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VFTO1 Transient Model

VFTO2 Current Practice
VFTO3 Assessment of Electrical Stresses
VFTO4 HighFrequencyOverVoltages

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August 1, 2017 Slide 2


Transformer Modeling
White Box Model
Dr. Ebrahim Rahimpour, Project Leader of Transformer Transient

ABB Transient Tool

White Box Model
Modeling Steps
Deriving the Equations
Evaluation of Results
Intensive Study of Electrical Stresses

July 3, 2017 Slide 2

ABB Transient Tool

July 3, 2017 Slide 3

Winding A Winding B

White Box Model

n Wintran model is a physical Gpi

detailed model containing Cpi

Resistances (Rs), Conductances

(Ge and Gp), Capacitances (Ce, Cp
and Cs), Self and Mutual
Inductances (L and M). Cei Li
Csi Gsi
n The modeling is a compromise
between accuracy and complexity.
The number of definable basic
elements and thus the accuracy of
the modeling are limited.


July 3, 2017 Slide 4

Modeling Steps

Important steps for transient calculations in Wintran can be

summarized as below:
Parameters identification
Parameter calculations in Wintran are based on analytical formulas as functions of
material properties and physical geometries of transformer.

Defining the excitation

Full Impulse Wave, Chopped Impulse Wave, and User Defined Wave

Deriving the equations

Solving the equations in Time or Frequency Domain
Interpretation of the results

ABB Group
July 3, 2017 | Slide 5
Deriving the Equations
n Applying KVL and KCL and deriving the equations can be done using the following steps:
Create Capacitance Matrix (from design geometry),
Create Inductance Matrix (from design geometry),
Create Connection Matrix (D-Matrix), and
Make Terminal Connections and add External Elements.
n Because of the following reasons, two or more phases of transformer must be simulated
No well defined path to ground within one phase
Single phase series connected winding on different limbs
Phase to phase voltage
Not brought out delta connected winding

n Second Core Feature:

Two Designs, magnetically and capacitive uncoupled, but connected according to their
connection diagrams

ABB Group
July 3, 2017 | Slide 6
Evaluation of Results
n The main results of Wintran can be listed as follows:
n Node voltages
Voltages in time domain
Voltage difference between any two nodes can be calculated. Especially Main Insulation (MI)
Voltages are resulted.
Voltages in frequency domain
Using frequency domain values, calculating the transfer function between any two points is
n Electrical stresses
Electrical stress between two points depends on voltage difference and distance. In any part of
transformer, electrical stress has to be suitable for insulation coordination.

n The results of Wintran are given as:

Frequency Scan or Voltages\Stresses.

ABB Group
July 3, 2017 | Slide 7
Intensive Study of Electrical Stresses
n Electrical stresses analyzed in Wintran:
Based on ABB Technical Standards
I. Oil edge stresses (EI and Eo)
II. Mean stresses in oil between adjacent discs (EA)
III. Tangential mean (creep) stresses along
insulation surfaces (ECreep)
IV. Tangential mean (creep) stresses in loop
windings (ELoop)
V. Stresses between directly adjacent
conductors / Paper stresses (EP)
VI. Oil wedge stresses at duct wedges in Disc-Layer
windings (EWI and EWO)

ABB Group
July 3, 2017 | Slide 8

Very Fast Transient Oscillations

Current Practice
Dr. Ebrahim Rahimpour, Project Leader of Transformer Transient

Design Verification for VFTO
Stepwise Actions
Frequency Scan

July 3, 2017 Slide 2

Very fast transients over voltages are generated usually by a GIS when a
disconnect switch operates.

It is not due to the transformer alone, a circuit breaker alone, or GIS alone,
that potential problems may arise. It is the interaction, or rather interplay of
the network components that results safe operation in very fast transients.
Therefore, one has to understand that a specific transformer that could
have a problem when installed in one network might be perfectly fine in
another network condition.

The nature and the specifics of the very high frequency transients is very
dependent on details of the network environment, such as cable length,
surge impedance of the lines, speed of switching contacts, dielectric
characteristics of specific insulating media at high frequencies, etc.

July 3, 2017 Slide 3

Design Verification for VFTO
ABB Transient Tool, Wintran, simulates the voltage distribution with a number of
lumped capacitive and inductive elements. Wintran is able not only to consider one
disc pair as one branch (Disc Pair Model) but also one turn as one branch (Single
Turn Model). The Single Turn Model is able to represent higher frequencies more
accurately than the Disc Pair Model.

The very fast transient frequency may be higher than the upper frequency limit of the
Disc Pair Model. In such cases, Single Turn Model is a solution, which represents
transient behavior of transformer for much higher frequencies.

In the cases of VFTO analysis, applying Single Turn Model additional to routine check
by Disc Pair Model will ensure the acceptance of design for higher frequencies.

July 3, 2017 Slide 4

Stepwise Actions

Step 1)
Preparing VFT simplified model by electrical designer

Step 2)
Excitation voltage determined by customer

Step 3)
Design verification by applying customer delivered voltage

ABB Group
July 3, 2017 | Slide 5
Stepwise Actions Step 1

VFT simplified model for very fast transient analysis

Csurge =
Surge capacitance seen from the terminal to
ground, which can be calculated in Wintran

Cbush =
Bushing capacitance (parallel capacitance to

Llead and Rlead =

Impedance of leads between bushing terminal and
winding exit

ABB Group
July 3, 2017 | Slide 6
Stepwise Actions Step 2

Simplified arrangement of one system

to study

ABB Group
July 3, 2017 | Slide 7
Stepwise Actions Step 3

Design verification by
applying customer
delivered voltage

ABB Group
July 3, 2017 | Slide 8
Frequency Scan

In a case that customer is asking for frequency

scan, this is also possible to apply in Wintran.

Frequency scan can be delivered in any type of

transfer function in Z, Y or Vout/Vin form.

Customer would clarify from which terminal and for

which internal connections between windings the
frequency scan
should be calculated.

The analysis can be applied in Disc Pair Model or

Single Turn Model.

ABB Group
July 3, 2017 | Slide 9

Assessment of Electrical Stresses

Impact on Transformer Insulation
Dr. Ebrahim Rahimpour, Project Leader of Transformer Transient

Two or Three Parameter Weibull Distribution
Weibull Probability Plot
Evaluation of Paper Stress
ABB TrafoStar Worldwide

July 3, 2017 Slide 2


July 3, 2017 Slide 3


July 3, 2017 Slide 4

Two or Three Parameter Weibull Distribution

Dealing with electric breakdown is very much

dealing with statistics!

Electric breakdown is a stochastic process, not


July 3, 2017 Slide 5

Evaluation of Paper Stress

= 1 -
F E e r

n = Number of Occurrence
FE = Breakdown probability
Failure probability = 1- (1-FE)n

SF = 2.7027 Equivalent electrical stress FE=4.8e-6 %

Normalized electrical stress, which
FE=4.8e-6 % & Number of Occurrence = 22000 Failure probability = 0.1%
gives Safety Factor = 1 and probability
of failure = 0.1%
SF = 1.6667 Equivalent electrical stress FE=6.0e-6 %
FE=6.0e-6 % & Number of Occurrence = 100 Failure probability = 0.1%

ABB Group
July 3, 2017 | Slide 7
ABB TrafoStar Worldwide

The limits ABB follows are design target values, they include manufacturing tolerances and material property

The design rules are used in all plants that use TrafoStar worldwide.

Design rules are initially based on theory, experiments and statistics but mainly on experience of nearly 20000
TrafoStar units.

For sure we can only accept a certain failure range and every reported BU failure is investigated once per year during
a BU failure review meeting. This follow up made our rules very mature over the years and the necessary changes in
the design rules got very rare.

No manufacturer can afford to have many failure this can be achieved by more accurate tools or by a higher safety
margin. It is more trustable to have a more mature, high level design compared to coarse calculations with some
safety margin.

ABB Group
July 3, 2017 | Slide 8

Resonances and Winding Resonances

Andre Souza, PGTR Power Transformers

Resonance and High Frequency Oscillations

Frequency Scan
Voltage distribution Calculation
Examples Previous cases / studies

August 1, 2017 Slide 2

Resonances are highly unpredictable
due to presence of non-linear elements
and variety of system parameters.
Some events may trigger resonances:
Switching Operations (fast or slow)
Load Rejection
1ph-2ph conductor rupture.

August 1, 2017 Slide 3

Winding A Winding B

The complex RLC network has Gpi

many natural frequencies. Cpi

Resonances are random

phenomena with very low Gei
occurrence probability
Cei Li
If a resonance frequency is excited, Csi Gsi
the voltage can be amplified and Mij
overvoltages can occur inside the
Sometimes, the overvoltages can
remain for tens of milliseconds
(switching Low frequencies) IEarth


August 1, 2017 Slide 4

High Frequency Oscillations
Conductors under very high frequencies have a natural trend to attenuate
(damp) the oscillating voltages
Bushing and bus inductance, capacitance and overhead lines behave as low pass
The very high frequency oscillations can be attenuated by the frequency
dependent resistance and filtered by the capacitances/inductances

Conductor Resistance [p.u.] x






1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000

August 1, 2017
High Frequency Oscillations
The SF6 affinity for free electrons causes a quick arcing quench it produces restrikes
at very high frequency ~ tens of MHz
At high frequencies, the damping effect is very evident Skin Effect/Depth

1MHz 100kHz 10kHz 1kHz 100Hz

August 1, 2017 Slide 6

Frequency Scan Winding Entry Impedance Function transfer
WINTRAN is able to calculate the impedance over frequency (scan)

e.g. Resonance:

|Z(j)| - Impedance (j) - Phase

August 1, 2017 Slide 7

Frequency Scan Disc Pair Transfer Function
WINTRAN is able to calculate transfer-functions. Example:

- 2.4 MHz
- 148kHz
Disc pair

U1/U0 - Voltage Ratio

August 1, 2017 Slide 8

Voltage Calculations with Wintran
Apply a damped sinus of resonance frequency
Calculate the voltages
Calculate the electric field Stress
Compare with the design target value

August 1, 2017 Slide 9

Example COPEL VFT (tested Unit) dielectric stress comparisons:
For damped oscillation 1.1MHZ@1163kV calculated stress (base stress):
1 pu for paper (paper insulation turn to turn)
For the specified and tested, highest calculated stress:
1.01 pu for paper (paper insulation turn to turn)
For 10ns/165ns 898kV (ISA proposed fast front wave) highest calculated stress:
1.6 pu for paper (paper insulation turn to turn)

Specified Wave: 1167kVpeak : 10ns Fast Front wave 10/165ns 898kV

Damped Oscillation 1167kV
rise time: time to chop: 3us

August 1, 2017 Slide 10

Recommendations Actions to control / mitigate
Further system simulations for VFT Sensibility study.
Switchgear disconnector - design in a way to avoid the resonances bandwidths
Customer should specify an average number of switching operations expected during
transformer life.

Transformer insulation withstand studies performed by manufacturer based on the

Power System studies.
In case of frequent switching operations, proper safety margins should be applied in
the design.

August 1, 2017 Slide 11

The double triangular 10ns/165ns wave seems too steep.
Internal ABB GIS Power Network Studies has been shown that the amplitude of the
overvoltages about 1.1 to 1.7pu of the maximum system voltage.
The amplitude 2pu is a good approach therefore, it is extreme severe condition where
the system has -1pu and trapped charge in the GIS bus is +1pu, resulting : 2pu)
Approach of some NA customers
Use the chopped wave test. It has a very high derivative dV/dt (about 0.3us equivalent to a
3MHz front).
Specify the transformers Impulse level (BIL) as the first level of the next equipment voltage
(Um). Example: 550kV with 1800kV-Impulse instead of 1550kV
The chopped wave related to full impulse waves is a testable way to grant the transformer
insulation are able to withstand the high voltage/high frequencies imposed.

August 1, 2017 Slide 12

Annex Voltage Levels

August 1, 2017 Slide 13

Transient Interaction: Transformer Power System
Resonance over-voltages

Dielectric impulse tests on transformers are made to prove the ability to withstand dielectric stresses during service
Most network disturbances are covered by these tests but
External mono frequency oscillations can destroy a transformer even if their amplitude is below the test level
This happens if the excited frequencies are in coincidence with internal resonances of the transformer
Internal resonances can not be avoided
They can only be shifted within a certain limit

22/07/2009 | Slide 15
Transient Interaction: Transformer Power System
Transformer Resonances Some kHz up to a few hundred kHz

Slow front to fast front transients

Full covered by full wave impulse
Full covered by ABB coarse impulse model
Typical failure mode is a failure over duct or along the winding
Risk and measures:
The failure risk is very high if resonances are excited
These fundamental eigenfrequencies are very typical for a certain transformer application and more or less fixed
They can be estimated using the experience with similar units or from a coarse transformer model
System studies can be used to avoid such resonance over-voltages
Unusual operation modes like open terminal operation should also be avoided

22/07/2009 | Slide 16
Transient Interaction: Transformer Power System
Transformer Resonances A few hundred kHz up to 1 MHz

Fast front to very fast front transients

Mostly covered by chopped wave tests but the excited frequency spectrum depends very much on the individual wave
Not fully covered by ABB coarse impulse model but completely covered by ABB fine impulse model
Typical failure mode is a part winding resonance
Risk and possible actions / measures:
The failure risk is relatively high if resonances are excited
Inner winding resonances can not be measured at terminals and depend on the individual design
Such resonances may be shifted by design changes within a certain limit
Measured or calculated wave shapes exciting such frequencies could be checked against the ABB transformer model
Based on the ABB fine impulse model the most severe resonances could be identified and those should be avoided in an extended
frequency range (e.g. +/-10%)

22/07/2009 | Slide 17
Transient Interaction: Transformer Power System
Transformer Resonances Above 1 MHz

Very fast front transients

Not covered by standard transformer impulse test
Not covered by ABB coarse impulse model and only partly covered by ABB fine impulse model
Typical failure mode could be a turn to turn failure
Risk and possible actions / measures:
The failure risk is unknown
Normally the excitations are naturally filtered out by capacitances to ground before they arrive at the transformer windings
A failure mode may be partial discharges leading to extended paper aging if repeated very often
The ABB paper stress criterion limits the stress below initiation which prevents such repetitive aging effects
The analysis and prediction is very difficult
As long as the frequency range is covered by the ABB fine impulse model a coarse risk analysis could be performed if a measured or
calculated excitation can be provided

22/07/2009 | Slide 18