24. A possible parametrization is 10 sin 9 cos ) i  10 sin 9 sin ) j  10 cos 9) k , 0 9 2 and
1
0) #

i j k

25. ru i  j , rv i  j  k ru rv " " 0 i  j  2k kru rv k 6

" " "
Surface Area ' ' kru rv k du dv '0 '01
1
6 du dv 6
Ruv

' ' axy  z# b d5 ' ' c(u  v)(u  v)  v# d 6 du dv 6' ' au#  2v# b du dv
1 1 1 1
26. 0 0 0 0
S

6 '0 u3  2uv# dv 6 '0 3"  2v# dv 6  3" v  32 v$ ! 


1 $ " " 1 6
3  32
!


i j k

27. rr (cos ))i  (sin ))j , r) (r sin ))i  (r cos ))j  k rr r) cos ) sin ) 0

r sin ) r cos ) "
(sin ))i  (cos ))j  rk krr r) k sin# )  cos# )  r# 1  r# Surface Area ' ' krr r) k dr d)
Rr)

'0 '0 1  r# dr d) '0 ln r  1  r# d) '0 "# 2 


21 1 21 " 21
" "
2r 1  r#  # # ln 1  2 d)
!

1 2  ln 1  2

' ' x#  y#  1 d5 ' ' r# cos# )  r# sin# )  1 1  r# dr d) ' ' a1  r# b dr d)


21 1 21 1
28. 0 0 0 0
S

'0 r  r3 d) '0
21 $ " 21
4
3 d) 8
3 1
!

`P `N `M `P `N `M
29. `y 0 `z , `z 0 `x , `x 0 `y Conservative

`P 3zy `N `M 3xz `P `N 3xy `M


30. , , Conservative
`y ax#  y#  z# b&# `z `z ax#  y#  z# b&# `x `x ax#  y#  z# b&# `y

`P `N
31. `y 0 yez `z Not Conservative

`P `N `M y `P `N z `M
32. `y x
(x  yz)# `z , `z (x  yz)# `x , `x (x  yz)# `y Conservative

`f `f `g
33. `x 2 f(x y z) 2x  g(y z) ` y ` y 2y  z g(y z) y#  zy  h(z)
`f
f(x y z) 2x  y#  zy  h(z) w
` z y  h (z) y  1 hw (z) 1 h(z) z  C
f(x y z) 2x  y#  zy  z  C

`f `f `g
34. `x z cos xz f(x y z) sin xz  g(y z) `y `y ey g(y z) ey  h(z)
`f
f(x y z) sin xz  ey  h(z) `z x cos xz  h (z) x cos xz hw (z) 0 h(z) C
w

f(x y z) sin xz  ey  C

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Chapter 16 Practice Exercises 1049

35. Over Path 1: r ti  tj  tk , 0 t 1 x t, y t, z t and dr (i  j  k) dt F 2t# i  j  t# k


F dr a3t#  1b dt Work '0 a3t#  1b dt 2;
1

Over Path 2: r" ti  tj , 0 t 1 x t, y t, z 0 and dr" (i  j) dt F" 2t# i  j  t# k


F" dr" a2t#  1b dt Work" '0 a2t#  1b dt
1
5
3 ; r# i  j  tk , 0 t 1 x 1, y 1, z t and

dr# k dt F# 2i  j  k F# dr# dt Work# '0 dt 1 Work Work"  Work#


1
5
3 1 8
3

36. Over Path 1: r ti  tj  tk , 0 t 1 x t, y t, z t and dr (i  j  k) dt F 2t# i  t# j  k


F dr a3t#  1b dt Work '0 a3t#  1b dt 2;
1

Over Path 2: Since f is conservative, )C F dr 0 around any simple closed curve C. Thus consider
'curve F dr 'C F dr  'C F dr , where C" is the path from (0 0 0) to (1 1 0) to (" " ") and C# is the path
" #

from (1 1 1) to (! ! !). Now, from Path 1 above, 'C F dr 2 0 'curve F dr 'C F dr  (2)
# "

'C F dr 2
"

37. (a) r aet cos tb i  aet sin tb j x et cos t, y et sin t from (1 0) to ae21 0b 0 t 21
xi  yj aet cos tb i  aet sin tb j
dr
aet cos t  et sin tb i  aet sin t  et cos tb j and F
dt ax#  y# b$# ae2t cos# t  e2t sin# tb$#
#
sin# t
cos
e2t
t
i  sin
e2t j F
t dr
dt coset t  sin t cos t
et  et  sin t cos t
et et

Work '0 et dt 1  e21


21

xi  yj `f "# `f `g
(b) F `x x
f(x y z)  ax#  y# b  g(y z) `y y
 `y
ax#  y# b$# ax#  y# b$# ax#  y# b$#

y
g(y z) C f(x y z)  ax#  y# b
"#
is a potential function for F 'C F dr
ax#  y# b$#
f ae 0b  f(1 0) 1  e21
21

38. (a) F ax# zey b F is conservative )C F dr 0 for any closed path C


(b) 'C F dr ' 1 0 0 1021


ax# zey b dr ax# zey bk "!#1  ax# zey bk "!! 21  0 21

i j k

`
39. F ``x `
`y ` z 2yk; unit normal to the plane is n
2i  6j  3k
4  36  9 2
7 i  67 j  37 k
#
y y 3z#
k f k
Fn 6
7 y; p k and f(x y z) 2x  6y  3z k f pk 3 d5 kfpk dA 7
3 dA

)C F dr ' ' 6
7 y d5 ' ' 67 y 73 dA ' ' 2y dA '0
21
'0 2r sin ) r dr d) '0
1 21
2
3 sin ) d) 0
R R R

i j k


40. F ``x `
`y
`
`z 8yi ; the circle lies in the plane f(x y z) y  z 0 with unit normal
#
x  y xy 4y#  z
n "
2 j "
2 k Fn0 )C F dr ' ' F n d5 ' ' 0 d5 0
R R

41. (a) r 2ti  2tj  a4  t# b k , 0 t 1 x 2t, y 2t, z 4  t# dx


dt 2, dy
dt 2, dz
dt 2t

dz dt 4  4t# dt M ' $ (x y z) ds ' 3t4  4t# dt  "4 (4  4t)$#


# # # 1 "
dx
dt
 dy
dt  dt C 0 !

42  2

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1050 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

(b) M 'C $ (x y z) ds '0 4  4t# dt t1  t#  ln t  1  t# 2  ln 1  2


1 "

42. r ti  2tj  23 t$# k , 0 t 2 x t, y 2t, z 2 $#


3 t dx
dt 1, dy
dt 2, dz
dt t"#

dz dt t  5 dt M ' $ (x y z) ds ' 35  t t  5 dt
# # # 2
dx
dt
 dy
dt  dt C 0

'0 3(t  5) dt 36; Myz 'C x$ ds '0 3t(t  5) dt 38; Mxz 'C y$ ds '0 6t(t  5) dt 76;
2 2 2

2
Mxy 'C z$ ds '0 2t$# (t  5) dt
2
Myz Mxy 144
144 2 x 38
19
,y Mxz
76
19
,z
7
7 M 36 18 M 36 9 M 36

4 2
7

# 22 $# t#
43. r ti  2 3 2 t$# j  t# k , 0 t 2 x t, y 3 t , z # dx
dt 1, dy
dt 2 t"# , dz
dt t
# # #
dx
dt
 dy dz dt 1  2t  t# dt (t  1)# dt kt  1k dt (t  1) dt on the domain given.
dt  dt

Then M 'C $ ds '0 t " 1 (t  1) dt '0 dt 2; Myz 'C x$ ds '0 t t " 1 (t  1) dt '0 t dt 2;
2 2 2 2

Mxz 'C y$ ds '0 2 3 2 t$# t " 1 (t  1) dt '0 ; Mxy 'C z$ ds


2 2
22 $#
3 t dt 32
15

'0 t# t"1 (t  1) dt '0


2 # 2 #
Myz 32 Mxy
t
# dt 4
3 x M 2
# 1; y Mxz
M 15
# 16
15 ;z M

; Ix 'C ay#  z# b $ ds '0 89 t$  t4 dt ; Iy 'C ax#  z# b $ ds '0 t#  t4 dt


43 2 % 2 %
# 2
3
232
45
64
15 ;

Iz 'C ay#  x# b $ ds '0 t#  89 t$ dt


2 232
45 229 I 64
15 4 2
56
9 ; Rx M
Ix
# 3 5
; Ry My # 15 ;

56
9 2 7
Rz M
Iz
# 3

44. z 0 because the arch is in the xy-plane, and x 0 because the mass is distributed symmetrically with respect
# # #
to the y-axis; r(t) (a cos t)i  (a sin t)j , 0 t 1 ds dx
dt
 dy
dt  dt
dz dt

(a sin t)#  (a cos t)# dt a dt, since a 0; M 'C $ ds 'C (2a  y) ds '0 (2a  a sin t) a dt
1

2a2 1  2a# ; Mxz 'C y$ dt 'C y(2a  y) ds '0 (a sin t)(2a  a sin t) dt '0 a2a# sin t  a# sin# tb dt
1 1

a# 1
4a#  #
2a# cos t  a# 2t  sin 2t 1 4a#  a# 1
# y 2a# 1  2a# 81
41  4 ax y zb 0 48114 0
4 !

45. r(t) aet cos tb i  aet sin tb j  et k , 0 t ln 2 x et cos t, y et sin t, z et dx


dt aet cos t  et sin tb ,
# # #
dy
dt aet sin t  et cos tb, dz
dt et dx
dt
 dy
dt  dt
dz dt

aet cos t  et sin tb#  aet sin t  et cos tb#  aet b# dt 3e2t dt 3 et dt; M 'C $ ds '0ln 2 3 et dt
3 3
3; Mxy 'C z$ ds '0 3 et aet b dt '

3 3
ln 2 ln 2 #
3 e2t dt Mxy
0 # z M 3 3
# ;

Iz 'C ax#  y# b $ ds '0 ae2t cos# t  e2t sin# tb 3 et dt '0 3 e3t dt 7 3


ln 2 ln 2

3 Rz M
Iz


7333 73

46. r(t) (2 sin t)i  (2 cos t)j  3tk , 0 t 21 x 2 sin t, y 2 cos t, z 3t dx


dt 2 cos t, dy
dt 2 sin t,

dz dt 4  9 dt 13 dt; M ' $ ds ' $ 13 dt 21$ 13;


# # # 21
dz
dt 3 dx
dt
 dy
dt  dt C 0

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Chapter 16 Practice Exercises 1051

Mxy 'C z$ ds '0 (3t) $ 13 dt 6$1# 13; Myz 'C x$ ds '0 (2 sin t) $ 13 dt 0;
21 21

Mxz 'C y$ ds '0 (2 cos t) $ 13 dt 0 x y 0 and z


21
Mxy 6$1# 13
M 2$113
31 (! ! 31) is the
center of mass

47. Because of symmetry x y 0. Let f(x y z) x#  y#  z# 25 f 2xi  2yj  2zk


k f k 4x#  4y#  4z# 10 and p k k f pk 2z, since z 0 M ' ' $ (x y z) d5
R
' ' z 10
#z dA
' ' 5 dA 5(Area of the circular region) 801; Mxy ' ' z$ d5 ' ' 5z dA
R R R R

' ' 525  x#  y# dx dy '0 '0 525  r# r dr d) '0


21 21 980
3 1
4
490
3 d) 980
3 1 z 801 49
12
R
' ' ax#  y# b $ d5 ' ' 5 ax#  y# b dx dy ' '04 5r$ dr d) '021 320 d) 6401;
21
ax y zb 0 ! 49
12 ; Iz

0
R R
1
Rz M
Iz
640
801 2 2

48. On the face z 1: g(x y z) z 1 and p k g k k gk 1 and k g pk 1 d5 dA


I ' ' ax#  y# b dA 2 '0 '0sec
1/4 )
r$ dr d) 2
3 ; On the face z 0: g(x y z) z 0 g k and p k
R
k gk 1 k g pk 1 d5 dA I ' ' ax#  y# b dA 2
3 ; On the face y 0: g(x y z) y 0
R
g j and p j k gk 1 k g pk 1 d5 dA I ' ' ax#  0b dA '0 '01 x# dx dz "3 ;
1

R
On the face y 1: g(x y z) y 1 g j and p j k gk 1 k g pk 1 d5 dA
I ' ' ax#  1# b dA '0 '01 ax#  1b dx dz 43 ; On the face x 1:
1
g(x y z) x 1 g i and p i
R
k gk 1 k g pk 1 d5 dA I ' ' a1#  y# b dA '0 '01 a1  y# b dy dz 43 ; On the face
1

R
x 0: g(x y z) x 0 g i and p i k gk 1 k g pk 1 d5 dA
I ' ' a0#  y# b dA '0 '01 y# dy dz 13
1
" "
Iz 2
3  2
3  3  4
3  4
3  3 14
3
R

49. M 2xy  x and N xy  y `M


`x 2y  1, `M
`y 2x, `N
`x y, `N
`y x  1 Flux ' ' ``Mx  `N
`y dx dy
R
' ' (2y  1  x  1) dy dx '0 '01 (2y  x) dy dx 3# ; Circ ' '
1
``Nx  `M
`y dx dy
R R
' ' (y  2x) dy dx '0 '01 (y  2x) dy dx  "#
1

50. M y  6x# and N x  y# `M


`x 12x, `M
`y 1, `N
`x 1, `N
`y 2y Flux ' ' ``Mx  `N
`y dx dy
R
' ' (12x  2y) dx dy '01 'y1 (12x  2y) dx dy '01 a4y#  2y  6b dy  113 ;
R
Circ ' ' ``Nx  `M
`y dx dy ' ' (1  1) dx dy 0
R R

51. M  cosx y and N ln x sin y `M


`y sin y
x and `N
`x sin y
x )C ln x sin y dy  cos y
x dx
' ' ``Nx  `M
`y dx dy ' ' sinx y  sin y
x dx dy 0
R R

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1052 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

52. (a) Let M x and N y `M


`x 1, `M
`y 0, `N
`x 0, `N
`y 1 Flux ' ' ``Mx  `N
`y dx dy
R
' ' (1  1) dx dy 2 ' ' dx dy 2(Area of the region)
R R
(b) Let C be a closed curve to which Green's Theorem applies and let n be the unit normal vector to C. Let
F xi  yj and assume F is orthogonal to n at every point of C. Then the flux density of F at every point
of C is 0 since F n 0 at every point of C ``Mx  ``Ny 0 at every point of C
Flux ' ' ``Mx  `N
`y dx dy ' ' 0 dx dy 0. But part (a) above states that the flux is
R R
2(Area of the region) the area of the region would be 0 contradiction. Therefore, F cannot be
orthogonal to n at every point of C.

53. `
`x (2xy) 2y, `
`y (2yz) 2z, `
`z (2xz) 2x F 2y  2z  2x Flux ' ' ' (2x  2y  2z) dV
D
'0 '0 '0 (2x  2y  2z) dx dy dz '0 '0 (1  2y  2z) dy dz '0 (2  2z) dz 3
1 1 1 1 1 1

54. `
`x (xz) z, `
`y (yz) z, `
`z (1) 0 F 2z Flux ' ' ' 2z r dr d) dz
D
25 c r
'0 '0 '3 2z dz r dr d) '0 '0 ra16  r b dr d) '0
21 4 # 21 4 21
#
64 d) 1281

` ` `
55. `x (2x) 2, `y (3y) 3, `z (z) 1 F 4; x#  y#  z# 2 and x#  y# z z 1
2cr
x#  y# 1 Flux ' ' ' 4 dV 4 '0 '01 'r dz r dr d) 4 '0 '01 r2  r#  r$ dr d)
21 # 21

#
D
4'0 
21
7
12  2 d)
2
3
2
3 1 7  82

` ` `
56. `x (6x  y) 6, `y (x  z) 0, `z (4yz) 4y F 6  4y; z x#  y# r

Flux ' ' ' (6  4y) dV '0 '01 '0r (6  4r sin )) dz r dr d) '01/2 '01 a6r#  4r$ sin )b dr d)
1/2

D
'0 (2  sin )) d) 1  1
1/2

57. F yi  zj  xk F 0 Flux ' ' F n d5 ' ' ' F dV 0


S D

58. F 3xz# i  yj  z$ k F 3z#  1  3z# 1 Flux ' ' F n d5 ' ' ' F dV
S D
16cx 2
'0 '0 '0 1 dz dy dx '
4 # y2 4 %
x # x$
0
1616 dx x  48 ! 8
3

59. F xy# i  x# yj  yk F y#  x#  0 Flux ' ' F n d5 ' ' ' F dV


S D

' ' ' ax  y b dV '0 '0 'c1 r dz r dr d) '0 '0 2r dr d) '0


21 1 1 21 1 21
# # # $ "
# d) 1
D

60. (a) F (3z  1)k F 3 Flux across the hemisphere ' ' F n d5 ' ' ' F dV
S D
' ' ' 3 dV 3 "# 43 1a$ 21a$
D
(b) f(x y z) x#  y#  z#  a# 0 f 2xi  2yj  2zk k f k 4x#  4y#  4z# 4a# 2a since
a 0 n 2xi  2y#aj  2zk xi  yaj  zk F n (3z  1) za ; p k f p f k 2z

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Chapter 16 Additional and Advanced Exercises 1053

k f pk 2z since z 0 d5 kf k
kfpk 2a
2z dA a
z dA ' ' F n d5 ' ' (3z  1) za az dA
S Rxy

' ' (3z  1) dx dy ' ' 3a#  x#  y#  1 dx dy '0 '0 3a#  r#  1 r dr d)


21 a

Rxy Rxy

'0 a#  a$ d) 1a#  21a$ , which is the flux across the hemisphere. Across the base we find
21 #

F [3(0)  1]k k since z 0 in the xy-plane n k (outward normal) F n 1 Flux across


the base ' ' F n d5 ' ' 1 dx dy 1a# . Therefore, the total flux across the closed surface is
S Rxy
# $ # $
a1a  21a b  1a 21a .

CHAPTER 16 ADDITIONAL AND ADVANCED EXERCISES

1. dx (2 sin t  2 sin 2t) dt and dy (2 cos t  2 cos 2t) dt; Area "
#
)C x dy  y dx
"
#
'021 [(2 cos t  cos 2t)(2 cos t  2 cos 2t)  (2 sin t  sin 2t)(2 sin t  2 sin 2t)] dt
"# '0 [6  (6 cos t cos 2t  6 sin t sin 2t)] dt "# '0 (6  6 cos t) dt 61
21 21

2. dx (2 sin t  2 sin 2t) dt and dy (2 cos t  2 cos 2t) dt; Area "
#
)C x dy  y dx

'0 [(2 cos t  cos 2t)(2 cos t  2 cos 2t)  (2 sin t  sin 2t)(2 sin t  2 sin 2t)] dt
"
#
21

"# '0 [2  2(cos t cos 2t  sin t sin 2t)] dt "# '0 (2  2 cos 3t) dt "# 2t  23 sin 3t ! 21
21 21 #1

3. dx cos 2t dt and dy cos t dt; Area "


#
)C x dy  y dx "
#
'01 "# sin 2t cos t  sin t cos 2t dt
"
#
'01 csin t cos# t  (sin t) a2 cos# t  1bd dt "# '01 a sin t cos# t  sin tb dt "#  3" cos$ t  cos t !1  3"  1 23

4. dx (2a sin t  2a cos 2t) dt and dy (b cos t) dt; Area "


#
)C x dy  y dx

"
#
'0 ca2ab cos# t  ab cos t sin 2tb  a2ab sin# t  2ab sin t cos 2tbd dt
21

"# '0 c2ab  2ab cos# t sin t  2ab(sin t) a2 cos# t  1bd dt "# '0 a2ab  2ab cos# t sin t  2ab sin tb dt
21 21

"
#
2abt  23 ab cos$ t  2ab cos t #1 21ab
!

5. (a) F(x y z) zi  xj  yk is 0 only at the point (0 0 0), and curl F(x y z) i  j  k is never 0 .
(b) F(x y z) zi  yk is 0 only on the line x t, y 0, z 0 and curl F(x y z) i  j is never 0 .
(c) F(x y z) zi is 0 only when z 0 (the xy-plane) and curl F(x y z) j is never 0 .

x i  y j  zk x i  y j  zk
6. F yz# i  xz# j  2xyzk and n x #  y #  z# R , so F is parallel to n when yz# cx
R , xz# cy
R ,
# #
and 2xyz cz
R yz
x xz
y 2xy y# x# y x and z# c
R 2x# z 2x. Also,
2R
x#  y#  z# R# x#  x#  2x# R# 4x# R# x R
# . Thus the points are: R# R# # ,
2R 2R 2R 2R 2R
R# R#  # ,  R#  R# # ,  R#  R#  # , R#  R# # , R#  R#  # ,
2R 2R
 R# R# # ,  R# R#  #

7. Set up the coordinate system so that (a b c) (0 R 0) $ (x y z) x#  (y  R)#  z#


x#  y#  z#  2Ry  R# 2R#  2Ry ; let f(x y z) x#  y#  z#  R# and p i
kf k
f 2xi  2yj  2zk k f k 2x#  y#  z# 2R d5 kfik dz dy 2R
2x dz dy

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1054 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

Mass ' ' $ (x y z) d5 ' ' 2R#  2Ry Rx dz dy R ' '


2R#  2Ry
R #  y #  z# dz dy
S Ryz Ryz
R cy
R cy
# #

4R 'cR '0 dz dy 4R 'cR 2R2  2Ry sin1 R2z y2


# #
R 2R#  2Ry R

R #  y #  z# dy
0

21R'cR 2R2  2Ry dy 21R 


R R
3/2 161R$
3R a2R  2Ryb
1 2
3
cR


i j k

8. r(r )) (r cos ))i  (r sin ))j  )k , 0 r 1, 0 ) 21 rr r) cos ) sin ) 0

r sin ) r cos ) "
(sin ))i  (cos ))j  rk krr r) k 1  r# ; $ 2x#  y# 2r# cos# )  r# sin# ) 2r
Mass ' ' $ (x y z) d5 '0 '01 2r1  r# dr d) '021 23 a1  r# b$# " d) '021 23 22  1 d)
21

S !

41
3 2 2  1

6 Flux '0 '0a (2x  4y  6) dx dy


b
`M `N
9. M x#  4xy and N 6y `x 2x  4y and `x

'0 aa#  4ay  6ab dy a# b  2ab#  6ab. We want to minimize f(a b) a# b  2ab#  6ab ab(a  2b  6).
b

Thus, fa (a b) 2ab  2b#  6b 0 and fb (a b) a#  4ab  6a 0 b(2a  2b  6) 0 b 0 or


b a  3. Now b 0 a#  6a 0 a 0 or a 6 (0 0) and (6 0) are critical points. On the other
hand, b a  3 a#  4a(a  3)  6a 0 3a#  6a 0 a 0 or a 2 (0 3) and (# ") are also
critical points. The flux at (0 0) 0, the flux at (6 0) 0, the flux at (0 3) 0 and the flux at (2 1) 4.
Therefore, the flux is minimized at (2 1) with value 4.

10. A plane through the origin has equation ax  by  cz 0. Consider first the case when c 0. Assume the plane is given
by z ax  by and let f(x y z) x#  y#  z# 4. Let C denote the circle of intersection of the plane with the sphere.
By Stokes's Theorem, )C F dr ' ' F n d5 , where n is a unit normal to the plane. Let
S

i j k

r(x y) xi  yj  (ax  by)k be a parametrization of the surface. Then rx ry " 0 a ai  bj  k

0 " b
i j k


d5 krx ry k dx dy a  b  1 dx dy. Also, F ` x ` y ``z i  j  k and n ai # bj # k
# # ` `
a b 1
z x y
' ' F n d5 ' ' a  b  1 a#  b#  1 dx dy ' ' (a  b  1) dx dy (a  b  1) ' ' dx dy. Now
a#  b#  1
S Rxy Rxy Rxy
# #
# #
x  y  (ax  by) 4 #
a 4 1 x#  b 4 1 y#  ab
# xy 1 the region Rxy is the interior of the
a#  1 b#  1
ellipse Ax#  Bxy  Cy# 1 in the xy-plane, where A 4 ,B ab
# , and C 4 . By Exercise 47 in
Section 10.3, the area of the ellipse is 21
4AC  B# 41
a#  b#  1 )C F dr h(a b) 41(a  b  1)
a#  b#  1 .
# #
(a  b  1) `H 2(a  b  1) ab  1  a  abb
Thus we optimize H(a b) a#  b#  1 : `a aa #  b #  1 b 2
0 and
#
`H 2(a  b  1) aa  1  b  abb
`b aa #  b #  1 b 2
0 a  b  1 0, or b#  1  a  ab 0 and a#  1  b  ab 0
a  b  1 0, or a  b#  (b  a) 0 a  b  1 0, or (a  b)(a  b  1) 0 a  b  1 0 or a b.
#

The critical values a  b  1 0 give a saddle. If a b, then 0 b#  1  a  ab a#  1  a  a# 0


a 1 b 1. Thus, the point (a b) (1 1) gives a local extremum for )C F dr z x  y
x  y  z 0 is the desired plane, if c 0.
Note: Since h(1 1) is negative, the circulation about n is clockwise, so n is the correct pointing normal for

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Chapter 16 Additional and Advanced Exercises 1055

the counterclockwise circulation. Thus ' ' F (n) d5 actually gives the maximum circulation.
S
If c 0, one can see that the corresponding problem is equivalent to the calculation above when b 0, which does not
lead to a local extreme.

11. (a) Partition the string into small pieces. Let ?i s be the length of the ith piece. Let (xi yi ) be a point in the
ith piece. The work done by gravity in moving the ith piece to the x-axis is approximately
Wi (gxi yi ?i s)yi where xi yi ?i s is approximately the mass of the ith piece. The total work done by
gravity in moving the string to the x-axis is D Wi D gxi yi# ?i s Work 'C gxy# ds
i i
Work 'C gxy# ds '0 g(2 cos t) a4 sin# tb4 sin# t  4 cos# t dt 16g '0 cos t sin# t dt
1/2 1/2
(b)
$ 1#
16g sin3 t 16
3 g
!
' x(xy) ds ' y(xy) ds
(c) x 'C and y 'C ; the mass of the string is 'C xy ds and the weight of the string is
C
xy ds C
xy ds

g 'C xy ds. Therefore, the work done in moving the point mass at ax yb to the x-axis is
W g 'C xy ds y g 'C xy# ds 16
3 g.

12. (a) Partition the sheet into small pieces. Let ?i 5 be the area of the ith piece and select a point (xi yi zi ) in
the ith piece. The mass of the ith piece is approximately xi yi ?i 5 . The work done by gravity in moving the
ith piece to the xy-plane is approximately (gxi yi ?i 5 )zi gxi yi zi ?i 5 Work ' ' gxyz d5.
S
1cx
' ' gxyz d5 g ' ' xy(1  x  y)1  (1)#  (1)# dA 3g ' '
1
(b) 0 0
axy  x# y  xy# b dy dx
S Rxy

3g '0  "2 xy#  #" x# y#  3" xy$ ! dx 3g '0  6" x  #" x#  #" x$  6" x% dx
1 "x 1

" # " 3g
3g  12 x  6" x$  6" x%  "
30 x& ! 3g 1"#  "
30 20
with Mxy ' ' xyz d5 and
M
(c) The center of mass of the sheet is the point ax y zb where z Mxy
S
M ' ' xy d5. The work done by gravity in moving the point mass at ax y zb to the xy-plane is
S
gMz gM MMxy gMxy ' ' gxyz d5
3g
20 .
S

13. (a) Partition the sphere x#  y#  (z  2)# 1 into small pieces. Let ?i 5 be the surface area of the ith piece
and let (xi yi zi ) be a point on the ith piece. The force due to pressure on the ith piece is approximately
w(4  zi )?i 5. The total force on S is approximately D w(4  zi )?i 5. This gives the actual force to be
i
' ' w(4  z) d5.
S
(b) The upward buoyant force is a result of the k-component of the force on the ball due to liquid pressure.
The force on the ball at (x y z) is w(4  z)(n) w(z  4)n , where n is the outer unit normal at (x y z).
Hence the k-component of this force is w(z  4)n k w(z  4)k n . The (magnitude of the) buoyant force
on the ball is obtained by adding up all these k-components to obtain ' ' w(z  4)k n d5.
S
(c) The Divergence Theorem says ' ' w(z  4)k n d5 ' ' ' div(w(z  4)k) dV ' ' ' w dV, where D
S D D
is x#  y#  (z  2)# 1 ' ' w(z  4)k n d5 w ' ' ' 1 dV 43 1w, the weight of the fluid if it
S D
were to occupy the region D.

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


1056 Chapter 16 Integration in Vector Fields

14. The surface S is z x#  y# from z 1 to z 2. Partition S into small pieces and let ?i 5 be the area of the
ith piece. Let (xi yi zi ) be a point on the ith piece. Then the magnitude of the force on the ith piece due to
liquid pressure is approximately Fi w(2  zi )?i 5 the total force on S is approximately
D Fi D w(2  zi )?i 5 the actual force is ' ' w(2  z) d5 ' ' w 2  x#  y# 1  x#
x#  y#  y#
x#  y# dA
i S Rxy

' ' 2 w 2  x#  y# dA '0 '12 2w(2  r) r dr d) '021 2w r#  "3 r$ #" d) '021 232w d)
21

Rxy
4 21 w
3

15. Assume that S is a surface to which Stokes's Theorem applies. Then )C E dr ' ' ( E) n d5
S
' '  ``Bt n d5  ``t ' ' B n d5. Thus the voltage around a loop equals the negative of the rate
S S
of change of magnetic flux through the loop.

16. According to Gauss's Law, ' ' F n d5 41GmM for any surface enclosing the origin. But if F H
S
then the integral over such a closed surface would have to be 0 by the Divergence Theorem since div F 0.

17. )C f g dr ' ' (f g) n d5 (Stokes's Theorem)


S
' ' (f g  f g) n d5 (Section 16.8, Exercise 19b)
S
' ' [(f)(0)  f g] n d5 (Section 16.7, Equation 8)
S
' ' ( f g) n d5
S

18. F" F# (F#  F" ) 0 F#  F" is conservative F#  F" f; also, F" F#


(F#  F" ) 0 # f 0 (so f is harmonic). Finally, on the surface S, f n (F#  F" ) n
F# n  F" n 0. Now, (f f) f f  f # f so the Divergence Theorem gives
' ' ' k f k# dV  ' ' ' f # f dV ' ' ' (f f) dV ' ' f f n d5 0, and since # f 0 we have
D D D S
' ' ' k f k# dV  0 0 ' ' ' kF#  F" k # dV 0 F#  F" 0 F# F" , as claimed.
D D

i j k

`
19. False; let F yi  xj 0 F ``x (y)  ``y (x) 0 and F ``x `
`y ` z 0i  0j  0k 0

x y 0

20. kru rv k# kru k# krv k# sin# ) kru k# krv k# a1  cos# )b kru k# krv k#  kru k# krv k# cos# ) kru k# krv k#  (ru rv )#
kru rv k# EG  F# d5 kru rv k du dv EG  F# du dv

21. r xi  yj  zk r 1  1  1 3 ' ' ' r dV 3 ' ' ' dV 3V V "3 ' ' ' r dV
D D D
' ' r n d5, by the Divergence Theorem
"
3
S

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Chapter 16 Additional and Advanced Exercises 1057

NOTES:

Copyright (c) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

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