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DESIGN PROBLEMS

1. The link shown, made of AISI C1045 steel, as rolled, is subjected to a tensile load

of 8000 lb. Let h = 1.5b . If the load is repeated but not reversed, determine the

dimensions of the section with the design based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield

strength. (c) If this link, which is 15 in. long., must not elongate more than 0.005

in., what should be the dimensions of the cross section?

Problems 1 3.

Solution:

For AISI C1045 steel, as rolled (Table AT 7)

su = 96 ksi

s y = 59 ksi

E = 30 10 6 psi

F

sd =

A

where

F = 8000 lb

A = bh

but

h = 1.5b

therefore A = 1.5b 2

N = factor of safety = 6 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)

s F

sd = u =

N A

96,000 8000

=

6 1.5b 2

5

b = 0.577 in say in .

8

Page 1 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

15

h = 1.5b = in

16

N = factor of safety = 3 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)

s F

sd = u =

N A

59,000 8000

=

3 1.5b 2

9

b = 0.521 in say in .

16

27

h = 1.5b = in

32

FL

(c) Elongation = =

AE

where,

= 0.005 in

F = 8000 lb

E = 30 10 6 psi

L = 15 in

A = 1.5b 2

then,

FL

=

AE

0.005 =

(8000)(15)

(1.5b )(30 10 )

2 6

3

b = 0.730 in say in .

4

1

h = 1.5b = 1 in

8

2. The same as 1 except that the material is malleable iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35

018.

Solution:

For malleable iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35 018(Table AT 6)

su = 55 ksi

s y = 36.5 ksi

E = 25 10 6 psi

Page 2 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F

sd =

A

where

F = 8000 lb

A = bh

but

h = 1.5b

therefore A = 1.5b 2

N = factor of safety = 6 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)

s F

sd = u =

N A

55,000 8000

=

6 1.5b 2

7

b = 0.763 in say in .

8

5

h = 1.5b = 1 in

16

N = factor of safety = 3 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)

s F

sd = u =

N A

36,500 8000

=

3 1.5b 2

11

b = 0.622 in say in .

16

1

h = 1.5b = 1 in

32

FL

(c) Elongation = =

AE

where,

= 0.005 in

F = 8000 lb

E = 25 10 6 psi

L = 15 in

A = 1.5b 2

then,

Page 3 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

FL

=

AE

0.005 =

(8000)(15)

(1.5b )(25 10 )

2 6

7

b = 0.8 in say in .

8

5

h = 1.5b = 1 in

16

3. The same as 1 except that the material is gray iron, ASTM 30.

Solution:

For ASTM 30 (Table AT 6)

su = 30 ksi , no s y

E = 14.5 10 6 psi

Note: since there is no s y for brittle materials. Solve only for (a) and (c)

F

sd =

A

where

F = 8000 lb

A = bh

but

h = 1.5b

therefore A = 1.5b 2

s F

sd = u =

N A

30,000 8000

=

7 .5 1.5b 2

3

b = 1.1547 in say 1 in .

16

25

h = 1.5b = 1 in

32

FL

(c) Elongation = =

AE

where,

= 0.005 in

F = 8000 lb

E = 14.5 10 6 psi

Page 4 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

L = 15 in

A = 1.5b 2

then,

FL

=

AE

0.005 =

(8000)(15)

(1.5b )(14.5 10 )

2 6

1

b = 1.050 in say 1 in .

16

19

h = 1.5b = 1 in

32

4. A piston rod, made of AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 2), is subjected to a

repeated, reversed load. The rod is for a 20-in. air compressor, where the

maximum pressure is 125 psig. Compute the diameter of the rod using a design

factor based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield strength.

Solution:

From Fig. AF 2 for AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F

su = 152.5 ksi

s y = 132.5 ksi

F = force = (20)2 (125) = 39,270 lb = 39.27 kips

4

From Table 1.1, page 20

Nu = 8

Ny = 4

N F

A= u

su

2 (8)(39.27 )

d =

4 152.5

5

d = 1.62 in say 1 in

8

NyF

A=

sy

2 (4 )(39.27 )

d =

4 132.5

Page 5 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

1

d = 1.23 in say 1 in

4

65 ksi), is to support a load of 1500 kips with a factor of safety of 8 based on the

ultimate strength. Determine the outside and inside diameters if Do = 2 Di .

Solution:

su = 65 ksi

Nu = 8

F = 1500 kips

3Di2

A=

4

(D 2

o Di2 =) 4

(4 D i

2

)

Di2 =

4

3Di2 N u F (8)(1500 )

A= = =

4 su 65

7

Di = 8.85 in say 8 in

8

7 3

Do = 2 Di = 2 8 = 17 in

8 4

The material is to be 4130 steel, WQT 1100 F. Calculate the outside and inside

diameters on the basis of (a) yield strength, (b) ultimate strength.

Solution:

From Table AT 7 for 4130, WQT 1100 F

su = 127 ksi

s y = 114 ksi

N u = 3 ~ 4 , say 4

N y = 1.5 ~ 2 , say 2

3Di2

Area, A =

4

(D2

o )

Di2 =

4

(4 D i

2

)

Di2 =

4

F = 25 tons = 50 kips

3Di2 N y F (2 )(50 )

A= = =

4 sy 114

Page 6 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

5

Di = 0.61 in say in

8

5 1

Do = 2 Di = 2 = 1 in

8 4

(b) Based on ultimate strength

3Di2 N u F (4 )(50 )

A= = =

4 su 127

7

Di = 0.82 in say in

8

7 3

Do = 2 Di = 2 = 1 in

8 4

7000 lb. (a) What should be its diameter if the total elongation is not to exceed

0.030 in? (b) Choose a steel that would be suitable on the basis of yield strength if

the load is gradually applied and repeated (not reversed).

Solution:

FL FL

(a) = or A =

AE E

where,

F = 7000 lb

L = 55 in

= 0.030 in

E = 25 10 6 psi

A = d2 =

(7000)(55)

4 (

(0.030) 30 106 )

3

d = 0.74 in say in

4

(b) For gradually applied and repeated (not reversed) load

Ny = 3

sy =

NyF

=

(3)(7000) = 47,534 psi

A

(0.75)2

4

s y 48 ksi

say C1015 normalized condition ( s y = 48 ksi )

8. A centrifuge has a small bucket, weighing 0.332 lb. with contents, suspended on a

manganese bronze pin (B138-A, hard) at the end of a horizontal arm. If the pin

is in double shear under the action of the centrifugal force, determine the diameter

Page 7 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

needed for 10,000 rpm of the arm. The center of gravity of the bucket is 12 in.

from the axis of rotation.

Solution:

From Table AT 3, for B138-A, hard

sus = 48 ksi

W

F = 2r

g

where

W = 0.332 lb

g = 32.2 fps 2

2 n 2 (10,000 )

= = = 1047 rad sec

60 60

r = 12 in

W 0.332

F = 2r = (1047 )2 (1) = 11,300 lb = 11.3 kips

g 32.2

From Table 1.1, page 20

N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4

N F

A= u

su

(4 )(11.3)

2 d 2 = for double shear

4 48

25

d = 0.774 in say in

32

CHECK PROBLEMS

3

9. The link shown is made of AISIC1020 annealed steel, with b = in and

4

1

h = 1 in . (a) What force will cause breakage? (b) For a design factor of 4 based

2

on the ultimate strength, what is the maximum allowable load? (c) If N = 2.5

based on the yield strength, what is the allowable load?

Problem 9.

Page 8 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:

For AISI C1020 annealed steel, from Table AT 7

su = 57 ksi

s y = 42 ksi

(a) F = su A

3 1

A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2

4 2

F = (57 )(1.125) = 64 kips

s A

(b) F = u

Nu

Nu = 4

3 1

A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2

4 2

F=

(57 )(1.125) = 16 kips

4

sy A

(c) F =

Ny

N y = 2 .5

3 1

A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2

4 2

F=

(42)(1.125) = 18.9 kips

2

10. A -in.bolt, made of cold-finished B1113, has an effective stress area of 0.334 sq.

in. and an effective grip length of 5 in. The bolt is to be loaded by tightening until

the tensile stress is 80 % of the yield strength, as determined by measuring the

total elongation. What should be the total elongation?

Solution:

sL

=

E

from Table AT 7 for cold-finished B1113

s y = 72 ksi

then, s = 0.80 s y = 0.8(72 ) = 57.6 ksi

E = 30 106 psi = 30,000 ksi

sL (57.6)(5)

= = = 0.0096 in

E 30,000

Page 9 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

11. A 4-lb. weight is attached by a 3/8-in. bolt to a rotating arm 14-in. from the center

of rotation. The axis of the bolts is normal to the plane in which the centrifugal

force acts and the bolt is in double shear. At what speed will the bolt shear in two

if it is made of AISI B1113, cold finish?

Solution:

From Table AT 7, sus = 62 ksi = 62,000 psi

2

1 3

A = 2 ( ) = 0.2209 in 2

4 8

W

F = 2 r = sus A

g

4

2 (14) = (62,000)(0.2209)

32.2

= 88.74 rad sec

2 n

= = 88.74

60

n = 847 rpm

12. How many -in. holes could be punched in one stroke in annealed steel plate of

AISI C1040, 3/16-in. thick, by a force of 60 tons?

Solution:

su = 80 ksi

sus = 0.75su = 0.75(80 ) ksi = 60 ksi

A = dt

n = number of holes

F 120

n= = = 9 holes

Asus (0.2209 )(60 )

13. What is the length of a bearing for a 4-in. shaft if the load on the bearing is 6400

lb. and the allowable bearing pressure is 200 psi of the projected area?

Solution:

pDL = W

where

p = 200 psi

D = 4 in

W = 6400 lb

Page 10 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(200)(4)L = 6400

L = 8 in

BENDING STRESSES

DESIGN PROBLEMS

14. A lever keyed to a shaft is L = 15 in long and has a rectangular cross section of

h = 3t . A 2000-lb load is gradually applied and reversed at the end as shown; the

material is AISI C1020, as rolled. Design for both ultimate and yield strengths. (a)

What should be the dimensions of a section at a = 13 in ? (b) at b = 4 in ? (c) What

should be the size where the load is applied?

Problem 14.

Solution:

For AISI C1020, as rolled, Table AT 7

su = 65 ksi

s y = 49 ksi

Design factors for gradually applied and reversed load

Nu = 8

Ny = 4

th 3

I= , moment of inertial

12

but h = 3t

h4

I=

36

Page 11 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

s

s= u

Nu

Mc Fac

(a) s = =

I I

h

c=

2

F = 2000 lbs = 2 kips

(2)(13) h

s=

65

= 2

8 h 4

36

h = 3.86 in

h 3.86

t= = = 1.29 in

3 3

say

1

h = 4.5 in = 4 in

2

1

t = 1.5 in = 1 in

2

Mc Fbc

(b) s = =

I I

h

c=

2

F = 2000 lbs = 2 kips

(2)(4) h

s=

65

= 2

8 h 4

36

h = 2.61 in

h 2.61

t= = = 0.87 in

3 3

say

h = 3 in

t = 1 in

(c)

Page 12 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

3 h 4 .5 3

=

4 13 4

h = 2.33 in

1 t 1 .5 1

=

4 13 4

t = 0.78 in

say

5

h = 2.625 in or h = 2 in

8

15. A simple beam 54 in. long with a load of 4 kips at the center is made of cast steel,

SAE 080. The cross section is rectangular (let h 3b ). (a) Determine the

dimensions for N = 3 based on the yield strength. (b) Compute the maximum

deflection for these dimensions. (c) What size may be used if the maximum

deflection is not to exceed 0.03 in.?

Solution:

For cast steel, SAE 080 (Table AT 6)

s y = 40 ksi

E = 30106 psi

Page 13 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

From Table AT 2

FL (4 )(54 )

Max. M = = = 54 kips in

4 4

bh3

I=

12

but h = 3b

h4

I=

36

sy Mc

(a) s = =

Ny I

h

c=

2

(54) h

40

= 2

3 h4

36

h = 4.18 in

h 4.18

b= = = 1.39 in

3 3

1 h 4 .5 1

say h = 4 in , b = = = 1.5 in = 1 in

2 3 3 2

(b) =

FL3

=

(4000)(54)3 = 0.0384 in

48EI (1.5 )(4.5 )3

48(30 106 )

12

FL3

(c) =

h4

48E

36

0.03 =

(4000)(54)3 (36)

48(30 106 )(h 4 )

h = 4.79 in

h 4.79

b= = = 1.60 in

3 3

1 h 5.25 3

say h = 5.25 in = 5 in , b = = = 1.75 in = 1 in

4 3 3 4

Page 14 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

16. The same as 15, except that the beam is to have a circular cross section.

Solution:

s Mc

(a) s = y =

Ny I

d4

I=

64

d

c=

2

d

M

s= 4 =

2 32M

d d3

64

40 32(54 )

=

3 d3

d = 3.46 in

1

say d = 3 in

2

FL3

(b) =

48EI

d4

I=

64

64(4000 )(54 )

3

64 FL3

= = = 0.0594 in

48 E ( d 4 ) 48(30 10 6 )( )(3.5)4

64 FL3

(c) =

48E ( d 4 )

64(4000 )(54)

3

0.03 =

48(30 106 )( )d 4

d = 4.15 in

1

say d = 4 in

4

17. A simple beam, 48 in. long, with a static load of 6000 lb. at the center, is made of

C1020 structural steel. (a) Basing your calculations on the ultimate strength,

determine the dimensions of the rectangular cross section for h = 2b . (b)

Determine the dimensions based on yield strength. (c) Determine the dimensions

using the principle of limit design.

Page 15 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:

su = 65 ksi

s y = 48 ksi

N u = 3 ~ 4 , say 4

N y = 1.5 ~ 2 , say 2

FL (6 )(48)

M= = = 72 in kips

4 4

Mc

s=

I

h

c=

2

bh3

I=

12

h

but b =

2

4

h

I=

24

h

M

s = 4 = 3

2 12 M

h h

24

s 12 M

s= u = 3

Nu h

65 12(72 )

=

4 h3

h = 3.76 in

Page 16 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

h 3.76

b= = = 1.88 in

2 2

3 h 3.75 7

say h = 3.75 in = 3 in , b = = = 1.875 in = 1 in

4 2 2 8

s y 12 M

s= = 3

Ny h

48 12(72 )

=

2 h3

h = 3.30 in

h 3.30

b= = = 1.65 in

2 2

1 h 3 .5 3

say h = 3.5 in = 3 in , b = = = 1.75 in = 1 in

2 2 2 4

bh 2

M = sy

4

h 2

h

72 = (48)

2

4

h = 2.29 in

h 2.29

b= = = 1.145 in

2 2

1 h 2 .5 1

say h = 2.5 in = 2 in , b = = = 1.25 in = 1 in

2 2 2 4

18. The bar shown is subjected to two vertical loads, F1 and F2 , of 3000 lb. each, that

are L = 10 in apart and 3 in. ( a , d ) from the ends of the bar. The design factor is 4

based on the ultimate strength; h = 3b . Determine the dimensions h and b if the

bar is made of (a) gray cast iron, SAE 111; (b) malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-

52, grade 35 018; (c) AISI C1040, as rolled (Fig. AF 1). Sketch the shear and

moment diagrams approximately to scale.

Page 17 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Problems18, 19.

Solution:

F1 = F2 = R1 = R2 = 3000 lb

Moment Diagram

N = factor of safety = 4 based on su

bh3

I=

12

h

c=

2

h 3

h

3 h4

I= =

12 36

su = 30 ksi , Table AT 6

h

M

= 4 = 3

s Mc 2 18M

s= u =

N I h h

36

30 18(9 )

s= = 3

4 h

h = 2.78 in

h 2.78

b= = = 0.93 in

3 3

say h = 3.5 in , b = 1 in

Page 18 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su = 55 ksi , Table AT 6

h

M

= 4 = 3

s Mc 2 18M

s= u =

N I h h

36

55 18(9 )

s= = 3

4 h

h = 2.28 in

h 2.28

b= = = 0.76 in

3 3

1 3

say h = 2 in , b = in

4 4

su = 90 ksi , Fig. AF 1

h

M

= 4 = 3

s Mc 2 18M

s= u =

N I h h

36

90 18(9 )

s= = 3

4 h

h = 1.93 in

h 1.93

b= = = 0.64 in

3 3

7 5

say h = 1 in , b = in

8 8

Solution:

[ M A =0 ] R1 = R2 = 1875 lb

Page 19 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

su 18M

s= = 3

N h

30 18(5.625)

=

4 h3

h = 2.38 in

h 2.38

b= = = 0.79 in

3 3

1 3

say h = 2 in , b = in

4 4

(b) For malleable cast iron

su 18M

s= = 3

N h

55 18(5.625)

=

4 h3

h = 1.95 in

h 1.95

b= = = 0.65 in

3 3

7 5

say h = 1 in , b = in

8 8

Page 20 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su 18M

s= = 3

N h

90 18(5.625)

=

4 h3

h = 1.65 in

h 1.65

b= = = 0.55 in

3 3

1 1

say h = 1 in , b = in

2 2

20. The bar shown, supported at A and B , is subjected to a static load F of 2500 lb.

at = 0 . Let d = 3 in , L = 10 in and h = 3b . Determine the dimensions of the

section if the bar is made of (a) gray iron, SAE 110; (b) malleable cast iron,

ASTM A47-52, grade 32 510; (c) AISI C1035 steel, as rolled. (d) For economic

reasons, the pins at A, B, and C are to be the same size. What should be their

diameter if the material is AISI C1035, as rolled, and the mounting is such that

each is in double shear? Use the basic dimensions from (c) as needed. (e) What

sectional dimensions would be used for the C1035 steel if the principle of limit

design governs in (c)?

Solution:

Page 21 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

[ M A =0 ] 3RB = 13(2500)

RB = 10,833 lb

[ M B =0 ] 3RA = 10(2500 )

RA = 8333 lb

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

h = 3b

bh3

I=

12

h4

I=

36

h

c=

2

h

M

= 4 = 3

Mc 2 18M

s=

I h h

36

su = 20 ksi , Table AT 6

N = 5 ~ 6 , say 6 for cast iron, dead load

s 18M

s= u = 3

N h

20 18(25)

=

6 h3

Page 22 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

h = 5.13 in

h

b = = 1.71 in

3

1 3

say h = 5 in , b = 1 in

4 4

(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-32 grade 32510

su = 52 ksi , s y = 34 ksi

N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4 for ductile, dead load

s 18M

s= u = 3

N h

52 18(25)

=

4 h3

h = 3.26 in

h

b = = 1.09 in

3

3 1

say h = 3 in , b = 1 in

4 4

(c) For AISI C1035, as rolled

su = 85 ksi , s y = 55 ksi

N = 4 , based on ultimate strength

s 18M

s= u = 3

N h

85 18(25)

=

4 h3

h = 2.77 in

h

b = = 0.92 in

3

say h = 3 in , b = 1 in

ssu = 64 ksi

N = 4 , RB = 10.833 kips

s R

ss = su = B

N A

A = 2 D 2 = D 2

4 2

64 10.833

ss = =

4 2

D

2

D = 0.657 in

Page 23 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

11

say D = in

16

(e) Limit Design

bh 2

M = sy

4

For AISI C1035 steel, s y = 55 ksi

h

b=

3

h 2

h

M = 25 = (55)

3

4

h = 1.76 in

h

b = = 0.59 in

3

7 5

say h = 1.875 in = 1 in , b = in

8 8

21. The same as 20, except that = 30o . Pin B takes all the horizontal thrust.

Solution:

FV = F cos

[ M A =0 ] 3RB = 13FV

3RB = 13(2500) cos 30

RB = 9382 lb

[ M B =0 ] 3RA = 10 FV

3RA = 10(2500 ) cos 30

RA = 7217 lb

Shear Diagram

Page 24 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Moment Diagram

18M

s= 3

h

(a) For gray cast iron, SAE 110

su = 20 ksi , Table AT 6

N = 5 ~ 6 , say 6 for cast iron, dead load

s 18M

s= u = 3

N h

20 18(21.65)

=

6 h3

h = 4.89 in

h

b = = 1.63 in

3

1 3

say h = 5 in , b = 1 in

4 4

(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-32 grade 32510

su = 52 ksi , s y = 34 ksi

N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4 for ductile, dead load

s 18M

s= u = 3

N h

52 18(21.65)

=

4 h3

h = 3.11 in

h

b = = 1.04 in

3

say h = 3 in , b = 1 in

(c) For AISI C1035, as rolled

su = 85 ksi , s y = 55 ksi

N = 4 , based on ultimate strength

Page 25 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su 18M

s= = 3

N h

85 18(21.65)

=

4 h3

h = 2.64 in

h

b = = 0.88 in

3

5 7

say h = 2 in , b = in

8 8

ssu = 64 ksi

N = 4 , RBV = 9382 lb

RBH = FH = F sin = 2500 sin 30 = 1250 lb

= (9382) + (1250)

2 2

RB2 = RBV

2 2

+ RBH

RB = 9465 lb

s R

ss = su = B

N A

A = 2 D 2 = D 2

4 2

64 9.465

ss = =

4 D2

2

D = 0.614 in

5

say D = in

8

(e) Limit Design

bh 2

M = sy

4

For AISI C1035 steel, s y = 55 ksi

h

b=

3

h 2

h

M = 21.65 = (55)

3

4

h = 1.68 in

h

b = = 0.56 in

3

7 5

say h = 1.875 in = 1 in , b = in

8 8

Page 26 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

22. A cast-iron beam, ASTM 50, as shown, is 30 in. long and supports two gradually

applied, repeated loads (in phase), one of 2000 lb. at e = 10 in from the free end,

and one of 1000 lb at the free end. (a) Determine the dimensions of the cross

section if b = c 3a . (b) The same as (a) except that the top of the tee is below.

Problem 22.

Solution:

su = 50 ksi , suc = 164 ksi

For gradually applied, repeated load

N = 7 ~ 8 , say 8

M = F1d + F2 (d + e )

where:

F1 = 2000 lb

F2 = 1000 lb

d = 30 10 = 20 in

d + e = 30 in

M = (2000)(20) + (1000)(30) = 70,000 lb in = 70 kips in

Mc

s=

I

Solving for I , moment of inertia

2 2

3a

y=

2

Page 27 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

I=

(3a )(a )3 + (3a )(a )(a 2 ) + (a )(3a )3 + (3a )(a )(a 2 ) = 17 a 4

12 12 2

(a)

3a

ct =

2

5a

cc =

2

Based on tension

s Mct

st = u =

N I

(70) 3a

50

= 2

8 17a 4

2

a = 1.255 in

Based on compression

s Mcc

sc = uc =

N I

(70) 5a

164

= 2

8 17a 4

2

a = 1.001 in

Therefore a = 1.255 in

1

Or say a = 1 in

4

And b = c = 3a = 3(1.25) = 3.75 in

Page 28 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

3

Or b = c = 3 in

4

5a

ct =

2

3a

cc =

2

17a 4

I=

2

M = 70 kips in

Based on tension

s Mct

st = u =

N I

(70) 5a

50

= 2

8 17 a 4

2

a = 1.488 in

Based on compression

s Mcc

sc = uc =

N I

(70) 3a

164

= 2

8 17a 4

2

a = 0.845 in

Therefore a = 1.488 in

1

Or say a = 1 in

2

1

And b = c = 3a = 4 in

2

CHECK PROBLEMS

Page 29 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

23. An I-beam is made of structural steel, AISI C1020, as rolled. It has a depth of 3

in. and is subjected to two loads; F1 and F2 = 2F1 ; F1 is 5 in. from one end and

F2 is 5 in. from the other ends. The beam is 25 in. long; flange width is

b = 2.509 in ; I x = 2.9 in 4 . Determine (a) the approximate values of the load to

cause elastic failure, (b) the safe loads for a factor of safety of 3 based on the yield

strength, (c) the safe load allowing for flange buckling (i1.24), (f) the maximum

deflection caused by the safe loads.

Problems 23 25.

Solution:

RB = 1.8F1

[ F V =0 ] F1 + 2 F1 = RA + RB

RA = 3F1 1.8F1 = 1.2 F1

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

Page 30 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

For AISI C1020, as rolled

s y = 48 ksi

Mc

(a) s y =

I

d 3

where c = = = 1.5 in

2 2

s y = 48 =

(9 F1 )(1.5)

2 .9

F1 = 10.31 kips

F2 = 2 F1 = 20.62 kips

sy Mc

(b) s = =

N I

48 (9 F1 )(1.5)

s= =

3 2 .9

F1 = 3.44 kips

F2 = 2 F1 = 6.88 kips

L 25

(c) = = 9.96 < 15 (page 34)

b 2.509

sc = 20 ksi ( page 34, i1.24)

Mc

sc =

I

20 =

(9 F1 )(1.5)

2 .9

F1 = 4.30 kips

F2 = 2 F1 = 8.60 kips

by method of superposition, Table AT 2

3

Fb a(L + b) 2

ymax =

3EIL 3 , a > b

or

3

Fa b(L + a ) 2

ymax =

3EIL 3 , b > a

Page 31 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

ymax caused by F1

3

F a b(L + a1 ) 2

ymax1 = 1 1 1

3EIL 3 , b1 > a1

where E = 30,000 ksi

a1 = 5 in

b1 = 20 in

L = 25 in

I = 2.9 in 4

3

F1 (5) 20(25 + 5) 2

ymax1 = = 0.0022 F1

3(30,000)(2.9)(25) 3

ymax caused by F2

3

F b a (L + b2 ) 2

ymax 2 = 2 2 2

3EIL 3 , a2 > b2

where b2 = 5 in

a2 = 20 in

3

2 F1 (5) 20(25 + 5) 2

ymax 2 = = 0.0043F1

3(30,000)(2.9)(25) 3

Total deflection =

= ymax1 + ymax 2 = 0.022 F1 + 0.0043F1 = 0.0065F1

a = 0.0065(10.31) = 0.067 in

Deflection caused by the safe loads in (b)

b = 0.0065(3.44) = 0.022 in

Deflection caused by the safe loads in (c)

c = 0.0065(4.30) = 0.028 in

24. The same as 23, except that the material is aluminum alloy, 2024-T4, heat treated.

Solution:

s y = 47 ksi

Mc

(a) s y =

I

Page 32 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

s y = 47 =

(9 F1 )(1.5)

2 .9

F1 = 10.10 kips

F2 = 2 F1 = 20.20 kips

sy Mc

(b) s = =

N I

47 (9 F1 )(1.5)

s= =

3 2 .9

F1 = 3.36 kips

F2 = 2 F1 = 6.72 kips

L 25

(c) = = 9.96 < 15 (page 34)

b 2.509

sc = 20 ksi ( page 34, i1.24)

Mc

sc =

I

20 =

(9 F1 )(1.5)

2 .9

F1 = 4.30 kips

F2 = 2 F1 = 8.60 kips

= ymax1 + ymax 2 = 0.022 F1 + 0.0043F1 = 0.0065F1

a = 0.0065(10.10) = 0.066 in

Deflection caused by the safe loads in (b)

b = 0.0065(3.36) = 0.022 in

Deflection caused by the safe loads in (c)

c = 0.0065(4.30) = 0.028 in

25. A light I-beam is 80 in. long, simply supported, and carries a static load at the

midpoint. The cross section has a depth of d = 4 in , a flange width of b = 2.66 in ,

and I x = 6.0 in 4 (see figure). (a) What load will the beam support if it is made of

C1020, as-rolled steel, and flange buckling (i1.24) is considered? (b) Consider the

stress owing to the weight of the beam, which is 7.7 lb/ft, and decide whether or

not the safe load should be less.

Page 33 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:

Consider flange buckling

L 80

= = 30

b 2.66

L

since 15 < < 40

b

22.5 22.5

sc = = = 15 ksi

L

2

(30 )

2

1 + 1800 1 +

b 1800

Mc

s=

I

d 4

c = = = 2 in

2 2

From Table AT 2

FL F (80 )

M= = = 20 F

4 4

Mc

s = sc =

I

15 =

(20 F )(2 )

6

F = 2.25 kips , safe load

wL2

addl M = (Table AT 2)

8

where w = 7.7 lb ft

Page 34 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

2

addl M = = = 513 lb in = 0.513 kips in

8 12 8

M = 20 F + 0.513 = total moment

Mc

s = sc =

I

15 =

(20 F + 0.513)(2)

6

F = 2.224 kips

Therefore, the safe load should be less.

26. What is the stress in a band-saw blade due to being bent around a 13 -in. pulley?

The blade thickness is 0.0265 in. (Additional stresses arise from the initial tension

and forces of sawing.)

Solution:

t

c= = 0.0265 = 0.01325 in

2

r = 13.75 + 0.01325 = 13.76325 in

Using Eq. (1.4) page 11 (Text)

Ec

s=

r

where E = 30 106 psi

s=

(30 10 )(0.01325) = 28,881 psi

6

13.76325

27. A cantilever beam of rectangular cross section is tapered so that the depth varies

uniformly from 4 in. at the fixed end to 1 in. at the free end. The width is 2 in. and

the length 30 in. What safe load, acting repeated with minor shock, may be

applied to the free end? The material is AISI C1020, as rolled.

Solution:

For AISI C1020, as rolled

su = 65 ksi (Table AT 7)

Designing based on ultimate strength,

N = 6 , for repeated, minor shock load

Page 35 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su 65

s= = = 10.8 ksi

N 6

Loading Diagram

4 1 h 1

=

30 x

h = 0.10 x + 1

wh 3

I=

12

h

c=

2

M = Fx

(Fx ) h

s=

Mc

= 2 = 6 Fx = 3Fx = 3Fx

I wh

3

2h 2

h 2

(0.10 x + 1)2

12

Differentiating with respect to x then equate to zero to solve for x giving maximum

stress.

ds (0.10 x + 1)2 (1) 2( x )(0.10 x + 1)(0.10 )

= 3F =0

dx (0.10 x + 1)4

0.10 x + 1 2(0.10 x ) = 0

x = 10 in

h = 0.10(10) + 1 = 2 in

s 3Fx

s= u = 2

N h

3F (10 )

10.8 =

(2)2

F = 1.44 kips

TORSIONAL STRESSES

DESIGN PROBLEMS

Page 36 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

28. A centrifugal pump is to be driven by a 15-hp electric motor at 1750 rpm. What

should be the diameter of the pump shaft if it is made of AISI C1045 as rolled?

Consider the load as gradually repeated.

Solution:

s y = 59 ksi

sus = 72 ksi

Designing based on ultimate strength

s

s = us , N = 6 (Table 1.1)

N

72

s= = 12 ksi

6

33,000hp 33,000(15)

Torque, T = = = 45 ft lb = 540 in lb = 0.540 in kips

2 n 2 (1750 )

For diameter,

16T

s=

d3

16(0.540 )

12 =

d3

d = 0.612 in

5

say d = in

8

29. A shaft in torsion only is to transmit 2500 hp at 570 rpm with medium shocks. Its

material is AISI 1137 steel, annealed. (a) What should be the diameter of a solid

shaft? (b) If the shaft is hollow, Do = 2 Di , what size is required? (c) What is the

weight per foot of length of each of these shafts? Which is the lighter? By what

percentage? (d) Which shaft is the more rigid? Compute the torsional deflection

of each for a length of 10 ft.

Solution:

33,000hp 33,000(2500 )

T= = = 23,036 ft lb = 276 in kips

2 n 2 (570 )

For AISI 1137, annealed

s y = 50 ksi (Table AT 8)

s ys = 0.6 s y = 30 ksi

N = 3 for medium shock, one direction

Page 37 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Design stress

s 30

s = ys = = 10 ksi

N 3

Tc

s=

J

D4

J=

32

D

c=

2

16T

s=

D3

16(276 )

10 =

D3

D = 5.20 in

1

say D = 5 in

4

(b) J = =

[

(Do4 Di4 ) (2 Di )4 Di4 ] = 15 D i

4

32 32 32

Do 2 Di

c= = = Di

2 2

TDi 32T

s= =

15 Di 15 Di3

4

32

32(276 )

10 =

15 Di3

Di = 2.66 in

Do = 2 Di = 5.32 in

say

5

Di = 2 in

8

1

Do = 5 in

4

Page 38 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

w = weight per foot of length

w = 12 D 2 = 3D 2 = 3 (0.284 )(5.25) = 73.8 lb ft

2

4

[ 2

]

w = 12 (Do2 Di2 ) = 3 (Do2 Di2 ) = 3 (0.284 ) (5.25) (2.625) = 55.3 lb ft

2

73.8 55.3

Percentage lightness = (100%) = 33.5%

55.3

TL

=

JG

where

L = 10 ft = 120 in

G = 11.5 103 ksi

D4

For solid shaft, J =

32

(276)(120) 180

= 0.039 rad = (0.039 ) = 2 .2

o

=

(5.25) (11.5 10 )

4 3

32

(Do4 Di4 )

For hollow shaft, J =

32

(276)(120) 180

= 0.041 rad = (0.041) = 2 .4

o

=

[(5.25) (2.625) ](11.5 10 )

4 4 3

32

Therefore, solid shaft is more rigid, 2.2o < 2.4o

30. The same as 29, except that the material is AISI 4340, OQT 1200 F.

Solution:

33,000hp 33,000(2500 )

T= = = 23,036 ft lb = 276 in kips

2 n 2 (570 )

For AISI 4340, OQT 1200 F

s y = 130 ksi

s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(130 ) = 78 ksi

Page 39 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Design stress

s 78

s = ys = = 26 ksi

N 3

Tc

s=

J

D4

J=

32

D

c=

2

16T

s=

D3

16(276 )

26 =

D3

D = 3.78 in

3

say D = 3 in

4

(b) J = =

[

(Do4 Di4 ) (2 Di )4 Di4 ] = 15 D i

4

32 32 32

Do 2 Di

c= = = Di

2 2

TDi 32T

s= =

15 Di 15 Di3

4

32

32(276 )

26 =

15 Di3

Di = 1.93 in

Do = 2 Di = 3.86 in

say

Di = 2 in

Do = 4 in

Page 40 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

w = weight per foot of length

w = 12 D 2 = 3D 2 = 3 (0.284 )(3.75) = 37.6 lb ft

2

4

[ 2

]

w = 12 (Do2 Di2 ) = 3 (Do2 Di2 ) = 3 (0.284 ) (4 ) (2 ) = 32.1 lb ft

2

37.6 32.1

Percentage lightness = (100% ) = 17.1%

32.1

TL

=

JG

where

L = 10 ft = 120 in

G = 11.5 103 ksi

D4

For solid shaft, J =

32

(276)(120) 180

= 0.148 rad = (0.148) = 8.48

o

=

(3.75) (11.5 10 )

4 3

32

(Do4 Di4 )

For hollow shaft, J =

32

(276)(120 ) 180

= 0.122 rad = (0.122 ) = 6.99

o

=

4

[(4 ) (2 ) ](11.5 10 )

4 3

32

Therefore, hollow shaft is more rigid, 6.99o < 8.48o .

31. A steel shaft is transmitting 40 hp at 500 rpm with minor shock. (a) What should

be its diameter if the deflection is not to exceed 1o in 20 D ? (b) If deflection is

primary what kind of steel would be satisfactory?

Solution:

33,000hp 33,000(40 )

(a) T = = = 420 ft lb = 5.04 in kips

2 n 2 (500 )

G = 11.5 103 ksi

L = 20 D

Page 41 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

= 1o = rad

180

TL

=

JG

=

(5.04)(20 D )

180 D4

32

(

11.5 103 )

D = 1.72 in

3

say D = 1 in

4

16T 16(5.04 )

(b) s = = = 4.8 ksi

D 3 (1.75)3

N =3

s ys = Ns = (3)(4.8) = 14.4 ksi

s ys

14.4

sy = =

= 24 ksi

0.6 0.6

Use C1117 normalized steel s y = 35 ksi

32. A square shaft of cold-finish AISI 1118 transmits a torsional moment of 1200 in-

lb. For medium shock, what should be its size?

Solution:

s y = 75 ksi

s ys = 0.6 s y = 45 ksi

N = 3 for medium shock

s T

s = ys =

N Z

where, h = b

2b 2 h 2b3

Z = = (Table AT 1)

9 9

T = 1200 in lb = 1.2 in kips

45 1.2(9 )

s= =

3 2b 3

b = h = 0.71 in

3

say b = h = in

4

Page 42 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

CHECK PROBLEMS

33. A punch press is designed to exert a force sufficient to shear a 15/16-in. hole in a

-in. steel plate, AISI C1020, as rolled. This force is exerted on the shaft at a

radius of -in. (a) Compute the torsional stress in the 3.5-in. shaft (bending

neglected). (b) What will be the corresponding design factor if the shaft is made

of cold-rolled AISI 1035 steel (Table AT 10)? Considering the shock loading that

is characteristics of this machine, do you thick the design is safe enough?

Solution:

For AISI C1020, as rolled

sus = 49 ksi

F = sus ( Dt )

15

where D = in

16

1

t = in

2

15 1

F = 49( ) = 72.2 kips

16 2

T = Fr

3

where r = in

4

3

T = (72.2 ) = 54.2 in kips

4

16T

(a) s =

d3

where d = 3.5 in

16(54.2 )

s= = 6.44 ksi

(3.5)3

for shock loading, traditional factor of safety, N = 10 ~ 15

sus 64

Design factor , N = = = 9.94 , the design is safe ( N 10 )

s 6.44

34. The same as 33, except that the shaft diameter is 2 in.

Solution:

Page 43 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

d = 2.75 in

16T

(a) s =

d3

16(54.2 )

s= = 13.3 ksi

(2.75)3

for shock loading, traditional factor of safety, N = 10 ~ 15

sus 64

Design factor , N = = = 4.8 , the design is not safe ( N < 10 )

s 13.3

35. A hollow annealed Monel propeller shaft has an external diameter of 13 in. and

an internal diameter of 6 in.; it transmits 10,000 hp at 200 rpm. (a) Compute the

torsional stress in the shaft (stress from bending and propeller thrust are not

considered). (b) Compute the factor of safety. Does it look risky?

Solution:

s us = 98 ksi (Table AT 3)

N = 3 ~ 4 , for dead load, based on ultimate strength

Tc

(a) s =

J

J=

( ) [

Do4 Di4 (13.5)4 (6.5)4

=

]

= 3086 in 4

32 32

Do 13.5

c= = = 6.75 in

2 2

33,000hp 33,000(10,000 )

T= = = 262,606 ft lb = 3152 in kips

2 n 2 (200 )

s=

(3152)(6.75) = 6.9 ksi

3086

(b) Factor of safety,

sus 98

N= = = 14.2 , not risky

s 6 .9

Page 44 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

STRESS ANALYSIS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

36. A hook is attached to a plate as shown and supports a static load of 12,000 lb. The

material is to be AISI C1020, as rolled. (a) Set up strength equations for

dimensions d , D , h , and t . Assume that the bending in the plate is negligible.

(b) Determine the minimum permissible value of these dimensions. In estimating

the strength of the nut, let D1 = 1.2d . (c) Choose standard fractional dimensions

which you think would be satisfactory.

Problems 36 38.

Solution:

s = axial stress

ss = shear stress

(a)

F 4F

s= = 2

1

d2 d

4

4F

Equation (1) d =

s

Page 45 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F 4F 4F 4F

s= = = =

1

(

D 2 D12 ) ( 2

D D12

) [

D (1.2d )

2 2

] ( D 1.44d 2

2

)

4

4F

Equation (2) D = + 1.44d 2

s

F F

ss = =

D1h 1.2 dh

F

Equation (3) h =

1.2 dss

F

ss =

Dt

F

Equation (4) t =

Dss

Table AT 7, AISI C1020, as rolled

su = 65 ksi

sus = 49 ksi

s 65

s= u = = 16 ksi

N 4

s 49

ss = us = = 12 ksi

N 4

F = 12,000 lb = 12 kips

4F 4(12)

d= = = 0.98 in

s (16)

From Equation (2)

4F 4(12)

+ 1.44(0.98) = 1.53 in

2

D= + 1.44d 2 =

s (

16 )

From Equation (3)

F 12

h= = = 0.27 in

1.2 dss 1.2 (0.98)(12 )

From Equation (4)

F 12

t= = = 0.21 in

Dss (1.53)(12)

Page 46 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

d = 1 in

1

D = 1 in

2

1

h = in

4

1

t = in

4

37. The same as 36, except that a shock load of 4000 lb. is repeatedly applied.

Solution:

say N = 15 , others the same.

s 65

s= u = = 4 ksi

N 15

s 49

ss = us = = 3 ksi

N 15

F = 4000 lb = 4 kips

4F 4(4)

d= = = 1.13 in

s (4)

From Equation (2)

4F 4(4)

+ 1.44(1.13) = 1.76 in

2

D= + 1.44d 2 =

s (4)

From Equation (3)

F 4

h= = = 0.31 in

1.2 ds s 1.2 (1.13)(3)

From Equation (4)

F 4

t= = = 0.24 in

Dss (1.76)(3)

Page 47 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

1

d = 1 in

8

3

D = 1 in

4

3

h = in

8

1

t = in

4

38. The connection between the plate and hook, as shown, is to support a load F .

Determine the value of dimensions D , h , and t in terms of d if the connection

is to be as strong as the rod of diameter d . Assume that D1 = 1.2d , sus = 0.75su ,

and that bending in the plate is negligible.

Solution:

F

s=

1

d2

4

1

F = d 2s

4

1 s

(1) F = d 2 u

4 N

Page 48 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F F

s= =

1 1

4

(

D 2 D12

4

) (

D 2 1.44d 2 )

1

(

F = D 2 1.44d 2 s

4

)

1 s

(

(2) F = D 2 1.44d 2 u )

4 N

F F

ss = =

D1h 1.2 dh

F = 1.2 dhss

s 0.75su

F = 1.2 dh us = 1.2 dh

N N

5s

(3) F = 0.9 dh u

N

F

ss =

Dt

F = Dtss

s 0.75su

F = Dt us = Dt

N N

s

(4) F = 0.75 Dt u

N

1 s 1 s

F = (D 2 1.44d 2 ) u = d 2 u

4 N 4 N

2 2

D = 2.44d

D = 1.562d

Equate (3) and (1)

s 1 s

F = 0.9 dh u = d 2 u

N 4 N

d

h= = 0.278d

4(0.9)

Equate (4) and (1)

s 1 s

F = 0.75 Dt u = d 2 u

N 4 N

s 1 s

F = 0.75 (1.562d )(t ) u = d 2 u

N 4 N

d

t= = 0.214d

4(0.75)(1.562)

Page 49 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

39. (a) For the connection shown, set up strength equations representing the various

methods by which it might fail. Neglect bending effects. (b) Design this

connection for a load of 2500 lb. Both plates and rivets are of AISI C1020, as

rolled. The load is repeated and reversed with mild shock. Make the connection

equally strong on the basis of yield strengths in tension, shear, and compression.

Problems 39, 40

Solution:

F

(a) ss =

1

5 D 2

4

4F

Equation (1) D =

5 ss

F

s=

t (b 2 D )

F

Equation (2) b = + 2D

ts

F

s=

5 Dt

F

Equation (3) t =

5 Ds

s y = 48 ksi (Table AT 7)

s ys = 0.6 s y = 28 ksi

N = 4 for repeated and reversed load (mild shock) based on yield strength

48

s= = 12 ksi

4

28

ss = = 7 ksi

4

From Equation (1)

Page 50 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

4F

D=

5 ss

where

F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips

4F 4(2.5) 5

D= = = 0.30 in say in

5 ss 5 (7 ) 16

F 2 .5 5

t= = = 0.13 in say in

5 Ds 5 32

5 (12 )

16

F 2 .5 5

b = + 2D = + 2 = 1.96 in say 2 in

ts 5 16

(12 )

32

40. The same as 39, except that the material is 2024-T4, aluminum alloy.

Solution:

(a) Same as 39.

s y = 47 ksi (Table AT 3)

s ys = 0.55s y = 25 ksi

N = 4 for repeated and reversed load (mild shock) based on yield strength

47

s= = 12 ksi

4

25

ss = = 6 ksi

4

From Equation (1)

4F

D=

5 ss

where

F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips

4F 4(2.5) 3

D= = = 0.33 in say in

5 ss 5 (6) 8

Page 51 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F 2 .5 1

t= = = 0.11 in say in

5 Ds 3 8

5 (12 )

8

F 2 .5 3 1

b = + 2D = + 2 = 2.42 in say 2 in

ts 1 8 2

(12 )

8

41. (a) For the connection shown, set up strength equations representing the various

methods by which it might fail. (b) Design this connection for a load of 8000 lb.

Use AISI C1015, as rolled, for the rivets, and AISI C1020, as rolled, for the

plates. Let the load be repeatedly applied with minor shock in one direction and

make the connection equally strong on the basis of ultimate strengths in tension,

shear, and compression.

Problem 41.

Solution:

(a)

3

F

F

sP = or sP = 4 Equation (1)

t (b D ) t (b 2 D )

F

ssR = Equation (2)

1

4 D 2 (2 )

4

Page 52 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F

sR = Equation (3)

4 Dt

For AISI C1020, as rolled

suP = 65 ksi

s 65

s P = uP = = 10.8 ksi

N 6

s 61

s R = uR = = 10.1 ksi

N 6

s 45

ssR = usR = = 7.5 ksi

N 6

F = 8000 lb = 8 kips

Solving for D

F

ssR =

2 D 2

F 8 7

D= = = 0.412 in say in

2 ssR 2 (7.5) 16

Solving for t

F

sR =

4 Dt

F 8 1

t= = = 0.453 in say in

4 Ds R 7 2

4 (10.1)

16

Solving for b

F

Using s P =

t (b D )

F 8 7

b= +D= + = 1.92 in say 2 in

ts P 1 16

(10.8)

2

3

F

Using s P = 4

t (b 2 D )

Page 53 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

3F 3(8) 7

b= + 2D = + 2 = 1.99 in say 2 in

1

4 (10.8)

4ts P 16

2

Therefore

b = 2 in

7

D = in

16

1

t = in

2

42. Give the strength equations for the connection shown, including that for the shear

of the plate by the cotter.

Problems 42 44.

Solution:

Axial Stresses

F 4F

s= = Equation (1)

1

D12 D12

4

F

s= Equation (2)

(L D2 )e

Page 54 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F

s= Equation (3)

D2e

F 4F

s= = Equation (4)

1

(

a 2 D22 ) ( )

a 2 D22

4

F 4F

s= = 2

Equation (5)

1 D 4 D2e

D22 D2 e 2

4

Shear Stresses

F

ss = Equation (6)

2eb

F

ss = Equation (7)

2(L D2 + e )t

Page 55 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F

ss = Equation (8)

at

F

ss = Equation (9)

D1m

F

ss = Equation (10)

2 D2 h

43. A steel rod, as-rolled AISI C1035, is fastened to a 7/8-in., as-rolled C1020 plate

by means of a cotter that is made of as-rolled C1020, in the manner shown. (a)

Determine all dimensions of this joint if it is to withstand a reversed shock load

F = 10 kips , basing the design on yield strengths. (b) If all fits are free-running

fits, decide upon tolerances and allowances.

7

t = in = 0.875 in , ssy = 0.6 s y

8

For steel rod, AISI C1035, as rolled

s y1 = 55 ksi

ssy1 = 33 ksi

For plate and cotter, AISI C1020, as rolled

s y2 = 48 ksi

ssy2 = 28 ksi

say N = 7

sy 4F

s= 1 =

N D12

55 4(10 )

=

7 D12

D1 = 1.27 in

1

say D1 = 1 in

4

Page 56 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

ssy F

ss = 1 =

N D1m

33 10

=

7 1

1 m

4

m = 0.54 in

9

say m = in

16

From Equation (3)

sy F

s= 1 =

N D2 e

55 10

s= =

7 D2 e

D2e = 1.273

From Equation (5)

sy 4F

s= 1 = 2

N D2 4 D2e

55 4(10 )

=

7 D2 4(1.273)

2

D2 = 1.80 in

3

say D2 = 1 in

4

and D2e = 1.273

3

1 e = 1.273

4

e = 0.73 in

3

say e = in

4

By further adjustment

5

Say D2 = 2 in , e = in

8

From Equation (8)

ssy F

ss = 2 =

N at

28 10

=

7 a (0.875)

a = 0.91 in

say a = 1 in

Page 57 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

sy 4F

s= 2 =

N (a D22 )

2

48 4(10)

=

7 (a 2 2 2 )

a = 2.42 in

1

say a = 2 in

2

1

use a = 2 in

2

From Equation (7)

ssy F

ss = 2 =

N 2(L D2 + e )t

28 10

=

7 5

2 L 2 + (0.875)

8

L = 2.80 in

say L = 3 in

From Equation (6)

ssy F

ss = 2 =

N 2eb

28 10

=

7 5

2 b

8

b = 2 in

From Equation (10)

ssy F

ss = 2 =

N 2 D2 h

28 10

=

7 2(2)h

5

h = 0.625 in = in

8

Summary of Dimensions

L = 3 in

5

h = in

8

b = 2 in

7

t = in

8

Page 58 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

9

m= in

16

1

a = 2 in

2

1

D1 = 1 in

4

D2 = 2 in

5

e = in

8

L = 3 0.010 in

h = 0.625 0.010 in

t = 0.875 0.010 in

m = 0.5625 0.010 in

a = 2.500 0.010 in

D1 = 1.25 0.010 in

For Free Running Fits (RC 7) Table 3.1

Female Male

+ 0.0030 0.0040

b = 2.0 in b = 2.0 in

0.0000 0.0058

allowance = 0.0040 in

+ 0.0030 0.0040

D2 = 2.0 in D2 = 2.0 in

0.0000 0.0058

allowance = 0.0040 in

+ 0.0016 0.0020

e = 0.625 in e = 0.625 in

0.0000 0.0030

allowance = 0.0020 in

44. A 1-in. ( D1 ) steel rod (as-rolled AISI C1035) is to be anchored to a 1-in. steel

plate (as-rolled C1020) by means of a cotter (as rolled C1035) as shown. (a)

Determine all the dimensions for this connection so that all parts have the same

ultimate strength as the rod. The load F reverses direction. (b) Decide upon

tolerances and allowances for loose-running fits.

su1 = 85 ksi

sus1 = 64 ksi

For AISI C1020, as rolled

Page 59 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su2 = 65 ksi

sus2 = 48 ksi

Ultimate strength

Use Equation (1)

1 1 2

Fu = su1 D12 = (85) (1) = 66.8 kips

4 4

Equation (9)

Fu = sus1 D1m

66.8 = (64)( )(1)m

m = 0.33 in

3

say m = in

8

From Equation (3)

Fu = su1 D2e

66.8 = (85)D2 e

D2e = 0.7859

From Equation (5)

1

Fu = su1 D22 D2 e

4

1

66.8 = (85) D22 0.7859

4

D2 = 1.42 in

3

say D2 = 1 in

8

3

D2e = 1 e = 0.7859

8

e = 0.57 in

9

say e = in

16

From Equation (4)

1

Fu = su2 (a 2 D22 )

4

1 3

2

66.8 = (65) a 2 1

4 8

a = 1.79 in

3

say a = 1 in

4

From Equation (8)

Page 60 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Fu = sus2 at

66.8 = (48)( )(a )(1)

a = 0.44 in

1

say a = in

2

3

use a = 1 in

4

From Equation (2)

Fu = su2 (L D2 )e

3 9

66.8 = (65) L 1

8 16

L = 3.20 in

1

say L = 3 in

4

From Equation (7)

Fu = 2 sus2 (L D2 e )t

3 9

66.8 = 2(48) L 1 (1)

8 16

L = 1.51 in

1

say L = 1 in

2

1

use L = 3 in

4

From Equation (6)

Fu = 2 sus1 eb

9

66.8 = 2(64 ) b

16

b = 0.93 in

say b = 1 in

From Equation (10)

Fu = 2 sus1 D2 h

3

66.8 = 2(64 ) 1 h

8

h = 0.38 in

3

say h = in

8

Dimensions

1

L = 3 in

4

Page 61 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

3

h= in

8

b = 1 in

t = 1 in

3

m = in

8

3

a = 1 in

4

D1 = 1 in

3

D2 = 1 in

8

9

e = in

16

L = 3.25 0.010 in

h = 0.375 0.010 in

t = 1.000 0.010 in

m = 0.375 0.010 in

a = 1.75 0.010 in

D1 = 1.000 0.010 in

For Loose Running Fits (RC 8) Table 3.1

Female Male

+ 0.0035 0.0045

b = 1 .0 in b = 1 .0 in

0.0000 0.0065

allowance = 0.0045 in

+ 0.0040 0.0050

D2 = 1.375 in D2 = 1.375 in

0.0000 0.0075

allowance = 0.0050 in

+ 0.0028 0.0035

e = 0.5625 in e = 0.5625 in

0.0000 0.0051

allowance = 0.0035 in

45. Give all the simple strength equations for the connection shown. (b) Determine

the ratio of the dimensions a , b , c , d , m , and n to the dimension D so that the

connection will be equally strong in tension, shear, and compression. Base the

calculations on ultimate strengths and assume sus = 0.75su .

Page 62 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Problems 45 47.

Solution:

(a) Neglecting bending

1

Equation (1): F = s D 2

4

1

Equation (2): F = ss 2 c 2

4

Equation (3): F = s(2bc )

Equation (4): F = s(ac )

Equation (5): F = s[2(d c )b]

Equation (6): F = ss (4mb )

Equation (7): F = ss (2nb )

Equation (8): F = s(d c )a

su s

(b) s = and ss = us

N N

Therefore

ss = 0.75s

Equate (2) and (1)

1 1

F = ss 2 c 2 = s D 2

4 4

1 1

0.75s c 2 = s D 2

2 4

c = 0.8165 D

Equate (3) and (1)

1

F = s (2bc ) = s D 2

4

1

2b(0.8165 D ) = D 2

4

b = 0.4810 D

Page 63 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

1

F = sac = s D 2

4

1

a (0.8165 D ) = D 2

4

a = 0.9619 D

Equate (5) and (1)

1

F = s[2(d c )b ] = s D 2

4

1

2(d 0.8165 D )(0.4810 ) = D 2

4

d = 1.6329 D

Equate (6) and (1)

1

F = ss (4mb ) = s D 2

4

1

0.75(4m )(0.4810 D ) = D 2

4

m = 0.5443D

Equate (7) and (1)

1

F = ss (2nb ) = s D 2

4

1

0.75(2n )(0.4810 D ) = D 2

4

n = 1.0886 D

Equate (8) and (1)

1

F = s (d c )a = s D 2

4

(1.6329 D 0.8165D )a = 1 D 2

4

a = 0.9620 D

Summary

a = 0.9620 D

b = 0.4810 D

c = 0.8165 D

d = 1.6329 D

m = 0.5443D

n = 1.0886 D

46. The same as 45, except that the calculations are to be based on yield strengths. Let

ssy = 0.6 s y .

Page 64 of 131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(a) Neglecting bending

1

Equation (1): F = s D 2

4

1

Equation (2): F = ss 2 c 2

4

Equation (3): F = s(2bc )

Equation (4): F = s(ac )

Equation (5): F = s[2(d c )b]

Equation (6): F = ss (4mb )

Equation (7): F = ss (2nb )

Equation (8): F = s(d c )a

sy s sy

(b) s = and ss =

N N

Therefore

ss = 0.6s

Equate (2) and (1)

1 1

F = ss 2 c 2 = s D 2

4 4

1 1

0 .6 s c 2 = s D 2

2 4

c = 0.9129 D

Equate (3) and (1)

1

F = s (2bc ) = s D 2

4

1

2b(0.9129 D ) = D 2

4

b = 0.4302 D

1

F = sac = s D 2

4

1

a (0.9129 D ) = D 2

4

a = 0.8603D

Equate (5) and (1)

1

F = s[2(d c )b ] = s D 2

4

Page 65 of 131

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

141. The maximum pressure of air in a 20-in. cylinder (double-acting air compressor)

is 125 psig. What should be the diameter of the piston rod if it is made of AISI

3140, OQT at 1000 F, and if there are no stress raisers and no column action? Let

N = 1.75 ; indefinite life desired. How does your answer compare with that

obtained for 4?

Solution:

For AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F

su = 153 ksi

s y = 134 ksi

For axial loading, with size factor

sn = 0.5su = (0.8)(0.85)(76.5) = 52 ksi

Soderberg line

1 sm sa

= +

N s y sn

For double-acting

Fmax = F = pA = (125) (20 ) = 39,270 lb = 39.27 kips

2

4

Fmin = F = 39.27 kips

sm = 0

4 F 4(39.27 ) 50

sa = = = 2

d2 d2 d

50

2

= 0+

1 1 d

=

N 1.75 52

d = 1.2972 in

5

say d = 1 in

16

comparative to Problem 4.

142. A link as shown is to be made of AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F. The load F = 5 kips

is repeated and reversed. For the time being, ignore stress concentrations. (a) If

its surface is machined, what should be its diameter for N = 1.40 . (b) The same

as (a), except that the surface is mirror polished. What would be the percentage

saving in weight? (c) The same as (a), except that the surface is as forged.

Page 1 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Solution:

For AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F

su = 105 ksi

s y = 85 ksi

sm = 0

4F 4(5) 20

sa = 2

= 2

=

d d d2

Soderberg line

1 sm sa

= +

N s y sn

1 s

= 0+ a

N sn

s

sa = n

N

Size factor = 0.85

Factor for axial loading = 0.80

Surface factor = 0.85 (Fig. AF 5)

sn = 0.5su = (0.80)(0.85)(0.85)(52.5) ksi = 30.345 ksi

20 30.345

sa = 2

=

D 1 .4

D = 0.542 in

9

say D = in

16

(b) Mirror polished surface

Surface factor = 1.00 (Fig. AF 5)

sn = 0.5su = (0.80)(0.85)(1.00)(52.5) ksi = 35.7 ksi

20 35.7

sa = 2

=

D 1 .4

Page 2 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

D = 0.5 in

2 2

9 1

Savings in weight = 2 (100% ) = 21%

16 2

9

16

(c) As forged surface

Surface factor = 0.40 (Fig. AF 5)

sn = 0.5su = (0.80)(0.85)(0.40 )(52.5) ksi = 14.28 ksi

20 14.28

sa = =

D2 1 .4

D = 0.79 in

3

say D = in

4

143. The same as 142, except that, because of a corrosive environment, the link is

made from cold-drawn silicon bronze B and the number of reversals of the load

is expected to be less than 3 x 107.

Solution:

For cold-drawn silicon bronze, Type B.

sn = 30 ksi at 3 x 108

s y = 69 ksi

su = 93.75 ksi

0.085

3 108

sn at 3 x 10 = (30 )

7

7

= 36.5 ksi

3 10

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(36.5) = 24.82 ksi

20 24.82

sa = 2

=

D 1 .4

D = 0.60 in

5

say D = in

8

144. The same as 142, except that the link is made of aluminum alloy 2024-T4 with a

minimum life of 107 cycles.

Solution:

For AA 2024-T4

s y = 47 ksi

su = 68 ksi

sn = 20 ksi at 5 x108

Page 3 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

0.085

5 108

sn at 10 (20 )

7

7

= 27.9 ksi

10

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(27.9) = 19 ksi

20 19

sa = 2

=

D 1 .4

D = 0.685 in

11

say D = in

16

145. A shaft supported as a simple beam, 18 in. long, is made of carburized AISI 3120

steel (Table AT 10). With the shaft rotating, a steady load of 2000 lb. is appliled

midway between the bearings. The surfaces are ground. Indefinite life is desired

with N = 1.6 based on endurance strength. What should be its diameter if there

are no surface discontinuities?

Solution:

sn = 90 ksi

s y = 100 ksi

su = 141 ksi

Surface factor (ground) = 0.88

sn = (0.85)(0.88)(90) = 67.32 ksi

sm = 0

32 M

sa =

D3

FL (2000 )(18)

M= = = 9000 in lb = 9.0 in kips

4 4

Soderberg line

1 sm sa

= +

N s y sn

Page 4 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 s

= 0+ a

N sn

s

sa = n

N

32(9 ) 67.32

=

D3 1 .6

D = 1.2964 in

1

say D = 1 in

4

146. (a) A lever as shown with a rectangular section is to be designed for indefinite

life and a reversed load of F = 900 lb . Find the dimensions of a section without

discontinuity where b = 2.8t and L = 14 in . for a design factor of N = 2 . The

material is AISI C1020, as rolled, with an as-forged surface. (b) compute the

dimensions at a section where e = 4 in .

Solution:

For AISI C1020, as rolled

su = 65 ksi

s y = 48 ksi

s n = 0.5su = 32.5 ksi

Surface factor (as forged) = 0.55

(a) sm = 0

Mc

sa =

I

tb3 t (2.8t )

3

I= = = 1.8293t 4

12 12

b 2.8t

c= = = 1.4t

2 2

M = FL = (900)(14) = 12,600 in lb = 12.6 in kips

sa =

(12.6)(1.4t ) = 9.643

1.8293t 4 t3

sn = (0.85)(0.55)(32.5) = 15.20 ksi

Page 5 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Soderberg line

1 sm sa

= +

N s y sn

1 s

= 0+ a

N sn

s

sa = n

N

9.643 15.20

=

t3 2

t = 1.08 in

b = 2.8t = 2.8(1.08) = 3.0 in

1

say t = 1 in , b = 3.0 in

16

sa =

(3.6)(1.4t ) = 2.755

18293t 4 t3

2.755 15.20

=

t3 2

t = 0.713 in

b = 2.8t = 2.8(0.713) = 1.996 in

23

say t = in , b = 2 in

32

147. The same as 146, except that the reversal of the load are not expected to exceed

105 (Table AT 10).

Solution:

sn = 32.5 ksi

0.085

106

sn at 10 = (32.5) 5

5

= 39.5 ksi

10

sn = (0.85)(0.55)(39.5) = 18.5 ksi

sn

(a) sa =

N

9.643 18.5

=

t3 2

Page 6 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

t = 1.014 in

b = 2.8t = 2.8(1.014) = 2.839 in

13

say t = 1 in , b = 2 in

16

sn

(b) sa =

N

2.755 18.5

=

t3 2

t = 0.6678 in

b = 2.8t = 2.8(0.6678) = 1.870 in

11 7

say t = in , b = 1 in

16 8

machined from AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 2). What should be its

diameter for N = 1.75 ?

Solution:

For AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F

su = 152 ksi

s y = 134 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 76 ksi

For machined surface,

Surface factor = 0.78

Size factor = 0.85

sns = (0.6)(0.85)(0.78)(134) = 53.3 ksi

s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(134 ) = 80.4 ksi

1 sms sas

= +

N s ys sns

sms = 0

16T

sas =

D3

T = 15 in kips

16(15) 240

sas = =

D3 D3

1 s

= 0 + as

N sns

s

sas = ns

N

Page 7 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

240 53.3

=

D 3 1.75

D = 1.3587 in

3

say D = 1 in

8

149. The same as 148, except that the shaft is hollow with the outside diameter twice

the inside diameter.

Solution:

Do = 2 Di

16TDo 16(15)(2 Di ) 32

sas = = =

4 4

[

(Do Di ) (2 Di ) Di

4

]

4

Di3

s

sas = ns

N

32 53.3

=

Di3 1.75

Di = 0.694 in

11 3

say Di = in , Do = 1 in

16 8

150. The link shown is machined from AISI 1035 steel, as rolled, and subjected to a

repeated tensile load that varies from zero to 10 kips; h = 2b . (a) Determine these

dimensions for N = 1.40 (Soderberg) at a section without stress concentration.

(b) How much would these dimensions be decreased if the surfaces of the link

were mirror polished?

Solution:

For AISI 1035, steel as rolled

su = 85 ksi

s y = 55 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 42.5 ksi

Page 8 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1

Fm = (10 + 0 ) = 5 kips

2

1

Fa = (10 0 ) = 5 kips

2

F 5 10

sm = m = 2

= 2

bh 1.5b 3b

F 5 10

sa = a = 2

= 2

bh 1.5b 3b

(a) Soderberg line

1 sm sa

= +

N s y sn

For machined surface,

Factor = 0.88

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.88)(42.5) = 25.4 ksi

1 10 10

= 2 + 2

1.40 3b (55) 3b (25.4 )

b = 0.5182 in

9

say b = in

16

27

h = 1.5b = in

32

Factor = 1.00

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(1.00)(42.5) = 28.9 ksi

1 10 10

= 2 + 2

1.40 3b (55) 3b (28.9 )

b = 0.4963 in

1

say b = in

2

3

h = 1.5b = in

4

151. The same as 150, except that the link operates in brine solution. (Note: The

corroding effect of the solution takes precedence over surface finish.)

Page 9 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Solution:

Table AT 10, in brine, AISI 1035,

sn = 24.6 ksi

s y = 58 ksi

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(24.6) = 16.73 ksi

1 10 10

= 2 + 2

1.40 3b (55) 3b (16.73)

b = 0.60 in

5

say b = in

8

15

h = 1.5b = in

16

152. The simple beam shown, 30-in. long ( = a + L + d ), is made of AISI C1022 steel,

as rolled, left a forged. At a = 10 in , F1 = 3000 lb. is a dead load. At

d = 10 in , F2 = 2400 lb. is repeated, reversed load. For N = 1.5 , indefinite life,

and h = 3b , determine b and h . (Ignore stress concentration).

Solution:

For AISI C1022, as rolled

su = 72 ksi

s y = 52 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 36 ksi

For as forged surface

Figure AF 5, factor = 0.52

Size factor = 0.85

sn = (0.85)(0.52)(36) = 16 ksi

Loading:

Page 10 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

M A =0

10(3000) + 20(2400 ) = 30 R2

R2 = 2600 lb

F V =0

R1 + R2 = F1 + F2

R1 + 2600 = 3000 + 2400

R1 = 2800 lb

Shear Diagram

M D1 = (2600 )(10 ) = 26,000 in lb = 26 in kips

Then

Loading

M A =0

10(3000) + 30 R2 = 20(2400 )

R2 = 600 lb

F V =0

R1 + F2 = F1 + R2

R1 + 2400 = 3000 + 600

R1 = 1200 lb

Page 11 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Shear Diagram

M D2 = (600 )(10 ) = 6,000 in lb = 6 in kips

Then using

M max = M C1 = 28 in kips

M min = M C2 = 12 in kips

1

Mm = (M max + M min ) = 1 (28 + 12) = 20 in kips

2 2

1 1

M a = (M max M min ) = (28 12 ) = 8 in kips

2 2

M c M c

sm = m , sa = a

I I

b(3b )

3 3

bh

I= = = 2.25b 4

12 12

h

c = = 1.5b

2

Mm Ma

sm = 3

, sa =

1.5b 1.5b3

1 sm sa

= +

N s y sn

20 8

1 1.5b3 1.5b3

= +

1.5 52 16

b = 0.96 in

say b = 1 in

h = 3b = 3 in

153. The same as 152, except that the cycles of F2 will not exceed 100,000 and all

surfaces are machined.

Solution:

Page 12 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

0.085

106

( )

sn at 10 cycles = 36 5

5

= 43.8 ksi

10

su = 72 ksi

Machined surface, factor = 0.90

sn = (0.85)(0.90)(43.8) = 33.5 ksi

20 8

1 1.5b3 1.5b3

= +

1.5 52 33.5

b = 0.8543 in

7

say b = in

8

5

h = 3b = 2 in

8

154. A round shaft, made of cold-finished AISI 1020 steel, is subjected to a variable

torque whose maximum value is 6283 in-lb. For N = 1.5 on the Soderberg

criterion, determine the diameter if (a) the torque is reversed, (b) the torque varies

from zero to a maximum, (c) the torque varies from 3141 in-lb to maximum.

Solution:

For AISI 1020, cold-finished

su = 78 ksi

s y = 66 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 39 ksi

size factor = 0.85

sns = (0.6)(0.85)(39) = 20 ksi

s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(66 ) = 40 ksi

1 sms sas

= +

N s ys sns

sms = 0

16T

sas =

D3

T = 6283 in lb

16(6283) 32,000 32

sas = 3

= 3

psi = 3 ksi

D D D

1 sas

= 0+

N sns

Page 13 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

32

3

= 0+

1 D

1.5 20

D = 1.34 in

3

say D = 1 in

8

1

Tm = (6283) = 3141 in lb

2

1

Ta = (6283) = 3141 in lb

2

16(3141) 16,000 16

sms = 3

= 3

psi = 3 ksi

D D D

16(3141) 16,000 16

sas = 3

= 3

psi = 3 ksi

D D D

16 16

1 D3 D 3

= +

1.5 40 20

D = 1.22 in

1

say D = 1 in

4

1

Tm = (6283 + 3141) = 4712 in lb

2

1

Ta = (6283 3141) = 1571 in lb

2

16(4712 ) 24,000 24

sms = 3

= 3

psi = 3 ksi

D D D

16(1571) 8,000 8

sas = 3

= 3

psi = 3 ksi

D D D

24 8

1 D3 D 3

= +

1.5 40 20

D = 1.145 in

5

say D = 1 in

32

Page 14 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

CHECK PROBLEMS

155. A simple beam 2 ft. long is made of AISI C1045 steel, as rolled. The dimensions

of the beam, which is set on edge, are 1 in. x 3 in. At the midpoint is a repeated,

reversed load of 4000 lb. What is the factor of safety?

Solution:

For AISI C1045, as rolled

su = 96 ksi

s y = 59 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(96) = 48 ksi

size factor = 0.85

sn = (0.85)(48) = 40.8 ksi

1 sm sa

= +

N s y sn

sm = 0

6M

sa = 2

bh

h = 3 in

b = 1 in

FL (4000 )(24 )

M= = = 24,000 in lb = 24 in kips

4 4

6(24 )

sa = = 16 ksi

(1)(3)2

1 16

= 0+

N 40.8

N = 2.55

156. The same as 155, except that the material is normalized and tempered cast steel,

SAE 080.

Solution:

Table AT 6

sn = 35 ksi

s y = 40 ksi

sn = (0.85)(35) = 29.75 ksi

1 16

= 0+

N 29.75

N = 1.86

157. A 1 -in. shaft is made of AISI 1045 steel, as rolled. For N = 2 , what repeated

and reversed torque can the shaft sustain indefinitely?

Page 15 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Solution:

For AISI 1045, as rolled

su = 96 ksi

s y = 59 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(96) = 48 ksi

s ys = 0.6 s y = (0.6 )(59 ) = 35.4 ksi

1 sms sas

= +

N s ys sns

sms = 0

1 s

= 0 + as

2 24.48

sas = 12.24 ksi

16T

sas = = 12.24

D 3

T = 8 in kips

DESIGN PROBLEMS

158. The load on the link shown (150) is a maximum of 10 kips, repeated and

reversed. The link is forged from AISI C020, as rolled, and it has a in-hole

drilled on the center line of the wide side. Let h = 2b and N = 1.5 . Determine b

and h at the hole (no column action) (a) for indefinite life, (b) for 50,000

repetitions (no reversal) of the maximum load, (c) for indefinite life but with a

ground and polished surface. In this case, compute the maximum stress.

Solution:

For AISI C1020, as rolled

su = 65 ksi

s y = 48 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi

For as forged surface

Surface factor = 0.55

Size factor = 0.85

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.55)(32.5) = 12.2 ksi

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

Page 16 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Fig. AF 8, b h > 1

Assume K t = 3.5

d 1

Figure AF 7, r = = in = 0.125 in

2 8

a = 0.01 in

1 1

q= = = 0.926

a 0.01

1+ 1+

r 0.125

K f = q K t 1 + 1 = 0.926(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.3

( )

sm = 0

F 10

sa = =

b(h d ) b(2b 0.25)

1 K s

(a) = 0+ f a

N sn

1

= 0+

(3.3)(10)

1.5 b(2b 0.25)(12.2)

2

2b 0.25b = 4.06

b 2 0.125b 2.03 = 0

b = 1.489 in

1

say b = 1 in , h = 2b = 3 in

2

0.085

106

sn = (12.2 )

4

= 15.74 ksi

5 10

(log K ) 3 (log 3.3 ) 3

K fl =

n f

=

(5 104 ) = 2.0

log K

10 f 10log 3.3

1 K fl sa

=

N sn

1

=

(2.0)(10)

1.5 b(2b 0.25)(15.74)

2b 2 0.25b = 1.906

b 2 0.125b 0.953 = 0

b = 1.04 in

1 1

say b = 1 in , h = 2b = 2 in

16 8

Surface factor = 0.90

Page 17 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.90)(32.5) = 20 ksi

1 K f sa

=

N sn

1

=

(3.3)(10)

1.5 b(2b 0.25)(20)

b 2 0.125b 1.2375 = 0

b = 1.18 in

3 3

say b = 1 in , h = 2b = 2 in

16 8

Kf F

Maximum stress =

b(h d )

b h > 1 , d h = 0.25 2.375 = 0.105

Figure AF 8

K t = 3.5

K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.926(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.315

smax =

(3.315)(10) = 13.14 ksi

1.1875(2.375 0.25)

159. A connecting link as shown, except that there is a 1/8-in. radial hole drilled

through it at the center section. It is machined from AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F, and

it is subjected to a repeated, reversed axial load whose maximum value is 5 kips.

For N = 1.5 , determine the diameter of the link at the hole (a) for indefinite life;

(b) for a life of 105 repetitions (no column action). (c) In the link found in (a)

what is the maximum tensile stress?

Problem 159

Solution:

For AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F

su = 135 ksi

s y = 126 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(135) = 67.5 ksi

For machined surface, Fig. AF 7, surface factor = 0.80

Size factor = 0.85

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.80)(67.5) = 36.72 ksi

Page 18 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

Fig. AF 8, b h > 1

Assume K t = 2.5

d 1

Figure AF 7, r = = in = 0.0625 in

2 16

a = 0.0025 in

1 1

q= = = 0.96

a 0.0025

1+ 1+

r 0.0625

K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.96(2.5 1) + 1 = 2.44

(a) Indefinite life, K f = 2.44

sn = 36.72 ksi

sm = 0

F 4F 4(5) 20

sa = = = =

D 2 2

D 4 Dd 1 D 0.5 D

2

Dd D 2 4 D

4 8

1 K s

= 0+ f a

N sn

1

=

(2.44)(20)

1.5 36.72(D 2 0.5D )

D 2 0.5D = 2.00

D = 0.88 in

7

say D = in

8

0.085

106

sn = (36.72 ) 5 = 44.66 ksi

10

(log K ) 3 (log 2.4 ) 3

n f

K fl = log K f =

(105 ) = 1.81

10 10log 2.44

1 K fl sa

=

N sn

1

=

(1.81)(20)

1.5 44.66(D 2 0.5 D )

D 2 0.5D = 1.216

D = 0.71 in

Page 19 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

3

say D = in

4

4K f F

(c) smax =

D 2 0.5D

7 d 0.125

D = in , = = 0.14

8 D 0.875

Figure AF 8

K t = 2.6

K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.96(2.6 1) + 1 = 2.54

4(2.54)(5)

smax = 2

= 25.82 ksi

7 7

0.5

8 8

160. A machine part of uniform thickness t = b 2.5 is shaped as shown and machined

all over from AISI C1020, as rolled. The design is for indefinite life for a load

repeated from 1750 lb to 3500 lb. Let d = b . (a) For a design factor of 1.8

(Soderberg), what should be the dimensions of the part? (b) What is the

maximum tensile stress in the part designed?

Solution:

For AISI C1020, as rolled

su = 65 ksi

s y = 48 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi

For machined surface

Surface factor = 0.90

Size factor = 0.85

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.90)(32.5) = 20 ksi

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

(a) For flat plate with fillets

Figure AF 9

b d

r= =

3 3

Page 20 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

r 1

= = 0.333

d 3

h 2b

= =2

d b

K t = 1.65

a = 0.01 in

1

q= 1.0

a

1+

r

K f K t = 1.65

Fm

sm =

bt

Fa

sa =

bt

b

t=

2 .5

1

Fm = (3500 + 1750 ) = 2625 lb

2

1

Fa = (3500 1750 ) = 875 lb

2

2625 6562.5

sm = =

b b2

b

2 .5

875 2187.5

sa = =

b b2

b

2 .5

1 6562.5 (1.65)(2187.5)

= +

1.8 48,000b 2 20,000b 2

b = 0.7556 in

or b = 0.75 in

b 0.75

t= = = 0.3 in

2 .5 2 .5

Fig. AF 8, b h > 1 , d h = b 2b = 1 2

Assume K f K t = 2.9

Fm Fm F

sm = = = m

(h d )t (2b b )t bt

Fa Fa F

sa = = = a

(h d )t (2b b )t bt

Page 21 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

2625 6562.5

sm = =

b b2

b

2 .5

875 2187.5

sa = =

b b2

b

2 .5

1 6562.5 (2.9)(2187.5)

= +

1.8 48,000b 2 20,000b 2

b = 0.904 in

15

or b = 0.9375 in = in

16

b 3

t= = in

2 .5 8

15

d = b = in

16

15 3 15

use b = in , t = in , d = in

16 8 16

(b) smax = sm + K f sa

d 15

r= = in

2 32

1

q= = 0.98

0.01

1+

15

32

K t = 2.9

K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.98(2.9 1) + 1 = 2.86

Fm 6562.5 6562.5

sm = = = 2

= 7467 psi

bt b2 15

16

F 2187.5 2187.5

sa = a = = 2

= 2489 psi

bt b2 15

16

smax = sm + K f sa = 7467 + (2.86 )(2489 ) = 14,586 psi

162. The beam shown has a circular cross section and supports a load F that

varies from 1000 lb to 3000 lb; it is machined from AISI C1020 steel, as

rolled. Determine the diameter D if r = 0.2 D and N = 2 ; indefinite life.

Page 22 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Solution:

For AISI C1020, as rolled

su = 65 ksi

s y = 48 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi

For machined surface

Surface factor = 0.90

Size factor = 0.85

sn = (0.85)(0.90 )(32.5) = 24.86 ksi

M A =0

12 F = 24 B

F = 2B

F

B=

2

F

A= B=

2

At discontinuity

6F

M= = 3F

2

M max = 3(3000) in lb = 9000 in lb = 9 in kips

M min = 3(1000) in lb = 3000 in lb = 3 in kips

1

M m = (9 + 3) = 6 in kips

2

1

M a = (9 3) = 3 in kips

2

32 M

s=

D3

Figure AF 12

D d =1.5d d =1.5

r d = 0.2d d = 0.2

K t = 1.42

assume K f K t = 1.42

Page 23 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1 (32 )(6 ) (1.42 )(32 )(3)

= +

2 48D 3 24.86D 3

D = 1.821 in

13

say D = 1 in

16

At maximum moment

12 F

M= = 6F

2

M max = 6(3000) in lb = 18000 in lb = 18 in kips

M min = 6(1000) in lb = 6000 in lb = 6 in kips

1

M m = (18 + 6 ) = 12 in kips

2

1

M a = (18 6 ) = 6 in kips

2

32 M

s=

D3

K f = 1.00

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1 (32 )(12 ) (1.0 )(32 )(6 )

= +

2 48D 3 24.86D 3

D = 1.4368 in

13

Therefore use D = 1 in

16

164. The shaft shown is machined from C1040, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 1). It is

subjected to a torque that varies from zero to 10,000 in-lb. ( F = 0 ). Let r = 0.2 D

and N = 2 . Compute D . What is the maximum torsional stress in the shaft?

Solution:

su = 104 ksi

s y = 72 ksi

Page 24 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

For machined surface

Surface factor = 0.85

Size factor = 0.85

sns = (0.60)(0.85)(0.85)(52) = 22.5 ksi

1

Ta = Tm = (10,000 ) = 5000 in lb = 5 in kips

2

s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(72 ) = 43.2 ksi

16T

sms = sas =

D3

1 sms K fs sas

= +

N s ys sns

Figure AF 12

D d =1.5d d =1.5

r d = 0.2d d = 0.2

K ts = 1.2

assume K fs K ts = 1.2

1

=

(16)(5) + (1.2)(16)(5)

2 43.2D 3 22.5D 3

D = 1.5734 in

9

say D = 1 in

16

smax = sm + K f sa

smax =

(16)(5) +

(1.2)(16)(5) = 14.686 ksi

3 3

9 9

1 1

16 16

165. An axle (nonrotating) is to be machined from AISI 1144, OQT 1000 F, to the

proportions shown, with a fillet radius r 0.25 D ; F varies from 400 lb to 1200

lb.; the supports are to the left of BB not shown. Let N = 2 (Soderberg line). (a)

At the fillet, compute D and the maximum tensile stress. (b) Compute D at

section BB. (c) Specify suitable dimensions keeping the given proportions, would

a smaller diameter be permissible if the fillet were shot-peened?

Page 25 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Solution:

For AISI 1144, OQT 1000 F

su = 118 ksi

s y = 83 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 59 ksi

For machined surface

Surface factor = 0.83

Size factor = 0.85

sn = (0.85)(0.83)(59) = 41.62 ksi

D d =1.5d d =1.5

r d = 0.25d d = 0.25

K t = 1.35

assume K f K t = 1.35

M = 6F

M max = 6(1200) in lb = 7200 in lb = 7.2 in kips

M min = 6(400) in lb = 2400 in lb = 2.4 in kips

1

M m = (7.2 + 2.4 ) = 4.8 in kips

2

1

M a = (7.2 2.4 ) = 2.4 in kips

2

32 M

s=

D3

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1 (32 )(4.8) (1.35)(32 )(2.4 )

= +

2 83D 3 41.62D 3

D = 1.4034 in

7

say D = 1 in

16

M = 30 F

M max = 30(1200) in lb = 36000 in lb = 36 in kips

M min = 30(400) in lb = 12000 in lb = 12 in kips

1

M m = (7.2 + 2.4 ) = 4.8 in kips

2

1

M a = (7.2 2.4 ) = 2.4 in kips

2

Page 26 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

32 M

s=

D3

K f = 1 .0

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1

=

(32)(36) + (1.0)(32)(12)

2 83 (1.5 D )3 41.62 (1.5 D )3

D = 1.6335 in

11

say D = 1 in

16

D = 2 in , 1.5 D = 3 in

fatigue strength.

( F = 0 ) of the machined shaft shown. The fillet radius r = D 8 and the torque

passes through the profile keyway at C. The material is AISI 1050, OQT 1100 F,

and N = 1.6 . (a) What should be the diameter? (b) If the fillet radius were

increased to D 4 would it be reasonable to use a smaller D ?

Solution:

Tmax = 15 in kips

Tmin = 5 in kips

1

Tm = (15 + 5) = 10 in kips

2

1

Ta = (15 5) = 5 in kips

2

For AISI 1050, OQT 1100 F

su = 101 ksi

s y = 58.5 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(101) = 50.5 ksi

Page 27 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Surface factor = 0.85

Size factor = 0.85

sns = (0.60)(0.85)(0.85)(50.5) = 21.9 ksi

(a) At the fillet

r d =r D = =1 8

D d =1.5

K ts = 1.3

assume K fs K ts = 1.3

At the key profile

K fs = 1.6

use K fs = 1.6

s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(58.5) = 35.1 ksi

1 sms K fs sas

= +

N s ys sns

1

=

(16)(10) + (1.6)(16)(5)

1.6 35.1D 3 21.9D 3

D = 1.7433 in

3

say D = 1 in

4

(b) r = D 4

r D = 0.25

D d =1.5

Figure AF 12

K ts = 1.18

K fs K ts = 1.18 < 1.6

Therefore, smaller D is not reasonable.

170. The beam shown is made of AISI C1020 steel, as rolled; e = 8 in . The load F is

repeated from zero to a maximum of 1400 lb. Assume that the stress

concentration at the point of application of F is not decisive. Determine the

depth h and width t if h 4t ; N = 1.5 0.1 for Soderberg line. Iteration is

necessary because K f depends on the dimensions. Start by assuming a logical

K f for a logical h (Fig. AF 11), with a final check of K f . Considerable

estimation inevitable.

Page 28 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Problem 170

Solution:

1

A= B= F

2

At the hole

F

M = eB = (8) = 4 F

2

M max = 4 F

M min = 0

1

M m = (4 F ) = 2 F = 2(1.4 ) = 2.8 in kips

2

1

M a = (4 F ) = 2 F = 2(1.4 ) = 2.8 in kips

2

Mc

s=

I

I=

(h 2d )3 t

12

1

d = in = 0.5 in

2

1 11

c = 1 + = 1.75 in

2 22

For AISI C1020, as rolled

su = 65 ksi

s y = 48 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi

Size factor = 0.85

sn = (0.85)(32.5) = 27.62 ksi

Fig. AF 7, c d = 1.75 0.5 = 3.5 > 0.5

Page 29 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Assume K t = 3.5

1 1

r = = 0.25 in

2 2

a = 0.010 in

1 1

q= = = 0.962

a 0.010

1+ 1+

r 0.25

K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.962(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.4

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1 12(2.8)(1.75) (3.4 )(12 )(2.8)(1.75)

= +

1.5 48(h 2d )3 t 27.62(h 2d ) t

3

(h 2d )3 t = 12.70

[h 2(0.50)]3 t = 12.70

(4t 1)3 t = 12.70

t = 0.8627 in

7

say t = in

8

h = 4t = 3.5 in

1 1 1

h > 1 + 1 + in

2 2 2

h > 3.5 in

Figure AF 11, h d > 10

h = 10d = 10(0.50) = 5 in

1

d

= 2 = 0 .5

b 5 1 1

2 2

Therefore K t = 3.5 , K f = 3.4

1

Use h = 5 in , t = 1 in

4

171. Design a crank similar to that shown with a design factor of 1.6 0.16 based on

the modified Goodman line. The crank is to be forged with certain surfaces

milled as shown and two -in. holes. It is estimated that the material must be of

the order of AISI 8630, WQT 1100 F. The length L = 17 in. , a = 5 in. , and the

load varies form + 15 kips to 9 kips. (a) Compute the dimensions at section AB

with h = 3b . Check the safety of the edges (forged surfaces). (Iteration involves;

one could first make calculations for forged surfaces and then check safety at

holes.) (b) Without redesigning but otherwise considering relevant factors ,

Page 30 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

quantitatively discuss actions that might be taken to reduce the size; holes must

remain as located.

Problems 171-174.

Solution:

su = 96 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(96) = 48 ksi

Size factor = 0.85

As-forged surface (Fig. AF I)

Surface factor = 0.4

sn = (0.85)(0.42)(48) = 17 ksi

Surface factor = 0.85

sn = (0.85)(0.85)(48) = 34.68 ksi

At AB, machined

1 sm K f sa

= +

N su sn

Figure AF 11

1

b = in = 0.5 in

2

1

d = in = 0.25 in

4

d 0.25

= in = 0.5

b 0 .5

Assume K f = 3.50

q = 0.998

K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.998(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.495

Mc

s=

I

I=

(h 2d ) b

3

12

Page 31 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

h 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

c= + = h 1 + = (4h 4 + 1) = (4h 3)

2 2 2 4 2 4 8 8

h = 3b

1

M (4h 3)

s=

8

3

1

h 2 4 b

12

3

M (12b 3)

s= 2

(3b 0.5)3 b

4.5M (4b 1)

s=

(3b 0.5)3 b

M = F (L a )

M max = (15)(17 5) = 180 in kips

M min = ( 9)(17 5) = 108 in kips

1

M m = (180 108) = 36 in kips

2

1

M a = (180 + 108) = 144 in kips

2

1 sm K f sa

= +

N su sn

1 4.5(36 )(4b 1) (3.495)(4.5)(144 )(4b 1)

= +

1.6 96(3b 0.5)3 b 34.68(3b 0.5) b

3

(4b 1) = 1

(3b 0.5)3 b 107.2

(3b 0.5)3 b = 107.2

(4b 1)

b = 2.6 in

5

say b = 2 in

8

7

h = 3b = 7 in

8

Checking at the edges (as forged)

M max = (15)(17 ) = 255 in kips

M min = ( 9)(17 ) = 153 in kips

1

M m = (255 153) = 51 in kips

2

Page 32 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1

M a = (255 + 153) = 204 in kips

2

6M 6M 2 M

s= 2 = 3 = 3

bh 9b 3b

K f 1 .0

1 sm K f sa

= +

N su sn

1 2(51) (1.0)(2)(204)

= 3 +

1.6 3b (96) 3b3 (17 )

b = 2.373 in

3

say b = 2 in

8

5 3

since b = 2 in > 2 in , safe.

8 8

CHECK PROBLEMS

from AISI 8630, WQT 1100 F, except for machined areas indicated. The load F

varies from +5 kips to 3 kips. The crank has been designed without detailed

attention to factors that affect its endurance strength. In section AB only,

compute the factor of safety by the Soderberg criterion. Suppose it were desired

to improve the margin of safety, with significant changes of dimensions

prohibited, what various steps could be taken? What are your particular

recommendations?

Solution:

sn = 17 ksi

For machined surface

sn = 34.68 ksi

s n = 72 ksi

In section AB, machined

Page 33 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

M = F (L a )

M max = (+ 5)(15 3) = 60 in kips

M min = ( 3)(15 3) = 36 in kips

1

M m = (60 36 ) = 12 in kips

2

1

M a = (60 + 36 ) = 48 in kips

2

d = h = 4.5 in , b = 1.5 in

h

=3

b

4.5M (4b 1)

s=

(3b 0.5)3 b

4.5(12 )[4(1.5) 1]

sm = = 2.8125 ksi

[3(1.5) 0.5]3 (1.5)

4.5(48)[4(1.5) 1]

sa = = 11.25 ksi

[3(1.5) 0.5]3 (1.5)

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

K f = 3.495 from Problem 171.

1 2.8125 (3.495)(11.25)

= +

N 72 34.68

N = 0.85 < 1 , unsafe

To increase the margin of safety

1. reduce the number of repetitions of loads

2. shot-peening

3. good surface roughness

Recommendation:

No. 1, reducing the number of repetitions of loads.

175. The link shown is made of AISI C1020, as rolled, machined all over. It is loaded

3 9 5

in tension by pins in the D = in holes in the ends; a = in , t = in ,

8 16 16

1

h = 1 in . Considering sections at A, B, and C, determine the maximum safe

8

axial load for N = 2 and indefinite life (a) if it is repeated and reversed; (b) if it

is repeated varying from zero to maximum; (c) if it is repeatedly varies or

F = W to F = 3W . (d) Using the results from (a) and (b), determine the ratio of

the endurance strength for a repeated load to that for a reversed load (Soderberg

line).

Page 34 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Solution:

For AISI C1020, as rolled

su = 65 ksi

s y = 48 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi

Size factor = 0.85

For machined all over

Surface factor = 0.90

sn = (0.85)(0.90)(0.80)(32.5) = 20 ksi

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

at A, Figure AF 8

9

b = in

16

1

h = 1 in

8

3

d = D = in

8

5

t = in

16

3

d

= 8 = 0.33

h 11

8

9

b 16

= = 0.5

h 1

1

8

K tA = 3.6

d 3

r = = in

2 16

a = 0.01 in

Page 35 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 1

q= = = 0.95

a 0.01

1+ 1+

r 3

16

k fA = q ktA 1 + 1 = 0.95(3.6 1) + 1 = 3.47

( )

F F 64 F

s= = =

(h d )t 1 1 3 5 15

8 8 16

1 64 Fm 3.47(64)Fa

= +

2 15(48) 15(20)

8

1= Fm + 1.48 Fa at A

45

At B Figure AF 9

9

d = a = in

16

1

h = 1 in

8

3

r = in

16

5

t = in

16

3

r 16

= = 0.33

d 9

16

1

1

h

= 8 =2

d 9

16

K tB = 1.63

a = 0.01 in

1 1

q= = = 0.95

a 0.01

1+ 1+

r 3

16

k fB = q (ktB 1) + 1 = 0.95(1.63 1) + 1 = 1.6

F F 256 F

s= = =

dt

9 5 45

16 16

Page 36 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 256 Fm 1.6(256)Fa

= +

2 45(48) 45(20)

32

1= Fm + 0.455 Fa at B

135

b

at C, Figure AF 8, >1

h

1

D= in

8

9

h = a = in

16

1

d

= 8 = 0.22

h 9

16

K tC = 3.5

d 1

r = = in

2 16

a = 0.01 in

1 1

q= = = 0.862

a 0.01

1+ 1+

r 1

16

k fC = q (ktC 1) + 1 = 0.862(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.2

F F 256 F

s= = =

(h d )t 9 1 5 35

16 8 16

1 256 Fm 3.2(256)Fa

= +

2 35(48) 35(20)

32

1= Fm + 1.17 Fa at C

105

Equations

8

At A, 1 = Fm + 1.48 Fa

45

32

At B, 1 = Fm + 0.455 Fa

135

32

At C, 1 = Fm + 1.17 Fa

105

Page 37 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Fm = 0

Fa = F

use at A

8

1= Fm + 1.48 Fa

45

8

1 = (0 ) + 1.48 Fa

45

F = 0.676 kip

(b) Fm = Fa = F

8

at A, 1 = F + 1.48 F

45

F = 0.603 kip

32

at B, 1 = F + 0.455 F

135

F = 1.480 kips

32

at C, 1 = F + 1.17 F

105

F = 0.678 kip

use F = 0.603 kip

1

Fm = (3W W ) = W

2

1

Fa = (3W + W ) = 2W

2

8

at A, 1 = W + 1.48(2W )

45

W = 0.319 kip

32

at B, 1 = W + 0.455(2W )

135

W = 0.884 kip

32

at C, 1 = W + 1.17(2W )

105

W = 0.378 kip

use W = 0.319 kip

Fmax = 0.957 kip

Page 38 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

F (b ) 0.603

(d) Ratio = = = 0.892

F (a ) 0.676

179. A steel rod shown, AISI 2320, hot rolled, has been machined to the following

3 1

dimensions: D = 1 in. , c = in. , e = in. A semicircular groove at the

4 8

1 1

midsection has r = in. ; for radial hole, a = in. An axial load of 5 kips is

8 4

repeated and reversed ( M = 0 ). Compute the factor of safety (Soderberg) and

make a judgement on its suitability (consider statistical variations of endurance

strength i4.4). What steps may be taken to improve the design factor?

Problems 179-183

Solution:

AISI 2320 hot-rolled (Table AT 10)

su = 96 ksi

s y = 51 ksi

sn = 48 ksi

Size factor = 0.85

Surface factor = 0.85 (machined)

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.85)(48) = 27.74 ksi

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

sm = 0 , reversed

sa = s

1 K f sa

=

N sn

s

sa = n

NK f

at the fillet, Figure AF 12

1

r = e = in

8

Page 39 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

3

d =c= in

4

D = 1 in

1

r 8

= = 0.17

d 3

4

D 1

= = 1.3

d 3

4

K t = 1.55

a = 0.010 in

1 1

q= = = 0.926

a 0.010

1+ 1+

r 1

8

K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.926(1.55 1) + 1 = 1.51

4(5)

sa = s = 2

= 11.32 ksi

3

4

sn 27.74

N= = = 1.62

sa K f (11.32)(1.51)

1 3

d = b = D 2r = 1 in 2 in = in

8 4

D = 1 in

1

r = in

8

1

r 8

= = 0.17

d 3

4

D 1

= = 1.3

d 3

4

K t = 1.75

a = 0.010 in

Page 40 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 1

q= = = 0.926

a 0.010

1+ 1+

r 1

8

K f = q K t 1 + 1 = 0.926(1.75 1) + 1 = 1.7

( )

4F 4(5)

sa = s = 2

= 2

= 11.32 ksi

d 3

4

s 27.74

N= n = = 1.44

sa K f (11.32)(1.7 )

D = h = 1 in

1

d = a = in

4

1

D 4

= = 0.25

h 1

K t = 2.44

a = 0.010 in

1 1

q= = = 0.926

a 0.010

1+ 1+

r 1

8

K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.926(2.44 1) + 1 = 2.33

F 5

sa = s = = = 9.34 ksi

D 2

(1)

2

1

Dd (1)

4 4 4

sn 27.74

N= = = 1.27

sa K f (9.34)(2.33)

From i4.4

s = 0.76sn

sn

N= = 1.32 min > 1.27

0.76 sn

Therefore, dimensions are not suitable.

Steps to be taken:

1. Reduce number of cycle to failure

Page 41 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

3. Presetting

186. A stock stud that supports a roller follower on a needle bearing for a cam is

5 7 3

made as shown, where a = in , b = in , c = in . The nature of the junction

8 16 4

of the diameters at B is not defined. Assume that the inside corner is sharp. The

material of the stud is AISI 2317, OQT 1000 F. Estimate the safe, repeated load

F for N = 2 . The radial capacity of the needle bearing is given as 1170 lb. at

2000 rpm for a 2500-hr life. See Fig. 20.9, p. 532, Text.

Problem 186

Solution:

AISI 2317, OQT 1000 F

su = 106 ksi

s y = 71 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 53 ksi

Size factor = 0.85

sn = (0.85)(53) = 45 ksi

Figure AF 12

5

d = a = in

8

3

D = c = in

4

r d 0 , sharp corner

3

D 4

= = 1.2

d 5

8

Assume K t = 2.7

K f K t = 2 .7

32 M

s=

a3

7

M = Fb = F = 0.4375 F

16

Page 42 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

5

a= in = 0.625 in

8

32(0.4375)F

s= = 18.25 F

(0.625)3

sm = sa = s = 18.25F

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1 18.25 F (2.7 )(18.25 F )

= +

2 71 45

F = 0.370 kip = 370 lb < less than radial capacity of the needle bearing. Ok.

187. The link shown is made of AISI C1035 steel, as rolled, with the following

3 7 1 1

dimensions a = in. , b = in. , c = 1 in. , d = in. , L = 12 in. , r = in. The

8 8 2 16

axial load F varies from 3000 lb to 5000 lb and is applied by pins in the holes.

(a) What are the factors of safety at points A, B, and C if the link is machined all

over? What are the maximum stresses at these points?

Solution:

AISI C1035, as rolled

su = 85 ksi

s y = 55 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 42.5 ksi

size factor = 0.85

sn = (0.6)(0.85)(42.5) = 21.68 ksi

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1

Fm = (5 + 3) = 4 kips

2

1

Fa = (5 3) = 1 kip

2

Page 43 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

(a) at A, Figure AF 9

1

r = in

16

3

d = a = in

8

7

h = b = in

8

1

r 16

= = 0.17

d 3

8

7

h 8

= = 2.33

d 3

8

K t = 1.9

a = 0.010 in

1 1

q= = = 0.862

a 0.010

1+ 1+

r 1

16

K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.862(1.9 1) + 1 = 1.78

F

s=

ac

4

sm = = 10.67 ksi

3

(1)

8

1

sa = = 2.67 ksi

3

(1)

8

1 10.67 (1.78)(2.67 )

= +

N 55 21.68

N = 2.42

At B, same as A, K f = 1.78

F

s=

(b a )c

4

sm = = 8 ksi

7 3

(1)

8 8

Page 44 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1

sa = = 2 ksi

7 3

(1)

8 8

1 8 (1.78)(2 )

= +

N 55 21.68

N = 3.23

At C, Figure AF 8

1

d = in

2

h = c = 1 in

b h >1

1

d 2

= = 0.5

h 1

K t = 2.2

a = 0.010 in

d 1

r = = in = 0.25 in

2 4

1 1

q= = = 0.962

a 0.010

1+ 1+

r 0.25

K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.962(2.2 1) + 1 = 2.15

F

s=

(b a )(c d )

4

sm = = 16 ksi

7 3 1

1

8 8 2

1

sm = = 4 ksi

7 3 1

1

8 8 2

1 16 (2.15)(4 )

= +

N 55 21.68

N = 1.45

at A

s A = sm + K f sa = 10.67 + 1.78(2.67 ) = 15.42 ksi

at B

sB = sm + K f sa = 8 + 1.78(2 ) = 11.56 ksi

Page 45 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

at C

sC = sm + K f sa = 16 + 2.15(4 ) = 24.6 ksi

IMPACT PROBLEMS

189. A wrought-iron bar is 1in. in diameter and 5 ft. long. (a) What will be the stress

and elongation if the bar supports a static load of 5000 lb? Compute the stress

and elongation if a 5000 lb. weight falls freely 0.05 in. and strikes a stop at the

end of the bar. (b) The same as (a), except that the bar is aluminum alloy 3003-

H14.

Solution:

D = 1 in. , L = 5 ft

For wrought iron,

E = 28 106 psi

(a) elongation

F = 5000 lb

=

FL

=

(5000)(5)(12) = 0.01364 in

AE

4

(

(1)2 28 106 )

Stress and elongation

h = 0.05 in

W = 5000 lb

L = 5 ft = 60 in

1

W W 2hEA 2

s = + 1 +

A A LW

1

6 2

2

5000 5000

2(0.05 ) (

28 10 )

(1)

s= + 1 + 4 = 24,741 psi

2 2

(1) (1) (60)(5000)

4 4

sL (24,741)(60 )

= = = 0.053 in

E 28 106

E = 10 106 psi

F = 5000 lb

=

FL

=

(5000)(5)(12) = 0.038 in

AE (1)2 10 106

( )

4

Stress and elongation

h = 0.05 in

Page 46 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

W = 5000 lb

L = 5 ft = 60 in

1

W W 2hEA 2

s = + 1 +

A A LW

1

6 2

2

5000 5000

2(0.05 ) 10 (

10 ) (1)

s= + 1 + 4 = 18,475 psi

2 2

(1) (1) (60)(5000)

4 4

sL (18,475)(60 )

= = = 0.111 in

E 10 106

190. What should be the diameter of a rod 5 ft. long, made of an aluminum alloy

2024-T4, if it is to resist the impact of a weight of W = 500 lb dropped through a

distance of 2 in.? The maximum computed stress is to be 20 ksi.

Solution:

For aluminum alloy, 2024-T4

E = 10.6 106 psi

W = 500 lb

h = 2 in

L = 5 ft = 60 in

s = 20 ksi = 20,000 psi

1

W W 2hEA 2

s = + 1 +

A A LW

1

20,000 = + 1+

(

5000 5000 2(2 ) 10.6 106 A 2 )

A A (60)(500)

1

40 A = 1 + (1 + 1413 A)2

D 2

A= = 0.9332

4

1

D = 1.09 in , say D = 1 in

16

191. A rock drill has the heads of the cylinder bolted on by 7/8-in. bolts somewhat as

shown. The grip of the bolt is 4 in. (a) If the shank of the bolt is turned down to

the minor diameter of the coarse-thread screw, 0.7387 in., what energy may each

bolt absorb if the stress is not to exceed 25 ksi? (b) Short bolts used as described

above sometimes fail under repeated shock loads. It was found in one instance

that if long bolts, running from head to head, were used, service failures were

eliminated. How much more energy will the bolt 21 in. long absorb for a stress of

Page 47 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

25 ksi. That the bolt 4 in. long? As before, let the bolt be turned down to the

minor diameter. The effect of the threads on the strength is to be neglected.

Problem 191

Solution:

s2 2

U= ( AL ) = s AL

2E 2E

2

D

(a) A =

4

L = 4 in

D = 0.7387 in

E = 30106 psi

s = 25 ksi = 25,000 psi

U= 4 = 17.86 in lb

(

2 30 106 )

(b) L = 21 in

U= 4 = 93.75 in lb

(

2 30 106 )

U = 93.75 17.86 = 75.89 in lb

192. As seen in the figure, an 8.05-lb body A moving down with a constant

acceleration of 12 fps2, having started from rest at point C. If A is attached to a

steel wire, W & M gage 8 (0.162 in. diameter) and if for some reason the sheave

D is instantly stopped, what stress is induced in the wire?

Solution:

s 2 AL

U=

2E

1 2 1

U = mv = m(2ah ) = mah = maL

2 2

Page 48 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

s 2 AL

= maL

2E

2maE 2WaE

s2 = =

A gA

W = 8.05 lb

a = 12 fps 2

g = 32 fps 2

b = 12 fps 2

E = 30106 psi

D 2

A=

4

8WaE 8(8.05)(12)(30 106 )

s2 = =

D 2 g (0.162)2 (32)

s = 93,741 psi

193. The hoist A shown, weighing 5000 lb. and moving at a constant v = 4 fps is

attached to a 2 in. wire rope that has a metal area of 1.6 sq. in. and a modulus

E = 12 106 psi . When h = 100 ft , the sheave D is instantly stopped by a brake

(since this is impossible, it represents the worst conceivable condition).

Assuming that the stretching is elastic, compute the maximum stress in the rope.

Solution:

s 2 AL

U=

2E

1 W 2

U = mv 2 = v

2 2g

s 2 AL W 2

= v

2E 2g

Wv 2 E

s2 =

gAL

W = 5000 lb

Page 49 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

v = 4 fps

E = 12 106 psi

A = 1.6 in 2

L = h = 100 ft

g = 32 fps 2

s2 =

(5000)(4)2 (12 106 )

(32)(1.6)(100)

s = 13,693 psi

194. A coarse-thread steel bolt, in. in diameter, with 2 in. of threaded and 3 in. of

unthreaded shank, receives an impact caused by a falling 500-lb weight. The area

at the root of the thread is 0.334 sq. in. and the effects of threads are to be

neglected. (a) What amount of energy in in-lb. could be absorbed if the maximum

calculated stress is 10 ksi? (b) From what distance h could the weight be

dropped for this maximum stress? (c) How much energy could be absorbed at the

same maximum stress if the unthreaded shank were turned down to the root

diameter.

Solution:

s 2 AL

U=

2E

(a) U = U1 + U 2

s12 A1L1

U1 =

2E

2

s AL

U2 = 2 2 2

2E

A1 = 0.334 in 2

A2 = (0.75) = 0.442 in 2

4

s1 = 10,000 psi

s A (10,000 )(0.334 )

s2 = 1 1 = = 7556 psi

A2 0.442

L1 = 2 in

L2 = 3 in

E = 30 10 6 psi

U1 =

(10,000)2 (0.334)(2) = 1.113 in lb

2(30 106 )

U2 =

(7556)2 (0.442)(3) = 1.262 in lb

2(30 106 )

Page 50 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1

W 2hEA 2

(b) s = 1 + 1 +

A LW

1

2

W 2hE

s = 1 + 1 +

A1 L L

W 1 + 2

A1 A2

1

W 2hEA1 A2 2

s = 1 + 1 +

A1 W ( A2 L1 + A1L2 )

W = 500 lb

A1 = 0.334 in 2

A2 = 0.442 in 2

L1 = 2 in

L2 = 3 in

E = 30106 psi

s = 10,000 psi

1

10,000 =

500

1 + 1 +

( )

2h 30 106 (0.334 )(0.442 ) 2

0.334 500[(0.442 )(2 ) + (0.334 )(3)]

h = 0.0033 in

s 2 AL

(c) U =

2E

A = 0.334 in 2

L = 5 in

E = 30106 psi

s = 10,000 psi

U=

(10,000) (0.334)(5)

2

= 2.783 in lb

2(30 106 )

196. A part of a machine that weighs 1000 lb. raised and lowered by 1 -in. steel rod

that has Acme threads on one end (see i8.18 Text, for minor diameter). The

length of the rod is 10 ft. and the upper 4 ft are threaded. As the part being

Page 51 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

lowered it sticks, then falls freely a distance of 1/8 in. (a) Compute the maximum

stress in the rod. (b) What would be the maximum stress in the rod if the lower

end had been turned down to the root diameter?

Solution:

1

W 2hEA 2

s= 1 + 1 +

A LW

1

2

W 2hE

s = 1 + 1 +

A1 L L

W 1 + 2

A1 A2

1

W 2hEA1 A2 2

s = 1 + 1 +

A1 W ( A2 L1 + A1L2 )

1

see i8.18 , D2 = 1 in , D1 = 1.25 in

2

(1.25) 2

A1 = = 1.227 in 2

4

(1.5)2

A2 = = 1.767 in 2

4

L1 = 4 in

L2 = 6 in

1

h = in = 0.125 in

8

W = 1000 lb

E = 30106 psi

1

s=

1000

1 + 1 +

( )

2(0.125) 30 106 (1.227 )(1.767 ) 2

= 28,186 psi

1.227 1000[(1.767 )(4 ) + (1.227 )(6 )]

1

W 2hEA 2

(b) s = 1 + 1 +

A LW

2

A = A1 = 1.227 in

L = L1 + L2 = 10 in

Page 52 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

s=

1000

1 + 1 +

( )

2(0.125) 30 106 (1.227 ) 2

= 25,552 psi

1.227 10(1000 )

2 fps when it strikes head-on the end of a -in. round steel rod, 6 ft. long.

Compute the maximum stress in the rod. What design factor based on yield

strength is indicated for AISI 1010, cold drawn?

Solution:

1

2

Wv E2

s=

g AL1 + We

o W

W

We = b

3

Wb = AL

= 0.284 lb in3

2

3 2

A= = 0.442 in

4 4

L = 6 ft = 72 in

Wb = (0.284)(0.442)(72) = 9.038 lb

9.038

We = = 3.013 lb

3

W = 50 lb

v = 2 fps

g o = 32 fps 2

E = 30106 psi

L = 6 ft

1

2

(50)(2) (30 10 ) = 8166 psi

2 6

s=

(32)(0.442)(6)1 + 3.013

50

For AISI 1010, cold drawn

s y = 55 ksi = 55,000 psi

s y 55,000

N= = = 6.74

s 8166

Page 53 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

199. A rigid weight of 100 lb is dropped a distance of 25 in. upon the center of a 12

in., 50-lb. I-beam ( I x = 301.6 in 4 ) that is simply supported on supports 10 ft

apart. Compute the maximum stress in the I-beam both with and without

allowing for the beams weight.

Solution:

y

s = sst

yst

FL3

y=

48EI

F 48EI

k= = 3

y L

1

W 2hk 2

y = = 1 + 1 +

k W

6

E = 3010 psi

L = 10 ft = 120 in

I = 301.6 in 4

48(30 106 )(301.6)

k= = 251,333 lb in

(120)3

W = 100 lb

h = 25 in

1

100 2(25)(251,333) 2

y= 1 + 1 + = 0.1415 in

251,333 100

yst =

WL3

=

(100)(120) 3

= 0.0004 in

48EI 48(30 106 )(301.6)

Mc

sst =

I

WL (100 )(120 )

M= = = 3000 in lb

4 4

h 12

c= = = 6 in

2 2

sst =

(3000)(6) = 59.68 psi

301.6

0.1415

s = (59.68) = 21,112 psi

0.0004

Page 54 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1

2h 2

y = yst + yst 1 +

yst

1

h - correction factor =

W

1+ e

W

17Wb

We =

35

Wb = (50 lb ft )(10 ft ) = 500 lb

17(500 )

We = = 243 lb

35

1

h - correction factor = = 0.292

243

1+

100

1

2(25)(0.292 ) 2

y = 0.00041 + 1 + = 0.0764 in

0 . 0004

y 0.0764

s = sst = (59.68) = 11,400 psi

yst 0.0004

201. A 3000 lb. automobile (here considered rigid) strikes the midpoint of a guard rail

that is an 8-in. 23-lb. I-beam, 40 ft. long; I = 64.2 in4 . Made of AISI C1020, as

rolled, the I-beam is simply supported on rigid posts at its ends. (a) What level

velocity of the automobile results in stressing the I-beam to the tensile yield

strength? Compare results observed by including and neglecting the beams

mass.

Solution:

For AISI C1020, as rolled

s y = 48 ksi = 48,000 psi

F Wv 2

=

2 2 go

F 48 EI

k= = 3

L

Mc FLc

s= =

I 4I

4 Is

F=

Lc

F F 2 L3 16 I 2 s 2 L3 s 2 IL

= = 2 2 =

2 96 EI L c (96 EI ) 6 Ec 2

Page 55 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

F s 2 IL Wv 2

= =

2 6 Ec 2 2 go

3Wv 2 Ec 2

s2 =

2 g o IL

W = 3000 lb

g o = 32 fps 2

h 8

c = = = 4 in

2 2

E = 30106 psi

I = 64.2 in4

L = 40 ft

s = s y = 48 ksi = 48,000 psi

s = (48,000 ) =

2 2

=

( )

3Wv 2 Ec 2 3(3000 )v 2 30 106 (4 )

2

2 g o IL 32(64.2 )(40 )

v = 6.62 fps

Including mass of beam

2

2

3Wv Ec 1

s2 =

2 g o IL 1 + We

W

17Wb

We =

35

Wb = (23 lb ft )(40 ft ) = 920 lb

17(920 )

We = = 447 lb

35

s 2 = (48,000) =

2 3Wv 2

Ec 2

=

3(3000 )v 2

(30 10 6

)(4 )2

1

447

2 go IL 32(64.2)(40) 1 +

3000

v = 7.10 fps

202. A simple beam is struck midway between supports by a 32.2-lb. weight that has

fallen 20 in. The length of the beam is 12 ft. If the stress is not to exceed 20 ksi,

what size I-beam should be used?

Solution:

Page 56 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1

2h 2

y = yst + yst 1 +

yst

y

s = sst

yst

h = 20 in

s = 20,000 psi

WL3

yst =

48EI

1

y 96 EIh 2

= 1 + 1 +

yst WL3

with correction factor

1

2

y 96 EIh 1

= 1 + 1 +

yst WL 3

We

1+

W

Mc WLd

sst = =

I 8I

17 wL

We =

35

1

2

WLd 96 EIh 1

s= 1 + 1 +

8I WL3 1 + 17 wL

35W

W = 32.2 lb

h = 20 in

L = 12 ft = 144 in

E = 30106 psi

1

2

(32.2)(144)d 96 30 106 (I )(20)

( ) 1

1 + 1 +

(32.2)(144)3 1 + 17(w)(12)

s=

8I

35(32.2)

1

579.6d 1 2

s= 1 + 1 + 599 I

I 1 + 0.181w

From The Engineers Manual

By Ralph G. Hudson, S.B.

Page 57 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1

579.6(3) 1 2

s= 1 + 1 + 599(2.5) = 19,600 psi < 20,000 psi

2.5 1 + 0.181(5.7 )

204. A 10-in., 25.4-lb.., I-bean, AISI 1020, as rolled, is 10 ft. long and is simply

supported at the ends shown. There is a static load of F1 = 10 kips , 4 ft from the

left end, and a repeated reversed load of F2 = 10 kips , 3 ft from the right end. It is

desired to make two attachments to the beam through holes as shown. No

significant load is supported by these attachments, but the holes cause stress

concentration. Will it be safe to make these attachments as planned? Determine

the factor of safety at the point of maximum moment and at points of stress

concentration.

Problem 204

Solution:

Mass of beam negligible

For AISI C1020, as rolled

s y = 48 ksi

su = 65 ksi

( M A = 0)

4 F1 + (10 3)F2 = 10 B

1

B = (4 F1 + 7 F2 )

10

( M B = 0)

3F2 + (10 4)F1 = 10 A

1

A = (6 F1 + 3F2 )

10

F1 = 10 kips

F2 = 10 to 10 kips

1

Bmin = [4(10 ) + 7( 10 )] = 3 kips

10

Page 58 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1

Bmax = [4(10) + 7(10)] = 11 kips

10

1

Amin = [6(10 ) + 3( 10 )] = 3 kips

10

1

Amax = [6(10 ) + 7(30 )] = 9 kips

10

Figure AF 11,

1

e = 1 in ,

2

1

d = in

4

1 1

c = 1 + 2 = 1.625 in

2 4

h = 10 in

h 10 1

b = e = 1 = 3.5 in

2 2 2

d 0.25

= = 0.07

b 3 .5

e 1.50

= = 6 > 0 .5

d 0.25

Use K t = 3.0

1

q= = 0.926

0.010

1+

1

8

K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.926(3 1) + 1 = 2.85

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi

size factor = 0.85

sn = 0.85(32.5) = 27.6 ksi

left hole, M = (2)A

M max = 2(9) = 18 ft kips

M min = 2(3) = 6 ft kips

Mc

s=

I

1

M m = (18 + 6 ) = 12 ft kips = 144 in kips

2

1

M a = (18 6 ) = 6 ft kips = 72 in kips

2

c = 1.625 in

I = 122.1 in 4 (Tables)

Page 59 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

sm =

(144)(1.625) = 1.92 ksi

122.1

sa =

(72 )(1.625) = 0.96 ksi

122.1

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1 1.92 (2.85)(0.96 )

= +

N 48 27.6

N = 7 .2

M max = 1.5(11) = 16.5 ft kips

M min = 1.5( 3) = 4.5 ft kips

Mc

s=

I

1

M m = (16.5 4.5) = 6 ft kips = 72 in kips

2

1

M a = (16.5 + 4.5) = 10.5 ft kips = 126 in kips

2

c = 1.625 in

I = 122.1 in 4 (Tables)

sm =

(72)(1.625) = 0.96 ksi

122.1

sa =

(126)(1.625) = 1.68 ksi

122.1

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1 0.96 (2.85)(1.68)

= +

N 48 27.6

N = 5.67

at maximum moment, or at , F2

M max = 3(11) = 33 ft kips

M min = 3( 3) = 9 ft kips

Mc

s=

I

1

M m = (33 9 ) = 12 ft kips = 144 in kips

2

1

M a = (33 + 9 ) = 21 ft kips = 252 in kips

2

Page 60 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

10

c= = 5 in

2

I = 122.1 in 4 (Tables)

sm =

(144)(5) = 5.90 ksi

122.1

sa =

( 252 )(5)

= 10.32 ksi

122.1

K f = 1 .0

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1 5.90 (1.0 )(10.32 )

= +

N 48 27.6

N =2

Since the design factor at the holes is much larger than at the point of maximum moment,

it is safe to make these attachment as planned.

205. The runway of a crane consists of L = 20 ft. lengths of 15-in., 42.9-lb. I-beams,

as shown, each section being supported at its ends; AISI C1020, as rolled. The

wheels of the crane are 9 ft apart, and the maximum load expected is

F = 10,000 lb on each wheel. Neglecting the weight of the beam, find the design

factor (a) based on variable stresses for 105 cycles, (b) based on the ultimate

strength. (Hint. Since the maximum moment will occur under the wheel, assume

the wheels at some distance x from the point of support, and determine the

dM

reaction, R1 as a function of x ; = 0 gives position for a maximum bending

dx

moment.)

Problem 205.

Solution:

( M R2 = 0 )

(L x )F + (L x a )F = LR1

R =

(2 L 2 x a )F

1

L

x

M = R1 x = (2 L 2 x a )F

L

Page 61 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

dM F

= [(2 L 2 x a ) + x( 2 )] = 0

dx L

2L 2x a 2x = 0

1 a

x = L

2 2

2

a a

L L F

M max = 2 2 L L a a F = 2

L 2 2L

L = 20 ft = 240 in

a = 9 ft = 108 in

F = 10,000 lb = 10 kips

2

108

240 (10 )

M max = 2

= 720.75 in kips

2(240 )

For 15-in., 42.9 lb, I-beam

I = 441.8 in4

15

c = = 7.5 in

2

Mc (720.75)(7.5)

smax = = = 12.24 ksi

I 441.8

For AISI C1029, as rolled

su = 65 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 32.5 ksi

size factor = 0.85

sn = 0.85(32.5) = 27.6 ksi

0.085

106

sn = 27.6 5 = 34 ksi

10

s 34

N= n = =7

s 12.24

su 65

(b) N = = = 5.31

s 12.24

- end -

Page 62 of 62

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

221. A 5000-lb. gear box is provided with a steel (as rolled B1113) eyebolt for use

in moving it. What size bolt should be used: (a) if UNC threads are used? (b)

If UNF threads are used? (c) If the 8-thread series is used? Explain the basis

of your choice of design factor.

Solution:

B1113, as rolled

s y = 45 ksi (Table AT-7)

Fe = 5000 lb

sy 1 3

i5.6, sd = ( As ) 2 D < in

6 4

3

For D = in

4

As 0.35 sq.in.

sy 1

sd = (0.35) 2

6

sy

sd =

10

use design factor = 10

45,000 psi

sd =

10

sd = 4500 psi

Fe 5000

As = = = 1.111 sq.in.

sd 4500

3

Use D = 1 in , As = 1.155 sq.in.

8

Page 1 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

3

Use D = 1 in , As = 1.155 sq.in.

8

3

Use D = 1 in , As = 1.233 sq.in.

8

222. A motor weighing 2 tons is lifted by a wrought-iron eye bolt which is screwed

into the frame. Decide upon a design factor and determine the size of the

eyebolt if (a) UNC threads are used, (b) UNF threads are used. Note: Fine

threads are not recommended for brittle materials.

Solution:

Table AT-7

Wrought iron, s y = 25 ksi

sy

sd =

10

25,000 psi

sd =

10

sd = 2500 psi

Fe 2(2000 )

As = = = 1.60 sq.in.

sd 2500

Table AT 17

3

Use D = 1 in , As = 1.90 sq.in.

4

1

Use D = 1 in , As = 1.581 sq.in.

2

Page 2 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

224. A wall bracket, Fig. 8-13, Text, is loaded so that the two top bolts that fasten it

to the wall are each subjected to a tensile load of 710 lb. The bolts are to be

cold forged from AISI C1020 steel with UNC threads, Neglecting the effect of

shearing stresses, determine the diameter of these bolts if they are well

tightened.

Figure 8-13

Solution:

Fe = 710 lb

s 3 3

Fe = y ( As ) 2 D < in

6 4

66,000 3

710 = ( As ) 2

6

3

As = 0.161 sq.in. , D < in

4

9

Use D = in , As = 0.1820 sq.in.

16

Page 3 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1250 lb. The bolt is made from cold-finished AISI B1113 steel with UNC

threads. (a) Determine the diameter of the bolt if it is well tightened. (b)

Compute the initial tension and corresponding approximate tightening torque

if si = 0.85s y (i5.8).

Figure 5.9

Solution:

Cold-finished AISI B1113

Table A-7, s y = 72 ksi

Fe = 1250 lb

sy 3

(a) Fe = ( As ) 2

6

72,000 3

1250 = ( As ) 2

6

3

As = 0.2214 sq.in. , D <

in

4

Table AT 14 , UNC Threads

5

Use D = in , As = 0.2260 sq.in.

8

Initial Tension

Fi = si As = (61,200 )(0.2260 ) = 13,831 lb

Tightening torque

T = CDFi

Page 4 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

5

T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (13,831) = 1729 in lb

8

bolts made of SAE Grade 5. The cylinder pressure is 200 psi. (a) What size

bolts should be used? (b) What approximate tightening torque should be

needed to induce a tightening stress si of 0.9 times the proof stress?

Solution:

Table 5.2

SAE Grade 5

Assume s y = 88 ksi

200 (10)

2

(a) Fe = 4 = 1571 lb

10

s 3 3

Fe = y ( As ) 2 , D < in

6 4

88,000 3

1571 = ( As ) 2

6

3

As = 0.2255 sq.in. , D < in

4

Table AT 14 , UNC Threads

5

Use D = in , As = 0.2260 sq.in.

8

(b) T = CDFi

C = 0 .2

si = 0.9 s p

s p = 85 ksi , (Table 5.2)

si = 0.9(85,000 ) = 76,500 psi

Fi = si As = (76,500 )(0.2260 ) = 17,289 lb

Tightening torque

5

T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (17,289 ) = 2161 in lb

8

227. The American Steel Flange Standard specifies that 8 bolts are to be used on

flanges for 4-in. pipe where the steam or water pressure is 1500 psi. It is also

specified that, in calculating the bolt load, the outside diameter of the gasket,

which is 6 3/16 in., should be used. Determine (a) the diameter of the UNC bolts

if they are well-tightened and made of ASTM 354 BD (Table 5-2), (b) the

approximate torque to tighten the nuts if the initial stress is 90 % of the proof

Page 5 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

stress. The Standard specifies that 1 1/4 in. bolts with 8 th./in. be used (these

bolts are also subjected to bending). How does your answer compare?

Solution:

s p = 120 ksi

s y = 125 ksi

2

3

1500 6

Fe = 4 16 = 5638 lb

8

sy 3 3

(a) Fe = ( As ) 2 , D< in

6 4

125,000 3

5638 = ( As ) 2

6

3

As = 0.4184 sq.in. , D <

in

4

Table AT 14 , UNC Threads

7

Use D = in , As = 0.4620 sq.in.

8

3

D> in

4

use

sd = (1 0.85)s y = 0.15(125,000 ) = 18,750 psi

Fe 5638

As = = = 0.3007 sq.in.

sd 18,750

Table AT 14 , UNC Threads

3

Use D = in , As = 0.334 sq.in.

8

(b) T = 0.2 DFi

si = 0.9 s p

si = 0.9(120,000 ) = 108,000 psi

Tightening torque

3

T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (36,072 ) = 5411 in lb

4

Page 6 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1

D < 1 in as specified by the standard.

4

CHECK PROBLEMS

228. A cap screw, in.-10-UNC-2, with a hexagonal head that is 9/16 in. thick,

carries a tensile load of 3000 lb. If the material is AISI 1015, cold drawn, find

the factor of safety based on ultimate strengths of (a) the threaded shank, (b)

the head against being sheared off, and (c) the bearing surface under the head.

(d) Is there any need to consider the strength of standard cap-screw heads in

design?

Solution:

For in. UNC, Table AT 14,

As = 0.334 sq.in.

Head:

1

A = 1 in.

8

su = 77 ksi , sus = 58 ksi

F 3000

(a) s == = 8982 psi

As 0.334

s 77,000

N= u = = 8.57

sd 8982

F

(b) ss =

Dt

9

t= in

16

3000

ss = = 2264 psi

3 9

4 16

s 58,000

N = us = = 25.6

ss 2264

Page 7 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

360o

(c) = = 30 o

12

2

1

1

1 A A 1 8

Area = 6(2 ) tan = 6(2 ) tan 30 = 1.096 sq.in.

2 2 2 2 2

F 3000

sb = = 2

= 4586 psi

Area Ab 3

1.096

4 4

s 77,000

N= u = = 16.8

sb 4586

(d) No need to consider the strength of standard cap-screw heads since its factor of

safety is very much higher than for the threaded shank.

229. A bolt, 1 1/8 in.-7-UNC-2, is subjected to a tensile load of 10,000 lb. The head

has a thickness of in. and the nut a thickness of 1 in. If the material is SAE

grade 2 (Table 5.2), find the design factor as based on ultimate stresses (a) of

the threaded shank, (b) of the head against being sheared off, and (c) of the

bearing surface under the head. The bolt head is finished. (d) Is there any need

to consider the strength of standard bolt heads in design?

Solution:

1

For SAE grade 2 (Table 5.2), D = 1 in

8

su = 55 ksi , sus = 0.75su

For 1 1/8 in.-7-UNC-2 (Table AT 14)

As = 0.763 sq.in.

11

A =1 in

16

F = 10,000 lb.

Page 8 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

F 10,000

(a) s == = 13,106 psi

As 0.763

s 55,000

N= u = = 4 .2

sd 13,106

F

(b) ss =

Dt

3

t= in

4

10,000

ss = = 3773 psi

1 3

1

8 4

s 0.75(55,000 )

N = us = = 11

ss 3773

360o

(c) = = 30 o

12

2

11

1

1 A A

1

Area = 6(2 ) tan = 6(2 ) 16 tan 30 = 2.4661 sq.in.

2 2 2 2 2

F 10,000

sb = = 2

= 6793 psi

Area Ab 1

2.4661 1

4 8

s 55,000

N= u = = 8 .1

sb 6793

(d) No need to consider the strength of standard bolt head in design since its factor of

safety is higher than for the threaded shank.

230. An axial force is applied to a regular nut which of course tends to shear the

threads on the screw. (a) What is the ratio of the force necessary to shear the

threads (all threads initially in intimate contact) to the force necessary to pull

the bolt in two? Use coarse threads, a 1 -in. bolt, and assume that

sus = 0.75su . The head thickness is 1 in. and the nut thickness is 1 5/16 in. (b)

Is failure of the thread by shear likely in this bolt?

Page 9 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Solution:

1 - in. UNC

As = 1.405 sq.in.

1

D = 1 in.

2

5

t = 1 in.

16

sus = 0.75su

1 5

Fs = (0.75su )( )1 1 = 4.6388su

2 16

F = su As = 1.405su

4.6388su

Ratio = = 3 .3

1.405su

231. For bolted structural joints, specifications suggest that -in. bolts (high-

strength material) be tightened to an initial tension of Fi = 12,500 lb . What

should be the approximate tightening torque? How does your answer compare

with T = 90 ft lb ., which is the value in the specification?

Solution:

1

T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (12,500 ) = 1250 in lb

2

232. One method of estimating the initial tensile stress in a tightened bolt is to turn

the nut until it is snug, but with no significant stress in the bolt. Then the nut is

turned through a predetermined angle that induces a certain unit strain

corresponding to the desired stress. A - in. bolt of the type shown in Fig.

5.4, Text, is turned down until, for practical purposes, the diameter of the

entire shank is the minor diameter. The material is AISI 4140, OQT 1200 oF.

The grip is 5 in. and the effective strain length is estimated to be 5.3 in. If the

initial tensile stress at the root diameter is to be about 75 % of the yield

strength, through what angle should the nut be turned after it is just snug? The

threads are UNC and the parts being bolted are assumed to be rigid.

Solution:

Page 10 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Dr = 0.6273 in

As = 0.334 sq.in.

Th in. = 10

AISI 4140, OQT 1200 oF

s y = 115 ksi

sL

=

E

L = 5.3 in

1

pitch, p = in = 0.10 in

10

=

p

(360o )

sL

=

pE

(360o )

=

(86,250)(5.3) (360o ) = 55o

(0.10)(30 106 )

233. When both ends of a bolt are accessible for micrometer measurements, the

total elongation caused by tightening can be determined by measuring

lengths before and after tightening. In order to reduce this total elongation to

unit elongation, thence to stress, the effective strain length for the bolt must be

known. For a 1 -in steel bolt, threaded for its full length, 8-thread series, the

effective strain length has been found by experiment to be

Le = 0.97G + 1.1 in. , where G is the grip (by W.A. McDonald, North

Carolina State College). Let the bolt material be AISI 8742, OQT 1000 oF. (a)

It is desired that the initial tensile stress be about 0.7 s y . What total elongation

should be obtained for a grip length of 4.8 in.? (b) Investigate the approximate

tightening torque for the specified condition. How could this torque be

obtained?

Solution:

1 in., 8-thread series

Table 5.1

Page 11 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Dr = 1.0966 in

As = 1.000 sq.in.

Th in. = 8

AISI 8742, OQT 1000 oF

s y = 147 ksi

(a) si = 0.70 s y

si = 0.70(147 ) = 102.9 ksi = 102,900 psi

si Le

=

E

Le = 0.97G + 1.1 in.

G = 4.8 in

Le = 0.97(4.8) + 1.1 in. = 5.756 in

si Le (102,900 )(5.756 )

= = = 0.01975 in

E 30 10 6

64TL

(b) = =

p Dr4G

G = 11.5 106 psi

1

p = in = 0.125 in

8

0.01975 64T (5.756 )

= =

0.125 (1.0966 )4 (11.5 106 )

T = 22,408 in lb

ELASTIC CONSIDERATIONS

1-in. bolt D to the member B, which has large dimensions in the plane

perpendicular to the paper. Both B and C are aluminum alloy 2024-T4, HT

aged. The bolt is made of AISI C1113, cold-drawn steel; consider the

unthreaded shank to be 2 in. long; it is well tightened with a torque of 250 ft-

lb.; UNC threads, unlubricated. (a) Estimate the initial tension by equation

(5.2), assume elastic action, and compute the bolt elongation and the total

deformation of B and C. Let the effective strain length be 2 in. (b) After

tightening an external axial force Fe of 5000 lb. is applied to member C.

Determine the total normal stresses in the bolt and in B and C. (c) Determine

the load required to open the connection. Draw a diagram similar to Fig.

5.6, Text, locating points A, B, D and M.

Page 12 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Solution:

For aluminum alloy, 2024-T4 HT aged,

E = 10.6 106 psi

s y = 47 ksi

For AISI C1113, cold-drawn steel,

E = 30106 psi

s y = 72 ksi

D = 1 in.

T = 250 ft lb = 3000 in lb

Fi = 15,000 lb

Deformations: L = 2 in.

Table AT 14, 1-in. UNC Bolt,

As = 0.66 sq.in.

2

Ab = (1) = 0.785 sq.in.

4

Bolt:

i = i =

FL (15,000)(2) = 0.00127 in

Ab Ei (0.785)(30 10 6 )

Member B and C

FL

c = i

Ac Ec

Ac = De2 D 2

4 4

h

De = (Nut or head width across flats) +

2

Table AT 14

1

A = 1 in

2

Page 13 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1 2 1

De = 1 + = 2 in.

2 2 2

Ac = De2 D2

4 4

Ac =

4

[(2.5) (1) ] = 4.1234 sq.in.

2

2

c =

Fi L

=

(15,000)(2) = 0.000686 in.

Ac Ec (4.1234 ) 10.6 10 6( )

(b) Fe = 5000 lb

kb b

= 5000

0.000686

Fb = Fe = Fe

kb + k c b + c 0.000686 + 0.00127

Fb = 1754 lb

Bolt:

Ft = Fi + Fb = 15,000 + 1754 = 16,754 lb

F 16,754

sb = t = = 29,132 psi

As 0.606

Member B and C

kc

Fc = Fi Fe

kb + kc

c

Fc = Fi Fe

b + c

0.00127

Fc = 15,000 5000 = 11,754 lb

0.00127 + 0.000686

F 11,754

sc = c = = 2851 psi

Ac 4.1234

(c) Fo = opening load

+ c

= 15,000

0.00127 + 0.000686

Fo = Fi i = 23,102 lb

i 0.00127

Fig. 5.6

Page 14 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

237. A 1-in. steel bolt is used to clamp two aluminum (2014-T6, HT aged) plates

together as shown by Fig. 5.9, Text. The aluminum plates have a total

thickness of 2 in. and an equivalent diameter of 2 in. The bolt is heated to a

temperature of 200 oF, the inserted in the aluminum plates, which are at 80 oF,

and tightened so as to have a tensile tightening stress of 30 ksi in the

unthreaded shank while steel at 200 oF. What is the tensile stress in the bolt

after assembly has cooled to 80 oF? The deformations are elastic.

Figure 5.9

Solution:

For aluminum 2014-T6

E = 10.6 106 psi

sb = 30,000 psi

2

Fi = sb Ab = (30,000 ) (1) = 23,562 lb

4

s L (30,000)(2)

i = b = = 0.002 in.

Eb 30 10 6

Fi L

c = .

Ac E c

Ac = De2 D 2

4 4

4

[ 2 2

]

Ac = (2 ) (1) = 2.3562 sq.in.

Page 15 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

E c = 10.6 10 6 psi

c = i =

FL (23,562)(2) = 0.001887 in

( )

Ac Ec (2.3562 ) 10.6 10 6

L = L c = 2 0.001887 = 1.998113 in.

L = Lt

= 0.000007 in. (in. F ) for steel

L = (0.000007 )(1.998113)(80 200) = 0.001678 in.

i = i + L = 0.002 0.001678 = 0.000322 in.

s L

i = b

Eb

s (2 )

0.000322 = b 6

30 10

sb = 4830 psi

238. A 1 1/8-in. steel bolt A passes through a yellow brass (B36-8) tube B as

shown. The length of the tube is 30 in. (virtually the unthreaded bolt length),

the threads on the bolt are UNC, and the tubes cross-sectional area is 2 sq. in.

After the nut is snug it is tightened turn. (a) What normal stresses will be

produced in the bolt and in the tube? Assume that washers, nut, and head are

rigid. (b) What are the stresses if an axial load of 5 kips is now applied to the

bolts end? Compute the bolt load that just results in a zero stress in the tube.

Prob. 238

Solution:

For Yellow brass, B36-8,

E = 15 106 psi

Steel bolt

E = 30 106 psi

Table AT 14, 1 1/8 in., UNC

Dr = 0.9497 in.

As = 0.763 sq.in.

Th in = 7

Page 16 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

L = 30 in.

i

=

p

1

p = in.

7

1

= turn

4

1 1 1

i = = in.

4 7 28

FL

i = i

Ab Eb

1 Fi (30 )

=

28 1 2

1 (30 10 )

6

4 8

Fi = 35,500 lb

Fi 35,500

(a) Bolt: sb = = = 46,527 psi

As 0.763

Fi

Tube: sc =

Ac

Ac = 2 sq.in.

F 35,500

sc = i = = 17,750 psi

Ac 2

(b) Fe = 5000 lb

Ac Ec (2)(15 106 )

kc = = = 1,000,000 lb in

L 30

2

1

1 (30 10 )

6

kb = b b =

AE 4 8

= 994,000 lb in

L 30

Bolts:

kb

Ft = Fi + Fe

kb + k c

994,000

Ft = 35,500 + (5000 ) = 38,000 lb

994,000 + 1,000,000

F 38,000

st = t = = 49,800 psi

As 0.763

Page 17 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Tube:

kc

Fc = Fi Fe

k +

b c k

1,000,000

Fc = 35,500 (5000) = 33,000 lb

994,000 + 1,000,000

F 33,000

sc = c = = 16,500 psi

Ac 2

For zero stress in the tube

k +k 994,000 + 1,000,000

Fo = b c Fi = (35,500) = 70,787 lb

kc 1,000,000

ENDURANCE STRENGTH

DESIGN PROBLEMS

to an overhead beam by two cap screws, each of which, it may be assumed,

carried half the total bearing load. This load acts vertically downward, varying

from 0 to 1500 lb. The screws are to be made of AISI C1118, as rolled, and

they are tightened to give an initial stress of about si = 0.5s y . The pillow

block is made of class-20 cast iron. Assume that the effective length of screw

is equal to the thickness t , as shown, and that the head and beam are rigid

(overly conservative?). The equivalent diameter of the compression area may

be taken as twice the bolt diameter. For a design factor of 1.75, determine the

size of the screw: (a) from the Soderberg line, (b) from the modified Goodman

line. (c) What size do you recommend using?

Problem 239

Solution:

For AISI C1118, as rolled

s y = 46 ksi

su = 75 ksi

si = 0.5s y

Page 18 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Fi = si As = 23 As kip = 23,000 As lb

kb

Fb = Fe

kb + k c

AE

kb = b b

Lb

Eb = 30 10 6 psi (steel)

Lb = t

Ac Ec

kc =

Lc

For cast-iron class 20

Ec = 9.6 10 6 psi

Lc = t

Ac = De2 D 2

4 4

Ab = D 2

4

De = 2 D

3 2

Ac = (2 D ) D 2 =

2

D = 3 Ab

4 4 4

AE

kb = b b

Lb

Ab (30106 )

kb =

t

3 A (9.6 106 )

kc = b

t

kb 30 106 300

= =

kb + kc 30 10 + 3(9.6 10 ) 588

6 6

Fb1 = 0

kb

Fe =

300 1500

Fb 2 = = 383 lb

kb + k c 588 2

1 1

Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 23,000 As + (383 + 0 ) = 23,000 As + 192 lb

2 2

1 1

Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (383 0 ) = 192 lb

2 2

Page 19 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

sn = (0.8)(0.85)(37,500 psi ) = 25,500 psi

N = 1.75

sm = = + = 23,000 +

As As As As

F 192

sa = a =

As As

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

192 192

23,000 + (1.8)

1 As As

= +

1.75 46,000 25,500

As = 0.2482 sq.in.

3

Use D = in. , As = 0.334 sq.in.

4

1 sm K f sa

= +

N su sn

192 192

23,000 + (1.8)

1 As As

= +

1.75 75,000 25,500

As = 0.0609 sq.in.

Table AT 14, UNC

3

Use D = in. , As = 0.0775 sq.in.

8

Page 20 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

3

(c) Recommended, D = in. UNC

4

240. A connection similar to Fig. 5.9, Text, is subjected to an external load that

varied from 0 to 1250 lb. The bolt is cold forged from AISI B1113 steel; UNC

threads.The aluminum parts C (3003 H14) have a total thickness of 1 in.

and an external diameter of 2 D . It is desired that the connection not open for

an external load of 1.5Fe . Determine (a) the initial tensile load on the bolt, (b)

the bolt diameter for N = 2 based on the Soderberg line.

Fig. 5.9

Solution:

kc

(a) Fi = QFe lb

k +

b ck

Q = 1 .5

AE

kb = b b

Lb

Ab = D 2

4

Eb = 30 10 6 psi

1

Lb = 1 in.

2

AE

kc = c c

Lc

Ac = De2 D 2

4 4

De = 2 D

3 2

Ac = (2 D ) D 2 =

2

D = 3 Ab

4 4 4

Ec = 10 10 6 psi (3003-H14 aluminum)

Page 21 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1

Lc = 1 in.

2

kb = b

(

A 30 106 )

1

1

2

kc = b

(

3 A 10 106 )

1

1

2

kc

=

(

3 10 106 )

= 0.5

(

kb + kc 30 106 + 3 10 106 )

Fe = 1250 lb

kc

Fi = QFe lb

kb + kc

Fi = (1.5)(1250)(0.5) = 937.5 lb

su = 83 ksi

s y = 72 ksi

sn = (0.8)(0.85)(41,500 psi ) = 28,220 psi

kb

Fb = Fe

kb + k c

Fb1 = 0

kb 30 106

Fb 2 = Fe = 6

(1250) = 625 lb

kb + k c

6

( )

30 10 + 3 10 10

1

Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 937.5 + 1 (625 + 0) = 1250 lb

2 2

1 1

Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (625 0 ) = 312.5 lb

2 2

F 1250

sm = m =

As As

Page 22 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Fa 312.5

sa = =

As As

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1

=

1250

+

(1.8)(312.5)

2 72,000 As 28,220 As

As = 0.07459 sq.in.

3

Use D = in. , As = 0.0775 sq.in.

8

243. This problem concerns the Freon compressor of 226: size, 10 x 18 in.; 10

studs, UNC; made of C1118, as rolled; 200 psi gas pressure. The initial

tension in the bolts, assumed to be equally loaded, is such that a cylinder

pressure of 300 psi is required for the joint to be on the opening. The bolted

parts are cast steel and for the first calculations, it will be satisfactorily to

assume the equivalent diameter of the compressed parts to be twice the bolt

size. (a) For N = 2 on the Soderberg criterion, what bolt size is required? (b)

Compute the torque required for the specified initial tension.

Solution:

(10)

2

Fo = 300 = 2356 lb.

4 10

kc

Fi = Fo

k +

b c k

AE

kb = b b

Lb

Ab = D 2

4

Eb = 30 10 6 psi

Lb = L

AE

kc = c c

Lc

Ac = De2 D 2

4 4

De = 2 D

Page 23 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Ac = (2 D )2 3 2

D2 =

D = 3 Ab

4 4 4

Cast Steel, Ec = 30 10 6 psi

Lc = L

kb =

(

Ab 30106 )

L

3 A (30 106 )

kc = b = 3kb

L

kc 3kb

Fi = Fo = (2356 ) = 1767 lb

k +

b c k k

b + 3k b

kb

(a) Fb = Fe

k +

b ck

Fb1 = 0

kb kb (10)2 (200)

Fb 2 = Fe = = 393 lb

k +

b ck k

b + 3k b 4 10

1

Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 1767 + 1 (393 + 0) = 1964 lb

2 2

1 1

Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (393 0 ) = 196 lb

2 2

Fm 1964

sm = =

As As

F 196

sa = a =

As As

For C1118, as rolled

su = 75 ksi

s y = 46 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(75) = 37.5 ksi = 37,500 psi

sn = (0.8)(0.85)(37,500 psi ) = 25,500 psi

K f = 1.8 Table AT 12

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1

=

1964

+

(1.8)(196)

2 46,000 As 25,500 As

As = 0.1131 sq.in.

Page 24 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1

Use D = in. , As = 0.1419 sq.in.

2

1

T = 0.2 (1767 ) = 176.7 in lb.

2

245. A cast-iron (class 35) Diesel-engine cylinder head is held on 8 stud bolts with

UNC threads. These bolts are made of AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 oF (Fig.

AF2). Assume that the compressed material has an equivalent diameter twice

the bolt size. The maximum cylinder pressure is 750 psi and the bore of the

engine is 8 in. Let the initial bolt load be such that a cylinder pressure of 1500

psi brings the joint to the point of opening. For a design factor of 2, determine

the bolt diameter (a) using the Soderberg equation, (b) using the Goodman

equation. (c) What approximate torque will be required to induce the desired

initial stress? (d) Determine the ratio of the initial stress to the yield strength.

Considering the lessons of experience (i5.8), what initial stress would you

recommend? Using this value, what factor of safety is computed from the

Soderberg equation?

Solution:

(8)

2

Fo = 1500 = 9425 lb.

4 8

kc

Fi = Fo

k

b c+ k

Ab Eb

kb =

Lb

Ab = D 2

4

Eb = 30 10 6 psi

Lb = L

AE

kc = c c

Lc

Ac = De2 D 2

4 4

De = 2 D

3 2

Ac = (2 D ) D 2 =

2

D = 3 Ab

4 4 4

Page 25 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Lc = L

Ab (30106 )

kb =

L

3 A (14.5 106 )

kc = b

L

kc

Fi = Fo

= (9425)

( )

3 14.5 106

= 5578 lb

kb + k c

6

(

30 10 + 3 14.5 10

6

)

kb

Fb = Fe

kb + k c

Fb1 = 0

kb 30 106 (8)2 (750 )

Fb 2 = Fe = = 1923 lb

kb + k c

6

(

30 10 + 3 14.5 10

6

)

4 8

1

Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 5578 + 1 (1923 + 0) = 6540 lb

2 2

1 1

Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (1923 0 ) = 962 lb

2 2

Fm 6540

sm = =

As As

F 962

sa = a =

As As

(a) For AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 oF

su = 153 ksi

s y = 134 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(153) = 76.5 ksi = 76,500 psi

sn = (0.8)(0.85)(76,500 psi ) = 52,000 psi

Table AT 12, K f = 3.3 (hardened)

Soderberg Equation

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1

=

6540

+

(3.3)(962)

2 134,000 As 52,000 As

As = 0.2197 sq.in.

Page 26 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

5

Use D = in. , As = 0.226 sq.in.

8

1 sm K f sa

= +

N su sn

1

=

6540

+

(3.3)(962)

2 153,000 As 52,000 As

As = 0.2076 sq.in.

5

Use D = in. , As = 0.226 sq.in.

8

5

T = 0.2 (5578) = 697 in lb.

8

Fi 5578

(d) si = = = 24,681 psi

As 0.226

s 24,681

Ratio = i = = 0.184

s y 134,000

Factor of safety

Fi = si As = (113,900)(0.226) = 25,742 lb

1

Fm = 25,742 + (1923) = 26,704 lb

2

1

Fa = (1923) = 962 lb

2

F 26,704

sm = m = = 118,159 psi

As 0.226

F 962

sa = a = = 4257 psi

As 0.226

Soderberg Equation

Page 27 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1 118,159 (3.3)(4257 )

= +

N 134,000 52,000

N = 0.87

exert a harmonic force of F = 30,000 sin 2 t f lb. on the body where f cps is

the frequency and t sec. is the time. The frequency can be varied from 5 to

10,000 cps. The harmonic force will exert a tensile load on the bolts that

attach the body to the shaker when F is positive. Determine the minimum

number of -in.-UNF bolts that must be used for N = 2 based on Soderberg

line. The material of the bolts is to be AISI 8630, WQT 1100 oF; the material

of the body that is to be vibrated is aluminum alloy, 2014-T6 and the joint is

not to open for an external force that is 1.25 times the maximum force exerted

by the shaker. It may be assumed that the equivalent diameter of the material

in compression is twice the bolt diameter.

Solution:

Fe min = 0

Fe max = 30,000 lb

kc

Fi = QFe

k +

b ck

Q = 1.25

AE

kb = b b

Lb

Ab = D2

4

Eb = 30 10 6 psi

Lb = L

Page 28 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Ac Ec

kc =

Lc

Ac = De2 D2

4 4

De = 2 D

Ac = (2 D )2 3 2

D2 =

D = 3 Ab

4 4 4

Ec = 10.6 10 6 psi , (Aluminum 2014-T6)

Lc = L

Ab Eb Ab (30 106 )

kb = =

Lb L

Ac Ec 3 Ab (10.6 106 )

kc = =

Lc L

kc

Fi = QFe

kb + kc

3(10.6 106 )

Fi = (1.25)(30,000) 6

= 19,296 lb

30 10 + 3(10.6 10 )

6

kb

Fb = Fe

kb + k c

Fb1 = 0

kb 30 106

Fb 2 = Fe = 6

(30,000) = 14,563 lb

30 10 + 3(10.6 10 )

6

kb + k c

1

Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 19,296 + 1 (14,563 + 0) = 26,578 lb

2 2

1 1

Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (14,563 0 ) = 7282 lb

2 2

Fm

sm =

nAs

F

sa = a

nAs

For -in.-UNF (Table AT 14)

As = 0.1419 sq.in.

F 26,578 187,300

sm = m = =

nAs 0.1419n n

Page 29 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Fa 7282 51,318

sa = = =

nAs 0.1419n n

K f = 3 .3

su = 137 ksi

s y = 125 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(137 ) = 68.5 ksi = 68,500 psi

sn = (0.8)(0.85)(68,500 psi ) = 46,580 psi

Soderberg Equation, N = 2

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1 187,300 (3.3)(51,318)

= +

2 125,000n 46,580n

n = 10.3

248. The maximum external load on the cap bolts of an automotive connecting rod

end, imposed by inertia forces at top dead center, is taken to be 4000 lb.; the

minimum load is zero at bottom dead center. The material is AISI 4140, OQT

1100oF (qualifying for SAE grade 5); assume that sn = 0.45su . The grip for

through bolts is 1.5 in. For design purposed, let each bolt take half the load,

3

and use an equivalent De = 1 in. for the connected parts. The threads extend

8

a negligible amount into the grip. For the initial computation, use an opening

load Fo = 1.75 Fe . Considering the manner in which the bolt is loaded, we

decide that a design factor of 1.4 (Soderberg) should be quite adequate. (a)

Does a 5/16-24 UNF satisfy this situation? If not, what size do you

recommend? (b) Experience suggests that, in situations such as this, an initial

stress of the order suggested in i5.8, Text, is good insurance against fatigue

Would you be concerned about the safety in this case? Consider the variation

of si as a consequences of the use of torque wrench and also the stress

relaxation with time (due to seating and other factors), and discuss. Compute

the required tightening torque for each si .

Page 30 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Solution:

Fo = 1.75Fe = 1.75(4000) = 7000 lb

kc

Fi = Fe

kb + k c

AE

kb = b b

Lb

Ab = D2

4

Eb = 30 10 6 psi

Lb = 1.5 in.

AE

kc = c c

Lc

Ac = De2 D2

4 4

2

3 2 2

Ac = 1 D = 1.485 D = 1.485 Ab

4 8 4 4

6

Ec = 10.6 10 psi , (Aluminum 2014-T6)

Lc = 1.5 in.

As Ab

Ab Eb Ab (30 106 )

kb = =

Lb 1.5

Ac Ec (1.485 As )(30 106 )

kc = =

Lc 1.5

1.485 As

Fi = 7000 = 7000 4714 As

1.485

kb

Fb = Fe

kb + k c

Fb1 = 0

kb

Fe = s (4,000) = 2694 As

A

Fb 2 =

kb + k c 1.485

1

Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 7000 4714 As + 1 (2694 As + 0 ) = 7000 3367 As

2 2

1 1

Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2694 As 0 ) = 1347 As

2 2

Page 31 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Table 5.2

su = 120 ksi

s y = 88 ksi

F 7000

sm = m = 3367

As As

F

sa = a = 1347

As

K f = 3.3 (hardened, Table AT 12)

Soderberg Equation, N = 1.4

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1 7000 3367 (3.3)(1347 )

= +

1.4 88,000 As 88,000 54,000

As = 0.1187 sq.in.

7

Table At14, we D = in , As = 0.1187 sq.in.

16

7

(a) 5/16-24 UNF will not satisfy the situation. Instead use D= in ,

16

As = 0.1187 sq.in.

Fi = si As = (74,800)(0.1187 ) = 8879 lb

1 1

Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 8879 + (2694 As + 0 ) = 8879 + 1347 As

2 2

1 1

Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2694 As 0 ) = 1347 As

2 2

Fm 8879

sm = = + 1347

As As

F

sa = a = 1347

As

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

Page 32 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

8879

+ 1347

1 0.1187

= + (3.3)(1347 )

N 88,000 54,000

N = 1.06 , it decreases

N > 1 , therefore, safe.

Considering variation of si , si tends to exceeds the limiting stress therefore reduces the

factor of safety. While stress relaxation tends to reduce the limiting stress approaching

the si and causing lower design factor.

7

T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (6440 ) = 564 in lb

16

at Fi = 8879 lb

7

T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (8879 ) = 777 in lb

16

CHECK PROBLEMS

249. A 1-in. steel bolt A (normalized AISI 1137, cold-rolled threads) passes

through a yellow brass tube B (B36-8, hard) as shown. The tube length is

30 in., its cross-sectional area is 2 sq. in. and the UNC bolt threads extend a

negligible amount below the nut. The steel washers are in. thick and are

assumed not to bend (clearances are exaggerated). The nut is turned turn.

(a) If an external tensile axial load, varying from 0 to 5 kips, is repeatedly

applied to the bolt, what is the factor of safety of the bolt by the Soderberg

criterion? (b) What is the external load on the bolt at the instant that the load

on the tube becomes zero.

Solution:

As = 0.606 sq.in.

Page 33 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Dr = 0.8466 in.

Th in. = 8

1 1

p= = in.

Th in 8

1

=

p 4

1 1 1

= = in.

4 8 32

1

Lb = 30 + 2 = 30.5 in.

4

Eb = 30 10 6 psi

1 Fi (30.5)

= =

32 (1)2 30 106

( )

4

Fi = 24,141 lb

kb

Fb = Fe

k +

b ck

AE

(1)2 (30 106 )

kb = b b = 4 = 772,525

Lb 30.5

AE

kc = c c

Lc

Ac = 2 sq.in.

Lc = 30 in.

Ec = 15 10 6 psi (Yellow Brass)

2(15 106 )

kc = = 1,000,000

30

(a) Fb1 = 0

772,525

Fb 2 = (5000) = 2179 lb

772,525 + 1,000,000

1 1

Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 24,141 + (2179 + 0 ) = 25,230 lb

2 2

1 1

Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2179 0 ) = 1090 lb

2 2

Fm 25,230

sm = = = 38,227 psi

As 0.606

Page 34 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Fa 1090

sa = = = 1799 psi

As 0.606

For normalized AISI 1137, cold-rolled thread

su = 98 ksi

s y = 58 ksi

K f = 1.4 (Table AT 12)

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1 38,227 (1.4)(1799)

= +

N 58,000 39,200

N = 1.38

kc

(b) Fi = Fo

kb + k c

1,000,000

24,141 = Fo

772,525 + 1,000,000

Fo = 42,790 lb

250. A -in. fine-thread bolt, made of AISI 1117, cold drawn, with rolled threads,

passes through a yellow brass tube and two steel washers, as shown. The tube

is 4 in. long, 7/8 in. internal diameter, 1 -in. external diameter. The washers

are each -in. thick. The unthreaded part of the bolt is 3 in. long. Assume that

there is no stretching of the bolt inside the nut in finding its k . The

unlubricated bolt is tightened by a torque of 1800 in-lb. The external load,

varying from 0 to 4 kips, is axially applied to the washers an indefinite

number of times. (a) Compute the factor of safety of the bolt by the Soderberg

criterion. Is there any danger of failure of the bolt? (b) What pull must be

exerted by the washers to remove all load from the brass tube?

Solution:

T = 0.2 DFi

3

1800 = 0.2 Fi

4

Fi = 12,000 lb

Page 35 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

kb

Fb = Fe

kb + kc

1 1 1

= +

kb kb1 kb 2

AE

kb1 = b b

Lb1

Lb1 = 3 in.

2

3

Ab = = 0.4418 sq.in.

4 4

Eb = 30 10 6 psi

kb1 =

(0.4418)(30 106 ) = 4,418,000

3

As Eb

kb 2 =

Lb 2

For -in. UNF (Table AT 14)

As = 0.373 sq.in.

1

Lb 2 = 4 + 2 3 = 1.5 in.

2

kb 2 =

( )

(0.373) 30 106 = 7,460,000

1.5

1 1 1

= +

kb kb1 kb 2

1 1 1

= +

kb 4,418,000 7,460,000

kb = 2,774,733

AE

kc = c c

Lc

1 7

2 2

Ac = 1 = 0.6259 sq.in.

4 4 8

Ec = 15 10 6 psi

Lc = 4 in.

kc =

(0.6259)(15 106 ) = 2,347,125

4

Fb1 = 0

2,774,733

Fb 2 = (4000) = 2167 lb

2,774,733 + 2,347,125

Page 36 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1

Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 12,000 + 1 (2167 + 0) = 13,084 lb

2 2

1 1

Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2167 0 ) = 1084 lb

2 2

F 13,084

sm = m = = 35,078 psi

As 0.373

F 1084

sa = a = = 2906 psi

As 0.373

For AISI 111, cold drawn, rolled threads

sn = 40 ksi

s y = 68 ksi

K f = 1 .4

sn = 0.8(40) = 32 ksi = 32,000 psi , axial loading

1 sm K f sa

(a) = +

N sy sn

1 35,078 (1.4)(2906)

= +

N 68,000 32,000

N = 1.56

kc

(b) Fi = Fo

kb + k c

2,347,125

12,000 = Fo

2,774,733 + 2,347,125

Fo = 26,186 lb

251. A coupling bolt (i5.13, Text) is used to connect two parts made of cast-iron,

class 35. The diameter of the coarse-thread bolt is -in.; its grip is 2 in., which

is also nearly the unthreaded length. The bolt tightened to have an initial

tension of 4000 lb. The parts support an external load Fe that tends to separate

them and it varies from zero to 5000 lb. What is the factor of safety,

(Soderberg)?

Solution:

Fi = 4000 lb

kb

Fb = Fe

kb + kc

Page 37 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Ab Eb

kb =

Lb

2

1

Ab = = 0.19635 sq.in. (unthreaded length)

4 2

Eb = 30 10 6 psi

Lb = 2 in.

kb =

(0.19635)(30 106 ) = 2,945,250

2

Table AT 14, UNC

1

D = in.

2

As = 0.1419 sq.in.

3

A = in.

4

h

De = A +

2

h = 2 in.

3 2 3

De = + = 1 in.

4 2 4

AE

kc = c c

Lc

3 1

2 2

Ac = De2 D2 =1 = 2.209 sq.in.

4 4 4 4 2

Ec = 14.5 10 6 psi , (Cast iron, class 35)

Lc = 2 in.

kc =

(2.209)(14.5 106 ) = 16,015,250

2

Fb1 = 0

2,945,250

Fb 2 = (5000) = 777 lb

2,945,250 + 16,015,250

1 1

Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 4000 + (777 + 0 ) = 4389 lb

2 2

1 1

Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (777 0 ) = 389 lb

2 2

Fm 4389

sm = = = 30,930 psi

As 0.1419

F 389

sa = a = = 2741 psi

As 0.1419

Page 38 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1

For ASTM 354 BC (Table 5.2), D = in.

2

su = 125 ksi

s y = 109 ksi

sn = 0.5su

For axial loading

sn = (0.8)(0.5)(125) = 50 ksi = 50,000 psi

K f = 1 .8

Soderberg Line

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1 30,930 (1.8)(2741)

= +

N 109,000 50,000

N = 2 .6

252. The cap on the end of a connecting rod (automotive engine) is held on by two

5/16-in. bolts that are forged integrally with the main connecting rod. These

bolts have UNF threads with a 5/8-in. on an unthreaded length of virtually 5/8

in. The nuts are to be tightened with a torque of 20 ft-lb. and the maximum

external load on one bolt is expected to be 2330 lb. Let the equivalent

diameter of the connected parts be in. (a) Estimate the maximum force on

the bolt. (b) Compute the opening load. Is this satisfactory? (c) If the bolt

material is AISI 4140, OQT 1000 oF, what is the factor of safety based on the

Soderberg criterion?

Solution:

T = 20 ft lb = 240 in lb

T = 0.2 DFi

5

240 = 0.2 Fi

16

Fi = 3840 lb

kb

Fb = Fe

k +

b ck

Ab Eb

kb =

Lb

2

5

Ab = = 0.0767 sq.in. (unthreaded length)

4 16

Eb = 30 10 6 psi

5

Lb = in.

8

Page 39 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

kb =

(0.0767 )(30 106 ) = 3,681,600

5

8

Ac Ec

kc =

Lc

3 5

2 2

2 2

Ac = D

e D = = 0.3651 sq.in.

4 4 4 4 16

Ec = 30 10 6 psi , (Cast iron, class 35)

5

Lc = in.

8

kc =

( )

(0.3651) 30 106 = 17,524,800

5

8

3,681,600

Fb = (2330) = 405 lb

3,681,600 + 17,524,800

kc

(b) Fi = Fo

kb + k c

17,524,800

3840 = Fo

3,681,600 + 17,524,80

Fo = 4647 lb < Fmax

Fb 405

(c) Fm = Fi + = 3840 + = 4042 lb

2 2

F 405

Fa = b = = 202 lb

2 2

For AISI 4140, OQT 1000 oF

su = 170 ksi

s y = 155 ksi

Table AT 12, K f = 2.6

sn = 0.5su

For axial loading

sn = (0.8)(0.5)(170) = 68 ksi = 68,000 psi

Soderberg Line

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

Page 40 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

F 4042

sm = m = = 69,690 psi

As 0.0580

F 202

sa = a = = 3843 psi

As 0.0580

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

1 69,690 (2.6)(3483)

= +

N 155,000 68,000

N = 1.72

SET SCREWS

254. A 6-in. pulley is fastened to a 1 in. shaft by a set screw. If a net tangential

force of 75 lb, is applied to the surface of the pulley, what size screw should

be used when the load is steady?

Solution:

6

Tangential force = (75 lb ) = 365 lb

1.25

Assume tangential force = holding force

Table 5.3, use Screw size 8, Holding force = 385 lb.

eccentric is 1 in. from the center of the shaft when a tensile force of 1000

lb. is applied to the eccentric rod perpendicular to the line of centers. What

size set screw should be used for a deign factor of 6?

Solution:

1.25

Tangential force = (1000 lb ) = 833 lb

32

Holding force = (6)(833) = 5000 lb

Table 5.3, use Screw size in.

applied normal to the lever at its end. What size of set screw should be used

for a design factor of 5?

Solution:

Torque = (16)(40) = 640 in lb

2(640 )

Tangential force = = 640 lb

2

Page 41 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Table 5.3, use Screw size 9/16 in.

257. A 12-in. gear is mounted on a 2-in. shaft and is held in place by a 7/16 in.

setscrew. For a design factor of 3, what would be the tangential load that

could be applied to the teeth and what horsepower could be transmitted by the

screw.

Solution:

Table 5.3, 7/16 in.

Holding force = 2500 lb

2500

Tangential force = = 833 lb

3

2

Tangential load on gear = 833 = 139 lb

12

Assume vm = 4500 fpm

Hp transmitted =

(139)(4500) = 19 hp

33,000

- end -

Page 42 of 42

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

spring. The spring should have a free length of approximately 18 in. and is to

exert a maximum force of 2850 lb. when compressed to a length of 15 in. The

outside diameter must not exceed 7 in. Using oil-tempered wire, design a

spring for this brake, (wire diameter, coil diameter, number of active coils,

pitch, pitch angle, solid stress). General Electric used a spring made of 1 in.

wire, with an outside diameter of 6 in., and 11 free coils for a similar

application.

Solution:

For oil tempered wire, Table AT 17

146

su = 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]

Dw

solid stress = 0.6 s u

design stress, (average service)

ssd = 0.324 su

0.324(146 ) 47.304

ssd = = ksi

Dw0.19 Dw0.19

Dw + Dm 7

F = 2850 lb = 2.85 kips

8FDm 47.304

ss = K =

3

Dw Dw0.19

say K = 1.3

8(2.85)(7 Dw ) 47.304

ss = 1.3 =

Dw3 Dw0.19

Dw = 1.062 in > 0.5 in

47.304

use ssd = ksi = 54 ksi

(0.5)0.19

8(2.85)(7 Dw )

ss = 1.3 = 54

Dw3

Dw = 1.015 in

say Dw = 1.0 in

8(2.85)Dm

ss = 1.3 = 54

(1)

3

Dm = 5.72 in

Page 1 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

say Dm = 5.0 in

OD = Dm + Dw = 5.0 + 1.0 = 6 in < 7 in.

D 5 .0

C= m = =5

Dw 1.0

= Free length Compressed length = 18 in 15 in = 3 in.

8FC 3 N c

=

GDw

3

G = 10,500 ksi , Dw > in

8

8(2.85)(5) N c

3

=3=

(10,500)(1)

N c = 11.05

say N c = 11.5

8(2.85)(5) (11.5)

3

= = 3.12 in

(10,500)(1)

Free length = 15 + 3.12 = 18.12 in

At 2.85 kips

8FDm

ss = K

3

Dw

C =5

4C 1 0.615 4(5) 1 0.615

K= + = + = 1.3105

4C 4 C 4(5) 4 5

8(2.85)(5)

ss = 1.3105 = 47.55 ksi

(1)

3

0.6(146 )

sso = 0.6 su = ksi = 99.93 ksi

(0.5)0.19

F

k=

using

or let T = Free length Solid height

47.55 99.93

=

3.12 T

T = 6.56 in

T = Free length Solid height = (P Dw )N c

6.56 = (P 1)(11.5)

P = 1.570 in

Page 2 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

1

use P = 1 in

2

Pitch angle,

P 1.5

= tan 1 = tan 1 o o

= 5.5 < 12 , o.k.

D (5 )

T = (1.5 1)(11.5) = 5.75 in.

47.55 sso

=

3.12 5.75

sso = 87.63 ksi < 99.93 ksi , ok

Summary of answer:

Dw = wire diameter = 1 in.

Dm = coil diameter = 5 in.

N c = no. of active coils = 11 1/2

P = pitch = 1 in.

= pitch angle = 5.5o

sso = solid stress = 87.63 ksi

272. A coil spring is to be used for the front spring of a automobile. The spring is

to have a rate of 400 lb./in., an inside diameter of 4 3/64 in., and a free length

of 14 1/8 in., with squared-and-ground ends. The material is to be oil-

tempered chrome vanadium steel. Decide upon the diameter of the wire and

the number of free coils for a design load of F = 1500 lb . Be sure solid

stress is all right. How much is the pitch angle?

Solution:

Table AT 17 Cr-V steel

168

su = 0.166 ksi , [0.032 < Dw 0.437]

Dw

average service

ssd = 0.324su

0.324(168) 54.432

ssd = = 0.166 ksi

Dw0.166 Dw

Max solid stress = 0.6su

Page 3 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

3

ID = Dm Dw = 4 in = 4.046875 in

64

Dm = Dw + 4.046875 in

8FDm

ss = K = ssd

3

Dw

Assume K = 1.3

F = 1500 lb = 1.5 kips

54.432 8(1.5)(Dw + 4.046875)

ssd = 0.166

= 1.3

Dw Dw3

Dw = 0.747 in > 0.437 in

use

54.432

ssd = ksi = 62.45 ksi

(0.437 )0.19

8(1.5)(Dw + 4.046875)

ssd = 1.3 = 62.45

Dw3

Dw = 0.724 in

3

use Dw = in

4

3 3 51

Dm = + 4 = 4 in

4 64 64

8FDm

ss = K

3

Dw

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

51

4

Dm 64

C= = 6.4

Dw 3

4

4(6.4) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.235

4(6.4) 4 6.4

51

8(1.5) 4

ss = 1.235 64 = 53.64 ksi < 62.45 ksi , (o.k.)

3

3

4

8FC 3 N c

=

GDw

Page 4 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

3

G = 10,500 ksi , D w > in

8

F 1500

= = = 3.75 in

k 400

8(1.5)(6.4 ) N c

3

= 3.75 =

(10,500) 3

4

N c = 9.4

Table AT 16, Total coils = N c + 2 = 9.4 + 2 = 11.4 for square and grounded end.

Summary of answer:

Dw = wire diameter = in.

No. of free coils = 11.4

0.6(168)

Permissible solid stress = = 115.65 ksi

(0.437 )0.166

Free length = PN c + 2 Dw

3

Solid height = Dw ( N c + 2 ) = (11.4 ) = 8.55 in

4

1

14 8.55

Solid stress = (53.64 ) 8 = 78.74 ksi < 115.65 ksi (safe)

3.75

Pitch:

1

PN c + 2 Dw = 14 in

8

3 1

P(9.4 ) + 2 = 14

4 8

11

P = 1.343 in = 1 in

32

Pitch angle,

11

1

1 P

= tan = tan 32 = 5.1o < 12o , o.k.

1

D 4 51

64

Page 5 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

273. A coiled compression spring is to fit inside a cylinder 5/8 in. in diameter. For

one position of the piston, the spring is to exert a pressure on the piston

equivalent to 5 psi of piston area, and in this position, the overall length of the

spring must not exceed (but may be less than) 2 in. A pressure of 46 psi on the

piston is to compress the spring in. from the position described above.

Design a spring for medium service. Specify the cheapest suitable material,

number of total and active coils for square-and-ground ends, and investigate

the pitch angle, and solid stress.

Solution:

8FDm

ss = K

3

Dw

5 D

OD = Dm + Dw = in w

8 2

5

Dm + 1.5 Dw = in

8

2

5

F1 = (5) = 1.534 lb

4 8

2

5

F2 = (46 + 5) = 15.647 lb

4 8

ssd = 0.324su (0.85)

140

su = 0.19 ksi

Dw , [0.028 < Dw < 0.625]

70

Max solid stress = ksi

Dw0.19

140 38.556

ssd = 0.324(0.85) 0.19 =

Dw Dw0.19

8FC 38.556 38,556

ss = K =

2 0.19

ksi = 0.19 psi

Dw Dw Dw

8(15.647 )C

K = 38,556 Dw1.81

K (39.845)C = 38,556 Dw1.81

Dm + 1.5Dw = 0.625

CDw + 1.5Dw = 0.625

0.625

Dw =

C + 1 .5

Page 6 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

1.81

4C 1 0.615 0.625

+ (39.845)C = 38,556

4C 4 C C + 1 .5

4C 1 0.615

(C + 1.5) C = 413.3

1.81

+

4C 4 C

C = 7.035

0.625 0.625

Dw = = = 0.0732 in

C + 1.5 7.035 + 1.5

Table AT 15, Dw = 0.0720 in , W & M 15

Dm = 7.035(0.0720) = 0.5065 in

For N c

8(F2 F1 )C 3 N c

2 1 =

GDw

G = 11.5 106 psi

3 8(15.647 1.534)(7.035) N c

3

2 1 = =

4 (

11.5 106 (0.0720) )

N c = 15.8

Table AT 16,

Total coils = N c + 2 = 15.8 + 2 = 17.8

Solid height = ( N c + 2)Dw = (15.8 + 2)(0.0720) = 1.28 in

Free length = PN c + 2 Dw

Free length = 2 + 1

8(F1 )C 3 N c

1 =

GDw

8(1.534 )(7.035) (15.8)

3

1 = = 0.082 in.

( )

11.5 106 (0.0720)

Free length = 2 + 0.082 = 2.082 in

8(F2 )C 3 N c

2 =

GDw

8(15.647 )(7.035) (15.8)

3

2 = = 0.832 in.

(

11.5 106 (0.0720) )

Solid Height Free Length - 2

Solid Height 2.082 0.832 in

Solid Height 1.25 in

But Solid Height > 1.25 in.

Page 7 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Table AT 17

146

su = 0.19 ksi , 0.028 < Dw < 0.5

Dw

87.5

Max solid stress = ksi

D w0.19

146 47.304

ssd = 0.324 =

Dw0.19 Dw0.19

8FC 47.304 47,304

ss = K 2

= 0.19

ksi = 0.19

psi

wD Dw D w

K

( )

8 15.647 C

= 47,304 Dw1.81

K (39.845)C = 47,304 Dw1.81

0.625

Dw =

C + 1 .5

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

1.81

4C 1 0.615 0.625

+ (39.845)C = 47,304

4C 4 C C + 1 .5

4C 1 0.615

(C + 1.5) C = 507.1

1.81

+

4C 4 C

C = 7.684

0.625 0.625

Dw = = = 0.0680 in

C + 1.5 7.684 + 1.5

Table AT 15, Dw = 0.0625 in , W & M 16

Dm = 7.684(0.0625) = 0.48025 in

15

say Dm = = 0.46875 in

32

D 0.46875

C= m = = 7 .5

Dw 0.0625

8FC

ss = K

2

Dw

4C 1 0.615 4(7.5) 1 0.615

K= + = + = 1.1974

4C 4 C 4(7.5) 4 7.5

8(15.647 )(7.5)

ss = 1.1974 2

= 91,600 psi = 91.6 ksi

(0.0625)

For N c

Page 8 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

8(F2 F1 )C 3 N c

2 1 =

GDw

G = 11.5 106 psi

3 8(15.647 1.534)(7.5) N c

3

2 1 = =

4 ( )

11.5 106 (0.0625)

N c = 11.32

Table AT 16, squared and ground ends

Total coils = N c + 2 = 11.32 + 2 = 13.32

Solid height = ( N c + 2)Dw = (11.32 + 2)(0.0625) = 0.8325 in

Free length = PN c + 2 Dw

Free length = 2 + 1

8(F1 )C 3 N c

1 =

GDw

8(1.534 )(7.5) (11.32)

3

1 = = 0.082 in.

( )

11.5 106 (0.0625)

Free length = 2 + 0.082 = 2.082 in = P(11.32) + 2(0.0625)

11

P = 0.1729 in in

64

Pitch angle,

P 0.1729

= tan 1 = tan 1 o o

= 6.7 < 12 , o.k.

D (0.46875 )

Solid stress

2 0.8325

sso = (91.6 ) = 142.6 ksi

0.75

87.5

Permissible solid stress = = 148.8 ksi > 137.5 ksi , safe.

(0.0625)0.19

Summary of answer:

Suitable material = Oil-Tempered Spring Wire

Total Coils = 13.32

Active Coils, N c = 11.32

274. A helical spring is to fit about a 11/16-in. rod with a free length of 2 in. or

less. A maximum load of 8 lb. is to produce a deflection of 1 in. The spring

is expected to be compressed less than 5000 times during its life, but is

subjected to relatively high temperatures and corrosive atmosphere. Select a

material and determine the necessary wire size, mean coil diameter, and

number of coils. Meet all conditions advised by Text.

Page 9 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Solution:

For 5000 cycles < 104 cycles, use light service

Use stainless steel, type 302 (Cr-Ni), ASTM A313 for relative high temperature and

corrosive atmosphere, Table AT 17.

ssd = 0.32su (i)

170

su = ksi , [0.01 < Dw < 0.13]

Dw0.14

97

su = 0.41 ksi , [0.13 < Dw < 0.375]

Dw

Maximum solid so = 0.47 su

8FDm

ss = K 3

D w

F = 8 lb

11 D

Dm Dw = + w

16 2

Dm 1.5Dw = 0.6875 in

CDw 1.5 Dw = 0.6875

0.6875

Dw =

C 1 .5

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

170

assume su = 0.14 ksi

Dw

0.32(170 ) 54.4 54,400

ssd = 0.14

= 0.14 ksi = psi

Dw Dw Dw0.14

4C 1 0.615 8(8)C

+ = 54,400 D1w.86

4C 4 C

1.86

4C 1 0.615 64C 0.6875

+ = 54,400

4C 4 C C 1 .5

4C 1 0.615

(C 1.5) C = 1330

1.86

+

4C 4 C

C = 12.919

0.6875

Dw = = 0.0602 in

12.919 1.5

Use Table AT 15, Dw = 0.0625 in , 16 W & M

Dm = 12.919(0.0602) = 0.8074 in

25

say Dm = in = 0.78125 in

32

Page 10 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

11

Dm Dw >

16

0.78125 0.0625 > 0.6875

0.71875 > 0.6875

Dw

0.71875 0.6875 = 0.03125 = , o.k.

2

Dm 0.71875

C= = = 12.5

Dw 0.0625

[0.0625 < 0.13], therefore, su =

170

ksi is o.k.

Dw0.14

8FC

ss = K

2

D

w

4(12.5) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.1144

4(12.5) 4 12.5

8(8)(12.5)

ss = 1.1144 2

= 72,648 psi

(0.0625)

8(F )C 3 N c

=

GDw

G = 10.6 106 psi

8(8)(12.5) N c

3

3

=1 =

( )

4 10.6 106 (0.0625)

N c = 9.3

To check for solid stress and pitch

Minimum solid height = Dw N c = (0.0625)(9.3) = 0.58125 in

(72,648) 2 3 0.58125

Solid stress = 4 = 90,000 psi = 90 ksi

3

1

4

Permissible solid stress =

(0.47 )(170) = 117.8 ksi > 90 ksi , o.k.

(0.0625)0.14

Free length = PN c , minimum

3

P (9.3) = 2

4

P = 0.2957 in

Pitch angle,

P 0.2957

= tan 1 = tan 1 = 7.5o < 12o , o.k.

D (0.71825)

Summary of answer

Material, Stainless Steel, Cr-Ni. ASTM A313

Page 11 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Dw = 0.0625 in , 16 W & M

25

Dm = in

32

N c = 9.3

275. In order to isolate vibrations, helical compression springs are used to support a

machine. The static load on each spring is 3500 lb., under which the deflection

should be about 0.5 in. The solid deflection should be about 1 in. and the

outside coil diameter should not exceed 6 in. Recommend a spring for this

application; include scale, wire size, static stress, material, number of coils,

solid stress, and pitch of coils.

Solution:

Use Music wire (The best material)

Table AT 17

190

su = 0.154 ksi , [0.004 < Dw < 0.192]

Dw

Maximum solid sso = 0.5su

Light service, ssd = 0.405su

0.405(190 ) 76.95 76,950

ssd = 0.154

= 0.154 ksi = 0.154 psi

Dw Dw Dw

8FC

ss = K

2

Dw

F = 3500 lb

OD = Dm + Dw = 6 in

(C + 1)Dw = 6

6

Dw =

C +1

4C 1 0.615 8(3500 )C

76,950

ss = + =

4C 4 C 6 6 0.154

C + 1 C + 1

4C 1 0.615

4C 4

+

C

[

C (C + 1) ]

1.846

= 235.9

C = 5.635

6

Dw = = 0.9043 in > 0.192 in

5.635 + 1

76.950

use ss = = 99,216 psi

(0.192)0.154

Page 12 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615 8(3500 )C

ss = + = 99,216

4C 4 C 6

C + 1

4C 1 0.615

C (C + 1) = 400.8

2

+

4C 4 C

C = 6.205

6

Dw = = 0.8328 in

6.205 + 1

13

Say Dw = in = 0.8125 in

16

Dm = (6.205)(0.8125) = 5.042 in

Say Dm = 5 in

D 5

C= m = = 6.154

Dw 0.8125

4(6.154) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.2455

4(6.154) 4 6.154

8FC

ss = K 2

Dw

8(3500)(6.154)

ss = 1.2455 = 103,481 psi > 99,216 psi , not o.k.

(0.8125)

2

Use Dm = 4.5 in

D 4 .5

C= m = = 5.5385

Dw 0.8125

4(5.5385) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.2763

45.5385 4 5.5385

8(3500)(5.5385)

ss = 1.2763 = 95,435 psi > 99,216 psi , o.k.

(0.8125)

2

Permissible solid stress =

(0.5)(190) = 122.488 ksi = 122,488 psi

(0.192 )0.154

1

Solid stress = (95,435) = 190,870 psi > 122,488 psi , not ok

0 .5

Use

0 .5

ssd = 122,488 = 61,244 psi

. 1

Page 13 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615 8(3500 )C

ss = + = 61,244

4C 4 C 6

C + 1

4C 1 0.615

C (C + 1) = 247.4

2

+

4C 4 C

C = 5 .1

6

Dw = = 0.9836 in

5 .1 + 1

Say Dw = 1.0 in

Dm = (5.1)(1.0) = 5.1 in

Say Dm = 5 in

D 5

C = m = =5

Dw 1

8FC

ss = K

2

Dw

4(5) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.3105

4(5) 4 5

8(3500)(5)

ss = 1.3105 2

= 58,400 psi > 61,244 psi o.k.

(1.0 )

Use Dw = 1.0 in , Dm = 5 in

1

Solid stress = (58,400 ) = 116,800 psi < 122,488 psi , o.k.

0 .5

8(F )C 3 N c

=

GDw

(Table AT 17)

G = 12 106 psi

8(3500 )(5) N c

3

= 0.5 =

( )

12 106 (1.0)

N c = 1.7143

say N c = 1.75

Free length Solid length = Solid Deflection

PN c Dw N c = 1 in

P(1.75) (1)(1.75) = 1

9

P = 1.5714 in 1 in

16

Pitch angle,

Page 14 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

9

P 1

= tan 1 = tan 1 16 = 5.68o < 12o , o.k.

D (5)

Summary of answer.

F 3500

Scale, k = = = 7000 lb in

0 .5

Wire size, Dw = 1.0 in

Material = Music Wire

Solid sress = 116,800 psi

9

Pitch of stress = P = 1 in

16

276. The front spring of an automobile has a total of 9 coils, 7 3/8 active coils

(square-and-ground ends), an inside diameter of 4 3/64 in., and a free length

of 14 in. It is made of SAE 9255 steel wire, OQT 1000oF, with a diameter

of 43/64 in. Compute (a) the rate (scale) of the spring; (b) the solid stress

and compare with a permissible value (is a stop needed to prevent solid

compression?). (c) Can 95 % of the solid stress be repeated 105 times without

danger of failure? Would you advise shot peening of the spring?

Solution:

8FC 3 N c

(a) =

GDw

43 3

Dw = in > in

64 8

6

G = 10.5 10 psi

D

C= m

Dw

Dm Dw = ID

43 3

Dm = 4 in

64 64

23

Dm = 4 in

32

23

4

C = 32 = 7.0233

43

64

Page 15 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

3

Nc = 7

8

(10.5 10 ) 64

6 43

F

GD

k = rate = = 3 w = = 345 lb in

8C N c 3 3

8(7.0233) 7

8

43 1

Solid height = N c = (Dw )(Total Coils ) = 9 = 6.3828 in

64 2

Solid deflection = Free length Solid height = 14 - 6.3828 = 7.8672 in.

8F C

Solid Stress = K so2

Dw

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

4(7.0233) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.212

4(7.0233) 4 7.0233

8(2714)(7.0233)

ss = 1.212 = 130,322 psi

43

2

64

Permissible value, ss = s ys = 0.6 sy , [Dw > 0.5 in]

SAE 9255, OQT 1000 oF

s y = 160 ksi su = 180 ksi

,

s ys = 0.6(160 ) = 96 ksi = 96,000 psi < 130,322 psi

Therefore a stop is needed to prevent solid compression.

ssd = 0.324(180) = 58.32 ksi

0.95sso = 0.95(130,322) = 123,800 psi = 123.8 ksi > 58.32 ksi

There is a danger of failure, shot peening is advisable

s ys = 1.25(96,000 ) = 120,000 psi 0.95sso

277. An oil-tempered steel helical compression spring has a wire size of No. 3 W

& M, a spring index of 4.13, 30 active coils, a pitch of 0.317 in., ground-and-

squared ends; medium service. (a) What maximum load is permitted if the

recommended stress is not exceeded (static approach)? Compute (b) the

Page 16 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

corresponding deflection, (c) solid stress,. (d) pitch angle, (e) scale, (f) the

energy absorbed by the spring from a deflection of 0.25 in. to that of the

working load. (g) Is there any danger of this spring buckling? (h) What

maximum load could be used if the spring were shot peened?

Solution:

Table AT 17, oil-tempered

146

su = 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]

Dw

87.5

Maximum solid sso = 0.19 ksi

Dw

ssd = 0.324su (medium service)

Dw = 0.2437 in

C = 4.13

Dm = CDw = 4.13(0.2437 ) = 1.0 in

8F C

(a) ss = K s 2

Dw

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

4(4.13) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.3885

4(4.13) 4 4.13

0.324(146 )

ss = ssd = = 61.858 ksi = 61,858 psi

(0.2437 )0.19

8(F )(4.13)

ss = 61,858 = 1.3885 2

(0.2437 )

F = 252 lb

8FC 3 N c

=

GDw

G = 11.5 106 psi

N c = 30

8(252)(4.13) (30)

3

= = 1.52 in

( )

11.5 106 (0.2437 )

Page 17 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Solid deflection = 9.9974 7.7984 = 2.199 in.

2.199

Solid stress = (61,858) = 89,491 psi

1.52

87.5 87.5

Maximum solid sso = ksi = ksi = 114.4 ksi > 89.491 ksi , o.k. safe

0.19

Dw (0.2437 )0.19

P 0.317

(d) = tan 1 = tan 1 = 5.76o < 12o , o.k.

D (1)

F 252

(e) scale = k = = = 166 lb in

1.52

1

(f) U s = k ( 22 12 )

2

k = 166 lb in

1 = 0.25 in

2 = 1.52 in

1

[ ]

U s = (166 ) (1.52 ) (0.25) = 186.6 in lb

2

2 2

Mean Diameter = Dm = 1.0 in

Free length 9.9974

= = 9.9974 > 4

Mean Diameter 1 .0

There is a danger for spring buckling

ssd = (61,858)(1.25) = 77,322 psi

8(F )(4.13)

ss = 77,322 = 1.3885 2

(0.2437 )

F = 314 lb

280. It is desired to isolate a furnace, weighing 47,300 lb., from the surroundings

by mounting it on helical springs. Under the weight, the springs should deflect

approximately 1 in., and at least 2 in. before becoming solid. It has been

decided to use springs having a wire diameter of 1 in., an outside diameter of

5 3/8 in., 4.3 free coils. Determine (a) the number of springs to be used, (b)

the stress caused by the weight, (c) the solid stress. (d) What steel should be

used?

Solution:

Page 18 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Dw = 1 in

3

Dm + Dw = 5 in

8

3

Dm = 4 in

8

3

4

D

C = m = 8 = 4.375

Dw 1

8FC 3 N c

(a) =

GDw

Assume N c = 4.3

3

G = 10.5 106 psi , Dw > in

8

8F (4.375) (4.3)

3

= 1.0 =

(

10.5 106 (1))

F = 3645 lb

W 47,300

No. of springs = = = 13

F 3645

W 47,300

(b) F = = = 3638 lb

13 13

8F C

ss = K s 2

Dw

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

4(4.375) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.3628

4(4.375) 4 4.375

8(3638)(4.375)

ss = 1.3628 = 55,235 psi

(1.0)2

2

(c) Solid Stress = ss = 55,235 = 110,470 psi

1

(d) s ys 110,470 psi

s ys

110,470

sy = = = 184,117 psi = 184.117 ksi

0.6 0.6

From Table AT 7,

Use AISI 8760, OQT 800 oF, s y = 200 ksi

Page 19 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

282. A spring, subjected to a load varying from 100 lb. to 250 lb., is to be made of oil-

tempered, cold-wound wire. Determine the diameter of the wire and the mean

diameter of the coil for a design factor of 1.25 based on Wahls line. The spring

index is to be at least 5. Conform to good practice, showing checks for all

significant parameters. Let the free length be between 6 and 8.

Solution:

Fmax = 250 lb

Fmin = 100 lb

1 1

Fm = (Fmax + Fmin ) = (250 + 100 ) = 175 lb = 0.175 kip

2 2

1 1

Fa = (Fmax Fmin ) = (250 100 ) = 75 lb = 0.075 kip

2 2

Wahls line

1 sms sas 2sas

= +

N s ys sno

8 KFa Dm 8 KFa C

sas = =

Dw3 Dw2

8 KFm Dm 8 KFmC

sms = =

K cDw3 K cDw2

C =5

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

4(5) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.31

4(5) 4 5

Fig. AF 15, C = 5

K c = 1.19

For oil-tempered wire,

87.5

s ys = 0.19

Dw , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]

47

sno =

Dw0.1 , [0.041 < Dw < 0.15]

30

sno = 0.34

Dw , [0.15 < Dw < 0.625]

N = 1.25

Page 20 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

8(1.31)(0.075)(5) 1.251

sas = =

Dw2 Dw2

8(1.31)(0.175)(5) 2.453

sms = =

(1.19)Dw2 Dw2

30

say sno = 0.34 ksi

Dw

1 sms sas 2sas

= +

N s ys sno

2.453 1.251 1.251

2

2 2

Dw + Dw

=

1

1.25 87.5 30

0.19 0.34

Dw Dw

1 1 1

= 1.81

+

1.25 72.8 Dw 11.99 Dw1.66

Dw = 0.2857 in > 0.15 in

Table AT 15, use No. 1, W & M

Dw = 0.2830 in

7

say Dm = 1 in

16

Check for Free length

6 in < Free length < 8 in

7

Free length = 4 Dm = 41 = 5.75 in

16

Increase Dm

1

Dm = 1 in

2

1

Free length = 4 Dm = 41 = 6 in , o.k.

2

Summary of answer

Dw = 0.2830 in

1

Dm = 1 in

2

283. A carbon-steel spring is to be subjected to a load that varies from 500 to 1200 lb.

The outside diameter should be between 3.5 and 4 in., the spring index between 5

to 10; approximate scale of 500 lb./in. Choose a steel and for a design factor of

1.4 by the Wahl line, find the wire diameter. Also determine the number of active

Page 21 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

coils and the free length for squared-and-ground ends. Conform to the general

conditions specified in the Text.

Solution:

For carbon steel, Table AT 17

91

s ys = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]

Dw

49

sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]

Dw

Fmax = 1200 lb

Fmin = 500 lb

1 1

Fm = (Fmax + Fmin ) = (1200 + 500 ) = 850 lb = 0.85 kip

2 2

1 1

Fa = (Fmax Fmin ) = (1200 500 ) = 350 lb = 0.35 kip

2 2

OD = 3.5 ~ 4.0 in

C = 5 ~ 10

Wahls line

1 sms sas 2sas

= +

N s ys sno

Figure AF 15, C = 5 ~ 10

Assume K = 1.2 , K c = 1.125

8 KFa Dm

sas =

Dw3

8 KFm Dm

sms =

K cDw3

OD 3.75 in

Dm = 3.75 Dw

8(1.2 )(0.35)(3.75 Dw ) 1.0695(3.75 Dw )

sas = =

Dw3 Dw3

8(1.2 )(0.85)(3.75 Dw ) 2.3088(3.75 Dw )

sms = =

(1.125)Dw3 Dw3

3.75 Dw

(2.3088 1.0695) 3.75 3 Dw 2(1.0695)

1 Dw + Dw3

=

1.4 91 49

0.1 0.15

Dw Dw

1 3.75 Dw 3.75 Dw

= 2.9

+

1.4 73.4285 Dw 22.9079 Dw2.85

Dw = 0.6171 in > 0.25 in

Use

Page 22 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

91

s ys = = 104.53 ksi

(0.25)0.1

49

sno = = 60.33 ksi

(0.25)0.15

3.75 Dw

(2.3088 1.0695) 3.75 3 Dw 2(1.0695)

1 Dw + Dw3

=

1 .4 104.53 60.33

1 3.75 Dw 3.75 Dw

= +

1.4 84.346 Dw3 28.205 Dw3

1 3.75 Dw

=

1.4 21.137 Dw3

Dw = 0.5935 in

use

19

Dw = in

32

3

Dm + Dw 3 in

4

19 3

Dm + = 3 in

32 4

5

Dm = 3 in

32

5

3

Dm 32

C= = = 5.316

Dw 19

32 . o.k.

19

Wire Diameter Dw = in , Carbon Steel

32

Number of coils:

8FC 3 N c

=

GDw

3

G = 10.5 106 psi = 10,500 ksi , Dw > in

8

F GDw

=k = 3

8C N c

(10.5 10 ) 19

6

500 = 32

8(5.316 ) N c

3

N c = 10.4

Table AT 16, square-and-ground ends

Page 23 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Free length = PN c + 2 Dw

Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw

Total Coils = N c + 2

19

Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw = (10.4 + 2 ) = 7.3625 in

32

F 1200

= = = 2.4 in

k 500

Min. Free length = 2.4 + 7.3625 in = 9.7625 in

Use Free length = 10 in

Free length = PN c + 2 Dw

19

P(10.4 ) + 2 = 10

32

P = 0.8474 in

P 0.8474

= tan 1 = tan 1 = 4.885o < 12o , o.k.

Dm 3 5

32

Solid stress:

T = solid deflection = 10 7.3625 = 2.6375 in

F = k T = (500)(2.6375) = 1319 lb

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

4(5.316) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.29

4(5.316) 4 5.316

5

8(1.29)(1319) 3

ss =

8 KFDm

= 32 = 23,033 psi = 23.033 ksi < s (= 104.53 ksi )

3 3 ys

Dw 19

32

to be subjected to a working load varying from 100 to 300 lb. for an indefinite

time (severe). A mean coil diameter of 2 in. should be satisfactory. (a) Using the

static approach, compute a wire diameter. (b) For this wire size, compute the

factor of safety as given by the Wahl line.

Solution:

Page 24 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Table AT 16,

For carbon steel,

182

su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]

Dw

91

s ys = 0.1 ksi

91 Dw

Max. solid s ys = 0.1 ksi

Dw

49

sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]

Dw

Dm = 2 in.

Fmax = 300 lb

Fmin = 100 lb

severe service, ssd = 0.263su =

(0.263)(182) = 47.866 ksi

Dw0.1 Dw0.1

8F C

ss = K s 2

Dw

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

Dm

C=

Dw

D 2

Dw = m =

C C

4C 1 0.615 8(0.3)(2 ) 47.866

ss = + =

4C 4 C 2 3 2 0.1

C C

4C 1 0.615 2.9

4C 4 + C C = 233.84

C = 6.075

2

Dw = = 0.3292 in > 0.25 in

6.075

47.866

Therefore use ssd = = 54.984 ksi

(0.25)0.1

Page 25 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615 8(0.3)(2 )

ss = + = 54.984

4C 4 C 2 3

C

4C 1 0.615 3

4C 4 + C C = 287.9

C = 6.136

2

Dw = = 0.3259 in

6.136

21

say Dw = in

64

91

(b) s ys = = 104.53 ksi

(0.25)0.1

49

sno = = 60.33 ksi

(0.25)0.15

1 1

Fm = (Fmax + Fmin ) = (300 + 100 ) = 200 lb = 0.2 kip

2 2

1 1

Fa = (Fmax Fmin ) = (300 100 ) = 100 lb = 0.1 kip

2 2

Dm 2

C= = = 6.095

Dw 21

64

Figure AF 15

K c = 1.15

K = 1.25

K 8Fm Dm

sms =

K c Dw3

1.25 8(0.2 )(2)

sms = = 31.34 ksi

1.15 21 3

64

8 KFa Dm

sas =

Dw3

Page 26 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

8(0.1)(2)

sas = 1.25 = 18.02 ksi

21 3

64

Wahls line

1 sms sas 2sas

= +

N s ys sno

1 31.34 18.02 2(18.02 )

= +

N 104.53 60.33

N = 1.38

285. A helical spring of hard-drawn wire with a mean diameter of 1 in. and square-

and-ground ends is to be subjected to a maximum load of 325 lb. (a) Compute the

wire diameter for average service. (b) How many total coils are required if the

scale is 800 lb./in.? (c) For a minimum load of 100 lb., what is the factor of safety

according to Wahl line? Would it be safe for an indefinite life?

Solution:

Table AT 17,

Hard-drawn wire,

140

su = 0.19 ksi , [0.028 < Dw < 0.625]

Dw

70

Maximum solid ss = s ys = 0.19 ksi

Dw

sno =

(0.9)(47 ) ksi , [0.041 < D < 0.15]

w

Dw0.1

sno =

(0.9)(30) ksi , [0.15 < D < 0.625]

w

Dw0.34

Average service

0.2754(140 ) 38.556

(a) ssd = 0.85(0.324 )su = 0.2754 su = = ksi

Dw0.19 Dw0.19

F = 325 lb = 0.325 kip

1

Dm = 1 in

2

8 FDm

ss = K 3

Dw

Page 27 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

1 .5

Dw =

C

4C 1 0.615 8(0.325)(1.5) 38.556

ss = + =

4C 4 C 1.5 1.5

3 0.19

C C

4C 1 0.615 2.81

+ C = 97.05

4C 4 C

C = 4.586

1 .5 1 .5

Dw = = = 0.3271 in < 0.625 in

C 4.586

21

Dw = in

64

Dm 1 .5

(b) C = = = 4.57

Dw 21

64

4(4.57 ) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.345

4(4.57 ) 4 4.57

8FC 3 N c

=

GDw

F GD

=k = 3 w

8C N c

k = 800 lb in = 0.8 kip in

(11,500) 21

0.8 = 64

3

84.57 N c

N c = 6.2

70

(c) s ys = 0.19

= 86.5 ksi

21

64

sno =

(0.9)(30)

= 39.44 ksi , Dw > 0.15 in

0.19

21

64

1

Fm = (325 + 100 ) = 212.5 lb = 0.2125 kip

2

Page 28 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

1

Fa = (325 100) = 112.5 lb = 0.1125 kip

2

K c = 1.212 , Fig. AF 15

K = 1.345

K 8Fm Dm 1.345 8(0.2125)(1.5)

sms = = = 25.5 ksi

K c Dw3 1.212 21

3

64

8Fm Dm

8(0.1125)(1.5)

sas = K 3

= 1.345 = 16.36 ksi

Dw 21

3

64

1 sms sas 2sas 25.5 16.36 2(16.36)

= + = +

N s ys sno 86.5 39.44

N = 1.07 < 1.15[N min ]

Not safe for indefinite life.

286. A helical spring is to be subjected to a maximum load of 200 lb. (a) Determine

the wire size suitable for medium service if the material is carbon steel ASTM

A230; C = 6 . Determine the factor of safety of this spring according to the Wahl

line (b) If the minimum force is 150 lb., (c) if the minimum force is 100 lb., (d) if

the minimum force is 25 lb.

Solution:

Table AT 17

182

su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]

Dw

91

s ys = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]

Dw

49

sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]

Dw

Medium Service

ssd = 0.324su

(a) ssd = 0.324 0.1 = 0.1

ksi = psi

Dw Dw Dw0.1

Page 29 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

8 FDm

ss = K 3

Dw

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

4(6) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.2525

4(6) 4 6

F = 200 lb

8(200)(6) 58,968

ss = 1.2525 2 =

Dw Dw0.1

Dw = 0.2371 in

Dw = 0.2437 in < 0.25 in , o.k.

Factor of safety.

91 91

s ys = 0.1 ksi = ksi = 104.8 ksi

Dw (0.2437 )0.1

49 49

sno = 0.15 ksi = ksi = 60.56 ksi

Dw (0.2437 )

1

(a) Fm = (200 + 150) = 175 lb = 0.175 kip

2

1

Fa = (200 150) = 25 lb = 0.025 kip

2

Figure AF 15, K c = 1.156

K 8FmC 1.2525 8(0.175)(6 )

sms = = = 48.8 ksi

K c Dw2 1.156 (0.2437 )2

8F C 8(0.025)(6 )

sas = K a 2 = 1.2525 2

= 8.1 ksi

Dw (0.2437 )

1 sms sas 2sas

= +

N s ys sno

1 48.8 8.1 2(8.1)

= +

N 104.8 60.56

N = 1.525

1

(b) Fm = (200 + 100) = 150 lb = 0.15 kip

2

1

Fa = (200 100) = 50 lb = 0.05 kip

2

Page 30 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

K 8FmC 1.2525 8(0.15)(6 )

sms = 2

= 2

= 41.8 ksi

Kc Dw 1.156 (0.2437 )

8F C 8(0.05)(6)

sas = K a 2 = 1.2525 2

= 16.11 ksi

Dw (0.2437 )

1 sms sas 2sas

= +

N s ys sno

1 41.8 16.11 2(16.11)

= +

N 104.8 60.56

N = 1.287

1

(c) Fm = (200 + 25) = 112.5 lb = 0.1125 kip

2

1

Fa = (200 25) = 87.5 lb = 0.0875 kip

2

Figure AF 15, K c = 1.156

K 8FmC 1.2525 8(0.1125)(6)

sms = = = 31.36 ksi

K c Dw2 1.156 (0.2437 )2

8F C 8(0.0875)(6)

sas = K a 2 = 1.2525 2

= 28.2 ksi

w D (0.2437 )

1 sms sas 2sas

= +

N s ys sno

1 31.36 28.20 2(28.20 )

= +

N 104.8 60.56

N = 1.04

CHECK PROBLEMS

A Diesel valve spring is made of 3/8-in. chrome-vanadium steel wire, shot-peened; inside

diameter is 3 in., 7 active coils, free length is 7 3/8 in., solid length is 4 1/8 in., length

with valve closed, 6 in., length when open, 5 1/8 in. (a) Compute the spring constant

and the factor of safety as defined by the Wahl criterion (see 6.13, Text). (b) Is there

any danger of damage to the spring if it is compressed solid? (c) What is the natural

frequency? If this spring is used on a 4-stroke Diesel engine at 450 rpm, is there any

danger of surge? Compute the change of stored energy between working lengths.

Solution:

Page 31 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

su = w < 0.437 ]

Dw0.166

s ys =

(1.25)(100 ) ksi , [0.032 < D < 0.437]

w

Dw0.166

sno =

(1.25)(49) ksi , [0.028 < D < 0.5]

w

Dw0.15

3

Dw = in = 0.375 in

8

s ys =

(1.25)(100) ksi = 147.1 ksi

(0.375)0.166

sno =

(1.25)(49) ksi = 70.96 ksi

(0.375)0.15

8FC 3 N c

(a) =

GDw

F GD

=k = 3 w

8C N c

G = 11.5 106 psi

Nc = 7

Dw = 0.375 in

Dm Dw = ID = 3 in

Dm = 3.375 in

D 3.375

C= m = =9

Dw 0.375

k = spring constant

k= 3 =

GDw (

11.5 106 )(0.375)

= 105.64 lb in

8(9 ) (7 )

3

8C N c

3 1

1 = 7 4 = 3.25 in

8 8

F1 = k1 = (105.64)(3.25) = 343.33 lb

3 1

2 = 7 6 = 1.125 in

8 4

F2 = k 2 = (105.64)(1.125) = 118.85 lb

1

Fm = (343.33 + 118.85) = 231.09 lb = 0.231 kip

2

1

Fa = (343.33 118.85) = 112.24 lb = 0.11224 kip

2

K 8FmC

sms =

K c Dw2

Page 32 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

4(9) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.162

4(9 ) 4 9

Figure AF 15, K c = 1.10

K 8FmC 1.162 8(0.231)(9)

sms = 2

= 2

= 39.8 ksi

Kc Dw 1.10 (0.375)

8F C 8(0.11224 )(9)

sas = K a 2 = 1.162 = 21.3 ksi

(0.375)

2

Dw

1 sms sas 2sas

= +

N s ys sno

1 39.8 21.3 2(21.3)

= +

N 147.1 70.96

N = 1.377

3

Solid deflection = 7 2.625 = 4.75 in.

8

F = k = (105.64)(4.75) = 501.8 lb = 0.5018 kip

8 FC 8(0.5018)(9)

Solid stress = ss = K 2 = 1.162 2

= 95 ksi < 147.1 ksi

Dw (0.375)

There is no danger of damage

For steel

14,050 Dw

= cps

N c Dm2

14,050

= cps

N c C 2 Dw

14,050

= cps = 66 cps

(7 )(9)2 (0.375)

2

For 450 rpm, = 450 = 47 cps

60

66

= 1.4 < 12 , there is danger of surging.

47

Page 33 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

(d) U s =

1

2

( ) 1

[ ]

k 12 22 = (105.64 ) (3.25) (1.125) = 491 in lb

2

2 2

289. A helical spring is hot wound from 5/8-in. carbon-steel wire with an outside

diameter of 3 in. A force of 3060 lb. is required to compress the spring 1

in to the solid heigh. In service the spring is compressed so that its

deformation varies form in. to1 1/8 in. (a) What is the factor of safety by

the Wahl criterion? (b) Is the solid stress safe? Compute (c) the pitch angle,

(d) the change of stored energy between the working lengths, (e) the factor of

safety if the spring is peened?

Solution:

5

Dw = in

8

Table AT 17

91

s ys = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]

Dw

91

s ys = ksi = 104.5 ksi , Dw > 0.25 in.

(0.25)0.1

49

sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]

Dw

49

sno = ksi = 60.33 ksi , Dw > 0.25 in.

(0.25)0.15

117

Permissible solid stress = ss = ksi , [Dw > 0.375 in.] 6.3

Dw0.31

117

ss = ksi = 35.4 ksi

(0.625)0.31

F 3060

(a) k = = = 1748.6 lb in

1.75

1

F1 = k1 = (1748.6 ) = 874.3 lb

2

1

F2 = k 2 = (1748.6 )1 = 1967.2 lb

8

1

Fm = (1967.2 + 874.3) = 1420.7 lb = 1.4207 kip

2

1

Fa = (1967.2 874.3) = 546.4 lb = 0.5464 kip

2

Page 34 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

5

Dw = in = 0.625 in

8

1

Dm + Dw = 3 in

4

Dm = 2.625 in

D 2.625

C= m = = 4 .2

Dw 0.625

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

4(4.2) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.3808

4(4.2) 4 4.2

K c = 1.234

K 8FmC 1.3808 8(1.4207 )(4.2)

sms = = = 43.5 ksi

K c Dw2 1.234 (0.625)2

8F C 8(0.5464)(4.2)

sas = K a 2 = 1.3808 = 20.7 ksi

(0.625)

2

Dw

1 sms sas 2sas

= +

N s ys sno

1 43.5 20.7 2(20.7 )

= +

N 104.5 60.33

N = 1.106

F = 3.060 kip

8 FC 8(3.060)(4.2)

Solid stress, ss = K 2 = 1.3808 2

= 115.7 ksi < 135.4 ksi , safe

Dw (0.625)

3

(c) Solid deflection = 1 in

4

(P Dw )N c = 1.75 in

8FC 3 N c

=

GDw

G = 10.5 106 psi , hot-wound

F GD

k= = 3w

8C N c

Page 35 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

1748.6 =

(10.5 10 )(0.625)

6

8(4.2 ) N c

3

N c = 6.332

(P 0.625)(6.332) = 1.75

P = 0.9014 in

Pitch angle

P P

tan = =

Dm CDw

P 0.9014

= tan 1 = tan 1 = 6.24o

CDw (4.2)(0.625)

(d) U s =

1

2

( 1

) [ ]

k 12 22 = (1748.6 )(1.125) (0.5) = 888 in lb

2

2 2

s ys = 12.5(104.5) = 130.6 ksi

sno = 1.25(60.33) = 75.4 ksi

1 43.5 20.7 2(20.7 )

= +

N 130.6 75.4

N = 1.38

ENERGY STORAGE

293. A 10-lb. body falls 10 in. and then strikes a helical spring. Design a hard-

drawn carbon steel spring that will absorb this shock occasionally without

permanent damage. Determine appropriate values of wire diameter, coil

diameter, pitch, free length, closed length, and the maximum stress under the

specified conditions, and scale. Let C = 7 .

Solution:

182

su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]

Dw

91

Max. solid ss = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]

Dw

36.855

ssd = (0.50 )(0.405)su = ksi

Dw0.1

ss2V

Us =

4 K 2G

Page 36 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

4(7 ) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.213

4(7 ) 4 7

D 2

V w (Dm )N c

4

2 Dw2 Dm N c

V=

4

Dm = CDw

2CDw3 N c

V=

4

8FC 3 N c

=

GDw

U s = W (h + )

8 FC

ss = K 2

Dw

s D 2

F= s w

8KC

s D 2 8C 3 N c

= s w

8KC GDw

s sDwC 2 N c

=

KG

2 2 3

ssDwC 2 N c s s CD w N c

U s = W h + =

KG 16 K 2G

Wh

Nc = 2 2 2

ss CDw s sDwC 2W

16 K 2G KG

36.855

when ss = ksi

Dw0.1

Wh

Nc =

(36.855) CDw 36.855D w0.9C 2W

2 2 2.8

16 K 2G KG

Nc =

( 0.010)(10)

(36.855)2 2 (7)Dw2.8 36.855D w0.9 (7 )2 (0.010)

16(1.213) (11,500)

2

(1.213)(11,500)

0.10

Nc =

0.3466 Dw 0.004067 D w0.9

2.8

Page 37 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

combination of Dw and N c

Gage No. W & M Dw Nc Dw N c

12 0.1055 991.2 105

11 0.1205 312.1 37.6

10 0.1350 166.1 22.4

9 0.1483 108.0 16.0

8 0.1620 75.2 12.2

7 0.1770 53.7 9.5

6 0.1920 40.2 7.7

5 0.2070 31 6.4

4 0.2253 23.4 5.3

3 0.2437 18.1 4.4

45

Dm = 7 Dw = 7(0.2437 ) = 1.7059 in = 1 in

64

0.9 2

s sDwC 2 N c 36.855D w C N c 36.855 (0.2437 ) (7 ) (18.1)

0.9 2

= = = = 2.066 in

KG KG (1.213)(11,500)

36.855

ss = = 42.44 ksi

(0.2437 )0.1

91 91

sso = 0.1 = = 104.8 ksi

Dw (0.2437 )0.1

Solid deflection

104.8

= (2.066 ) = 5.1 in

42.44

(P Dw )N c = 5.1

(P 0.2437)(18.1) = 5.1

P = 0.5255 in

17

say P = = 0.53125 in

32

Minimum Solid Height = Dw N c = (0.2437 )(18.1) = 4.41 in

Assume squared and ground end

Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw = (0.2437 )(18.1) + 2(0.2437 ) = 5.0 in

Solid deflection = (0.53125 0.2437 )(18.1) = 5.2 in

Free length = 5.0 in + 5.2 in = 10.2in

Summary of answer:

Dw = 0.2437 in , No. 3 W & M

Page 38 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

45

Dm = 1 in

64

17

P= in

32

Free length = 10.2 in

Closed length = 5 in

Maximum stress = 42.44 ksi

without being stressed beyond the recommended value of average service. Let

C = 6 . Decide upon satisfactory dimensions; Dw , Dm , N c , free length, pitch

angle, solid stress, volume of metal, possibility of spring buckling.

Solution:

140

su = 0.19 ksi , [0.028 < Dw < 0.625]

Dw

70

Max. solid ss = 0.19 ksi , [0.028 < Dw < 0.625]

Dw

140 19.278

ssd = (0.50)(0.85)(0.324)su = (0.50)(0.85)(0.324) 0.19 = 0.19 ksi

Dw Dw

s 2V s 2 2 Dw3 CN c

Us = s 2 = s

4K G 16 K 2G

C=6

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

4(6) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.2525

4(6) 4 6

U s = 75 in lb = 0.075 in kip

19.278 2 Dw3 (6)N c

U s = 0.075 = 0.19

Dw 16(1.2525) (11,500)

2

0.9837 = Dw2.62 N c

Table AT-15

W&M Dw Nc Dw N c

Page 39 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

8 0.1620 116 18.79

7 0.1770 92 16.28

6 0.1920 74 14.21

5 0.207 61 12.63

4 0.2253 49 11.04

3 0.2437 40 9.75

2 0.2625 32.7 8.58

1 0.2830 26.9 7.61

0 0.3065 21.8 6.68

2-0 0.3310 17.8 5.89

3-0 0.3625 14.0 5.075

4-0 0.3938 11.3 4.45

5-0 0.4305 8.95 3.85

Nc 9

9

Dm = 6(0.4305) = 2.583 in 2 in

16

19.278

ss = = 22.63 ksi

(0.4305)0.19

70

Max. Solid Stress = sso = = 82.16 ksi

(0.4305)0.19

s sDwC 2 N c (22.63)( )(0.4305)(6) (9)

2

= = = 0.6885 in

KG (1.2525)(11,500)

82.16

Solid deflection = (0.6885) = 2.5 in

22.63

(P Dw )N c = 2.5

(P 0.4305)(9) = 2.5

P = 0.7083 in

45

say P = = 0.703125 in

64

Solid deflection = (0.703125 0.4305)(9) = 2.453625 in

2.453625

Solid stress = 22.63 = 80.65 ksi

0.6885

7

Minimum Solid Height = Dw N c = (0.4305)(9 ) = 3.8745 in 3 in

8

45 21

Minimum Free Length = PN c = (9 ) = 6.328125 in 6 in

64 64

Pitch Angle

Page 40 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

45

P

= tan 1 = tan 1 64 = 5o < 12o

Dm 2 9

16

Volume

Dw2 (0.4305)2 9

V (Dm )N c = 2 (9 ) = 10.55 in

3

4 4 16

Summary of answer:

Dw = 0.4305 in , No. 5-0 W & M

9

Dm = 2 in

16

Nc = 9

21

Free length = 6 in

64

Pitch Angle = = 5o

Solid Stress = 80.65 ksi

Volume of metal = 10.55 in3

21

6

64 = 2.47 < 4 , no possibility

9

2

16

297. Two concentric helical springs are to be subjected to a load that varies from a

maximum of 235 lb. to a maximum of 50 lb. They are to fit inside a 1 5/8 in.

cylinder. The maximum deflection is to be in., and the deflection when

compressed solid is to be approximately 1 in. Using the static approach for

severe service (maximum load), determine the wire diameter, mean coil

diameter, number of coils, solid length, and free length of both springs. (Start

with oil-tempered wire and assume a diametral clearance between the outer

D

spring and the cylinder of w , assume a similar clearance between springs.

2

Search for a suitable spring index and wire size.)

Solution:

Table AT 17

Page 41 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

146

su = ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]

Dw0.19

87.5

Max. solid ss = 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]

Dw

Severe service

0.263(146 ) 38.398

ssd = 0.263su = = ksi

Dw0.19 Dw0.19

F = 235 lb = 0.235 kip

o = i

8FoCo3 N co 8Fi Ci3 N i

=

GDwo GDwi

Assume, Co = Ci

3GDwo

Fo =

32C 3 N co

3GDwi

Fi =

32C 3 N ci

8F C

sso = K o2

Dwo

8F C

ssi = K i 2

Dwi

D D

C = mo = mi

Dwo Dwi

4C 1 0.615

K= +

4C 4 C

D

Dmo Dwo wi = Dmi + Dwi

2

Dmo Dmi = Dwo + 1.5Dwi

D

1.625 wo = Dmo + Dwo

2

Dmo + 1.5Dwo = 1.625

CDwo + 1.5Dwo = 1.625

1.625

Dwo =

C + 1 .5

1.625C

Dmo =

C + 1 .5

CDwo CDwi = Dwo + 1.5Dwi

(C 1)Dwo = (C + 1.5)Dwi

Page 42 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

1.625(C 1)

Dwi =

(C + 1.5)2

1.625C (C 1)

Dmi =

(C + 1.5)2

8F C 38.398

sso = K o2 = 0.19 ksi

Dwo Dwo

1.81

15.08Dwo

Fo =

KC

8F C 38.398

ssi = K i 2 = 0.19 ksi

Dwi Dwi

1.81

15.08Dwi

Fi =

KC

Fo + Fi = F = 0.235 kip

1.81 1.81

15.08Dwo 15.08Dwi

+ = 0.235

KC KC

1.81 1.81

15.08 Dwo + 15.08 Dwi = 0.235 KC

1.81 1.81

1.625 1.625(C 1)

15.08 + 15.08 = 0.235 KC

C + 1 .5 C + 1.5

1 (C 1)

1.81

4C 1 0.615

154.52 + 3.62

= 0.235 + C

(C + 1.5) (C + 1.5)

1.81

4C 4 C

C = 5.328

1.625(5.328 1)

Dwi = = 0.1509 in

(5.328 + 1.5)2

1.625

Dwo = = 0.2380 in

5.328 + 1.5

Table AT 15, use Dwi = 0.1620 in , No. 8 W & M and Dwo = 0.2625 in , No. 2 W & M

13

Dmo = CDwo = (5.328)(0.2625) = 1.3986 in 1 in

32

7

Dmi = CDwi = (5.328)(0.1620 ) = 0.8631 in in

8

7

= = 5.401

Dmi 8

Ci =

Dwi 0.1620

13

1

=

Dmo 32

Co = = 5.357

Dwo 0.2625

Page 43 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

1.81

15.08Dwo

Fo =

K o Co

4(5.357 ) 1 0.615

Ko = + = 1.287

4(5.357 ) 1 5.357

15.08(0.2625)

1.81

Fo = = 0.194 kip

(1.287 )(5.357 )

1.81

15.08Dwi

Fi =

K i Ci

4(5.401) 1 0.615

Ki = + = 1.2843

4(5.401) 1 5.401

15.08(0.1620)

Fi = = 0.081 kip

(1.2843)(5.401)

Fo + Fi = 0.194 + 0.071 = 0.275 kip > 0.235 kip , ok

3GDwo

Fo =

32C 3 N co

3(11,500)(0.2625)

0.194 =

32(5.357 ) N co

3

N co = 9.5

3GDwi

Fi =

32C 3 N ci

3(11,500)(0.1620)

0.071 =

32(5.401) N ci

3

N ci = 15.6

87.5

Max. solid stress, sss = 0.19 ksi ,

Dw

87.5

ssso = = 112.82 ksi

(0.2625)0.19

87.5

sssi = = 123.65 ksi

(0.1620)0.19

Stress

38.398

ssi = = 54.26 ksi

(0.1620)0.19

38.398

sso = = 49.51 ksi

(0.2625)0.19

Solid stress

1

sso = 49.51 = 66.01 ksi < 112.82 ksi

0.75

Page 44 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

1

ssi = 54.26 = 72.35 ksi < 123.65 ksi

0.75

Solid length

Dwo N co = (0.2625)(9.5) = 2.5 in

Dwi N ci = (0.1620 )(15.6) = 2.53 in

Dwi ( N ci + xi ) = (0.1620)(15.6 + xi ) = 3 in

xi = 2.92

Total coils = 15.6 + 2.92 = 18.52

Dwo ( N co + xo ) = (0.2625)(9.5 + xo ) = 3 in

xo = 1.93

Total coils = 9.5 + 1.93 = 11.43

Free Length = 3 in + 1 in = 4 in

Summary of answer:

Outside wire.

Dwo = 0.2625 in , No. 2 W & M

13

Dmo = 1 in

32

N to = 11.43

Solid length = 3 in

Free length = 4 in

Inside wire.

Dwi = 0.1620 in , No. 8 W & M

7

Dmi = in

8

N ti = 18.52

Solid length = 3 in

Free length = 4 in

298. Two concentric, helical compression springs are used on a freight car. The

larger spring has an outside diameter of 7 in., a free length of 7 1/8 in., and is

made of a 1 in. steel bar. The smaller has an outside diameter of 4 1/8 in., a

free length of 6 13/16 in. , and is made of 7/8 in. steel bar. The solid height of

each spring is 5 in. and the forces required to compress them solid are

15,530 lb. and 7,000 lb., respectively. The working load on the two springs is

11,350 lb. Determine (a) the number of free coils in each spring, (b) the stress

in each spring when compressed solid, (c) the stresses induced by the working

Page 45 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

load. Notice that the outer spring deflects 5/16 in. before the inner one takes a

load. (d) What energy is absorbed while changing deflection from that at the

working load to that when the springs are compressed solid?

Solution:

ODo = 7 in

3

Dwo = 1 in

8

1

FLo = 7 in

8

1

ODi = 4 in

8

7

Dwi = in

8

13

FLi = 6 in

16

1

(a) Solid height = Dw N T = 5 in

4

5.25

N To = = 3.82

1.375

5.25

N Ti = =6

0.875

(b) Fo = 15,530 lb

Fi = 7000 lb

8 FC

ss = K 2

Dw

3

Dmo = 7 1 = 5.625 in

8

Dmo 5.625

Co = = = 4.091

Dwo 1.375

4(4.091) 1 0.615

Ko = + = 1.393

4(4.091) 4 4.091

1 7

Dmi = 4 = 3.25 in

8 8

D 3.25

Ci = mi = = 3.714

Dwi 0.875

4(3.714) 1 0.615

Ki = + = 1.442

4(3.714) 4 3.714

Page 46 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Solid stress

8(15,530)(4.091)

sso = 1.393 = 119,203 psi

(1.375 ) 2

8(7000 )(3.714 )

ssi = 1.442 = 124,689 psi

(0.875)

2

Fi + Fo = 11,350 lb

15,530

ko = = 8283 lb in

1 1

7 5

8 4

7000

ko = = 4480 lb in

13 1

6 5

16 4

5

o i = = 0.3125 in

16

Fi = ki i = 4480 i

Fo = ko o = 8283(0.3125 + i )

Fi + Fo = ko o = 4480 i + 8283(0.3125 + i ) = 11,350 lb

i = 0.6865 in

o = 0.3125 + 0.6865 = 0.9990 in

Fi = (4480)(0.6865) = 3076 lb

Fo = (8283)(0.9990) = 8275 lb

Stresses

8(8275)(4.091)

sso = 1.393 = 63,516 psi

(1.375)

2

8(3076)(3.714)

ssi = 1.442 = 54,792 psi

(0.875)

2

(d) Energy

1

U so = ko ( o22 o21 )

2

1 1

o 2 = 7 5 = 1.875 in

8 4

o1 = 0.9990 in

1

[ ]

U so = (8283)(1.875) (0.999 ) = 10,427 in lb

2

2 2

Page 47 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

1

U si =

2

( )

ki i22 i21

13 1

i 2 = 6 5 = 1.5625 in

16 4

o1 = 0.6865 in

1

[ ]

U si = (4480 )(1.5625) (0.6865) = 4,413 in lb

2

2 2

TORSION-BAR SPRINGS

299. A torsion-bar similar to that shown is to be used for the front spring of an

automobile. Its rate should be 400 lb./in. of deflection of the end of the arm

which is e = 10 in. long. It is made of AISI 9261,OQT 900 oF, and the

maximum repeated load is 1500 lb. perpendicular to the centerline of the arm.

The support is such that bending of the bar is negligible. (a) Determine its

diameter and length so that no permanent set occurs due to a 30 % overload

(limited by a stop). Use s ys = 0.6 s y , but check with equation (c) 6.3, Text, if

appropriate. (b) Determine the factor of safety according to the Soderberg

criterion if the load varies from 1200 lb. to 1500 lb.; minimum r d = 0.1 ,

D d = 3 . (c) The same as (b) except that the bar is shot-peened all over. What

other steps may be taken to improve the fatigue strength?

Solution:

e = 10 in

For AISI 9261, OQT 900 oF

s y = 192 ksi

su = 215 ksi

s ys = 0.6 s y = 115.2 ksi = 115,200 psi

Page 48 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

16T

(a) ss =

d3

T = Fe = (1.3)(1500)(10) = 19,500 in lb

16(19,500 )

115,200 =

d3

d = 0.95 in

use d = 1 in

117 117

6.3 ss = 0.3 = 0.3 = 117 ksi s ys

Dw (1)

(b) Soderberg Criterion

1 sms K f sas

= +

N s ys sns

sns = (0.6)(0.5)(215) = 64.5 ksi

Figure AF 12, r d = 0.1 , D d = 3

K t = 1.45

K f K t = 1.45

1

Fm = (1500 + 1200) = 1350 lb

2

Tm = (1350)(10) = 13,500 in lb = 13.5 in kips

16(13.5)

sms = = 68.8 ksi

(1)3

1

Fa = (1500 1200) = 150 lb

2

Ta = (150)(10) = 1500 in lb = 1.5 in kips

16(1.5)

sas = = 7.64 ksi

(1)3

1 68.8 (1.45)(7.64 )

= +

N 115.2 64.5

N = 1.30

(c) Shot-peened

s ys = 1.25(115.2 ) = 144 ksi

sns = 1.25(64.5) = 80.6 ksi

1 68.8 (1.45)(7.64 )

= +

N 144 80.6

N = 1.625

Page 49 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

300. A solid steel torsion bar is loaded through a 10 in. arm as shown. The load F

perpendicular to the center-line of the arm varies from 500 to 1000 lb.,

7

200,000 cycles. The bar is d = in. in diameter and 30 in. long; let D d = 3 ;

8

r d = 0.1 ; (a) Determine the maximum stress in the bar, the angular

deflection, and the scale (lb./in.) where F is applied. The support is such that

bending of the bar is negligible. (b) Select a material and heat treatment for

this bar for a minimum N = 1.2 , Soderberg criterion.

Solution:

Fig. AF 12, K f = 1.45

1

Fm = (1000 + 500) = 750 lb

2

1

Fa = (1000 500 ) = 250 lb

2

Tm = (750)(10) = 7500 in lb = 7.5 in kips

Ta = (250)(10) = 2500 in lb = 2.5 in kips

(log K f ) 3

K fl =

n

=

(200,000)(log1.45) 3 1.33

Kf 1.45

16T

ss =

d3

16(7.5)

sms = 3

= 57 ksi

7

8

16(2.5)

sas = 3

= 19 ksi

7

8

Page 50 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

TL 64TL

= =

JG d 4G

64(500 )(10 )(30 )

min = 4

= 0.4533 rad

7

(

11.5 10 6

)

8

64(1000 )(10 )(30 )

max = 4

= 0.9066 rad

7

(

11.5 10 6

)

8

F 1000

scale = = = 110.3 lb in

e (0.9066)(10)

1 sms K f sas

(c) = +

N s ys sns

0.085

10 6

sns = (0.6 )(0.5)su = 0.344 su

200,000

s ys = 0.6 s y

1

=

57

+

(1.33)(19)

1.2 0.6s y 0.344su

Use AISI 8760, OQT 800 oF

s y = 200 ksi

su = 220 ksi

N = 1.24

repeated maximum load of 325 lb.; mean coil diameter, 1 in.; deflection,

13/32 in. Determine (a) the wire size for average service, (b) the required

number of active coils, (c) the solid height, free length, and pitch (the ends are

squared and ground, the solid stress must be satisfactory, and the pitch angle

not excessive). (d) What amount of energy is stored when the load is 325 lb.?

Express in in-lb. and Btu.

Solution:

146

su = 0.19 , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]

Dw

Max. solid ss = 0.6su

Page 51 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

b = Dw , t = b

K FD (3b + 1.8t ) 2.4 FDm

ss= q m 2 2 = Kq

2b t b3

s sd = 0.324su , average service

2.4 FDm 0.324(146 )

Kq =

2b 3 b 0.19

F = 0.325 kip

1

Dm = 1 in

2

K q = 1.25 (assumed)

2.4(0.325)(1.5) 0.324(146 )

1.25

b3 = b 0.19

b = 0.2902 in

Table AT 15, use b = 0.313 in , # 1 wire size

D 1 .5

C= m = = 4 .8

b 0.313

Figure AF 15, K q = 1.275

(b) = =

Gt 3 (b 0.56t ) 0.44Gb 4

13 2.45(0.325)(1.5) N c

3

=

32 0.44(11,500 )(0.313)4

N c = 7.34

Free length = PN c + 2b

F = 0.325 lb

2.4 FDm 2.4(0.325)(1.5)

ss = Kq = 1.275 = 48.65 ksi

(0.313)

3 3

b

0.6(146 )

solid stress = = = 109.2 ksi

(0.313)0.19

109.2 13

solid deflection = = = 0.91 in

48.65 32

(P b )N c = 0.91

(P 0.313)(7.34) = 0.91

P = 0.437 in

Page 52 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

7

use P = in

16

7 27

Free length = PN c + 2b = (7.34 ) + 2(0.313) = 3.837 in 3 in

16 32

7

=

P 16

tan =

Dm (1.5)

= 5.3o < 10o

1 2 1 1 13

(d) U s = k = F = (0.325) = 0.066 in kip = 66 in lb

2 2 2 32

66

Us = = 0.085 Btu

778

302. A coil spring, of hard-drawn carbon steel, is to deflect 1 in. under a load of

100 lb. The outside coil diameter is to be 1 in. Compute the number of active

coils, (a) if the wire is round, 5/32 in. in diameter, (b) if the wire is square,

5/32 in. on the side, (c) if the wire is rectangular 1/8 x 3/16 in., long

dimension parallel to the axis, (d) If the wire is rectangular 3/16 x 1/8 in.,

short dimension parallel to the axis. (e) What is the maximum stress in each of

the above springs under the 100-lb load? (f) What is the ratio of the

approximate volumes, square- or rectangular-wire to round wire spring?

Solution:

Dm + Dw = 1 in

5

(a) Dw = in

32

5 27

Dm = 1 = in

32 32

27

Dm 32

C= = = 5.4

Dw 5

32

8FC 3 N c

=

GDw

8(100 )(5.4 ) N c

3

1=

5

(

11.5 10 6 )

32

N c = 14.3

Page 53 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

5

(b) Square, b = in

32

5 27

Dm = 1 = in

32 32

2.45 FD m3 N c

=

0.44Gb 4

3

27

2.45(100) N c

1= 32

4

6 5

( )

0.44 11.5 10

32

N c = 20.5

3 1

(c) b = in , t = in

16 8

1 7

Dm = 1 t = 1 = in

8 8

3

2.45FD m N c

= 3

Gt (b 0.56t )

3

7

2.45(100 ) N c

1= 8

3

1 3 1

( )

11.5 10 6 0.56

8 16 8

N c = 16.1

1 3

(d) b = in , t = in

8 16

3 13

Dm = 1 t = 1 = in

16 16

3

2.45FD m N c

= 3

Gt (b 0.56t )

3

13

2.45(100 ) N c

1= 16

3

3 1 3

( )

11.5 10 6 0.56

16 8 16

N c = 11.5

Page 54 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

8 FC

For (a) ss = K

Dw3

4(5.4) 1 0.615

K= + = 1.284

4(5.4) 4 5.4

8(100)(5.4)

ss = 1.284 = 72,320 psi

5 3

32

For (b) ss = K q 2 2

= Kq

2b t b3

27

Dm 32

C= = = 5.4

b 5

32

K q = 1.25

27

2.4(100)

ss = 1.25 32 = 66,355 psi

5

3

32

FD m (3b + 1.8t )

For (c) ss = K q

2b 2t 2

7

C = m = =7

D 8

t 1

8

K q = 1 .1

7

(100)

ss = 1.1 8 3 3 + 1.8 1 = 68,992 psi

3 1 2 16

2

8

2

16 8

FD m (3b + 1.8t )

For (d) ss = K q

2b 2t 2

13

Dm 16

C= = = 4.33

t 3

16

Page 55 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

K q = 1 .2

13

(100)

ss = 1.2 16 3 1 + 1.8 3 = 63,232 psi

1 3 2 8

2

16

2

8 16

Va = Dw2 ( Dm )N c

4

5 2 27

Va = (14.3) = 0.727 in 3

4 32 32

For (b) Square wire

Vb = b 2 ( Dm )N c

2

5 27

Vb = (20.5) = 1.327 in 3

32 32

For (c) rectangular wire

Vc = bt ( Dm )N c

3 1 7

Vc = (16.1) = 1.037 in3

16 8 8

For (d) rectangular wire

Vd = bt ( Dm )N c

1 3 13

Vd = (11.5) = 0.688 in 3

8 16 16

Ratio of volume

Square to round wire

V 1.327

= b = = 1.825

Va 0.727

Rectangular to round wire (long dimension parallel to the axis)

V 1.037

= c = = 1.426

Va 0.727

Rectangular to round wire (short dimension parallel to the axis)

V 0.688

= d = = 0.946

Va 0.727

Page 56 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

TENSION SPRINGS

305. Design two tension springs for a spring balance with a capacity of 200 lb.

Each spring supports a maximum load of 100 lb. The outside diameter must

not exceed 1 in. and the total length including end loops must not exceed 9

in. Select a material and determine the dimension, including wire diameter,

number of coils, and free length.

Solution:

Table AT 17, assume oil tempered wire

146

su = 0.19 ksi

Dw

87.5

s ys = 0.19 ksi

Dw

0.8(87.5) 70

ssd = 0.19

= 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]

Dw Dw

F = Fi + k

8 K cFDm

ss =

Dw3

2r D

C= m = m

Dw Dw

8FaC 3 N c

=

G Dw

GD

k = 3w

8C N

G D 8F C N c

3

k = 3 w a = Fa

8C N GDw

Fa = 100 lb = 0.10 kip

Figure AF 15, assume K c = 1.2

8 K cFi Dm 8 K cFa Dm

ss = +

Dw3 Dw3

8 K cFaC

s s = K c si +

Dw2

OD = Dm + Dw = 1.25 in

1.25

Dw =

C +1

6.21, assume si = 18 ksi

ssd = ss

Page 57 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

70 8(1.2 )(0.1)C

0.19

= (1.2 )(18) +

Dw Dw2

70(C + 1) 8(1.2 )(0.1)C (C + 1)

0.19 2

= 21.6 +

(1.25)0.19 (1.25)2

67.1(C + 1) = 21.6 + 0.1956C (C + 1)

0.19 2

0.19 2

C = 6 .7

1.25 1.25

Dw = = = 0.1623 in

C + 1 6 .7 + 1

Table AT 15, use Dw = 0.1620 in , 8 W & M

Dm = CDw = (6.7 )(0.1620 ) = 1.085 in

say Dm = 1.0 in

D 1 .0

C= m = = 6.17

Dw 0.1620

si = 17.7 ksi

To check, Fig. AF 15, K c = 1.15

8(1.15)(0.10 )(6.17 )

ss = 1.15(17.7 ) + = 89.20 ksi

(0.1620)2

70

ssd = = 98.92 ksi > 89.20 ksi , o.k.

(0.1620)0.19

Total length = Dw N c + 2(Dm + Dw )

9.5 = (0.162)N c + 2(1.0 + 0.162)

N c = 44.3 coils

Summary of answer:

Material, oil-tempered wire

Dw = 0.1620 in , 8 W & M

N c = 44.3 coils

Free length = 7.18 in.

306. Two helical tension springs are to be used in scales for weighing milk. The

capacity of the scales is 30 lb., each spring carries 15 lb. with a deflection of 3

9/16 in. The springs are made of No. 14, W & M steel wire, outside diameter,

29/32 in. (a) how many coils should each spring have? (b) What is the

maximum stress in the wire? What material should be used?

Page 58 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Solution:

k = 15 lb

9

= 3 in

16

(a) Table AT 15, No. 14 W &M

Dw = 0.0800 in

29

Dm = OD Dw = 0.0800 = 0.82625 in

32

D 0.82625

C= m = = 10.328

Dw 0.0800

8(k )C 3 N c

=

GDw

9 8(15)(10.328) N c

3

3 =

(

16 11.5 106 (0.080) )

N c = 24.8

(b) F = Fi + k

si Dw3

Fi =

8Dm

6.21, C = 10.328

si = 11,272 psi

(11,272)(0.08)3

Fi = = 2.743 lb

8(0.82625)

F = 2.743 + 15 = 17.743 lb

Figure AF 15, K c = 1.09

8 K c FDm 8(1.09 )(17.743)(0.82625)

ss = = = 79,476 psi

Dw3 (0.080)3

s 79,476

s ys s = = 99,345 psi = 99.345 ksi

0 .8 0 .8

Table AT 17, use Hard drawn wire

70 70

s ys = 0.19 = = 113 ksi > 99.345 ksi

Dw (0.080)0.19

307. A tension spring for a gas-control lever is made of Dw = 0.078 in steel wire;

inside diameter, 0.609 in.; number of coils, 55; free length including end

loops, 5 9/16 in. When the spring is extended to a length of 6 5/16 in., it must

exert a force 5 lb.; it must extend to (a) the initial tension, (b) the stress in

the spring caused by the initial tension (compare with the recommended

Page 59 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

maximum values), (c) the stress caused by the 5 -lb load, (d) the maximum

stress. What material should be used? (e) What energy is absorbed from the

point where the load is the initial tension until the springs length is 6 5/16 in.?

(Data courtesy Worthington Corporation.)

Solution:

Dw = 0.078 in

Dm Dw = 0.609 in

Dm = 0.609 + 0.078 = 0.687 in

D 0.687

C= m = = 8 .8

Dw 0.078

N c = 55

8FC 3 N c

=

GDw

1

F = 5 lb

2

5 9

= 6 5 = 0.75 in

16 16

8(k )(8.8) (5)

3

= 0.75 =

( )

11.5 106 (0.078)

k = 2.244 lb

8 F C 8(3.256 )(8.8)

(b) si = i 2 = = 12,000 psi

Dw (0.078)2

6.21, C = 8.8

si = 13,300 psi > 12,000 psi , ok

(c) F = 5.5 lb

8 K c FC

ss =

Dw2

C = 8 .8

Figure AF 15

K c = 1.1

8(1.1)(5.5)(8.8)

ss = = 22,284 psi

(0.078)2

k 2.244

k= = = 2.992 lb in

0.75

Page 60 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

F = k

5 9

= 9 5 = 3.75 in

16 16

F = Fi + k = 3.256 + (2.992)(3.75) = 14.476 lb

8 K c FC 8(1.1)(14.476 )(8.8)

ss = = = 58,651 psi

Dw2 (0.078)2

Table AT 16

s 58,651

s ys s = = 73,300 psi = 73.3 ksi

0 .8 0 .8

Table AT 17, use Hard drawn wire

70 70

s ys = 0.19 = = 113.658 ksi > 73.3 ksi

Dw (0.078)0.19

1 2 1

k = (2.992 )(0.75) = 0.8415 in lb

2

(e) U s =

2 2

TORSION SPRINGS

radius of 2 in.; the mean diameter is to be 2 in. Compute (a) the diameter of

the wire for average service, (b) the number of coils for a deflection of 180o

under the given torque, (c) the energy the spring has absorbed when the force

is 55 lb.

Solution:

T = M = Fa

F = 55 lb

a = 2 in

T = M = (55)(2) = 110 in lb

Dm = 2.5 in

182

Table AT 17, su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]

Dw

Average service

182 117.936 117,936

sd = (1.6 )(0.405)su = 0.648 0.1 = 0.1

ksi = psi

Dw Dw Dw0.1

KMc

(a) ss =

I

For round wire, assume K c = K ci = 1.08 , Table AT 18

D

c= w

2

Page 61 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

I Dw3

=

c 32

ss =

(1.08)(110)(32) = 117,936

Dw3 Dw0.1

Dw = 0.2060 in < 0.25 in

Table AT 15, use Dw = 0.2070 in , No. 5 W & M

r D 2

To check: = m = = 9.66 > 9 , ok

c Dw 0.2070

Table AT 18, K = 1.08

ss =

(1.08)(110)(32) = 136,430 psi

(0.2070 )3

117,936

ssd = = 138,054 psi > 136,430 psi

(0.2070)0.1

Therefore, use No. 5 W & M, Dw = 0.2070 in

MDm N c

(b) =

EI

6

E = 30 10 psi

Dw4

I=

64

= 180o =

64 MDm N c

=

EDw4

64(110 )(2 )N c

=

(30 106 )(0.2070)4

N c = 12.29

1 1

(c) U s = T = (110 )( ) = 172.8 in lb

2 2

312. A pivoted roller follower is held in contact with the cam by a torsion spring.

The moment exerted by the spring varies from 20 lb-in to 50 lb-in. as the

follower oscillates through 30o. The spring is made of AISI 6152 steel, OQT

1000 oF. What should be the value of Dw , Dm , and N c if the factor of safety

is 1.75 based on the Soderberg line? Would this be a conservative or risky

approach?

Solution:

AISI 6152, OQT 1000 oF

su = 184 ksi

Page 62 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

s y = 173 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 92 ksi

1

M m = (50 + 20 ) = 35 lb in

2

1

M a = (50 20 ) = 15 lb in

2

assume K = 1.08

32 KM m 32(1.08)(35) 385

sm = = = 3 psi

Dw3 Dw3 Dw

32 KM a 32(1.08)(15) 165

sa = = = 3 psi

Dw3 Dw3 Dw

1 s m sa

= +

N s y sn

1 385 165

= +

1.75 173,000 Dw 92,000 Dw3

3

Dw = 0.1916 in

Table AT 15, use Dw = 0.1920 in , No. 6 W & M

To solve for K

32(35)K

sm = = 50,369 K psi

(0.1920)3

32(15)K

sa = = 21,587 K psi

(0.1920)3

1 50,369 K 20,587 K

= +

1.75 173,000 92,000

K = 1.0868

Table AT 18 K ci = K = 1.0868

r Dm

= = 9.32 > 9 , ok

c Dw

Dm = 9.32(0.1920) = 1.7894 in

7

use Dm = 1 in = 1.875 in

8

MDm N c 64MDm N c

= =

EI EDw4

30 64(50 20 )(1.875)N c

=

180 (30 106 )(0.1920)4

N c = 5.93

Summary of answer:

Dw = 0.1920 in , No. 6 W & M

Page 63 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

7

Dm = 1 in

8

N c = 5.93 , N > 1.4 , therefore conservative.

315. A cantilever flat spring of uniform strength, Fig. 6.20, Text, is to absorb an

energy impact of 500 ft-lb. Let the thickness of the steel, AISI 1095, OQT 900

o

F, be in. and let the maximum stress be half of the yield strength. (a) Find

the width b of the spring at the widest point in terms of the length L .

Determine values of b for lengths of 36 in., 48 in., 60 in., and 72 in. (b)

Determine the deflection of the spring for each set of values found in (a).

Solution.

Fig. 6/20

6 FL

sB =

bh 2

6 FL3

=

Ebh3

AISI 1095, OQT 900 oF, s y = 104 ksi , Table AT 9

s B = 0.5s y = 0.5(104 ) = 52 ksi = 52,000 psi

1

Us = F

2

s bh 2

F= B

6L

s bh 2 L3 s B L2

= 6 B 3

=

6 L Ebh Eh

1 s bh 2 s B L2 1 s B2 bhL

U s = B =

2 6 L Eh 12 E

U s = 500 ft lb = 6000 in lb

Page 64 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

(52,000)2 b 1 L

6000 =

1 2

12 30 106

bL = 1598 in 2

1598 in 2

b=

L

1598 in 2

L = 36 in , b = = 44.4 in

36 in

1598 in 2

L = 48 in , b = = 33.3 in

48 in

1598 in 2

L = 60 in , b = = 26.6 in

60 in

1598 in 2

L = 72 in , b = = 22.2 in

72 in

s B L2

(b) =

Eh

L = 36 in , =

(52,000 )(36 )

2

= 4.4928 in

1

(

30 10 6

)

2

L = 48 in , =

(52,000 )(48)

2

= 7.9872 in

6 1

(

30 10 )

2

L = 60 in , =

(52,000 )(60 )

2

= 12.48 in

6 1

(

30 10 )

2

L = 72 in , =

( 52,000)(72 )

2

= 17.9712 in

6 1

(

30 10 )

2

317. One of the carbon contacts on a circuit breaker is mounted on the free end of

a phosphor-bronze beam ( = 0.35 ). This beam has the shape of the beam

9 1 1

shown in Fig. 6.24, Text, with b = 1 in. , b = in. , L = 4 in. , and h = in.

16 2 16

When the contacts are closed, the beam deflects in. Compute (a) the force

on the contacts, (b) the maximum stress.

Solution:

Page 65 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Figure 6.24

6 FL 3WL

s= 2 =

bh bh 2

= 1

(

K FL3 1 2 ) (

K WL3 1 2

= 1

)

3EI 6 EI

9

b 16

= = 0.5625

b 1

Figure 6.25, K1 = 1.14

= 1

(

K FL3 1 2 )

3EI

E = 16 106 psi (phosphor bronze)

bh3

as a beam, I =

12

= 1

(

4 K FL 1 2

3

)

Ebh 3

=

3

[

3 4(1.14 )F (4.5) 1 (0.35)

2

]

3

4

(16 106 )(1) 161

F = 8 lb

6 FL 6(8)(4.5)

(b) s = = 2

= 55,296 psi

bh 2 1

(1)

16

318. A cantilever leaf spring 26 in. long is to support a load of 175 lb. The

construction is similar to that shown in Fig. 6.22 (a), Text. The leaves are to

be 2 in. wide, 3/16 in. thick; SAE 9255 steel, OQT 1000 oF; 107 cycles (

6.26). (a) How many leaves should be used if the surfaces are left as rolled?

(b) The same as (a) except that the leaves are machined and the surfaces are

not decarburized. (c) The same as (b), except that the surface is peened all

over. (d) Which of these springs absorbs the most energy? Compute for each:

(e) What are the load and deflection of the spring in (b) when the maximum

stress is the standard-test yields strength?

Solution:

Figure 6.22 (a)

6 FL

sA = 2

bh

Page 66 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

6 FL3

A =

Ebh3

b = N1b

F = 175 lb

b = 2 in

3

h = in

16

L = 26 in

6.26, SAE 9255, OQT 1000 oF

su = 180 ksi

s y = 160 ksi

3

t= in = 0.1875 in

16

sd = 83.75 ksi

sd = 0.275(83.75) = 23 ksi = 23,000 psi

6 FL

sA = 2

bh

6(175)(26 )

23,000 = 2

3

N 1 (2 )

16

N1 = 16.88

say N1 = 17

Surface factor = 0.75

sd = 0.75(83.75) = 62.8 ksi = 62,800 psi

6 FL

sA = 2

bh

6(175)(26 )

62,800 = 2

3

N 1 (2 )

16

N1 = 6.2

say N1 = 7

Page 67 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

6 FL

sA = 2

bh

6(175)(26 )

78,500 = 2

3

N 1 (2 )

16

N1 = 4.95

say N1 = 5

1

(d) U s = F

2

F = 175 lb

6 FL3

=

EN1bh 3

For (a) N1 = 17

6(175)(26 )

3

= 3

= 2.745 in

3

( )

30 10 (17 )(2 )

6

16

1

U s = (175)(2.745) = 240 in lb

2

For (b) N1 = 7

6(175)(26 )

3

= 3

= 6.666 in

3

( )

30 10 6 (7 )(2 )

16

1

U s = (175)(6.666 ) = 583 in lb

2

For (c) N1 = 5

6(175)(26 )

3

= 3

= 9.332 in

3

( )

30 10 (5)(2 )

6

16

1

U s = (175)(9.332 ) = 817 in lb

2

Page 68 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

6 FL 6 FL

sd = 2

=

bh N1bh 2

6 F (26 )

160,000 = 2

(7 )(2) 3

16

load F = 505 lb

6(505)(26 )

3

= 3

= 19.24 in

3

( )

30 10 (7 )(2 )

6

16

319. The rear spring of an automobile has 9 leaves, each with an average thickness

of 0.242 in. and a width of 2 in.; material is SAE 9261, OQT 1000 oF. The

length of the spring is 56 in. and the total weight on the spring is 1300 lb.

Assume the spring to have the form shown in Fig. 6.22 (b), Text. Determine

(a) the rate of the spring, (b) the maximum stress caused by the dead weight.

(c) What approximate repeated maximum force (0 to Fmax ) would cause

impending fatigue in 105 cycles, the number of applications of the maximum

load expected during the ordinary life of a car? (If the leaves are cold rolled

to induce a residual compressive stress on the surfaces, the endurance limit as

su 2 should be conservative.)

Solution:

Figure 6.22 (b)

3FL

sA =

2bh 2

3FL3

A =

8Ebh 3

F = 1300 lb

h = 0.242 in

N1 = 9

b = 2 in

L = 56 in

F 8Ebh3

(a) Rate , k = =

A 3L3

k= =

( )

8 EN1bh 3 8 30 10 6 (9 )(2 )(0.242 )

3

= 116.21lb in

3(56 )

3

3L3

(b) s A = = = 103,590 psi

2(9 )(2 )(0.242 )

2 2

2 N1bh

Page 69 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

su = 192 ksi

192

sn = = 96 ksi

2

3FL

sA =

2 N1bh 2

3F (56 )

96,000 =

2(9 )(2 )(0.242 )

2

F = 1200 lb

321. The front spring of an automobile is made similar to Fig. 6.23, Text. The

average thickness for each of the 6 leaves, 0.213 in.; material is SAE 9255,

OQT 1000 oF. The load caused by the weight of the car is 775 lb. (a) What

stress is caused by a force of twice the dead weight? (b) What load would

stress the spring to the yield strength?

Solution:

Figure 6.23

6 FL 3WL 3WL

s= 2 = 2

=

bh bh N1bh 2

W = 775 lb , N1 = 6 , b = 2 in , h = 0.213 in

36 in

L= = 18 in

2

(a) W = 2(775) = 1550 lb

3(1550 )(18)

s= = 153,740 psi

(6)(2)(0.213)2

(b) SAE 9255, OQT 1000 oF

s y = 160 ksi

6 FL 3WL 3WL

s= 2

= 2

=

bh bh N1bh 2

3W (18)

160,000 =

(6)(2)(0.213)2

W = 1613 lb

- end -

Page 70 of 70

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

334. A round steel rod made of structural steel, AISI C1020, as rolled, is to be used as

a column, centrally loaded with 10 kips; N = 3 . Determine the diameter for (a)

L = 25 in. , (b) L = 50 in. (c) The same as (a) and (b) except that the material is

AISI 8640, OQT 1000 F. Is there any advantage in using this material rather than

structural steel?

Solution:

For AISI C1020,as rolled

s y = 48 ksi

F = 10 kips

N =3

(a) Le = L = 25 in.

Consider first J.B. Johnson

Le

2

sy

Fc = NF = s y A1 2

k

4 E

2

D

A=

4

D

k=

4

E = 30 103 ksi

2

(48) 25

D

2

(3)(10) = (48) D 1 2 4 3

(

4 4 30 10 )

4

30 = 12D 2 1 2 2

D

48

30 = 12D 2

D = 1.096 in

1

say D = 1 in = 1.0625 in

16

Page 1 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Le 25

= = 94 < 120 o.k.

k 1.0625

4

(b) Le = L = 50 in.

Consider Eulers Equation

2 EA

Fc = NF = 2

Le

k

D 2

(

2 30 103 ) 4

(3)(10 ) =

2

50

D

4

3 4

30 = 0.1875 D

D = 1.507 in

1

say D = 1 in = 1.5 in

2

Le 50

= = 133 > 120 o.k.

k 1 .5

4

s y = 150 ksi

1

Le 2 2 E 2

=

k s y

1

(

Le 2 2 30 103 2

=

)

k 150 = 62.83

For (a) Le = L = 25 in.

Consider first J.B. Johnson

Le

2

sy

Fc = NF = s y A1 2

k

4 E

Page 2 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

2

(150) 25

D

2

(3)(10) = (150) D 1 2 4 3

(

4 4 30 10 )

12.5

30 = 37.5D 2 1 2 2

D

468.75

30 = 37.5D 2

D = 1.23 in

say D = 1.25 in

Le 25

= = 80 > 62.83 use Eulers equation

k 1.25

4

2 EA

Fc = NF = 2

Le

k

D 2

(

2 30 103 ) 4

(3)(10) =

2

25

D

4

3 4

30 = 0.75 D

D = 1.0657 in

1

say D = 1 in = 1.0625 in

16

Le 25

= = 94 > 62.83 ok

k 1.0625

4

For (b) Le = L = 50 in.

Consider Eulers Equation

2 EA

Fc = NF = 2

Le

k

Page 3 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

D 2

2 (30 103 )

(3)(10) = 4

2

50

D

4

3 4

30 = 0.1875 D

D = 1.507 in

1

say D = 1 in = 1.5 in

2

Le 50

= = 133 > 62.83 o.k.

k 1 .5

4

There is no advantage.

335. A hollow circular column, made of AISI C1020, structural steel, as rolled, is to

support a load of 10,000 lb. Let L = 40 in , Di = 0.75Do , and N = 3 . Determine

Do by (a) using either Eulers or the parabolic equation; (b) using the straight-

line equation. (c) What factor of safety is given by the secant formula for the

dimensions found in (a)?

Solution:

For AISI C1020, as rolled

s y = 48 ksi

Le = L = 40 in

F = 10,000 lb = 10 kips

N =3

Di = 0.75Do

I

k=

A

(Do4 Di4 )

I=

64

[ 4

]

= Do4 (0.75Do ) = 0.033556 Do4

A= =

[

(Do2 Di2 ) Do2 (0.75Do )2 ]

= 0.343612 Do2

4 4

0.033556 Do4

k= = 0.3125Do

0.343612 Do2

Page 4 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Le

2

sy

Fc = NF = s y A1 2

k

4 E

2

25

(48)

0.3125Do

(3)(10) = (48)(0.343612)Do2 1 2 4 3

(

4 30 10 )

30 = 16.493376 Do2 10.9519

Do = 1.576 in

9

say Do = 1 in = 1.5625 in

16

Le 40

= = 82 < 120 o.k.

k 0.3125(1.5625)

F L

= 16,000 70

A k

10,000 40

2

= 16,000 70

0.343612 Do 0.3125 Do

10,000 = 5498 Do2 3078 Do

Do = 1.6574 in

5

say Do = 1 in = 1.625 in

8

Le 40

= = 78.8 < 120 o.k.

k 0.3125(1.625)

NF ec Le NF

sy = 1 + sec

A k 2 2k EA

Do = 1.5625 in

k = 0.3125Do = 0.4883 in

A = 0.343612 Do2 = 0.8389 in 2

Page 5 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

ec

= 0.25 , (i7.8)

k2

N (10) 40 10 N

1 + 0.25 sec

48 =

0.8389 2(0.4883) (30 103 )(0.8389)

[ (

48 = 11.92 N 1 + 0.25 sec 0.81645 N )]

N = 2.289

336. A column is to be built up of -in., AISI C1020, rolled-steel plates, into a square

box-section. It is 6 ft long and centrally loaded to 80,000 lb. (a) Determine the

size of section for N = 2.74 . (b) Compute N from the secant formula for the

size found and compare with 2.74.

Solution:

For AISI C1020, rolled-steel plate

s y = 48 ksi

b 4 (b 1) b 4 (b 1)

4 4

I= =

12 12 12

A = b (b 1)

2 2

b 4 (b 1)

4

I

k= =

A [

12 b 2 (b 1)

2

]

Le = L = 6 ft = 72 in

F = 80,000 lb = 80 kips

(a) N = 2.74

Consider J.B. Johnson

Le

2

sy

NF = s y A1 2

k

4 E

72

2

(48)

(2.74)(80) = (48)A 1 2 k 3

4 (30 10 )

10.085 A

219.2 = 48 A

k2

Page 6 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

try b = 3.23 in

k=

(3.23) (3.23 1)

4 4

2 = 1.1331 in

12[(3.23) (3.23 1) ]

2

2 2 2

10.085(5.46 )

219.2 = 48(5.46 ) = 219.2 ok

(1.1331)2

Therefore use b = 3.23 in

Le 72

= = 63.54 < 120 o.k.

k 1.1331

1

b = 3.23 in or b = 3 in

4

NF ec Le NF

(b) s y = 1 + sec

A k 2 2k EA

ec

= 0.25 , (i7.8)

k2

N (80) 72 80 N

1 + 0.25 sec

48 =

5.46 2(1.1331) (30 103 )(5.46)

[ (

48 = 14.652 N 1 + 0.25 sec 0.70214 N )]

N = 2.2 < 2.74

337. A column is to be made of -in structural steel plates (AISI 1020, as rolled),

welded into an I-section as shown in Table AT 1 with G = H . The column, 15 ft

long, is to support a load of 125 kips. (a) Determine the cross-sectional

dimensions from the straight-line equation. (Using either Johnsons or Eulers

equation, compute the equivalent stress and the factor of safety. (c) Compute N

from the secant formula.

Solution:

For AISI C1020, as rolled

s y = 48 ksi

Le = L = 15 ft = 180 in

F = 125 kips

Page 7 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Table AT 1.

G=H

( )

A = GH gh = H 2 (H 0.5)(H 1) = H 2 H 2 1.5H + 0.5 = 1.5H 0.5 = 0.5(3H 1)

1 GH 3 gh3 1 H 4 (H 0.5)(H 1) H 4 (H 0.5)(H 1)

3 3

k= = =

12 GH gh 12 0.5(3H 1) 6(3H 1)

L

F = 16,000 A1 0.0044

k

125,000 = 16,000 A1 0.0044

(180)

k

0.792

7.8125 = A1

k

use H = 7.37 in

k=

(7.37 )4 (7.37 0.5)(7.37 1)3 = 3.04527 in

6(3(7.37 ) 1)

A = 0.5[3(7.37 ) 1] = 10.555 in

0.792

7.8125 10.5551 = 7.81

3.04527

Therefore use H = 7.37 in

3

Or H = 7 in = 7.375 in

8

L 180

(b) Consider J.B. Johnson, e = = 59 < 120

k 3.04527

s

se = y

N

F 125

se = = = 13.8 ksi

Le

2

180

2

sy (48)

A 1 k

10.555 1 3.04527

4 2 E (

4 2 30 103 )

Page 8 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

sy 48

N= = = 3.48

se 13.8

NF ec Le NF

sy = 1 + sec

A k 2 2k EA

ec

= 0.25 , (i7.8)

k2

1 + 0.25 sec

48 =

10.555 2(3.04527 ) (30 10 )(10.555)

3

[ (

48 = 11.843 N 1 + 0.25 sec 0.5872 N )]

N = 2 .8

338. The link shown is to be designed for N = 2.5 to support an axial compressive

load that varies from 0 to 15 kips; L = 20 in ; Material AISI 1030, as rolled. (a)

Determine the diameter considering buckling only. (b) Determine the diameter

considering varying stresses and using the Soderberg line (perhaps too

conservative). Estimate an appropriate strength-reduction factor (see Fig. AF 6).

(c) Keeping in mind that the stress is always compressive, do you think that the

answer from (a) will do? Discuss.

Problem 338.

Solution:

For AISI C1030, as rolled

s y = 51 ksi

su = 80 ksi

1 1

( )

Le 2 2 E 2 2 2 30 103 2

= =

k s y 51 = 108

L = 20 in

N = 2 .5

(a) F = 15 kips

Consider J.B. Johnson

Page 9 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Le

2

s y

NF = s y A1 2

k

4 E

D

k=

4

D 2

A=

4

Le = L = 20 in

20

2

(51) D

2

(2.5)(15) = (51) D 1 2 4 3

4 4 (30 10 )

2.72

37.5 = 12.75 D 2 1 2 2

D

34.68

37.5 = 12.75 D 2

D = 1.101 in

3

say D = 1 in = 1.1875 in

16

Le 20

= = 68 < 108 o.k.

k 1.1875

4

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(80) = 40 ksi

Size factor = 0.85

sn = 0.85(40) = 34 ksi

K f = 2.8 (Figure AF 6)

1 sm K f sa

= +

N sy sn

F = 0 to 15 kips

Fm = Fa = 7.5 kips

sem = sea

1 s

= em +

(2.8)sem

2.5 51 34

sem = 3.923 ksi

Page 10 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Le

2

sem

Fm = sem A1 2

k

4 E

20

2

(51) D

2

D

7.5 = (3.923) 1 2 4 3

4 4 (30 10 )

2.72

7.5 = 0.98 D 2 1 2 2

D

2.67

7.5 = 0.98 D 2

D = 1.65 in

5

say D = 1 in = 1.625 in

8

Le 20

= = 49 < 108 o.k.

k 1.625

4

(c) The answer in (a) will not do because it is lower than (b)

339. The connecting link for a machine (see figure) is subjected to a load that varies

fro + 450 (tension) to 250 lb. The cross section is to have the proportions

G = 0.4 H , t = 0.1H , fillet radius r 0.05 H ; L = 10 in ; material, AISI C1020,

as rolled. (a) Considering buckling only, determine the dimensions for a design

factor of 2.5. (b) For the dimension found compute the factor of safety from the

Soderberg criterion.

Solution:

For AISI C1030, as rolled

s y = 48 ksi

su = 65 ksi

Page 11 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Table AT 1

G = 0 .4 H

t = 0.1H

r 0.05 H

A = GH gh

g = G t = 0.4 H 0.1H = 0.3H

h = H 2(0.1H ) = 0.8 H

A = (0.4 H )(H ) (0.3H )(0.8H ) = 0.16 H 2

1 GH 3 gh3 1 (0.4 H )(H ) (0.3H )(0.8 H )

3 3

k= = = 0.35824 H

12 GH gh 12 (

0.16 H 2 )

Le

2

s y

NF = s y A1 2

k

4 E

F = 350 lb = 0.35 kip

Le = 10 in

10

2

48

2

( 2

(2.5)(0.35) = (48) 0.16 H 1 2

) (0.35824 H )

(

4 30 10 3

)

0.875 = 7.68 H 2 0.2425

H = 0.3815 in

Le 10

= = 73 < 120 ok

k (0.35824)(0.3815)

15

say H = in = 0.46875 in

32

3

G = 0.4 H = 0.1875 in = in

16

3

t = 0.1H = 0.046875 in = in

64

Page 12 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

A = 0.16(0.46875) = 0.0352 in 2

2

k = 0.35824(0.46875) = 0.1679 in

Fmin 350

smin = s e = A = 0.0352 = 11,600 psi = 11.6 ksi

Le

2

10

2

s y 48

1 k 1 0.1679

(

4 2 E 4 2 30 103 )

F + 450

smax = max = = +12,800 psi = +12.8 psi

A 0.0352

1

sm = (12.8 11.6 ) = 0.6 ksi

2

1

sa = (12.8 + 11.6 ) = 12.1 ksi

2

su = 0.5sn = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi

Size factor = 0.85

su = 0.85(32.5) ksi = 27.62 ksi

Figure AF 9, r = 0.05H = 0.05(0.46875) = 0.023

h = 1.5H = 15.(0.46875) = 0.7031 in

d = H = 0.4688 in

r 0.05 H

= = 0.05

d H

h 1 .5 H

= = 1 .5

d H

K t = 2.65

1 1

q= = = 0.70

0.01 0.01

1+ 1+

r 0.023

K f = 0.70(2.65 1) + 1 = 2.2

1 sm K f sq

= +

N sy sn

1 0.6 (2.2 )(12.1)

= +

N 48 27.62

N = 1.024

CHECK PROBLEMS

341. The link shown is subjected to an axial compressive load of 15 kips. Made of

AISI C1030, as rolled, it has sectional length of 20 in. Assume a loose fit with the

Page 13 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

pins. What is (a) the critical load for this column, (b) the design factor, (c) the

equivalent stress under a load of 15 kips? What material does the secant formula

indicate as satisfactory for the foregoing load, when (e) ec k 2 = 0.25 , (f)

L

e= e .

400

Solution:

For AISI C1030, as rolled

s y = 51 ksi

b = 0.75 in

h = 1.75 in

A = bh = (0.75)(1.75) = 1.3125 in 2

For loose fit

bh3

I=

12

I bh 3 h 1.75

k= = = = = 0.5052 in

A 12bh 12 12

Le 20

= = 39.6 < 108 for AISI C1030, as rolled

k 0.5052

use J.B. Johnson equation

Le

2

20

2

sy 51

(a) Fc = s y A 1 k

= (51)(1.3125) 1 0.5052

= 62.42 kips

4 2 E 4 2 (30,000)

(b) Fc = NF

F 62.42

N= c = = 4.16

F 15

s 51

(c) se = y = = 12.26 ksi

N 4.16

F 15

(d) Actual s = = = 11.43 ksi

A 1.3125

Page 14 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Secant Formula

NF ec Le NF

sy = 1 + sec

A k 2 2k EA

ec

(e) 2 = 0.25

k

62.42 20 62.42

sy = 1 + 0.25 sec = 64.4 ksi

1.3125 ( )

2(0.5052) 30 10 (1.3125)

3

Le 20

(f) e = = = 0.05 in

400 400

h 1.75

c= = = 0.875 in

2 2

ec (0.05)(0.875)

= = 0.1714

k2 (0.5052)2

62.42 20 62.42

sy = 1 + 0.1714 sec = 59.12 ksi

1.3125 2(0.5052 ) ( )

30 10 (1.3125)

3

343. A schedule-40, 4-in. pipe is used as a column. Some of its properties are:

Do = 4.5 in , Di = 4.026 in , I = 3.174 sq.in. , L = 15 ft ; material equivalent to

AISI C1015, as rolled. The total load to be carried is 200 kips. (a) What

minimum number of these columns should be used if a design factor of 2.5 is

desired and the load evenly distributed among them? For the approximately fixed

ends, use Le = 0.65L as recommended by AISC. (b) What is the equivalent stress

in the column?

Solution:

For AISI C1015, as rolled

s y = 45.5 ksi

1 1

( )

Le 2 2 E 2 2 2 30 103 2

= =

k s y 45.5 = 114

L = 15 ft = 180 in

Le = 0.65L = 0.65(180) = 117 in

Le 117

= = 77.5 < 114

k 1.509

Page 15 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Le

2

sy

s y A k (45.5)(3.174) 45.5(77.5)

2

(a) F = 1 = 1 2 = 44.4 kips

N 4 2 E 2.5 4 (30,000)

No. of columns

200

= = 4.5 say 5 columns

44.4

F

(b) se = A

Le

2

s y

1 k

4 2 E

200

F= = 40 kips

5

40

se = 3.174 = 16.4 ksi

77.5

2

45.5

1 k

4 2 (30,000)

properties are (see figure); k x = 4.35 in , k y = 2.54 in , area A = 14.4 sq.in. ,

I x = 272.9 in 4 , I y = 93.0 in 4 ; length L = 30 ft , material AISI 1022, as rolled. Let

the ends be a little fixed with Le = 0.8L and determine the critical load (a)

according to the Johndon or the Euler equation; (b) according to the secant

formula if ec k 2 is assumed to be 0.25.

Page 16 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Solution:

For AISI C1022, as rolled

s y = 52 ksi

1 1

Le 2 2 E 2 2 2 (30 103 ) 2

= = = 107

k s y 52

(a) k = 2.54 in

I = 93.0 in 4

Le = 0.8(30)(12) = 288 in

Le 288

= = 113.4 > 107

k 2.54

Use Eulers Equation

2 EA 2 (30,000)(14.4)

Fc = = = 332 kips

Le

2

(113.4)2

k

NF ec Le NF

sy = 1 + sec

A k 2 2k EA

F 113.4 Fc

52 = c 1 + 0.25 sec

14.4 2 (30 10 )(14.4)

3

F

{ [

52 = c 1 + 0.25 sec 0.0863

14.4

Fc ]}

Fc = 273 kips

348. A 4 x 3 x -in. angle is used as a flat-ended column, 5 ft. long, with the resultant

load passing through the centroid G (see figure); k x = 1.25 in , k y = 0.86 in ,

ku = 1.37 in , kv = 0.64 in , A = 3.25 sq.in. Find the safe load if N = 2.8 and the

material is (a) structural steel, (b) magnesium alloy AZ 91C (i7.12.\, Text), (c)

magnesium alloy AZ 80A, (d) magnesium alloy AZ 80A as before, but use the

Johnson formula and compare.

Page 17 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Solution:

L (5)(12 )

Le = = = 30 in

2 2

k = k min = 0.64 in

Le 30

= = 46.875

k 0.64

(a) Structural steel, s y = 48 ksi

Le

= 46.875 < 120

k

use J.B. Johnson

Le

2

sy

s y A k (48)(3.25) 48(46.875)

2

F= 1 = 1 2 = 50.75 kips

N 4 2 E 2.8 4 (30,000 )

(b) magnesium alloy AZ 91C

NF C

= 2

A Le

C

1+ 6

k

64.4 10

C = 57,000

(2.8)(F ) = 57,000

psi

57,000(46.875)

2

3.25

1+

64.4 106

F = 22,467 lb = 22.467 kips

(c) magnesium alloy AZ 80A

C = 82,900

(2.8)(F ) = 82,900

psi

82,900(46.875)

2

3.25

1+

64.4 106

F = 25,134 lb = 25.134 kips

Le

2

y

s y A

s

F= 1 2 =

k (36)(3.25) 1 36(46.875)2 = 39 kips > 25.134 kips

N 4 E 2.8 4 (30,000)

2

- end -

Page 18 of 18

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

471. A short stub shaft, made of SAE 1035, as rolled, receivers 30 hp at 300 rpm via a

12-in. spur gear, the power being delivered to another shaft through a flexible

coupling. The gear is keyed (profile keyway) midway between the bearings. The

pressure angle of the gear teeth = 20 o ; N = 1.5 based on the octahedral shear

stress theory with varying stresses. (a) Neglecting the radial component R of the

tooth load W , determine the shaft diameter. (b) Considering both the tangential

and the radial components, compute the shaft diameters. (c) Is the difference in

the results of the parts (a) and (b) enough to change your choice of the shaft size?

Problem 471.

Solution:

For SAE 1035, as rolled

s y = 55 ksi

su = 85 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(85) = 42.5 ksi

A = W cos

63,000hp 63,000(30 )

T= = = 6300 in lb

n 300

AD

T=

2

A(12 )

6300 =

2

A = 1050 lb

A = W cos

1050 = W cos 20

W = 1118 lb

Shear stress

16T 16(6300 )

ss = =

d3 d3

100,800

ss = sms =

d3

sas = 0

Page 1 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

bending stress

From Table AT 2

FL

M=

4

(a) Negligible R :

AL (1050 )(16 )

M= = = 4200 in lb

4 4

32 M 32(4200 ) 134,400

s= = =

d3 d3 d3

sm = 0

134,400

sa = s =

d3

s K f sa

se = n s m +

sy SF

For profile keyway

K f = 2 .0

K fs = 1.6

SF = 0.85

K s

se = f a =

(2.0)(134,400) = 100,661

SF ( )

(0.85) d 3 d3

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

sns sn 42.5 1

= = =

s ys s y 55 1.294

sns 1 100,800 24,796

ses = sms = 3

=

s ys 1.294 d d3

Octahedral-shear theory

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 100,661 2

2 2

24,796

= +

3

(

1.5 42,500d 0.577 42,500d 3 )

d = 1.569 in

Page 2 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

11

use d = 1 in

16

WL (1118)(16 )

M= = = 4472 in lb

4 4

32 M 32(4472 ) 143,104

s= = =

d3 d3 d3

sm = 0

143,104

sa = s =

d3

K s

se = f a =

(2.0)(143,104) = 107,180

SF (0.85)( d 3 ) d3

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 107,180 2

2 2

24,796

= +

3

(

1.5 42,500d 0.577 42,500d 3 )

d = 1.597 in

11

use d = 1 in

16

(c) The difference in the results of the parts (a) and (b) is not enough to change the choice

of the shaft size.

472. A cold-finished shaft, AISI 1141, is to transmit power that varies from 200 to 100

and back to 200 hp in each revolution at a speed of 600 rpm. The power is

received by a 20-in. spur gear A and delivered by a 10-in. spur gear C. The

tangential forces have each been converted into a force ( A and C shown) and a

couple (not shown). The radial component R of the tooth load is to be ignored in

the initial design. Let 2 and, considering varying stresses with the maximum

shear theory, compute the shaft diameter.

Page 3 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Solution:

For AISI 1141, cold-finished

s y = 90 ksi

sn = 50 ksi

sn 1

=

s y 1.8

SF = 0.85

63,000hp

T=

n

63,000(200 )

Tmax = = 21,000 in lb

600

63,000(100 )

Tmin = = 10,500 in lb

600

1 1

Tm = (Tmax + Tmin ) = (21,000 + 10,500 ) = 15,750 in lb

2 2

1 1

Ta = (Tmax Tmin ) = (21,000 10,500 ) = 5,250 in lb

2 2

16T

ss =

d3

16(15,750 ) 252,000

sms = =

d3 d3

16(5250 ) 24,000

sas = =

d3 d3

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

For profile keyway

K f = 2 .0

K fs = 1.6

sns sn 1

= =

s ys s y 1.8

1 252,000 (1.6)(84,000) 94,894

ses = 3

+ =

1.8 d 0.85 d 3 d3

Bending stress, negligible radial load

T = 21,000 in lb at 200 hp

For A:

20

A = T

2

A(10 ) = 21,000

Page 4 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

A = 2100 lb at 200 hp

For C:

10

C = T

2

C (5) = 21,000

C = 4200 lb at 200 hp

[ M ]

= 0 A(10 ) + D(25) = C (15)

B

at 200 hp

(2100)(10) + D(25) = (4200)(15)

D = 1680 lb

[ F V =0 ]

A+C = B + D

at 200 hp

2100 + 4200 = B + 1680

B = 4620 lb

At 200 hp: A = 2100 lb , B = 4620 lb , C = 4200 lb , D = 1680 lb

Shear Diagram

Maximum moment at B

M = (2100)(10 ) = 21,000 in lb

32 M 32(21,000 ) 672,000

s= = =

d3 d3 d3

sm = 0

672,000

sa = s =

d3

s

se = n s m +

K f sa

= 0+

(2.0)(672,000) = 503,304

sy SF 0.85 d 3 d3

Page 5 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

94,894

ses =

d3

Maximum Shear Theory

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.5sn

1

1 503,304 2

2 2

94,894

= +

3

(

2 50,000d 0.5 50,000d 3 )

d = 2.78 in

3

use d = 2 in

4

475. A shaft S, of cold-drawn AISI 1137, is to transmit power received from shaft W,

which turns at 2000 rpm, through the 5-in. gear E and 15-in. gear A. The power

is delivered by the 10-in. gear C to gear G, and it varies from 10 hp to 100 hp and

back to 10 hp during each revolution of S. The design is to account for the

varying stresses, with calculations based on the octahedral shear stress theory.

Let N = 1.8 and compute the shaft diameter, using only the tangential driving

loads for the first design.

Solution.

For AISI 1137, cold drawn

s y = 93 ksi

su = 103 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(103) = 51.5 ksi

sn sns 51.5 1

= = =

s y s ys 93 1.806

63,000hp

T=

n

5 in. E

n= (2000 rpm) = 667 rpm

15 in. A

Page 6 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

63,000(100 )

Tmax = = 9450 in lb

667

63,000(10 )

Tmin = = 945 in lb

667

1 1

Tm = (Tmax + Tmin ) = (9450 + 945) = 5197.5 in lb

2 2

1 1

Ta = (Tmax Tmin ) = (9450 945) = 4252.5 in lb

2 2

16T

ss =

d3

16(5197.5) 83,160

sms = =

d3 d3

16(4252.5) 68,040

sas = =

d3 d3

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

For profile keyway

K f = 2 .0

K fs = 1.6

SF = 0.85

1 83,160 (1.6)(68,040) 55,425

ses = +

3

=

1.806 d 0.85 d 3 d3

Bending stress, using only tangential loads

T = 9450 in lb

15

A = T

2

A(7.5) = 9450

A = 1260 lb

For C:

10

C = T

2

Page 7 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

C (5) = 9450

C = 1890 lb

[ M B ]

= 0 6 A + 20 D = 14C

6(1260) + 20 D = 14(1890)

D = 945 lb

[ F =0

V ]

A+C = B + D

1260 + 1890 = B + 945

B = 2205 lb

Shear diagram

Maximum moment at B

M = (1260)(6) = 7560 in lb

32 M 32(7560 ) 241,920

s= = =

d3 d3 d3

sm = 0

241,920

sa = s =

d3

s K f sa (2.0 )(241,920 ) 181,189

se = n s m + = =

sy SF 0.85 d 3 d3

55,425

ses =

d3

Octahedral Shear Theory

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 181,189 2

2 2

55,425

= +

2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3

3

( )

d = 1.997 in

use d = 2 in

Page 8 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

478. A shaft made of AISI 1137, cold rolled, for a forage harvester is shown.

Power is supplied to the shaft by a vertical flat belt on the pulley A. At B, the

roller chain to the cutter exerts a force vertically upwards, and the V-belt to

the blower at C exerts a force vertically upwards. At maximum operating

conditions, the flat belt supplies 35 hp at 425 rpm, of which 25 hp is delivered

to the cutter and 10 hp to the blower. The two sections of the shaft are joined

by a flexible coupling at D and the various wheels are keyed (sled-runner

keyway) to the shafts. Allowing for the varying stresses on the basis of the

von Mises-Hencky theory of failure, decide upon the diameters of the shafts.

Choose a design factor that would include an allowance for rough loading.

Problem 478.

Solution:

For AISI 1137, cold rolled

s y = 93 ksi

su = 103 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(103) = 51.5 ksi

sn sns 51.5 1

= = =

s y s ys 93 1.806

Pulley,

63,000hp 63,000(35)

TA = = = 5188 in lb

n 425

For flat-belt

2T 4(5188)

FA = F1 + F2 = 2(F2 F1 ) = 2 A = = 692 lb

DA 30

Sprocket,

63,000hp 63,000(25)

TB = = = 3706 in lb

n 425

For chain,

2T 2(3706 )

FB = B = = 741 lb

DB 10

Sheave,

63,000hp 63,000(10 )

TC = = = 1482 in lb

n 425

Page 9 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

For V-belt,

2T 3(1482 )

FC = F1 + F2 = 1.5(F2 F1 ) = 1.5 C = = 445 lb

DC 10

Consider shaft ABD.

35 hp

Shaft ABD

[ M D' =0 ]

(6 + 8 + 4)FA = (8 + 4)A'+4FB

18(692) = 12 A'+4(741)

A' = 791 lb

[ F V =0 ]

FA + D = FB + A

692 + D = 741 + 791

D = 840 lb

Shear Diagram

Maximum M at A.

M = (6)(692) = 4152 in lb.

32 M 32(4152 ) 132,864

s= = =

d3 d3 d3

sm = 0

132,864

sa = s =

d3

Page 10 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

sn K f sa

se = sm +

sy SF

For sled-runner keyway (Table AT 13)

K f = 1 .6

K fs = 1.6

SF = 0.85

s

se = n s m +

K f sa

= 0+

(1.60)(132,864) = 79,610

sy SF 0.85 d 3 d3

at A T = TA = 5188 in lb

16T 16(5188) 83,008

ss = = =

d3 d3 d3

sms = ss

sas = 0

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

1 83,000 14,630

ses = =

3

1.806 d d3

Choose a design factor of 2.0

N = 2 .0

von Mises-Hencky theory of failure (Octahedral shear theory)

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 79,610 2

2 2

14,630

= +

3

(

2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3 )

d = 1.48 in

1

use d = 1 in

2

63,000hp 63,000(10 )

TC = = = 1482 in lb

n 425

For V-belt,

2T 3(1482 )

FC = F1 + F2 = 1.5(F2 F1 ) = 1.5 C = = 445 lb

DC 10

Page 11 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

[ M C' =0 ]

8 D = 3FC

8 D = 3(445)

D = 167 lb

[ F V =0 ]

C = D + FC

C = 167 + 445

C = 612 lb

Shear Diagram

32 M 32(1336 ) 42,752

s= = =

d3 d3 d3

sm = 0 , sa = s

s

se = n s m +

K f sa

= 0+

(1.60)(42,752) = 25,616

sy SF 0.85 d 3 d3

at C, TC = 1482 in lb

16T 16(1482 ) 23,712

ss = = =

d3 d3 d3

sms = ss

sas = 0

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

1 23,712 4180

ses = +0 = 3

3

1.806 d d

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 25,616 2

2 2

4180

= +

3

(

2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3 )

Page 12 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

d = 1.011 in

use d = 1 in

479. A shaft for a punch press is supported by bearings D and E (with L = 24 in.)

and receives 25 hp while rotating at 250 rpm, from a flat-belt drive on a 44-

in. pulley at B, the belt being at 45o with the vertical. An 8-in. gear at A

delivers the power horizontally to the right for punching operation. A 1500-lb

flywheel at C has a radius of gyration of 18 in. During punching, the shaft

slows and energy for punching comes from the loss of kinetic energy of the

flywheel in addition to the 25 hp constantly received via the belt. A

reasonable assumption for design purposes would be that the power to A

doubles during punching, 25 hp from the belt, 25 hp from the flywheel. The

phase relations are such that a particular point in the section where the

maximum moment occurs is subjected to alternating tension and

compression. Sled-runner keyways are used for A, B, and C; material is cold-

drawn AISI 1137, use a design factor of N = 2.5 with the octahedral shear

theory and account for the varying stresses. Determine the shaft diameters.

Problems 479-480

Solution:

Flat-Belt Drive (B)

63,000hp 63,000(25)

TB = = = 6300 in lb

n 250

2T 4(6300)

FB = F1 + F2 = 2(F1 F2 ) = 2 B = = 573 lb

DB 44

Gear A, Doubled hp

63,000hp 63,000(25 + 25)

TA = = = 12,600 in lb

n 250

2T 2(12,600 )

FA = A = = 3150 lb

DA 8

Loading:

Page 13 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Vertical:

[ M D =0 ]

6(1500) + 8BV = 24 EV

6(1500) + 8(405) = 24 EV

EV = 510 lb

[ F V =0 ]

1500 + EV = DV + BV

1500 + 510 = DV + 405

DV = 1605 lb

Shear Diagram

Page 14 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M DV = (6 )(1500 ) = 9000 in lb

M BV = (16 )(510 ) = 8160 in lb

M AV = (5)(510 ) = 2550 in lb

Horizontal:

[ M D =0 ]

8 Bh + 24 Eh = 19 FA

8(405) + 24 Eh = 19(3150)

Eh = 2359 lb

[ F h =0 ]

Dh + Bh + Eh = FA

Dh + 405 + 2359 = 3150

Dh = 386 lb

Shear Diagram

Page 15 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M Dh = 0 in lb

M Bh = (8)(386 ) = 3088 in lb

M Ah = (5)(2359 ) = 11,795 in lb

MA = (M ) + (M )

Ah

2

AV

2

= (11,795)2 + (2550)2 = 12,068 in lb

MB = (M ) + (M )

Bh

2

BV

2

= (3088)2 + (8160)2 = 8725 in lb

M D = 9000 in lb

Therefore

M max = 12,068 in lb

32 M 32(12,068) 386,176

s= = =

d3 d3 d3

sm = 0

386,176

sa = s =

d3

sn K f sa

se = sm +

sy SF

For AISI 1137, cold-drawn,

s y = 93 ksi

su = 103 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(103) = 51.5 ksi

For sled-runner keyway (Table AT 13)

K f = 1 .6

K fs = 1.6

SF = 0.85

se = 0 +

(1.60)(386,176 ) = 231,386

0.85 d 3 d3

Page 16 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

50 hp

63,000hp 63,000(25 + 25)

TA = = = 12,600 in lb

n 250

2T 2(12,600 )

FA = A = = 3150 lb

DA 8

16T 16(12,600 ) 201,600

ss max = = =

d3 d3 d3

25 hp

63,000hp 63,000(25)

TA = = = 6,300 in lb

n 250

2T 2(6,300 )

FA = A = = 1575 lb

DA 8

16T 16(6,300 ) 100,800

ss min = = =

d3 d3 d3

,800 151,200

sms =

1

(ss max + ss min ) = 1 201,600 + 100

3

=

2 2 d d3

,800 50,400

sas =

1

(ss max ss min ) = 1 201,600 100

3

=

2 2 d d3

sns K fs sas

ses = sms +

s ys SF

1 151,200 (1.6)(50,400) 56,848

ses = 3

+ =

1.806 d 0.85 d 3 d3

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 231,386 2

2 2

56,848

= +

3

(

2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3 )

d = 2.14 in

3

say d = 2 in

16

THRUST LOADS

Page 17 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

481. A cold-drawn monel propeller shaft for a launch is to transmit 400 hp at 1500

rpm without being subjected to a significant bending moment; and Le k < 40 .

The efficiency of the propeller is 70 % at 30 knots (1.152 mph/knot). Consider

that the number of repetitions of the maximum power at the given speed is 2x

105. Let N = 2 based on the maximum shear theory with varying stress.

Compute the shaft diameter.

Solution:

For cold-drawn monel shaft, Table AT 10

s y = 75 ksi

sn = 42 ksi at 108

at 2 x 105

0.085

108

sn 42

5

= 71.23 ksi

2 10

sn sns 71.23 1

= = =

s y s ys 75 1.053

63,000hp 63,000(400 )

T= = = 16,800 in lb

n 1500

16T 16(16,800 ) 268,800

ss = = =

D3 D3 D3

s ms = ss

s as = 0

sns K fs sas

ses = sms +

s ys SF

SF = 0.85

assume K f = K fs = 1.0

1 268,800 81,255

ses = 3

+ 0 =

1.053 D D3

Fvm

= hp

33,000

vm = (30 knots )(1.152 mph knot )(5280 ft mi )(1 hr 60 min ) = 3041 fpm

F (3041)

= (0.70)(400)

33,000

F = 3040 lb

4F 4(3040 ) 12,160

s= 2

= =

D D2 D2

sm= s

sa = 0

Page 18 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

sn K f sa

se = sm +

sy SF

1 12,160 3676

se = +0 = 2

2

1.053 D D

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.5sn

1

1 3676 2

2 2

81,255

= +

2

(

2 71,230 D 0.5 71,230 D 3 )

1

1 2.2815 2

2 2

1

= +

2 19.377 D 2 D 3

By trial and error

11

D = 1.66 in = 1 in

16

482. A shaft receives 300 hp while rotating at 600 rpm, through a pair of bevel gears,

and it delivers this power via a flexible coupling at the other end. The shaft is

designed with the average forces ( at the midpoint of the bevel-gear face); the

tangential driving force is F , G = 580 lb , Q = 926 lb ; which are the rectangular

components of the total reaction between the teeth; Dm = 24 in , L = 36 in ,

a = 10 in . Let the material be AISI C1045, cold drawn; N = 2 . Considering

varying stresses and using the octahedral shear theory, determine the shaft

diameter.

Solution:

s y = 85 ksi

su = 100 ksi

Page 19 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

SF = 0.85

sn sns 50 1

= = =

s y s ys 85 1.7

63,000hp 63,000(300 )

T= = = 31,500 in lb

600 600

16T 16(31,500 ) 504,000

ss = = =

D3 D3 D3

s ms = ss

s as = 0

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

1 504,000 94,370

ses = 3

+ 0 =

1.7 D D3

D

F m = T

2

24

F = 31,500

2

F = 2625 lb

Vertical:

D 24

Q m = 926 = 11,112 in lb

2 2

G = 580 lb

[ M B =0 ]

QDm

Av (36 ) + G (10 ) = 0

2

QDm

= G (10 ) + Av (36 )

2

11,112 = 580(10) + Av (36)

Av = 148 lb

Page 20 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

[ F =0]

v

Av + Bv = 580 lb

148 + Bv = 580 lb

Bv = 432 lb

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M Cv = 11,112 in lb

M Bv = 5328 in lb

Horizontal:

[ M B =0 ]

Ah (36) = (2625)(10)

Ah = 729 lb

[ F h =0 ]

Bh = Ah + F

Bh = 725 + 2625

Page 21 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Bh = 3354 lb

Shear Diagram

M Ch = 0

M Bh = (36 )(729 ) = 26,244 in lb

Maximum M

M = MB = (M ) + (M )

Bh

2

BV

2

(26,244)2 + (5328)2 = 26,780 in lb

=

32 M 4Q 32(26,780 ) 4(926 ) 856,960 3,704

smax = + = + = +

D D2

3

D3 D2 D3 D2

4Q 32 M 3704 856,960

smin = =

D 2 D3 D 2 D3

1

sm = (smax + smin )

2

1 856,960 3704 3704 856,960 3704

sm = + + =

2 D3 D2 D2 D 3 D 2

1

sa = (smax smin )

2

856,960

sa =

D3

s K f sa

se = n s m +

sy SF

assume K f = 1.0 at B

1 3704 1.0 856,960 964 320,916

se = +

2 3

= 2 +

1.7 D 0.85 D D D3

Octahedral Shear Theory

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

Page 22 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1

694 320,916 2

2

1

1 2

+ 3 94,370

2

1

2

6.42 3.27

2 2

= D D + =

3

+ 3 + 3

0.577(50,000)D

2

2 50,000 72 D D D

By trial and error, use

1

D = 2 in

2

483. The worm shown is to deliver 65.5 hp steadily at 1750 rpm. It will be integral

with the shaft if the shaft size needed permits, and its pitch diameter 3 in. The 12-

in. pulley receives the power from a horizontal belt in which the tight tension

F1 = 2.5F2 . The forces (in kips) on the worm are as shown, with the axial force

taken by bearing B. The strength reduction factor for the thread roots may be

taken as K f = 1.5 , shear or bending. The shaft is machined from AISI 1045, as

rolled. (a) For N = 2.2 (Soderberg criterion) by the octahedral-shear theory,

compute the required minimum diameter at the root of the worm thread (a first

approximation). (b) What should be the diameter of the shaft 2.5 in. to the left of

the centerline of the worm? (c) Select a shaft size D and check it at the pulley A.

Problem 483.

Solution:

For AISI 1045, as rolled

s y = 59 ksi

su = 96 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 48 ksi

sn sns 48 1

= = =

s y s ys 59 1.229

63,000hp 63,000(65.5)

T= = = 2358 in lb

1750 1750

(F1 F2 ) 12 = T

2

(2.5F2 F2 )(6) = 2358

F2 = 262 lb

F1 = 2.5F2 = 655 lb

Page 23 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Horizontal

[ M B =0 ]

(917 )(6) + (1570)(6.5) = 13Eh

Eh = 1208 lb

[ F h =0 ]

917 + Eh = Bh + 1570

917 + 1208 = Bh + 1570

Bh = 555 lb

Shear Diagram

M Ah = 0

M Bh = (917 )(6 ) = 5502 in lb

M Ch = (1208)(6.5) = 7852 in lb

Vertical:

3

M = (2540 ) = 3810 in lb

2

[

M E =0 ]

M + (1170)(6.5) = 13Bv

3810 + (1170)(6.5) = 13Bv

Bv = 878 lb

Page 24 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

[ F =0]

v

Ev + Bv = 1170

Ev + 878 = 1170

Ev = 292 lb

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M Av = 0

M Bv = 0

M Cv = 5707 in lb

M= (M h )2 + (M v )2

MA = (0)2 + (0)2 = 0

MB = (5502)2 + (0)2 = 5502 in lb

MC = (7852)2 + (5707)2 = 9707 in lb

(a) Minimum diameter at the root of the warm thread.

K f = K fs = 1.5

M = M C = 9707 in lb

F = 2540 lb

smax = 3

+ 2

= + = +

Dr Dr Dr3 Dr2 Dr3 Dr2

Page 25 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

310,624 10,160

smin = +

Dr3 Dr2

1

sm = (smax + smin )

2

10,160

sm =

Dr2

1

sa = (smax smin )

2

310,624

sa =

Dr3

s K f sa

se = n s m +

sy SF

1 10,160 1.5 310,624 2632 174,485

se = 2

+ 3 = D2 + D3

1.229 Dr 0.85 Dr r r

ss = = =

Dr3 Dr3 Dr3

sms = ss

sas = 0

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

1 12,000 9764

ses = 3 +0= 3

1.229 Dr Dr

N = 2.2 , Octahedral shear theory

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

2632 174,485 2 2 1

2 + 3.635 1

2 2 2 2

1 Dr Dr

3

9764 1

= + = + +

2.2 48,000 0.577(48,000)Dr3 2

18.24 Dr Dr3 2.84 Dr3

Dr = 2.023 in

1

say Dr = 2 in

16

(b) D shaft diameter 2.5 in. to the left of the center line of worm

Page 26 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

3

r= in

16

Figure AF 12

3

r 16

= 0.1

d 3

2.023 2 2

16

D 2.023

= = 1 .2

d 3

2.023 2 2

16

K f = K t = 1.65

K fs = K ts = 1.34

at 2.5 in to the shaft

M h = (917 )(6) + (362)(6.5 2.5) = 6950 in lb

M v = (878)(6.5 2.5) = 3512 in lb

M= (6950)2 + (3512)2 = 7787 in lb

10,160

sm =

D2

32 M 32(7787 ) 249,184

sa = = =

D3 D3 D3

s K f sa

se = n s m +

sy SF

1 10,160 1.65 249,184 2632 153,970

se = +

2 3

= +

1.229 D 0.85 D D2 D3

9764

ses =

D3

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

2632 153,970 2 2 1

1 2

+ 3 9764

2

1

2

3.21 1

2 2

= D D + =

3

+ 3 +

0.577(48,000)D

2

2.2 48,000

18.24 D D 2.84 D 3

D = 1.9432 in

15

say D = 1 in

16

Page 27 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

15

(c) Selecting D = 1 in = 1.9375 in

16

At the pulley A, or 3 in. right of centerline

M h = (917 )(3) = 2751 in lb

Mv = 0

M = 2751 in lb

For sled runner keyway

K f = 1 .6

K fs = 1.6

sm = 0

32 M 32(2751)

sa = = = 3853 psi

D 3

(1.9375)3

s K f sa

se = n s m +

sy SF

1 .6

se = 0 + (3853) = 7253 psi

0.85

9764

ses = = 1343 psi

(1.9375)3

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 7253

2 2 2

1343

= +

N 48,000 0.577(48,000)

N = 6.30 > 2.2 , therefore o.k.

484. A propeller shaft as shown is to receive 300 hp at 315 rpm from the right through

a flexible coupling. A 16-in. pulley is used to drive an auxiliary, taking 25 hp.

The belt pull FB is vertically upward. The remainder of the power is delivered to

a propeller that is expected to convert 60% of it into work driving the boat, at

which time the boat speed is 1500 fpm. The thrust is to be taken by the right-hand

bearing. Let N = 2 ; material cold-worked stainless 410. Use the octahedral shear

theory with varying stresses. (a) Determine the shaft size needed assuming no

buckling. (b) Compute the equivalent column stress. Is this different enough to

call for another shaft size? Compute N by the maximum shear stress theory,

from both equations (8.4) and (8.11).

Page 28 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Problem 484.

Solution:

For stainless 410, cold-worked

s y = 85 ksi

sn = 53 ksi

SF = 0.85

Belt drive

63,000hp 63,000(25)

TB = = = 5000 in lb

n 315

2T 4(5000)

FB = F1 + F2 = 2(F1 F2 ) = 2 B = = 1250 lb

DB 16

Propeller

63,000hp 63,000(300 25)

TP = = = 55,000 in lb

n 315

Thrust

Fvm = hp(33,000)

F (1500) = (0.60)(300 25)(33,000)

F = 3630 lb

Vertical loading

[ M E =0 ]

(20)(1250) = 60C

C = 417 lb

[ F =0]

v

A + C = FB

A + 417 = 1250

Page 29 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

A = 833 lb

Shear Diagram

M B = (20)(833) = 16,660 in lb

Maximum T at B

T = TB + TP = 60,000 in lb

M = 16,660 in lb

F = 3630 lb

4F 4(3630 ) 14,520

sm = 2

= =

D D2 D2

32 M 32(16,660 ) 533,120

sa = = =

D3 D3 D3

For sled-runner keyway

K f = 1 .6

K fs = 1.6

sn sns 53 1

= = =

s y s ys 85 1.604

sn K f sa

se = sm +

sy SF

1 14,520 1.6 533,120 2882 319,430

se = +

2 =

3

+

1.604 D 0.85 D D2 D3

16 16(60,000 ) 960,000

ss = sms = 3

= =

D D3 D3

sas = 0

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

1 960,000 190,510

ses = 2

+ 0 =

1.604 D D3

Page 30 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn sns

N = 2 , Octahedral Shear Theory, sns = 0.577 sn

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

2882 319,430 2

2

1

1 2

+ 3 190,510

2

1

2

6.027 6.230

2 2

= D D + =

3

+ +

0.577(53,000 )D

2

2 53,000

18.39 D D 3 D 3

By trial and error

D = 2.6 in

5

say D = 2 in = 2.625 in

8

4F

s=

D2

Le = 12 + 60 + 10 = 82 in

1 1

k = D = (2.625) = 0.65625 in

4 4

Le 82

= = 125 > 120

k 0.65625

2

L

sy e

85(125)

2

= k

= 2 = 4.486

2E (

30 103 )

4F 4(3630 )

s= = (4.486) = 3000 psi

D 2

(2.625)2

Since > 1 , it is different enough to call for another shaft size.

2882 319,430 2882 319,430

se = + = + = 18,078 psi

D 2

D 3

(2.625) (2.625)3

2

190,510

ses = = 10,533 psi

(2.625)3

Equation (8.4)

Page 31 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1 1

2 s 2 2 18,078 2

2

= ss + = (10,533) +

2

= 13,880 psi

2 2

0.5sn 0.5(53,000)

N= = = 1.91

13,880

Equation (8.11) sns = 0.5sn

1 1

1 s ss 18,078 2 10,533 2 2

2 2 2

= + = +

N sn sns

53,000 0.5(53,000 )

N = 1.91

CHECK PROBLEMS

485. A 3-in. rotating shaft somewhat as shown (482) carries a bevel gear whose mean

diameter is Dm = 10 in and which is keyed (profile) to the left end. Acting on the

gear are a radial force G = 1570.8 lb , a driving force Q = 3141.6 lb . The thrust

force is taken by the right-hand bearing. Let a = 5 in and L = 15 in ; material,

AISI C1040, annealed. Base calculations on the maximum shearing stress theory

with variable stress. Compute the indicated design factor N . With the use of a

sketch, indicate the exact point of which maximum normal stress occurs.

Solution:

For AISI C1040, annealed, Figure AF 1

s y = 48 ksi

su = 80 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 40 ksi

sn sns 40 1

= = =

s y s ys 48 1.2

FDm (6283.2 )(10 )

T= = = 31,416 in lb

2 2

16T 16(31,416 )

ss = = = 5926 psi

D3 (3)3

sms = ss

sas = 0

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

1

ses = (5926 ) + 0 = 4940 psi

1 .2

Vertical

Page 32 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

= = 15,708 in lb

2 2

[

M E =0 ]

QDm

= 5G + 15 AV

2

15,708 = 5(1570.8) + 15 AV

AV = 523.6 lb

[ F =0]

v

AV + BV = G

523.6 + BV = 1570.8

BV = 1047.2 lb

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M CV = 15,708 in lb

M BV = 7854 in lb

Page 33 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Horizontal

[ M B =0 ]

15 Ah = 5(6283.2)

Ah = 2094.4 lb

[ F h =0 ]

Bh = Ah + F

Bh = 2094.4 + 6283.2

Bh = 8377.6 lb

Shear Diagram

M Ch = 0

M Bh = (15)(2094.4 ) = 31,416 in lb

Maximum Moment

M = M B2h + M Bv

2

= (31,416)2 + (7854)2 = 32,383 in lb

Since thrust force is taken by the right-hand bearing

sms = 0

32 M 32(32,383)

sas = = = 12,217 psi

D3 (3)3

s K f sa

se = n s m +

sy SF

Assume K f = 1.0 at the bearing B

1 .0

se = 0 + (12,217 ) = 14,373 psi

0.85

Page 34 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.5sn

1

1 14,373 4940

2 2 2

= +

N 40,000 0.5(40,000)

N = 2 .3

made of AISI 1117, as rolled, and supported upon bearing A and B, 59-in. apart.

Pulley C receives the power via a horizontal belt, and pulley D delivers it

vertically downward, as shown. Calculate N based on the octahedral-shear-

stress theory considering varying stresses.

Solution:

For AISI 1117, as rolled

s y = 44.3 ksi

Page 35 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

su = 70.6 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 35.3 ksi

sn sns 35.3 1

= = =

s y s ys 44.3 1.255

SF = 0.85

63,000(52 )

T= = 10,400 in lb

315

Pulley C

2T 4(10,400)

FC = F1 + F2 = 2(F2 F1 ) = 2 = = 2311 lb

D

C 18

Pulley D

2T 4(10,400)

FD = F1 + F2 = 2(F2 F1 ) = 2 = = 1664 lb

D

D 25

Horizontal

[ M A =0 ]

15(2311) = 59 Bh

Bh = 588 lb

[ F h =0 ]

Ah + Bh = 2311

Ah + 588 = 2311

Ah = 1723 lb

Shear Diagram

M Ch = (1723)(15) = 25,845 in lb

Page 36 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Vertical

[ M B =0 ]

18(1664) = 59 Av

Av = 508 lb

[ F =0]

v

Av + Bv = 1664

508 + Bv = 1664

Bv = 1156 lb

Shear Diagram

M Cv = (508)(15) = 7620 in lb

M Dv = (1156 )(18) = 20,808 in lb

Maximum M at C

M = M C = 26,945 in lb

sm = 0

32 M

sa =

D3

7

D = 2 in = 2.4375 in

16

Page 37 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

32(26,945)

sa = = 18,952 psi

(2.4375)3

assume K f = K fs = 1.0

sn K f sa

se = sm +

sy SF

1 (1.0)(18,952) = 22,300 psi

se = (0 ) +

1.255 0.85

16T 16(10,400 )

ss = = = 3658 psi

D 3 (2.4375)3

sms = s s = 3658 psi

sas = 0

sns K fs sas

ses = sms +

s ys SF

1

ses = (3658) + 0 = 2915 psi

1.255

Octahedral shear theory sns = 0.577 sn

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 22,300

2 2 2

2915

= +

N 35,300 0.577(35,300)

N = 1.544

489. A shaft for a general-purpose gear-reduction unit supports two gears as shown.

The 5.75-in. gear B receives 7 hp at 250 rpm. The 2.25-in. gear A delivers the

power, with the forces on the shaft acting as shown; the gear teeth have a

o

1 A B

pressure angle of = 14 ( tan = h = h ). Both gears are keyed (profile) to

2 Av Bv

the shaft of AISI 1141, cold rolled. (a) If the fillet radius is 1/8 in. at bearing D,

where the diameter is 1 3/8 in., compute N based on the octahedral-shear-stress

theory (Soderberg line). The shaft diameter at A is 1 11/16 in. What is N here?

Page 38 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Solution:

For AISI 1141, cold rolled

s y = 90 ksi

sn = 50 ksi

sn sns 50 1

= = =

s y s ys 90 1.8

SF = 0.85

63,000(7 )

T= = 1764 in lb

250

16T

sms =

D 3

sas = 0

Gear B:

5.75

Bv = T = 1764 in lb

2

Bv = 614 lb

Bh = Bv tan = 614 tan 14.5 = 159 lb

Gear A:

2.25

Av = T = 1764 in lb

2

Av = 1568 lb

Ah = Av tan = 1568 tan 14.5 = 406 lb

Vertical

Page 39 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

[ M D =0 ]

8Cv = 4(1568) 3(614)

Cv = 554 lb

[ F =0]

v

Cv + Dv = Av + Bv

554 + Dv = 1568 + 614

Dv = 1628 lb

Shear Diagram

M Dv = (614 )(3) = 1842 in lb

Horizontal

[ M C =0 ]

4(406) + 8Dh = 11(159)

Dh = 16 lb

[ F h =0 ]

Ch + Bh = Ah + Dh

Ch + 159 = 406 + 16

Ch = 263 lb

Shear Diagram

Page 40 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M Ah = (263)(4 ) = 1052 in lb

M Dh = (159 )(3) = 477 in lb

(a) At bearing D

1

r = in

8

3

d = 1 in

8

r 0.125

= 0.10

d 1.375

D 1.375 + 0.25

= 1 .2

d 1.375

K t K f = 1 .6

K ts K fs = 1.34

M = MD

sm = 0

32 M 32(1903)

sa = = = 7456 psi

d 3 (1.375)3

s K f sa

se = n s m +

sy SF

se = 0 +

(1.6)(7456) = 14,035 psi

0.85

16T 16(1764 )

sms = = = 3456 psi

D (1.375)3

3

sas = 0

sns K fs sas

ses = sms +

s ys SF

1

ses = (3456 ) + 0 = 1920 psi

1 .8

Octahedral shear theory

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

Page 41 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1 14,035

2 2 2

3456

= +

N 50,000 0.577(50,000)

N = 3.28

(b) At A

For profile keyway

K f = 2.0 , K fs = 1.6

11

d =1 in = 1.6875 in

16

M = M A = 2453 in lb

sm = 0

32 M 32(2453)

sa = = = 5200 psi

d 3

(1.6875)3

s K f sa

se = n s m +

sy SF

se = 0 +

(2.0)(5200) = 12,235 psi

0.85

16T 16(1764 )

sms = = = 1870 psi

D (1.6875)3

3

sas = 0

sns K fs sas

ses = sms +

s ys SF

1

ses = (1870 ) + 0 = 1040 psi

1 .8

Octahedral shear theory

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 12,235

2 2 2

1040

= +

N 50,000 0.577(50,000)

N = 4.043

THRUST LOADS

491. The high-speed shaft of a worm-gear speed reducer, made of carburized AISI

8620, SOQT 450 F, is subjected to a torque of 21,400 in-lb. Applied to the right

Page 42 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

end with no bending. The force on the worm has three components: a horizontal

force opposing rotation of W = 6180 lb , a vertical radial force S = 1940 lb , and a

rightward thrust of F = 6580 lb . The shaft has the following dimensions: a = 6 ,

7 9 3 9

b = 4 , c = 10 , d = 4 , e = 2 , f = 13 , g = 11.646 , h = 10.370 ,

8 16 4 16

13

D1 = 3.740 , D2 = 4 , D3 = 4 , D4 = 3.3469 , D5 = 3.253 , r1 = 0.098 ,

16

3 1

r2 = r3 = , r4 = 0.098 , r5 = , all in inches. The pitch diameter of the worm,

4 16

6.923 in., is the effective diameter for the point of application of the forces. The

root diameter, 5.701 in. is used for stress calculations. The left-hand bearing

takes the thrust load. Calculate N based on the octahedral-shear-stress theory

with varying stresses. (Data courtesy of Cleveland Worm and Gear Company.)

Problem 491

Solution:

Table AT 11n For AISI 8620, SOQT 450 F

s y = 120 ksi

su = 167 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 83.5 ksi

sn sns 83.5 1

= = =

s y s ys 120 1.437

SF = 0.85

T = 21,400 in lb

Vertical

Page 43 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

6.923 6.923

M = F = 6580 = 22,777 in lb

2 2

[

M A =0 ]

22,777 + (11.646)(1940) = (11.646 + 10.370)Gv

Gv = 2061 lb

[ F =0]

v

S + Av = Gv

1940 + Av = 2061

Av = 121 lb

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M Av = 0

M Bv = (121)(1.2035) = 146 in lb

M Cv = (121)(1.2035 + 4.875) = 736 in lb

M Dv = (121)(1.2035 + 4.875 + 5.5675) = 1409 in lb at left side

M Dv = 1409 + M = 1409 + 22,777 = 21,368 in lb at right side

M Ev = 21,368 (2061)(4.4325) = 12,233 in lb

M Fv = 12,233 (2061)(4.5625) = 2830 in lb

M Gv = 2830 (2061)(1.375) = 0

Horizontal

Page 44 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

[ M A =0 ]

(11.646)(6180) = (11.646 + 10.370)Gh

Gh = 3269 lb

[ F h =0 ]

Ah + Gv = W

Ah + 3269 = 6180

Ah = 2911 lb

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M Ah = 0

M Bh = (2911)(1.2035) = 3500 in lb

M Ch = (2911)(1.2035 + 4.875) = 17,695 in lb

M Dh = 33,900 in lb

M Eh = 33,900 (3269 )(4.4325) = 19,410 in lb

M Fh = 19,410 (3269 )(4.5625) = 4495 in lb

M Fh = 4495 (3269 )(1.375) = 0

Combined

M = M h2 + M v2

MA = (0)2 + (0)2 = 0 in lb

MB = (3500)2 + (146)2 = 3503 in lb

MC = (17,695)2 + (736)2 = 17,710 in lb

MD = (33,900)2 + (1409)2 = 33,930 in lb (left)

MD = (33,900)2 + (21,368)2 = 40,073 in lb (right)

ME = (19,410)2 + (12,233)2 = 22,944 in lb

Page 45 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

MG = (0)2 + (0)2 = 0 in lb

Bending stresses (Maximum)

At A, s A = 0

32 M B 32(3503)

At B, s B = = = 682 psi

D13 (3.740)3

32 M C 32(17,710 )

At C, sC = = = 1618 psi

D23 (4.8125)3

32 M D 32(40,073)

At D, s D = = = 2203 psi

Dr3 (5.701)3

32 M E 32(22,944 )

At E, s E = = = 3652 psi

D33 (4)3

32 M F 32(5312 )

At F, s F = = = 1443 psi

D43

(3.3469 )3

At G, sG = 0

Shear Stresses:

16T 16(21,400 )

ssA = ssB = = = 2083 psi

D13 (3.740)3

16T 16(21,400 )

ssC = = = 978 psi

D23 (4.8125)3

16T 16(21,400 )

ssD = = = 588 psi

Dr3 (5.701)3

16T 16(21,400 )

ssE = = = 1703 psi

D33 (4)3

16T 16(21,400 )

ssF = ssG = = = 2907 psi

D43 (3.3469)3

4F 4(6580 )

sA = sB = = = 599 psi

D1 (3.740)2

2

4F 4(6580 )

sC = = = 362 psi

D2 (4.8125)2

2

4F 4(6580 )

sD = = = 258 psi

Dr (5.701)2

2

4F 4(6580 )

sE = = = 524 psi

D3 2

(4 )2

Page 46 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

4F 4(6580 )

sE = sF = = = 748 psi

D4 (3.3469 )2

2

r1 0.098

At B: = = 0.03

D1 3.740

D2 4.8125

= = 1 .3

D1 3.740

Figure AF 12

K f K t = 2 .3

K fs K ts = 1.7

sn K f sa

se = sm +

sy SF

sm = sB = 599 psi

sa = s B = 682 psi

1 (2.3)(682 ) = 2262 psi

se = (599 ) +

1.437 0.85

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

sms = ssB = 2083 psi

sas = 0

1

ses = (2083) + 0 = 1450 psi

1.437

Octahedral shear theory

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 2262

2 2 2

1450

= +

N 83,500 0.577(83,500)

N = 24.7

r2 0.75

At C: = = 0.16

D2 4.8125

Dr 5.701

= = 1 .2

D2 4.8125

Figure AF 12

K f K t = 1 .5

K fs K ts = 1.2

Page 47 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

sn K f sa

se = sm +

sy SF

sm = 362 psi

sa = 1618 psi

1 (1.5)(1618) = 3107 psi

se = (362 ) +

1.437 0.85

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

sms = ssC = 978 psi

sas = 0

1

ses = (978) + 0 = 681 psi

1.437

Octahedral shear theory

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 3107

2 2 2

681

= +

N 83,500 0.577(83,500)

N = 25.1

At D:

sn K f sa

se = sm +

sy SF

sm = 258 psi

sa = 2203 psi

1 (1.5)(2203) = 4067 psi

se = (258) +

1.437 0.85

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

sms = s sD = 588 psi

sas = 0

1

ses = (588) + 0 = 409 psi

1.437

Octahedral shear theory

Page 48 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 4067

2 2 2

409

= +

N 83,500 0.577(83,500)

N = 20.2

r3 0.75

At E: = = 0.19

D3 4

Dr 5.701

= = 1.43

D3 4

Figure AF 12

K f K t = 1.45

K fs K ts = 1.25

sn K f sa

se = sm +

sy SF

sm = sE = 524 psi

sa = s E = 3652 psi

1 (1.45)(3652) = 6595 psi

se = (524 ) +

1.437 0.85

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

sms = s sE = 1703 psi

sas = 0

1

ses = (1703) + 0 = 1185 psi

1.437

Octahedral shear theory

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 6595

2 2 2

1185

= +

N 83,500 0.577(83,500)

N = 12

r4 0.098

At F: = = 0.03

D4 3.3469

Page 49 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

D3 4

= = 1 .2

D4 3.3469

Figure AF 12

K f K t = 2 .3

K fs K ts = 1.7

sn K f sa

se = sm +

sy SF

sm = sF = 748 psi

sa = s F = 1443 psi

1 (2.3)(1443) = 4425 psi

se = (748) +

1.437 0.85

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

sms = s sF = 2907 psi

sas = 0

1

ses = (2907 ) + 0 = 2023 psi

1.437

Octahedral shear theory

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 4425

2 2 2

2023

= +

N 83,500 0.577(83,500)

N = 14.8

3

Then N = 12 at r3 = in (E)

4

492. The slow-speed shaft of a speed reducer shown, made of AISI 4140, OQT 1200

F, transmits 100 hp at a speed of 388 rpm. It receives power through a 13.6 in.

gear B. The force on this gear has three components: a horizontal tangential

driving force Ft = 2390 lb , a vertical radial force S = 870 lb , and a thrust force

Q = 598 lb taken by the right-hand bearing. The power is delivered to a belt at

F that exerts a downward vertical force of 1620 lb.; sled runner keyways. Use

the octahedral shear theory with the Soderberg line and compute N at sections C

and D. (Data courtesy of Twin Disc Clutch Company.)

Page 50 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Solution:

For AISI 4140, OQT 1200 F

s y = 83 ksi

su = 112 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 56 ksi

sn sns 56 1

= = =

s y s ys 83 1.482

SF = 0.85

63,000(100 )

T= = 16,237 in lb

388

Vertical

13.6 13.6

M = Q = (598) = 4066.4 in lb

2 2

[

M A =0 ]

Page 51 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

3 5 3 5 3 7 11 13 3

1 + 1 (870 ) + 1 + 1 + 3 + 1 + 1 + + 2 (1620 ) + 4066.4

16 8 16 8 8 32 32 16 4

3 5 3 7

= 1 + 1 + 3 + 1 Gv

16 8 8 32

Gv = 3573 lb

[ F =0]

v

Av + S + F = Gv

Av + 870 + 1620 = 3573

Av = 1083 lb

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M Av = 0

3

M Pv = (1083)1 = 1286 in lb

16

5

M Bv = 1286 + ( 1083)1 = 3046 in lb at the left

8

M Bv = 3046 + 4066.4 = 1021 in lb at the right

3

M Cv = 1021 (1953) 3 = 5570 in lb

8

7

M Gv = 5570 (1953)1 = 7950 in lb

32

Page 52 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

11

M Dv = 7950 + (1620 )1 = 5773 in lb

32

13

M Ev = 5773 + (1620 ) = 4457 in lb

16

3

M Fv = 4457 + (1620 ) 2 = 0 in lb

4

Horizontal

[ M A =0 ]

13 13 19

2 (2390 ) + 2 + 4 Gh

16 16 32

Gh = 908 lb

[ F h =0 ]

Ah + Gh = Ft

Ah + 908 = 2390

Ah = 1482 lb

Shear Diagram

M Ah = 0

3

M Ph = (1482 )1 = 1760 in lb

16

5

M Bh = 1760 + (1482 )1 = 4168 in lb

8

Page 53 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

3

M Ch = 4168 (908) 3 = 1104 in lb

8

7

M Ch = 1104 (908)1 = 0 in lb

32

M Dh = 0 in lb

M Eh = 0 in lb

M Fh = 0 in lb

Combined

M = M h2 + M v2

M A = 0 in lb

MP = (1760)2 + (1286)2 = 2180 in lb

MB = (4168)2 + (3046)2 = 5163 in lb

MC = (1104)2 + (5570)2 = 5678 in lb

MD = (0)2 + (5773)2 = 5773 in lb

ME = (0)2 + (4457 )2 = 4457 in lb

MF = (0)2 + (0)2 = 0 in lb

1

at C: r = in = 0.125 in

8

d = 2.750 in

D = 2.953 in

r 0.125

= = 0.05

d 2.750

D 2.953

= = 1.10

d 2.750

Figure AF 12

K f 1 K t = 1 .9

K fs1 K ts = 1.3

For sled runner keyway

K f 2 = 1 .6

K fs 2 = 1.6

K fs = 0.8 K fs1 K fs 2 = 0.8(1.3)(1.6 ) = 1.7

Page 54 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

sn K f sa

se = sm +

sy SF

4Q 4(598)

sm = = = 101 psi

d 2

(2.750)2

32 M C 32(5678)

sa = = = 2781 psi

d3 (2.750)3

1 (2.4)(2781) = 7920 psi

se = (101) +

1.482 0.85

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

16T 16(16,237 )

sms = = = 3976 psi

d 3 (2.750)3

sas = 0

1

ses = (3976 ) + 0 = 2683 psi

1.482

Octahedral shear theory

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 7920

2 2 2

2683

= +

N 56,000 0.577(56,000)

N =6

1

at D: r = in = 0.0625 in

16

d = 2.953 in

3

D = 3 in = 3.375 in

8

r 0.0625

= = 0.02

d 2.953

D 3.375

= = 1.14

d 2.953

Figure AF 12

K f K t = 2 .4

K fs K ts = 1.6

sn K f sa

se = sm +

sy SF

Page 55 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

4Q 4(598)

sm = = = 87.3 psi

d 2

(2.953)2

32 M C 32(5773)

sa = = = 2284 psi

d3 (2.953)3

1 (2.4)(2284) = 6508 psi

se = (87.3) +

1.482 0.85

s K fs sas

ses = ns sms +

s ys SF

16T 16(16,237 )

sms = = = 3211 psi

d 3 (2.953)3

sas = 0

1

ses = (3211) + 0 = 2167 psi

1.482

Octahedral shear theory

1

1 se ses

2 2 2

= +

N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 6508

2 2 2

2167

= +

N 56,000 0.577(56,000)

N = 7 .5

TRANSVERSE DEFLECTIONS

494. The forces on the 2-in. steel shaft shown are A = 2 kips , C = 4 kips . Determine

the maximum deflection and the shafts slope at D.

Problems 494-496

Solution:

Page 56 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

[M B = 0]

2(10) + 25D = 4(15)

D = 1.6 kips

[Fv = 0]

A+C = B + D

2 + 4 = B + 1 .6

B = 4.4 kips

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M 64 M

=

EI E D 4

A B C D

M (in kip ) 0 -20 16 0

M 4 4

D 10 0 -135.8 108.6 0

EI

Page 57 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Scale ss = 10 in in

M 200 104

, Scale sM = per in

EI EI D4

Deflection:

0.625

At A: y A = in

D4

Page 58 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

0.375

At C: yC = in

D4

Slope:

0.075

At A: = rad

D4

0.0125

At B: = rad

D4

0.05625

At D: = rad

D4

Maximum deflection:

0.625

y = yA = = 0.04 in

(2 )4

Shafts slope at D

0.05625

= = 0.0035 rad

(2)4

495. The forces on the steel shaft shown are A = 2 kips , C = 4 kips . Determine the

constant shaft diameter that corresponds to a maximum deflection of 0.006 in. at

section C.

Solution:

(see Problem 494)

0.375

yC = = 0.006

D4

D = 2.812 in

7

say D = 2 in

8

496. The forces on the steel shaft shown are A = 2 kips , C = 4 kips . Determine a

constant shaft diameter that would limit the maximum deflection at section A to

0.003 in.

Solution:

(see Problem 494)

0.625

yA = = 0.003

D4

D = 3.80 in

7

say D = 3 in

8

Determine (a) the slopes at the bearings and (b) the maximum deflection.

Page 59 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Problem 497

Solution:

[ M R1 = 0 ]

(3000 ) 7 + 1 1 (2100) 7 + 2 1 + 1 = 7 + 2 1 + 2 + 7 R2

8 8 8 4 8 4 8

R2 = 444 lb

[ F = 0]

R1 + R2 + 2100 = 3000

R1 444 + 2100 = 3000

R1 = 1344 lb

Loading

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

Page 60 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M A = 0 in lb

7

M B = (1344 ) = 1176 in lb

8

7 1

M C = (1134 ) + 1 = 2688 in lb

8 8

1

M D = 2688 (1656 )1 = 825 in lb

8

M E = 825 (1656)(1) = 831 in lb

M F = 831 + (444)(1) = 387 in lb

7

M G = 387 + (444 ) = 0 in lb

8

A B1 B2 C D1 D2 E F1 F2 G

M (in kips ) 0 1.18 1.18 2.69 0.83 0.83 -0.83 -0.39 -0.39 0

D(in ) 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

(M

EI

)( )

10 4 0 1.58 0.50 1.14 0.35 0.60 -0.60 -0.28 -0.52 0

Scale ss = 2 in in

Page 61 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M 2 104

, Scale sM = per in

EI EI D4

y deflection, Scale s y = 8 10 4 D 4 in in

( )

at R1 , A = 0.375 4 10 4 = 1.5 10 4 rad

at R2 , G = 0 rad

at C, yC = 0.1875(8 10 4 ) = 1.5 10 4 in

Page 62 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

498. (a) Determine the diameter of the steel shaft shown if the maximum deflection is

to be 0.01 in.; C = 1.5 kips , A = 1.58 kips , L = 24 in . (b) What is the slope of the

shaft at bearing D? See 479.

Solution:

Vertical

[ M D =0 ]

6(1.5) + 8(0.424) = 24 Ev

Ev = 0.516 kip

[ F v =0 ]

Dv + 0.424 = 1.5 + Ev

Dv + 0.424 = 1.5 + 0.516

Dv = 1.592 kip

Shear Diagram

M C = 0 ; M D = 6(1.5) = 9 in kips

M B = 9 + 8(0.092) = 8.264 in kips

Page 63 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M E = 2.588 + 5(0.516) = 0

C D B A E

M (in kips ) 0 -9 -8.264 -2.588 0

(

M

EI

)

D 4 10 4 0 -61.1 -56.1 -17.6 0

Scale ss = 8 in in

M 120 10 4

, Scale sM = per in

EI EI D4

Page 64 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Deflections.

0.384

yCv = in

D4

0.288

y Bv = in

D4

0.168

y Av = in

D4

Slope

0.057

Dv = rad

D4

Horizontal

[ M D =0 ]

8(0.424 ) + 24 Eh = 19(1.58)

Eh = 1.1095 kip

[ F h =0 ]

Dh + Eh + 0.424 = 1.58

Dh + 1.1095 + 0.424 = 1.58

Page 65 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Dh = 0.0465 kip

Shear Diagram

Moments

MC = 0

MD = 0

M B = 8( 0.0465) = 0.372 in kip

M A = 0.372 + 11( 0.4705) = 5.5475 in kips

M E = 5.5475 + 5(1.1095) = 0

C D B A E

M (in kips ) 0 0 -0.372 -5.5475 0

(

M

EI

)

D 4 10 4 0 0 -2.53 -37.7 0

Scale ss = 8 in in

M 4 104

, Scale sM = per in

EI EI D4

Page 66 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Deflections.

0.064

yC h = in

D4

0.072

y Bh = in

D4

0.096

y Ah = in

D4

Slope

0.012

Dh = rad

D4

Resultant deflection:

1

(

y = yh2 + yv2 )

2

yC =

[(0.064) + (0.384) ]

2 2 2

=

0.390

4

D D4

1

yB =

[(0.072) + (0.288) ]

2 2 2

=

0.297

4

D D4

1

yA =

[(0.096) + (0.168) ]

2 2 2

=

0.194

4

D D4

Slope:

Page 67 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1

= ( +

2

h v )

2 2

D =

[(0.012) + (0.057) ]

2 2 2

=

0.05823

rad

4

D D4

(a) Diameter D.

0.390

Maximum deflection = yC = = 0.01 in

D4

D = 2.50 in

0.05823 0.05823

D = = = 0.0015 rad

D4 (2.5)4

CRITICAL SPEED

499. A small, high-speed turbine has a single disk, weighing 0.85 lb., mounted at the

midpoint of a 0.178-in. shaft, whose length between bearings is 6 in. What is

the critical speed if the shaft is considered as simply supported?

Solution:

Table AT 2

y=

WL3

=

(0.85)(6.5)

3

= 0.052634 in

6 (0.178 )

4

3EI

(

3 30 10

64

)

1 1 1

30 g o ( Wy ) 2 30 g o 2 30 386 2

nc = = = = 818 rpm

Wy 2 y 0.052634

500. The bearings on a 1 -in. shaft are 30 in. apart. On the shaft are three 300-lb

disks, symmetrically placed 7.5 in. apart. What is the critical speed of the shaft?

Solution:

Page 68 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Table AT 2

Deflection of B.

y B = y B1 + y B2 + y B3

y B1 =

(300)(22.5)(7.5)([ 30)2 (22.5)2 (7.5)2 ] = 0.01273 in

6 (1.5 )

4

6(30 10 )

(30)

64

y B2 =

[ ]

(300)(15)(7.5)(30)2 (15)2 (7.5)2 = 0.01556 in

(1.5)4

(

6 30 106 ) (30)

64

y B3 =

( [

300)(7.5)(7.5)(30) (7.5) (7.5)

2 2 2

]

= 0.00990 in

6 (1.5 )

4

(

6 30 10 )

64

(30)

y B = 0.01273 + 0.00990 + 0.01556 = 0.03819 in

Deflection of C.

yC = yC1 + yC2 + yC3

yC1 =

( [

300)(7.5)(30 15)( 30) (7.5) (30 15) ]

2 2 2

= 0.01556 in

6 (1.5 )

4

6(30 10 ) (30)

64

yC2 =

[ ]

(300)(15)(30 15)(30)2 (15)2 (30 15)2 = 0.02264 in

6 (1.5 )

4

(

6 30 10 ) (30)

64

yC3 =

[ ]

(300)(7.5)(15)(30)2 (7.5)2 (15)2 = 0.01556 in

(1.5)4

(

6 30 106 ) (30)

64

yC = 0.01556 + 0.02264 + 0.01556 = 0.05376 in

Deflection of D.

y D = y D1 + y D2 + y D3

Page 69 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

y D1 =

(300)(7.5)(30 22.5)([ 30)2 (7.5)2 (30 22.5)2 ] = 0.00990 in

6 (1.5 )

4

6(30 10 )

(30)

64

y D2 =

[ ]

(300)(15)(30 22.5)(30)2 (15)2 (30 22.5)2 = 0.01556 in

6 (1.5 )

4

(

6 30 10 )

(30)

64

y D3 =

[ ]

(300)(7.5)(22.5)(30)2 (7.5)2 (22.5)2 = 0.01273 in

(1.5)4

(

6 30 106 ) (30 )

64

y D = 0.00990 + 0.01556 + 0.01273 = 0.03819 in

1 1

30 g o ( Wy ) 30 g o ( y B + yC + y D ) 2

2

nc = =

Wy 2 y B2 + yC2 + y D2

1

30 386(0.03819 + 0.05376 + 0.03819) 2

nc = = 888 rpm

(0.03819)2 + (0.05376)2 + (0.03819)2

501. A fan for an air-conditioning unit has two 50-lb. rotors mounted on a 3-in. steel

shaft, each being 22 in. from an end of the shaft which is 80 in. long and simply

supported at the ends. Determine (a) the deflection curve of the shaft considering

its weight as well as the weight of the rotors, (b) its critical speed.

Solution:

W1 = 50 lb

W3 = 50 lb

2

W2 = (0.284 ) (3) (80 ) = 160 lb weight of shaft

4

160

w2 = = 2 lb in

80

Deflection of B.

y B = y B1 + y B2 + y B3

Page 70 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

y B1 =

(50)(50)(22)([ 80)2 (58)2 (22)2 ] = 0.002844 in

6 (35 )

4

6(30 10 )

(80)

64

y B3 =

[ ]

(50)(22)(22)(80)2 (22)2 (22)2 = 0.002296 in

6 (3)

4

(

6 30 10 ) (80)

64

y B2 =

[ ]

(2)(22)(80)3 2(80)(22)2 (22)3 = 0.006843 in

(3)4

(

6 30 106 )

64

y B = 0.002844 + 0.006843 + 0.002296 = 0.011983 in

Deflection of C.

yC = yC1 + yC2 + yC3

yC1 =

( [

50)(22)(80 40)( 80) (22) (80 40) ]

2 2 2

= 0.003317 in

6 (35)

4

6(30 10 ) (80)

64

yC3 =

( [

50)(22 )(40)(80) (22) (40)

2 2 2

]

= 0.003317 in

6 (3)

4

(

6 30 10 ) (80)

64

yC2 =

[ ]

(2)(40)(80)3 2(80)(40)2 (40)3 = 0.008942 in

6 (3)

4

(

6 30 10 )

64

yC = 0.003317 + 0.008942 + 0.003317 = 0.015576 in

By symmetry

y D = y B = 0.011983 in

Page 71 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

30 g o ( Wy ) 2

nc =

Wy 2

Wy = (50)(0.011983) + (160)(0.015576) + (50)(0.011983) = 3.69046

Wy = (50)(0.011983) + (160)(0.015576) + (50)(0.011983) = 0.053177

2 2 2 2

1

30 386(3.69046) 2

nc = = 1563 rpm

0.053177

ASME CODE

torque of 27 in-kips with a maximum bending moment of 43 in-kips. What

should be the diameter according to the Code for a mild shock load?

Solution:

For AISI C1050, annealed

s y = 53 ksi

su = 92 ksi

0.3s y = 15.9 ksi

0.18su = 16.56 ksi

use d = 0.3s y = 15.9 ksi

M = 43 in kips

T = 27 in kips

1

16 FD 1 + B 2

( ) 2 2

(K sT ) + K m M +

3 2

D =

(

d 1 B 4 )

8

Reduce to

1

)[ ]

16

3

D = (K sT ) + ( K m M )

2 2 2

(

d 1 B 4

For mild shock load, rotating shafts

K m = 1.75

K s = 1.25

B=0

1

16

3

D =

(15,900)

{

[(1.25)(27,000)] + [(1.75)(43,000)]

2

}

2 2

D = 2.98 in

say D = 3 in

Page 72 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

503. A machinery shaft is to transmit 82 hp at a speed of 1150 rpm with mild shock.

The shaft is subjected to a maximum bending moment of 7500 in-lb. and an axial

thrust load of 15,000 lb. The material is AISI 3150, OQT 1000 F. (a) What

should be the diameter when designed according to the Code? (b) Determine the

corresponding conventional factor of safety (static-approach and maximum-shear

theory).

Solution:

s y = 130 ksi

su = 151 ksi

0.3s y = 39 ksi

0.18su = 27.18 ksi

use d = 0.18su = 27.18 ksi

63000(82 )

T= = 4492 in lb

1150

M = 7500 in lb

F = 15,000 lb

16 (

FD 1 + B 2 ) 2

2

(K sT ) + K m M +

3 2

(a) D =

( )

d 1 B 4

8

K m = 1.75

K s = 1.25

B=0

=1

1

16 (1)(15,000)D 2

2

[(1.25)(4492)] + (1.75)(7500) +

3 2

D =

(27180) 8

1

{

D 3 = 0.1874 31.53 + [13.125 + 1.875D ] }

2 2

D = 1.4668 in

say D = 1.5 in

32 M 4F 32(7500 ) 4(15,000 )

(b) s = + = + = 31,124 psi = 31.124 ksi

3

D D 2

(1.5)3 (1.5)2

Page 73 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

16T 16(4492 )

ss = = = 6778.5 psi = 6.7785 ksi

D 3 (1.5)3

1 s ss

2 2

= +

N s y s ys

Maximum shear theory

s ys = 0.5s y

1 31.124 6.7785

2 2

= +

N 130 0.5(130)

N = 3.83

504. short stub shaft, made of SAE 1035, as rolled, receives 30 hp at 300 rpm via a

12-in. spur gear, the power being delivered to another shaft through a flexible

coupling. The gear is keyed midway between the bearings and its pressure angle

= 20o . See the figure for 471. (a) Neglecting the radial component of the tooth

load, determine the shaft diameter for a mild shock load. (b) Considering both

tangential and radial components, compute the shaft diameter. (c) Is the

difference in the foregoing results enough to change your choice of the shaft

size?

Solution:

s y = 55 ksi

su = 85 ksi

0.3s y = 16.5 ksi

0.18su = 15.3 ksi

use d = 0.18su = 15.3 ksi

Page 74 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

From Problem 471.

T = 6300 in lb = 6.3 in kips

1

16 (

FD 1 + B 2 ) 2

2

D3 = ( K T )2

+ K

m M +

(

d 1 B 4

) s

8

Reduce to

1

)[ ]

16

D3 = ( K T )2

+ ( K M )2 2

(

d 1 B 4

s m

K m = 1.75

K s = 1.25

B=0

1

16

D3 =

(15.3)

{

[(1.25)(6.3)]2 + [(1.75)(4.2)]2 2 }

D = 1.5306 in

9

say D = 1 in

16

T = 6300 in lb = 6.3 in kips

1

16

3

D =

(15.3)

{

[(1.25)(6.3)]2 + [(1.75)(4.472)]2 }

2

D = 1.5461 in

9

say D = 1 in

16

505. Two bearings D and E, a distance D = 24 in . Apart, support a shaft for a punch

press on which are an 8-in. gear A, a 44-in. pulley B, and a flywheel C, as

indicated (498). Weight of flywheel is 1500 lb.; pulley B receives the power at an

angle of 45o to the right of the vertical; gear A delivers it horizontally to the right.

The maximum power is 25 hp at 250 rpm is delivered, with heavy shock. For

cold-finish AISI 1137, find the diameter by the ASME Code.

Solution:

Page 75 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Data and figure is the same as in Problem 479. Also figure is the same as in Problem 498.

For AISI 1137, cold-finished

s y = 93 ksi

su = 103 ksi

0.3s y = 27.9 ksi

0.18su = 18.54 ksi

use d = 0.18s u = 18.54 ksi

From Problem 479

M = M B = 14,343 in lb = 14.343 in kips

T = TA = 12,600 in lb = 12.6 in kips

For heavy shock load

K m = 2.5

K s = 1.75

B=0

1

16 (

FD 1 + B 2

)

2 2

(K sT ) + K m M +

2

D3 =

( 4

d 1 B

) 8

1

)[ ]

16

D3 = ( K T )2

+ ( K M )2 2

(

d 1 B 4

s m

1

16

D3 =

(18.54)

{

[(1.75)(12.6)]2 + [(2.5)(14.343)]2 }2

D = 2.2613 in

5

say D = 2 in

16

- end -

Page 76 of 76

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

551. (a) A 3 x 3 in. full bearing supports a load of 900 lb., c d D = 0.0015 ,

n = 400 rpm . The temperature of the SAE 40 oil is maintained at 140 oF.

Considering the bearing lightly loaded (Petroff), compute the frictional torque,

fhp, and the coefficient of friction. (b) The same as (a) except that the oil is

SAE 10W.

Solution.

DLvips D

(a) T f =

(cd 2) 2

L = 3 in

D = 3 in

Dn (3)(400)

vips = = = 20 ips

60 60

c d D = 0.0015

SAE 40 oil, 140 oF, Figure A16.

= 7.25 reyns

F= =

( )

DLvips 7.25 10 6 ( )(3)(3)(20 )

= 17.173 lb

(cd 2) (0.0015 2)

D 3

T f = F = (17.173) = 25.76 in lb

2 2

Fvm

fhp =

33,000

Dn (3)(400 )

vm = = = 314.16 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(17.173)(314.16) = 0.1635 hp

33,000 33,000

F 17.173

f = = = 0.0191

W 900

= 2.2 reyns = 2.2 10 6 reyn

F= =

( )

DLvips 2.2 10 6 ( )(3)(3)(20 )

= 5.211 lb

(cd 2) (0.0015 2)

D 3

T f = F = (5.211) = 7.817 in lb

2 2

Fvm

fhp =

33,000

Page 1 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Dn (3)(400 )

vm = = = 314.16 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(5.211)(314.16) = 0.0496 hp

33,000 33,000

F 5.211

f = = = 0.00579

W 900

553. The average pressure on a 6-in. full bearing is 50 psi, cd = 0.003 in. , L D = 1 .

While the average oil temperature is maintained at 160 oF with n = 300 rpm ,

the frictional force is found to be 13 lb. Compute the coefficient of friction

and the average viscosity of the oil. To what grade of oil does this

correspond?

Solution:

W

p=

LD

D = 6 in.

L D =1

L = 6 in.

W = pLD = (50)(6)(6 ) = 1800 lb

F = 13 lb

Coefficient of Friction

F 13

f = = = 0.0072

W 1800

DLvips

F=

(cd 2)

Dn (6)(300)

vips = = = 30 ips

60 60

DLvips ( )(6)(6)(30 )

F= = = 13 lb

(cd 2) (0.003 2)

= 1.8 10 6 reyn = 1.8 reyns

Figure AF 16, 160 oF use SAE 10W or SAE 20W

FULL BEARINGS

n = 320 rpm ; L D = 1 ; cd D = 0.0011 ; operating temperature = 150 oF;

ho = 0.00088 in . (a) Select an oil that will closely accord with the started

conditions. For the selected oil determine (b) the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (c)

the hydrodynamic oil flow through the bearing, (d) the amount of end leakage,

Page 2 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

(e) the temperature rise as the oil passes through the bearing, (f) the maximum

pressure.

Solution:

(a) D = 4 in

L D =1

L = 4 in

cd = 0.0011D = 0.0011(4) = 0.0044 in

ho = 0.00088 in

2h 2(0.00088)

= 1 o = 1 = 0 .6

cd 0.0044

Table AT 20

= 0.6 , L D = 1

Sommerfield Number

2

ns D

S=

p cd

320

ns = = 5.333 rps

60

W 2000

p= = = 125 psi

LD (4)(4)

cd D = 0.0011

2

(5.333) 1

0.121 =

125 0.0011

= 3.4 10 6 reyn = 3.4 reyns

Figure AF-16, 150 oF, use SAE 30 or SAE 20 W

Select SAE 30, the nearest

= 3.9 106 reyn

r

f = 3.22

cr

r D 1

= =

cr cd 0.0011

1

f = 3.22

0.0011

f = 0.003542

F = f W = (0.003542)(2000 ) = 7.084 lb

Page 3 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Dn (4)(320)

vm = = = 335.1 fpm

12 12

Frictional loss = Fvm = (7.084 )(335.1)2374 ft lb min

(c) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , = 0.6

q

= 4.33

rcr ns L

D

r = = 2.0 in

2

c 0.0044

cr = d = = 0.0022 in

2 2

ns = 5.333 rps

L = 4 in

q = 4.33rcr ns L = 4.33(2.0 )(0.0022 )(5.333)(4 ) = 0.4064 in 3 sec

qs

= 0.680

q

qs = 0.680q = 0.680(0.4064 ) = 0.2764 in 3 sec

cto

= 14.2

p

c = 112 , p = 125 psi

14.2 p 14.2(125)

to = = = 15.85 o F

c 112

p

= 0.415

pmax

125

pmax = = 301.2 psi

0.415

555. A 4-in., 360o bearing, with L D = 1.1 (use table and chart values for 1), is to

support 5 kips with a minimum film thickness 0.0008 in.; cd = 0.004 in. ,

n = 600 rpm . Determine (a) the needed absolute viscosity of the oil .(b)

Suitable oil if the average film temperature is 160 F, (c) the frictional loss in

hp. (d) Adjusting only ho to the optimum value for minimum friction,

determine the fhp and compare. (e) This load varies. What could be the

magnitude of the maximum impulsive load if the eccentricity ration

becomes 0.8? Ignore squeeze effect.

Page 4 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Solution:

D = 4 in

L = 1.1D = 1.1(4) = 4.4 in

W 5000

p= = = 284 psi

LD (4.4)(4)

ho = 0.0008 in

cd = 0.004 in.

2h 2(0.0008)

= 1 o = 1 = 0 .6

cd 0.004

600

= = 10 rps

60

S = 0.121

2 2

r ns n s D

S = =

cr p p cd

2

(10)

4

0.121 =

284 0.004

= 3.4 106 reyn

r

f = 3.22

cr

D

f = 3.22

cd

4

f = 3.22

0.004

f = 0.00322

F = f W = (0.00322)(5000 lb ) = 16.1 lb

Dn (4)(600)

vm = = = 628.3 fpm

12 12

Page 5 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

fhp =

Fvm

=

(16.1)(628.3) = 0.3065 hp

33,000 33,000

Table AT 20, L D = 1

ho cr = 0.30 optimum value for minimum friction

r

f = 2.46

cr

D

f = 2.46

cd

4

f = 2.46

0.004

f = 0.00246

F = f W = (0.00246)(5000 lb ) = 12.3 lb

Dn (4)(600)

vm = = = 628.3 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(12.3)(628.3) = 0.234 hp < fhp (c )

33,000 33,000

S = 0.0446

2 2

r ns n s D

S = =

cr p p cd

0.0446 =

(3.2 10 )(10)

6

4

2

p 0.004

p = 717.5 psi

W = pDL = (717.5)(4)(4.4) = 12,628 lb

556. For an 8 x 4 in. full bearing, cr = 0.0075 in. , n = 2700 rpm , average

= 4 10 6 reyn . (a) What load may this bearing safely carry if the minimum

film thickness is not to be less than that given by Norton, i11.14, Text? (b)

Compute the corresponding frictional loss (fhp). (c) Complete calculations for

the other quantities in Table AT 20, , q , qs , to , pmax . Compute the

maximum load for an optimum (load) bearing (d) if cr remains the same, (e)

if ho remains the same.

Page 6 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Solution:

D L = 8 4

L D =1 2

cr = 0.0075 in

r = D 2 = 4 in

= 4 10 6 reyn

ho 0.002

= = 0.27

cr 0.0075

h

Table AT 20, L D = 1 2 , o = 0.27

cr

S = 0.172

2

r ns

S =

cr p

2700

ns = = 45 rps

60

2

(

4 4 10 (45)

S = 0.172 =

6

)

0.0075 p

p = 298 psi

W = pDL = (298)(8)(4) = 9536 lb

ho

(b) Table AT 20, L D = 1 2 , = 0.27

cr

= 38.5o

r

f = 4.954

cr

D

f = 4.954

cd

4

f = 4.954

0.004

f = 0.0093

F = f W = (0.0093)(9536 lb ) = 88.7 lb

Dn (8)(2700)

vm = = = 5655 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(88.7 )(5655) = 15.2 hp

33,000 33,000

Page 7 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

ho

(c) Table AT 20, L D = 1 2 , = 0.27

cr

= 38.5o

q

= 5.214

rcr ns L

q = 5.214rcr ns L = 5.214(4 )(0.0075)(45)(4 ) = 28.2 in 3 sec

qs

= 0.824

q

qs = 0.824(28.2 ) = 23.2 in 3 sec

ct

= 20.26

p

20.26(298)

t = = 54 o F

112

p

= 0.3013

pmax

298

pmax = = 989 psi

0.3013

h

To solve for maximum load, Table AT 20, L D = 1 2 , o = 0.43

cr

2

r ns

S = = 0.388

cr p

(d) cr = 0.0075 in

2

(

4 4 10 (45)

S = 0.388 =

6

)

0.0075 p

p = 132 psi

W = pDL = (132)(8)(4) = 4224 lb

(e) ho = 0.002 in

ho

= 0.43

cr

0.002

cr = = 0.00465 in

0.43

S = 0.388 =

4

2 6

(

4 10 (45) )

0.00465 p

p = 343.3 psi

W = pDL = (343.3)(8)(4) = 10,986 lb

Page 8 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

557. A 6 x 6 in full bearing has a frictional loss of fhp = 11 when the load is

68,500 lb. and n = 1600 rpm ; cr r = 0.001 . (a) Compute the minimum film

thickness. Is this in the vicinity of that for an optimum bearing? (b) What is

the viscosity of the oil and a proper grade for an operating temperature of 160

F? (c) For the same ho , but for the maximum-load optimum, determine the

permissible load and the fhp.

Solution:

L = 6 in

D = 6 in

L D =1

r = D 2 = 3 in

cr r = 0.001

n = 1600 rpm

Dn (3)(1600)

vm = = = 2513 fpm

12 12

Fvm

fhp =

33,000

33,000(11)

F= = 144.45 lb

2513

F 144.45

f = = = 0.00211

W 68,500

r 1

(a) f = (0.00211) = 2.11

cr 0.001

r

Table AT 20, L D = 1 , f = 2.11

cr

Near the vicinity of optimum bearing

cr = 0.001r = 0.001(3) = 0.003 in

ho = 0.254cr = 0.254(0.003) = 0.0008 in

r

(b) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , f = 2.11

cr

S = 0.0652

2

r ns

S = = 0.388

cr p

1600

ns = = 26.67 rps

60

W 68,500

p= = = 1902.8 psi

LD (6)(6)

Page 9 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

2

1 ( )(26.67 )

S = 0.0652 =

0.001 1902.8

= 4.7 10 6 reyn

Figure AF 16, 160 F, use SAE 40.

ho

optimum bearing, maximum load, = 0.53

cr

ho 0.0008

ho the same, cr = = = 0.0015 in

0.53 0.53

ho r

= 0.53 , S = 0.214 , f = 4.89

cr cr

2

r ns

S =

cr p

2

(

3 4.7 10 (26.67 )

S = 0.214 =

6

)

0.0015 p

p = 2343 psi

W = pDL = (2343)(6)(6) = 84,348 lb

r

f = 4.89

cr

3

f = 4.89

0.0015

f = 0.00245

F = f W = 0.00245(84,348) = 206.65 lb

vm = 2513 fpm

fhp =

Fvm

=

(206.65)(2513) = 15.74 hp

33,000 33,000

558. The maximum load on a 2.25 x 1.6875 in. main bearing of an automobile is

3140 lb. with wide-open throttle at 1000 rpm. If the oil is SAE 20W at 210 F,

compute the minimum film thickness for a bearing clearance of (a) 0.0008 in.

and (b) 0.0005 in. Which clearance results in the safer operating conditions?

Note: Since a load of this order exists for only 20-25o of rotation, the actual

ho does not reach this computed minimum (squeeze effect).

Solution:

D L = 2.25 1.6875 in

L 1.6875

= = 0.75

D 2.25

Page 10 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

SAE 20 W at 210 oF

= 0.96 10 6 reyn

W = 3140 lb

n = 1000 rpm

W 3140

p= = = 827 psi

DL (2.25)(1.6875)

1000

ns = = 16.67 rps

60

D

r = = 1.125 in

2

2

ns r

S=

p cr

(a) cr = 0.0008 in

S=

(0.96 10 )(16.67 ) 1.125

6

= 0.038

2

827 0.0008

Table AT 20, L D = 3 4 , S = 0.038

L D ho cr S

1 0.2 0.0446

0.2 0.0923

0.2 0.0685

L D ho cr S

1 0.1 0.0188

0.1 0.0313

0.1 0.0251

At L D = 3 4

ho 0.038 0.0251

= (0.2 0.1) + 0.1 = 0.13

cr 0.0685 0.0251

ho = 0.13cr = 0.13(0.0008) = 0.0001 in

(b) cr = 0.0005 in

S=

(0.96 10 )(16.67 ) 1.125

6 2

= 0.098

827 0.0005

Page 11 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

L D ho cr S

1 0.2 0.0446

0.2 0.0923

0.2 0.0685

L D ho cr S

1 0.4 0.121

0.4 0.319

0.4 0.220

At L D = 3 4

ho 0.098 0.0685

= (0.4 0.2) + 0.2 = 0.239

cr 0.220 0.0685

ho = 0.239cr = 0.239(0.0005) = 0.00012 in

561. A 360o bearing supports a load of 2500 lb.; D = 5 in. , L = 2.5 in. ,

cr = 0.003 in. , n = 1800 rpm ; SAE 20 W oil entering at 100 F. (a) Compute

the average temperature t av of the oil through the bearing. (An iteration

procedure. Assume ; compute S and the corresponding to ; then the

average oil temperature t av = ti + to 2 . If this t av and the assumed do not

locate a point in Fig. AF 16 on the line for SAE 20 W oil, try again.) Calculate

(b) the minimum film thickness, (c) the fhp, (d) the amount of oil to be

supplied and the end leakage.

Solution:

D = 5 in

L = 2.5 in

L 2 .5

= = 0 .5

D 5

cr = 0.003 in

(a) Table AT 20

cto

Parameter, , c = 112

p

2

r ns

S =

cr p

Page 12 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

W 2500

p= = = 200 psi

DL (5)(2.5)

1800

ns = = 30 rps

60

D

r = = 2.5 in

2

cr = 0.003 in

Fig. AF 16, SAE 20 W, Table AT 20, L D = 0.5 , ti = 100 o F

cto

Trial ( t o F ), reyns S to o F t av = ti + to 2 o F

p

3.5 x 10-6 (130 F) 0.365 36.56 65 132.5

-6

3.2 x 10 (134 F) 0.333 34.08 61 130.5

-6

3.4 x 10 (132 F) 0.354 35.71 64 132.0

ho

= 0.415

cr

ho = 0.415(0.003) = 0.00125 in

r

f = 8.777

cr

2 .5

f = 8.777

0.003

f = 0.0105

F = f W = 0.0105(2500 ) = 26.25 lb

Dn (5)(1800)

vm = = = 2356 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(26.25)(2356) = 1.874 hp

33,000 33,000

q

= 4.807

rcr ns L

q = 4.807 rcr ns L = 4.807(2.5)(0.003)(30 )(2.5) = 2.704 in 3 sec

qs

= 0.7165

q

Page 13 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

PARTIAL BEARINGS

n = 2400 rpm , and for the oil, = 3 106 reyn . Determine the load, frictional

horsepower, the amount of oil to enter, the end leakage of oil, and the

temperature rise of the oil as it passes through for : (a) a full bearing, partial

bearings of (b) 180o, (c) 120o, (d) 90o, (e) 60o.

Solution:

D = L = 2 in

L D =1

cr = 0.001 in

r = D 2 = 1 in

n = 2400 rpm

ns = 40 rps

= 3 106 reyn

ho = 0.004 in.

ho 0.0004

= = 0. 4

cr 0.001

Dn (2)(2400)

vm = = = 1257 fpm

12 12

S = 0.121

rf

= 3.22

cr

q

= 4.33

rcr ns L

qs

= 0.680

q

cto

= 14.2

p

p

= 0.415

pmax

Load W

Page 14 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

2

r ns

S =

cr p

0.121 =

2

(

1 3 10 (40 )

6

)

0.001 p

p = 992 psi

W = pDL = (992)(2)(2) = 3968 lb

fhp:

F = fW

rf

= 3.22

cr

1

f = 3.22

0.001

f = 0.00322

F = f W = (0.00322)(3968) = 12.78 lb

fhp =

Fvm

=

(12.78)(1257 ) = 0.4868 hp

33,000 33,000

Oil flow, q

q

= 4.33

rcr ns L

q

= 4.33

(0.1)(0.001)(40)(2)

q = 0.3464 in3 sec

End leakage

qs

= 0.680

q

qs = 0.68(0.3464 ) = 0.2356 in3 sec

Temperature rise, to

cto

= 14.2

p

(112)to = 14.2

992

to = 126 o F

S = 0.128

Page 15 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

rf

= 2.28

cr

q

= 3.25

rcr ns L

qs

= 0.572

q

cto

= 12.4

p

Load W

2

r ns

S =

cr p

0.128 =

2

(

1 3 10 (40 )

6

)

0.001 p

p = 937.5 psi

W = pDL = (937.5)(2)(2) = 3750 lb

fhp:

F = fW

rf

= 2.28

cr

1

f = 2.28

0.001

f = 0.00228

F = f W = (0.00228)(3750) = 8.55 lb

fhp =

Fvm

=

(8.55)(1257) = 0.3257 hp

33,000 33,000

Oil flow, q

q

= 3.25

rcr ns L

q

= 3.25

(0.1)(0.001)(40)(2)

q = 0.26 in3 sec

End leakage

qs

= 0.572

q

qs = 0.572(0.26 ) = 0.1487 in3 sec

Temperature rise, to

Page 16 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

cto

= 12.4

p

(112)to = 12.4

937.5

to = 104 o F

S = 0.162

rf

= 2.16

cr

q

= 2.24

rcr ns L

qs

= 0.384

q

cto

= 15

p

Load W

2

r ns

S =

cr p

0.162 =

2

(

1 3 10 (40 )

6

)

0.001 p

p = 741 psi

W = pDL = (741)(2 )(2) = 2964 lb

fhp:

F = fW

rf

= 2.16

cr

1

f = 2.16

0.001

f = 0.00216

F = f W = (0.00216)(2964) = 6.4 lb

fhp =

Fvm

=

(6.4)(1257 ) = 0.2438 hp

33,000 33,000

Oil flow, q

Page 17 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

q

= 2.24

rcr ns L

q

= 2.24

(0.1)(0.001)(40)(2)

q = 0.1792 in3 sec

End leakage

qs

= 0.384

q

q s = 0.384(0.1792 ) = 0.0688 in 3 sec

Temperature rise, to

cto

= 15

p

(112)to = 15

741

to = 99 o F

L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4

S = 0.450

rf

= 3.29

cr

q

= 1.56

rcr ns L

qs

= 0.127

q

cto

= 28.2

p

Load W

2

r ns

S =

cr p

2

(

1 3 10 (40 )

0.450 =

6

)

0.001 p

p = 267 psi

W = pDL = (267 )(2)(2) = 1068 lb

fhp:

F = fW

Page 18 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

rf

= 3.29

cr

1

f = 3.29

0.001

f = 0.00329

F = f W = (0.00329)(1068) = 3.514 lb

fhp =

Fvm

=

(3.514)(1257) = 0.1339 hp

33,000 33,000

Oil flow, q

q

= 1.56

rcr ns L

q

= 1.56

(0.1)(0.001)(40)(2)

q = 0.1248 in3 sec

End leakage

qs

= 0.127

q

qs = 0.127(0.1248) = 0.0158 in3 sec

Temperature rise, to

cto

= 28.2

p

(112)to = 28.2

267

to = 67 o F

n = 2400 rpm ; = 3 106 reyn . Using Figs. AF 17 and AF 18, determine the

minimum film thickness and the frictional loss (ft-lb/min.) for (a) a full

bearing, and for partial bearings of (b) 180o, (c) 120o, (d) 90o, (e) 60o.

Solution:

L = 2 in

D = 2 in

W = 5000 lb

cr = 0.001 in.

n = 2400 rpm

ns = 40 rps

= 3 106 reyn

r = D 2 = 1 in

Page 19 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

W 5000

p= = = 1250 psi

LD (2)(2)

2 2

( )

r ns 1 3 10 6 (40 )

S = = = 0.10

cr p 0.001 1250

Dn (2)(2400)

vm = = = 1257 fpm

12 12

Using Fig. AF 17 and AF 18

ho

= 0.346

cr

r

f = 2 .8

cr

ho = 0.346(0.001) = 0.000346 in

1

f = 2 .8

0.001

f = 0.0028

F = f W = (0.0028)(5000) = 14 lb

Fvm = (14)(1257 ) = 17,600 ft lb min

ho

= 0.344

cr

r

f = 2 .0

cr

ho = 0.344(0.001) = 0.000344 in

1

f = 2 .0

0.001

f = 0.0020

F = f W = (0.0020)(5000) = 10 lb

Fvm = (10)(1257 ) = 12,570 ft lb min

ho

= 0.302

cr

Page 20 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

r

f = 1 .7

cr

ho = 0.302(0.001) = 0.000302 in

1

f = 1 .7

0.001

f = 0.0017

F = f W = (0.0017 )(5000) = 8.5 lb

Fvm = (8.5)(1257 ) = 10,685 ft lb min

ho

= 0.20

cr

r

f = 1 .4

cr

ho = 0.20(0.001) = 0.0002 in

1

f = 1 .4

0.001

f = 0.0014

F = f W = (0.0014)(5000) = 7 lb

Fvm = (7 )(1257 ) = 8,800 ft lb min

564. A 120o partial bearing is to support 4500 lb. with ho = 0.002 in. ; L D = 1 ;

D = 4 in. ; cd = 0.010 in. ; n = 3600 rpm . Determine (a) the oils viscosity,(b)

the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (c) the eccentricity angle, (d) the needed oil

flow, (e) the end leakage, (f) the temperature rise of the oil as it passes

through, (g) the maximum pressure. (h) If the clearance given is the average,

what approximate class of fit (Table 3.1) is it? (i) What maximum impulsive

load would be on the bearing if the eccentricity ratio suddenly went to 0.8?

Ignore squeeze effect.

Solution:

W = 4500 lb

ho = 0.002 in

L D =1

D = 4 in

L = 4 in

r = D 2 = 2 in

cd = 0.010 in.

n = 3600 rpm

Page 21 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

3600

ns = = 60 rps

60

Dn (2)(3600)

vm = = = 3770 fpm

12 12

W 4500

p= = = 281.25 psi

LD (4 )(4)

ho 2ho 2(0.002 )

= = = 0 .4

cr cr 0.010

Table AT 22, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4

S = 0.162

= 35.65o

r

f = 2.16

cr

q

= 2.24

rcr ns L

qs

= 0.384

q

cto

= 15.0

p

p

= 0.356

pmax

2

r ns

(a) S =

cr p

2

D ns

S =

cd p

2

4 (60 )

0.162 =

0.010 281.25

= 4.75 106 reyn

r

(b) f = 2.16

cr

D

f = 2.16

cd

4

f = 2.16

0.010

f = 0.0054

F = f W = 0.0054(4500) = 24.30 lb

Page 22 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

(c) = 35.65o

q 4q

(d) = = 2.24

rcr ns L Dcd ns L

4q

= 2.24

(4)(0.010)(60)(4)

q = 5.4 in3 sec

qs

(e) = 0.384

q

qs = 0.384(5.4 ) = 2.07 in3 sec

cto

(f) = 15.0

p

(112)to = 15.0

281.25

to = 38 o F

p

(g) = 0.356

pmax

281.25

pmax = = 790 psi

0.356

(h) cd = 0.010 in , D = 4 in

Table 3.1

RC 8, Hole, average = + 0.0025

Shaft, average = - 0.00875

cd = 0.0025 + 0.00875 = 0.01125 0.010 in

Class of fit = RC 9

(i) = 0.80

Table AT 22, , L D = 1

S = 0.162

2

D ns

S =

cd p

2

(

4 3 10 (60 )

0.0531 =

6

)

0.010 p

p = 542 psi

Page 23 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

565. A 120o partial bearing is to support 4500 lb., D = 3 in. , cd = 0.003 in. ;

n = 3600 rpm ; SAE 20W entering at 110 F. Calculate (a) the average

temperature of the oil as it passes through,(b) the minimum film thickness, (c)

the fhp, (d) the quantity of oil to be supplied. HINT: In (a) assume and

determine the corresponding values of S and to ; then tav = ti + to 2 . If

assumed and tav do not locate a point in Fig. AF 16 that falls on line for

SAE 20W, iterate.

Solution:

W = 4500 lb

D = 3 in

L = 3 in

L D =1

cd = 0.003 in.

2

D ns

S =

cd p

3600

ns = = 60 rps

60

W 4500

p= = = 500 psi

DL (3)(3)

cto

, (SAE 20W)

p

cto

Trial t , oF S to tav = ti + to 2

p

3.5 x 10-6 130 0.42 19.8 88 154

2.0 x 10-6 160 0.24 15.4 68 144

2.6 x 10-6 145 0.312 17.7 79 149.5

2.35 x 10-6 150 0.282 17.2 76 148

2.4 x 10-6 149 0.288 17.3 78 149

Page 24 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

ho

= 0.513

cr

2ho

= 0.513

cd

2ho = 0.513(0.003)

ho = 0.00077 in

r

f = 2.974

cr

D 3

f = f = 2.974

cr 0.003

f = 0.002974

F = f W = (0.002974)(4500) = 13.383 lb

Fvm

fhp =

33,000

Dn (3)(3600)

vm = = = 2827 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(13.383)(2827 ) = 1.15 hp

33,000 33,000

q

= 2.528

rcr ns L

4q

= 2.528

Dcd ns L

4q

= 2.528

(3)(0.003)(60)(3)

q = 1.024 in3 sec

applied; n = 1000 rpm ; ho = 0.002 in . For an optimum bearing with minimum

friction determine (a) the clearance, (b) the oils viscosity, (c) the frictional

horsepower. (d) Choose a cd D ratio either smaller or larger than that

obtained in (a) and show that the friction loss is greater than that in the

optimum bearing. Other data remain the same.

Solution:

W = 6000 lb

Page 25 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

D = 8 in

L = 4 in

n = 1000 rpm

1000

ns = = 16.67 rps

60

L D =1 2

ho = 0.002 in

ho cr = 0.23

0.002

cr = = 0.0087 in

0.23

S = 0.126

2

r ns

S =

cr p

W 6000

p= = = 187.5 psi

DL (4)(8)

D

r = = 4 in

2

2

4 (16.67 )

S = 0.126 =

0.0087 187.5

= 6.70 106 reyn

r

f = 2.97

cr

4

f = 2.97

0.0087

f = 0.00646

F = f W = (0.00646 )(6000) = 38.76 lb

Dn (8)(1000)

vm = = = 2094 fpm

12 12

Page 26 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

fhp =

Fvm

=

(38.76)(2094) = 2.46 hp

33,000 33,000

cd 2cr 2(0.0087 )

For (a) = = = 0.0022

D D 8

cd

> 0.0022

D

cd

= 0.0030

D

cd = 0.0030(8) = 0.0240 in

cr = 0.0120 in

ho 0.002

= = 0.1667

cr 0.012

Table AT 21, L D = 1 2

r

f = 1.67

cr

4

f = 1.67

0.0016

f = 0.00668

F = f W = (0.00668)(6000 ) = 40.08 lb

Dn (8)(1000)

vm = = = 2094 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(40.08)(2094) = 2.54 hp > 2.46 hp

33,000 33,000

cd

< 0.0022

D

cd

= 0.0020

D

cd = 0.0020(8) = 0.0160 in

cr = 0.0080 in

ho 0.002

= = 0.25

cr 0.008

Table AT 21, L D = 1 2

r

f = 3.26

cr

4

f = 3.26

0.0016

f = 0.00652

Page 27 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Dn (8)(1000)

vm = = = 2094 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(39.12)(2094) = 2.48 hp > 2.46 hp

33,000 33,000

567. A 120o partial bearing supports 3500 lb. when n = 250 rpm ; D = 5 in. ,

L = 5 in. ; = 3 106 reyn . What are the clearance and minimum film

thickness for an optimum bearing (a) for maximum load, (b) for minimum

friction? (c) On the basis of the average clearance in Table 3.1, about what

class fit is involved? Would this fit be on the expensive or inexpensive side?

(d) Find the fhp for each optimum bearing.

Solution:

D = 5 in.

L = 5 in.

L

=1

D

n = 250 rpm

250

ns = = 4.17 rps

60

= 3 106 reyn

W = 3500 lb

W 3500

p= = = 140 psi

DL (5)(5)

L h

(a) Table AT 22, = 1 , max. load o = 0.46

D cr

S = 0.229

2

r ns

S =

cr p

D

r = = 2.5 in

2

2

( )

2.5 3.0 106 (4.17 )

S = 0.229 =

cr 140

cr = 0.00156 in

ho = 0.46cr = 0.46(0.00156) = 0.00072 in

Page 28 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

L h

(b) Table AT 22, = 1 , min. friction o = 0.40

D cr

S = 0.162

2

r ns

S =

cr p

D

r = = 2.5 in

2

2

( )

2.5 3.0 106 (4.17 )

S = 0.162 =

cr 140

cr = 0.00186 in

ho = 0.46cr = 0.40(0.00186) = 0.00074 in

cd 2 = 2(0.00186) = 0.00372 in

Use Class RC4, ave. cd = 0.00320 in , expensive side

L h

(d) Table AT 22, = 1 , max. load o = 0.46

D cr

r

f = 2.592

cr

2 .5

f = 2.592

0.00156

f = 0.00162

F = f W = (0.00162 )(3500 ) = 5.67 lb

Dn (5)(250)

vm = = = 327.25 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(5.67)(327.25) = 0.0562 hp

33,000 33,000

ho

For minimum friction, = 0.40

cr

r

f = 2.16

cr

2 .5

f = 2.16

0.00186

f = 0.00161

F = f W = (0.00161)(3500) = 5.635 lb

Page 29 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Dn (5)(250)

vm = = = 327.25 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(5.635)(327.25) = 0.0559 hp

33,000 33,000

570. A 180o partial bearing is to support 17,000 lb. with p = 200 psi ,

n = 1500 rpm , ho = 0.003 in , L D = 1 . (a) Determine the clearance for an

optimum bearing with minimum friction. (b) Taking this clearance as the

average, choose a fit (Table 3.1) that is approximately suitable. (c) Select an

oil for an average temperature of 150 F. (d) Compute fhp.

Solution:

W = 17,000 lb

p = 200 psi

n = 1500 rpm

1500

ns = = 25 rps

60

L D =1

L=D

W

p=

DL

17,000

200 =

D2

D = L = 9.22 in

D 9.22

r= = = 4.61 in

2 2

(a) For optimum bearing with minimum friction

ho cr = 0.44

0.003

= 0.44

cr

cr = 0.00682 in

cd = 2cr = 2(0.00682 ) = 0.01364 in

Use Class RC7, average cd = 0.01065 in

Or use Class RC8, average cd = 0.01575 in

(c) Table AT 21, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.44

S = 0.158

Page 30 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

2

r ns

S =

cr p

2

4.61 (25)

0.158 =

0.00682 200

= 2.8 106 reyn

Fig. AF 16, at 150 F

Use Either SAE 20W or SAE 30.

r

f = 2.546

cr

4.61

f = 2.546

0.00682

f = 0.00377

Dn (9.22)(1500)

vm = = = 3621 fpm

12 12

F = f W = (0.00377 )(17,000) = 64.09 lb

fhp =

Fvm

=

(64.09)(3621) = 7.0 hp

33,000 33,000

571. The reaction on a 120o partial bearing is 2000 lb. The 3-in journal turns at

1140 rpm; cd = 0.003 in. ; the oil is SAE 20W at an average operating

temperature of 150 F. Plot curves for the minimum film thickness and the

frictional loss in the bearing against the ratio L D , using L D = 0.25, 0.5, 1,

and 2. (Note: This problem may be worked as a class problem with each

student being responsible for a particular L D ratio.)

Solution:

W = 2000 lb

D = 3 in.

n = 1140 rpm

1140

ns = = 19 rps

60

cd = 0.003 in

cr = 0.0015 in

For SAE 20W, 150 F

= 2.75 106 reyn

L

(a) = 0.25

D

Page 31 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

W 2000

p= = = 889 psi

DL (3)(0.75)

L

Table AT 22, = 0.25

D

D

r = = 1.5 in

2

2 2

(

r ns 1.5 2.75 10 6 (19 )

S = =

)= 0.0588

c

r p 0 . 0015 889

ho

= 0.083

cr

ho = 0.083(0.0015) = 0.000125 in

r

f = 2.193

cr

1 .5

f = 2.193

0.0015

f = 0.002193

F = f W = (0.002193)(2000) = 4.386 lb

Dn (3)(1140)

vm = = = 895 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(4.386)(895) = 0.119 hp

33,000 33,000

L

(b) = 0 .5

D

L = 0.5 D = 0.5(3) = 1.5 in

W 2000

p= = = 444 psi

DL (3)(1.5)

L

Table AT 22, = 0 .5

D

D

r = = 1.5 in

2

2 2

(

r ns 1.5 2.75 106 (19 )

S = =

)= 0.1177

cr p 0.0015 444

ho

= 0.2159

cr

ho = 0.2159(0.0015) = 0.000324 in

r

f = 2.35

cr

Page 32 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

1 .5

f = 2.35

0.0015

f = 0.00235

F = f W = (0.00235)(2000) = 4.7 lb

Dn (3)(1140)

vm = = = 895 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(4.7 )(895) = 0.1275 hp

33,000 33,000

L

(c) =1

D

L = D = 3 in

W 2000

p= = = 222 psi

DL (3)(3)

L

Table AT 22, =1

D

D

r = = 1.5 in

2

2 2

(

r ns 1.5 2.75 106 (19 )

S = =

)

= 0.2354

cr p 0.0015 222

ho

= 0.4658

cr

ho = 0.4658(0.0015) = 0.000699 in

r

f = 2.634

cr

1 .5

f = 2.634

0.0015

f = 0.002634

F = f W = (0.002634)(2000 ) = 5.268 lb

Dn (3)(1140)

vm = = = 895 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(5.268)(895) = 0.1429 hp

33,000 33,000

L

(d) =2

D

L = 2 D = 2(3) = 6 in

W 2000

p= = = 111 psi

DL (3)(6)

L

Table AT 22, =2

D

Page 33 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

D

r= = 1.5 in

2

2 2

( )

r ns 1.5 2.75 106 (19 )

S = = = 0.47

cr p 0.0015 111

ho

= 0.718

cr

ho = 0.718(0.0015) = 0.00108 in

r

f = 3.8118

cr

1 .5

f = 3.8118

0.0015

f = 0.003812

F = f W = (0.003812)(2000) = 7.624 lb

Dn (3)(1140)

vm = = = 895 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(7.624)(895) = 0.2068 hp

33,000 33,000

L

ho , in fhp

D

0.25 0.000125 0.119

0.5 0.000324 0.128

1.0 0.000699 0.143

2.0 0.001080 0.207

Page 34 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

STEADY-STATE TEMPERATURE

cr r = 0.0015 , ho 0.0024 in. , n = 500 rpm . The air speed about the bearing

is expected to be in excess of 1000 fpm (on moving vehicle) and the effective

radiating area is 20 DL . Determine: (a) the eccentricity factor, (b) reyns, (c)

the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (d) the estimated temperature of oil and bearing

( a self-contained oil-bath unit) for steady-state operation, and a suitable

oil.(e) Compute to of the oil passing through the load-carrying area, remark

on its reasonableness, and decide upon whether some redesign is desirable.

Solution:

D = 8 in.

L = 8 in.

L D =1

W = 12,000 lb

D

r = = 4 in

2

cr = 0.0015r = 0.0015(4) = 0.0060 in

ho 0.0024

= = 0. 4

cr 0.0060

n = 500 rpm

500

ns = = 8.33 rps

60

Table AT 21, ho cr = 0.4 , L D = 1

S = 0.128

r

f = 2.28

cr

cto

= 12.4

p

W 12,000

p= = = 187.5 psi

DL (8)(8)

ho

(a) = 1 = 1 0 .4 = 0 .6

cr

2

r ns

(b) S =

cr p

2

4 (8.33)

S = 0.128 =

0.0060 187.5

= 6.5 106 reyn

Page 35 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

r

(c) f = 2.28

cr

4

f = 2.28

0.0060

f = 0.00342

F = f W = (0.00342 )(12,000) = 41.04 lb

Dn (8)(500)

vm = = = 1047 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(41.04)(1047) = 1.302 hp

33,000 33,000

Frictional loss = 43,000 ft-lb/min

Q = 43,000 ft lb min

hcr = hc + hr

hr = 0.108 ft lb min sq.in. F

va0.6

hc = 0.017 , va 1000 fpm

D 0.4

hc = 0.017

(1000 )

0.6

= 0.467 ft lb min sq.in. F

(8)0.4

hcr = 0.467 + 0.108 = 0.575 ft lb min sq.in. F

Ab = 20 DL = 20(8)(8) = 1280 sq.in.

Q = hcr Ab tb

43,000 = (0.575)(1280)(tb )

tb = 58.42 F

Oil-bath, 1000 fpm

toa (1.2)(1.3)(tb )

toa = (1.2)(1.3)(58.42) = 91.1 F

assume 100 F ambient temperature

tb = 100 + 58.42 F = 158.42 F

tb = 100 + 91.1 F = 191.1 F

cto

(c) = 12.4

p

(112)to = 12.4

187.5

to = 20.8 F

Solve for to 2

Page 36 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

to1 = 382.2 to 2

to 2 to1 = 20.8 F

to 2 362.2 + to 2 = 20.8

to 2 = 201.5 F 200 F

not reasonable since the oil oxidizes more rapidly above 200 F, a redesign is

desireable.

573. A 2 x 2-in. full bearing (ring-oiled) has a clearance ratio cd D = 0.001 . The

journal speed is 500 rpm, = 3.4 106 reyn , and ho = 0.0005 in. The ambient

temperature is 100 F; Ab = 25DL , and the transmittance is taken as

hcr = 2 Btu hr sq. ft. F . Calculate (a) the total load for this condition; (b)

the frictional loss, (c) the average temperature of the oil for steady-state

operation. Is this temperature satisfactory? (d) For the temperature found,

what oil do you recommend? For this oil will ho be less or greater than the

specified value? (e) Compute the temperature rise of the oil as it passes

through the bearing. Is this compatible with other temperatures found? (f)

What minimum quantity of oil should the ring deliver to the bearing?

Solution:

L = 2 in.

D = 2 in.

cd D = 0.001

cd = (0.001)(2) = 0.0020 in

= 3.4 106 reyn

ho = 0.0005 in.

cr = 0.0010 in

S = 0.1925

r

f = 4.505

cr

q

= 4.16

rcr ns L

cto

= 19.25

p

(a) S = 0.1925

Page 37 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

2

r ns

S =

cr p

D

r = = 1 in

2

500

ns = = 8.33 rps

60

2

(

1 3.4 10 (8.330 )

S = 0.1925 =

6

)

0.0010 p

p = 147 psi

W = pDL = (147 )(2)(2) = 588 lb

r

(b) f = 4.505

cr

1

f = 4.505

0.001

f = 0.004505

F = f W = (0.004505)(588) = 2.649 lb

Dn (2)(500)

vm = = = 261.8 fpm

12 12

U f = Fvm = (2.649 )(261.8) = 693.5 ft lb min

(c) Q = hcr Ab tb

hcr = 2 Btu hr sq. ft. F = 0.18 ft lb min sq.in. F

Ab = 25DL = 25(2)(2) = 100 sq.in.

Q =Uf

(0.18)(100)(tb ) = 693.5

tb = 38.53 F

toa = 2tb = 2(38.53) = 77 F

to = 77 + 100 = 177 F , near 160 F

satisfactory.

Figure AF 16

Use SAE 40 oil, = 3.3 106 reyn

2

r ns

S =

cr p

Page 38 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

S =

2

(

1 3.3 10 (8.33)

6

) = 0.187

0.0010 147

Table AT 20, L D = 1 , S = 0.187

ho cr = 0.4923

ho = 0.4923(0.0010) = 0.00049 in < ho (= 0.0005 in )

cto

(e) = 19.25

p

(112)to = 19.25

147

to = 25.3 F

to1 + to 2 = 2(177 ) = 354 F

t o 2 t o1 = 25.3 F

2to 2 = 354 + 25.3

to 2 = 190 F < 200 F

compatible.

q

(f) = 4.16

rcr ns L

q

= 4.16

(1)(0.001)(8.33)(2)

q = 0.0693 in3 sec

574. An 8 x 9-in. full bearing (consider L D = 1 for table and chart use only)

supports 15 kips with n = 1200 rpm ; cr r = 0.0012 ; construction is medium

heavy with a radiating-and-convecting area of about 18 DL ; air flow about the

bearing of 80 fpm may be counted on (nearby) pulley; ambient temperature is

90 F. Decide upon a suitable minimum film thickness. (a) Compute the

frictional loss and the steady state temperature. Is additional cooling needed

for a reasonable temperature? Determine (b) the temperature rise of the oil as

it passes through the load-carrying area and the grade of oil to be used if it

enters the bearing at 130 F, (c) the quantity of oil needed.

Solution:

D = 8 in.

L = 9 in.

W = 15,000 lb.

n = 1200 rpm.

1200

ns = = 20 rps

60

cr r = 0.0012

Page 39 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

r = D 2 = 4 in

cr = 0.0012(4) = 0.0048 in

By Norton: ho = 0.00025 D = 0.00025(8) = 0.002 in

ho 0.002

= = 0 .4

cr 0.0048

Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4

S = 0.121

r

f = 3.22

cr

q

= 4.33

rcr ns L

cto

= 14.2

p

r

(a) f = 3.22

cr

4

f = 3.22

0.0048

f = 0.003864

F = f W = (0.003864)(15,000) = 57.96 lb

Dn (8)(1200)

vm = = = 2513 fpm

12 12

U f = Fvm = (57.96 )(2513) = 145,654 ft lb min

Q = hcr Ab tb

hr = 0.108 ft lb min sq.in. F

va0.6

hc = 0.017 ft lb min sq.in. F

D 0.4

hc = 0.017

(80)0.6 = 0.103 ft lb min sq.in. F

(8)0.4

hcr = hc + hr = 0.103 + 0.108 = 0.211 ft lb min sq.in. F

Ab = 18DL = 18(8)(9 ) = 1296 sq.in.

Uf =Q

145,654 = (0.211)(1296)tb

tb = 533 F , very high, additional cooling is necessary.

cto

(b) = 14.2

p

Page 40 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

W 15,000

p= = = 208 psi

DL (8)(9)

(112)to = 14.2

208

to = 26 F

ti = 130 F

to = 156 F

tave = 12 (130 + 156) = 143 F

2

r ns

S =

cr p

2

4 (20 )

S = 0.121 =

0.0048 208

= 1.8 106 reyn

Figure AF 16, = 1.8 reyns , 143 F

Use SAE 10W

q

(c) = 4.33

rcr ns L

q

= 4.33

(4)(0.0048)(20)(9)

q = 14.96 in3 sec

575. A 3.5 x 3.5-in., 360o bearing has cr r = 0.0012 ; n = 300 rpm ; desired

minimum ho 0.0007 in . It is desired that the bearing be self-contained (oil-

ring); air-circulation of 80 fpm is expected; heavy construction, so that

Ab 25DL . For the first look at the bearing, assume = 2.8 106 reyn and

compute (a) the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (b) the average temperature of the

bearing and oil as obtained for steady-state operation, (c) to as the oil passes

through the load-carrying area (noting whether comparative values are

reasonable). (d) Select an oil for the steady-state temperature and decide

whether there will be any overheating troubles.

Solution:

D = 3.5 in.

L = 3.5 in.

cr r = 0.0012

r = D 2 = 1.75 in.

cr = (0.0012)(1.75) = 0.0021 in

ho 0.0007 in

Page 41 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Table AT 20, 360o Bearing, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.333

S = 0.0954

r

f = 2.71

cr

cto

= 12.12

p

2

r ns

(a) S =

cr p

300

ns = = 5 rps

60

= 2.8 106 reyn

2

(

1.75 2.8 10 (5)

S = 0.0954 =

6

)

0.0021 p

p = 102 psi

W = pDL = (102)(3.5)(3.5) = 1250 lb

r

f = 2.71

cr

1.75

f = 2.71

0.0021

f = 0.00325

F = f W = (0.00325)(1250) = 4.0625 lb

Dn (3.5)(300 )

vm = = = 275 fpm

12 12

U f = Fvm = (4.0625)(275) = 1117 ft lb min

(b) Q = hcr Ab tb

hr = 0.108 ft lb min sq.in. F

va0.6

hc = 0.017 ft lb min sq.in. F

D 0.4

hc = 0.017

(80 )

0.6

= 0.143 ft lb min sq.in. F

(3.5)0.4

hcr = hc + hr = 0.143 + 0.108 = 0.251 ft lb min sq.in. F

Ab = 25DL = 25(3.5)(3.5) = 306.25 sq.in.

Uf =Q

1117 = (0.251)(306.25)tb

Page 42 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

tb = 14.5 F

toa = 2tb = 2(14.5) = 29 F

assume ambient temperature of 100 F

tb = 114.5 F

to = 129 F

cto

(c) = 12.12

p

(112)to = 12.12

102

to = 11 F

to1 + to 2 = 2(129) = 258 F

to 2 to1 = 11 F

2to 2 = 269 F

to 2 = 135 F < 140 F

reasonable

use SAE 10W

Figure AF 16, to = 126 F

toa = 126 100 = 26 F

toa = 2tb

26

tb = = 13 F

2

Q = hcr Ab tb = (0.251)(306.25)(13) = 999 ft lb min < U f

there is an overheating problem.

576. A 10-in. full journal for a steam-turbine rotor that turns 3600 rpm supports a

20-kip load with p = 200 psi ; cr r = 0.00133 . The oil is to have

= 2.06 106 reyn at an average oil temperature of 130 F. Compute (a) the

minimum film thickness (comment on its adequacy), (b) the fhp, (c) the

altitude angle, the maximum pressure, and the quantity of oil that passes

through the load-carrying area (gpm).(d) At what temperature must the oil be

introduced in order to have 130 F average? (e) Estimate the amount of heat

lost by natural means from the bearing (considered oil bath) with air speed of

300 fpm. If the amount of oil flow computed above is cooled back to the

entering temperature, how much heat is removed? Is this total amount of heat

enough to care for frictional loss? If not, what can be done (i11.21)?

Page 43 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Solution:

D = 10 in.

n = 3600 rpm

3600

ns = = 60 rps

60

W = 20,000 lb

p = 200 psi

W

p=

DL

20,000

200 =

10 L

L = 10 in

L D =1

D

r = = 5 in

2

cr r = 0.00133

cr = 0.00133(5) = 0.00665 in

= 2.06 106 reyn

tave = 130 F

2

r ns

S =

cr p

S =

5

2

( )

2.06 10 (60 )

6

= 0.35

0.00665 200

Table AT 20, L D = 1 , S = 0.35

ho cr = 0.647

= 65.66o

r

f = 7.433

cr

q

= 3.90

rcr ns L

p

= 0.495

pmax

cto

= 30.8

p

qs

= 0.446

q

Page 44 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

adequate

r

(b) f = 7.433

cr

5

f = 7.433

0 . 00665

f = 0.0099

F = f W = (0.0099)(20,000) = 198 lb

Dn (10)(3600)

vm = = = 9425 fpm

12 12

fhp =

Fvm

=

(198)(9425) = 56.55 hp

33,000 33,000

(c) = 65.66o

p 200

pmax = = = 404 psi

0.495 0.495

q = 3.90rcr ns L

q = 3.90(5)(0.00665)(60)(10) = 77.805 in3 sec

q = (77.805 in3 sec )(1 gpm 231 in3 )(60 sec min ) = 0.21 gpm

cto

(d) = 30.8

p

(112)to = 30.8

200

to = 55 F

t

tave = ti + o

2

55

130 = ti +

2

ti = 102.5 F

(e) Q = hcr Ab tb

hr = 0.108 ft lb min sq.in. F

va0.6

hc = 0.017 ft lb min sq.in. F

D 0.4

hc = 0.017

( 300 )

0.6

= 0.207 ft lb min sq.in. F

(3.5)0.4

hcr = hc + hr = 0.207 + 0.108 = 0.315 ft lb min sq.in. F

Assume

Page 45 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

toa = 130 100 = 30 F

toa = 1.3tb

30

tb = = 23 F

1 .3

Q = (0.315)(2500)(23) = 18,113 ft lb min

Qr = c(q qs )to in lb sec

Qr = (112 )(1 0.446)(77.805)(55)(1 12)(60) = 1,327,602 ft lb min

QT = Q + Qr = 18,113 + 1,327,602 = 1,345,735 ft lb min

U f = Fvm = (198)(9425) = 1,866,150 ft lb min > QT

not enough to care for frictional loss, use pressure feed (i11.21).

DESIGN PROBLEMS

578. A 3.5-in. full bearing on an air compressor is to be designed for a load of 1500

lb.; n = 300 rpm ; let L D = 1 . Probably a medium running for would be

satisfactory. Design for an average clearance that is decided by considering both

Table 3.1 and 11.1. Choose a reasonable ho , say one that gives ho cr 0.5 .

Compute all parameters that are available via the Text after you have decided on

details. It is desired that the bearing operate at a reasonable steady-state

temperature (perhaps ring-oiled medium construction), without special cooling.

Specify the oil to be used and show all calculations to support your conclusions.

What could be the magnitude of the maximum impulsive load if the eccentricity

ration becomes 0.8, squeeze effect ignored?

Solution:

L D =1

D = 3.5 in

L = 3.5 in

W = 1500 lb

n = 300 rpm

300

ns = = 5 rps

60

W 1500

p= = = 122.45 psi

DL (3.5)(3.5)

Table 3.1, medium running fit,

D = 3.5 in

RC 5 or RC 6

Use RC 6

Average cd = 0.0052 in

Page 46 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

General Machine Practice

Average cd = 0.0055 in

Using cd = 0.0055 in

cr = 0.00275 in

ho = 0.5cr = 0.5(0.00275) = 0.001375 in

Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.5

= 0.5

S = 0.1925

= 56.84o

r

f = 4.505

cr

q

= 4.16

rcr ns L

cto

= 19.25

p

p

= 0.4995

pmax

Specifying oil:

Q = hcr Ab tb

U f = Fvm

r

f = 4.505

cr

1.75

f = 4.505

0.00275

f = 0.00708

F = f W = (0.00708)(1500) = 10.62 lb

Dn (3.5)(300 )

vm = = = 275 fpm

12 12

U f = Fvm = (10.62 )(275) = 2921 ft lb min

Q = hcr Ab tb

Assume hcr = 0.516 ft lb min sq.in. F

Medium construction

Ab = 15.5DL = 15.5(3.5)(3.5) = 189.875 sq.in.

Oil-ring bearing

toa = 2tb

Q =Uf

(0.516)(189.875)(tb ) = 2921

Page 47 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

tb = 30 F

toa = 2tb = 2(30) = 60 F

assume ambient temperature = 90 F

t o = 150 F

2

r ns

S =

cr p

2

1.75 (5)

S = 0.1925 =

0.00275 122.45

= 11.6 106 reyn

Figure AF 16, 150 F, 11.6 106 reyn

Use SAE 70 oil

Table AT 20, L D = 1

S = 0.0446

2

r ns

S =

cr p

2

(

1.75 11.6 10 (5)

S = 0.0446 =

6

)

0.00275 p

p = 527 psi

W = pDL = (527 )(3.5)(3.5) = 6456

580. A 2500-kva generator, driven by a water wheel, operates at 900 rpm. The weight

of the rotor and shaft is 15,100 lb. The left-hand, 5 in, full bearing supports the

larger load, R = 8920 lb . The bearing should be above medium-heavy

construction (for estimating Ab ). (a) Decide upon an average clearance

considering both Table 3.1 and 11.1, and upon a minimum film thickness

( ho cr 0.5 is on the safer side). (b) Investigate first the possibility of the

bearing being a self-contained unit without need of special cooling. Not much air

movement about the bearing is expected. Then make final decisions concerning

oil-clearance, and film thickness and compute all the parameters given in the text,

being sure that everything is reasonable.

Solution:

n = 900 rpm

900

ns = = 15 rps

60

D = 5 in

W = R = 8920 lb

Page 48 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

RC 5, average cd = 0.0051 in

cr = 0.00255 in

ho = 0.5cr = 0.5(0.00255) = 0.00128 in

(b) Use L D = 1

L = 5 in

D

r = = 2.5 in

2

W 8920

p= = = 356.8 psi

DL (5)(5)

Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.5

S = 0.1925

r

f = 4.505

cr

q

= 4.16

rcr ns L

cto

= 19.25

p

2

r ns

S =

cr p

2

2.5 (15)

S = 0.1925 =

0.00255 356.8

= 4.8 106 reyn

r

f = 4.505

cr

2 .5

f = 4.505

0.00255

f = 0.00460

F = f W = (0.00460 )(8920) = 41.032 lb

Dn (5)(900)

vm = = = 1178 fpm

12 12

U f = Fvm = (41.032 )(1178) = 48,336 ft lb min

Q = hcr Ab tb

Medium-Heavy

Ab = 20.25DL = 20.25(5)(5) = 506.25 sq.in.

Assume hcr = 0.516 ft lb min sq.in. F

Q =Uf

Page 49 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

(0.516)(506.25)(tb ) = 48,336

tb = 185 F , very high

Therefore, special cooling is needed.

cto

= 19.25

p

(112)to = 19.25

356.8

to = 61 F

Assume ti = 100 F

61

tave = 100 + 130 F

2

Figure AF 16, = 4.8 reyns , 130 F

Select SAE 30 oil. = 6.0 reyns

2

r ns

S =

cr p

S =

2

(

2.5 6.0 10 (15)

6

)

= 0.242

0.00255 356.8

Table AT 20, L D = 1 , S = 0.242

SAE 30 oil at 130 F

ho

= 0.569

cr

= 61.17o

r

f = 5.395

cr

q

= 4.04

rcr ns L

cto

= 22.75

p

p

= 0.4734

pmax

Oil, SAE 30

cr = 0.00255 in

ho = 0.569(0.00255) = 0.00145 in

PRESSURE FEED

581. An 8 x 8-in. full bearing supports 5 kips at 600 rpm of the journal; cr = 0.006 in. ;

let the average = 2.5 106 reyn . (a) Compute the frictional loss U f . (b) The

Page 50 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

oil is supplied under a 40-psi gage pressure with a longitudinal groove at the

point of entry. Assuming that other factors, including U f , remain the same and

that the heat loss to the surrounding is negligible, determine the average

temperature rise of the circulating oil.

Solution:

L = 5 in

D = 5 in

W = 5000 lb

n = 600 rpm

600

ns = = 10 rps

60

cr = 0.006 in

= 2.5 106 reyn

L D =1

W 5000

p= = = 78.125 psi

DL (8)(8)

2

r ns

S =

cr p

S =

2

4 2.5 10 (10 )

6

(= 0.1422

)

0.006 78.125

r

f = 3.6 , = 0.57

cr

4

f = 3 .6

0.006

f = 0.0054

F = f W = (0.0054)(5000) = 27 lb

Dn (8)(600)

vm = = = 1257 fpm

12 12

U f = Fvm = (27 )(1257 ) = 33,940 ft lb min

c3 p 2 r

q = 2.5 r i tan 1

3 L

( 2 3

)

1 + 1.5 in sec

pi = 40 psi

q = 2.5

(0.006) (40) 1 2 (4)

3

tan [1 + 1.5(0.57)2 ]in3 sec

3(2.5 106 ) 8

Page 51 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

U f = cqto

(33,940 ft lb min )(12 in ft )(1min 60sec ) = (12)(5.41)to

to = 11.2 F

583. A 4-in. 360o bearing, with L D = 1 , supports 2.5 kips with a minimum film of

ho = 0.0008 in. , cd = 0.01 in. , n = 600 rpm. The average temperature rise of the oil

is to be about 25 F. Compute the pressure at which oil should be pumped into the

bearing if (a) all bearing surfaces are smooth, (b) there is a longitudinal groove at

the oil-hole inlet. (c) same as (a) except that there is a 360o circumferential

groove dividing the bearing into 2-in. lengths.

Solution:

D = 4 in

L = 4 in

r = 2 in

W = 2500 lb

cd = 0.010 in

cr = 0.005 in

n = 600 rpm

600

ns = = 10 rps

60

to = 25 F

W 2500

p= = = 156.25 psi

DL (4)(4)

ho = 0.00080 in

ho 0.0008

= = 0.16

cr 0.005

Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.16

r

f = 1.44 , = 0.84

cr

2

f = 1.44

0.005

f = 0.0036

F = f W = (0.0036)(2500) = 9 lb

Dn (4)(600)

vm = = = 628 fpm

12 12

U f = Fvm = (9 )(628) = 5652 ft lb min = 1130 in lb sec

S = 0.0343

Page 52 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

2

r ns

S =

cr p

2

2 (10 )

S = 0.0343 =

0.005 156.25

= 3.35 106 reyn

U f = cqto

1130 = (112)(q )(25)

q = 0.404 in3 sec

(a) Smooth

cr3 pi 1 2 r

q=

3

tan

L

( 2 3

1 + 1.5 in sec )

0.404 =

(0.005)3 ( pi ) tan 1 2 (2) [1 + 1.5(0.84)2 ] in3 sec

3(3.35 106 ) 4

pi = 12.5 psi

(b) Longitudinal groove

2.5cr3 pi 1 2 r

q=

3

tan

L

(

2 3

1 + 1.5 in sec )

2.5(0.005) ( pi ) 1 2 (2)

3

0.404 =

(

3 3.35 10 6

tan

) 4 [

1 + 1.5(0.84) in3 sec

2

]

pi = 5 psi

(c) Circumferential groove

2 rcr3 pi

q=

3L

(

1 + 1.5 2 in3 sec )

2 (2)(0.005) ( pi )

3

) [

1 + 1.5(0.84) in3 sec ]

2

0.404 =

(

3 3.35 10 (4 )

6

pi = 5 psi

BEARING CAPS

584. An 8-in. journal, supported on a 150o partial bearing, is turning at 500 rpm;

bearing length = 10.5 in., c d = 0.0035 in ., ho = 0.00106 in . The average

temperature of the SAE 20 oil is 170 F. Estimate the frictional loss in a 160o cap

for this bearing.

Solution:

Page 53 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

ho = 0.00106 in

c d = 0.0035 in

c r = 0.00175 in

ho

2

hav = cr 1 + 0.741 in

cr

0.00106

2

0.00175

For SAE 20, 170 F

= 1.7 106 reyn

Avips

F=

hav

1

A = DL

2

D = 8 in

L = 10.5 in

160 8

= 160o = =

180 9

1 8

A = (8)(10.5) = 117.3 sq.in.

2 9

500

vips = Dns = (8) = 209.5 ips

60

F=

( )

1.7 106 (117.3)(209.5)

= 21.424 lb

0.00195

Dn (8)(500)

vm = = = 1047 fpm

12 12

U f = Fvm = (21.424 )(1047 ) = 22,430 ft lb min = 1130 in lb sec

L = 2 in ., cd = 0.002 in ., ho = 0.0007 in ., n = 500 rpm , and = 2.5 106 reyn .

For the cap only, what is the frictional loss?

Solution:

c d = 0.002 in

c r = 0.001 in

ho = 0.0007 in

ho 0.0007

= = 0 .7

cr 0.001

Page 54 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

ho

= 1 = 1 0 .7 = 0 .3

cr

( ) [ ]

hav = cr 1 + 0.74 2 = (0.001) 1 + 0.74(0.3) = 0.001067 in

2

Avips

F=

hav

Dn (2)(500)

vm = = = 261.8 fpm

12 12

12

vips = (261.8) = 52.36 ips

60

1 160 1 160

A= DL = ( )(2 )(2 ) = 5.585 sq.in.

2 180 2 180

F=

(2.5 106 )(5.585)(52.36) = 0.685 lb

0.001067

U f = Fvm = (0.685)(261.8) = 179.3 ft lb min

L D = 1 ., cr r = 0.001 . Let n = 400 rpm and = 3.4 106 reyn . The bearing has

a 150o cap. (a) For the bearing and the cap, compute the total frictional loss by

adding the loss in the cap to that in the bearing. (b) If the bearing were 360o,

instead of partial, calculate the frictional loss and compare.

Solution:

2

r ns

S =

cr p

400

ns = = 6.67 rps

60

W 10,000

p= = = 156.25 psi

DL (8)(8)

S =

2

(

1 3.4 10 (6.67 )

6

)= 0.145

0.001 156.25

(a) Table AT 22, L D = 1 , S = 0.145

r

f = 2.021

cr

= 0.6367

r

f = 2.021

cr

1

f = 2.021

0.001

f = 0.002021

Page 55 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

F = f W = (0.002021)(10,000) = 20.21 lb

Dn (8)(400)

vm = = = 838 fpm

12 12

U f 1 = Fvm = (20.21)(838) = 16,936 ft lb min

CAP:

hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 )

cr = 0.001r

D

r = = 4 in

2

cr = 0.001(4) = 0.004 in

( ) [ ]

hav = cr 1 + 0.74 2 = (0.004) 1 + 0.74(0.6367 ) = 0.0052 in

2

Avips

F=

hav

12

vips = (838) = 167.6 ips

60

1 150 1 150

A= DL = ( )(8)(8) = 83.78 sq.in.

2 180 2 180

F=

( )

3.4 106 (83.78)(167.6)

= 9.18 lb

0.0052

U f 2 = Fvm = (9.18)(838) = 7693 ft lb min

Total Frictional Loss

= U f 1 + U f 2 = 16,936 + 7693 = 24,629 ft lb min

(b) 360o Bearing, L D = 1 , S = 0.145

r

f = 3.65

cr

= 0.5664

BEARING:

1

f = 3.65

0.001

f = 0.00365

F = f W = (0.00365)(10,000) = 36.5 lb

Dn (8)(400)

vm = = = 838 fpm

12 12

U f 1 = Fvm = (36.5)(838) = 30,587 ft lb min

CAP:

hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 )

[ ]

hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 ) = (0.004) 1 + 0.74(0.5664) = 0.00495 in

2

Page 56 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Avips

F=

hav

F=

(3.4 10 )(83.78)(167.6) = 9.645 lb

6

0.00495

U f 2 = Fvm = (9.645)(838) = 8083 ft lb min

Total Frictional Loss

= U f 1 + U f 2 = 30,587 + 8083 = 38,670 ft lb min

cr r = 0.001 ; n = 1200 rpm . Let = 2.5 106 reyn . The bearing has a 160o cap.

(a) Compute ho and fhp for the bearing and for the cap to get the total fhp. (b)

Calculate the fhp for a full bearing of the same dimensions and compare.

Determine (c) the needed rate of flow into the bearing, (d) the side leakage qs .

(e) the temperature rise of the oil in the bearing both by equation (o), i11.13,

Text, and by Table AT 22. (f) What is the heat loss from the bearing if the oil

temperature is 180 F? Is the natural heat loss enough to cool the bearing? (g) It is

desired to pump oil through the bearing with a temperature rise of 12 F. How

much oil is required? (h) For the oil temperature in (f), what is a suitable oil to

use?

Solution:

2

r ns

S =

cr p

1200

ns = = 20 rps

60

W 10,000

p= = = 156.25 psi

DL (8)(8)

1 (2.5 10 )(20 )

2 6

S = = 0.32

0.001 156.25

(a) Table AT 22, L D = 1 , S = 0.32

= 0.5417

ho

= 0.4583

cr

r

f = 3.18

cr

q

= 2.60

rcr ns L

Page 57 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

qs

= 0.305

q

cto

= 17.834

p

p

= 0.38434

pmax

ho = 0.4583cr = 0.4583(0.001)(4) = 0.00183 in

BEARING:

r

f = 3.18

cr

1

f = 3.18

0.001

f = 0.00318

F = f W = (0.00318)(10,000) = 31.8 lb

Dn (8)(1200)

vm = = = 2513 fpm

12 12

U f 1 = Fvm = (31.8)(2513) = 79,913 ft lb min , 2.42 hp

CAP:

hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 )

cr = 0.001r

D

r = = 4 in

2

cr = 0.001(4) = 0.004 in

[ ]

hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 ) = (0.004) 1 + 0.74(0.5417 ) = 0.00487 in

2

Avips

F=

hav

12

vips = (2513) = 503 ips

60

1 160 1 160

A= DL = ( )(8)(8) = 89.36 sq.in.

2 180 2 180

F=

( )

2.5 106 (89.36)(5036)

= 23.1 lb

0.00487

U f 2 = Fvm = (23.1)(2513) = 58,050 ft lb min , 1.76 hp

Total Frictional Loss

= U f 1 + U f 2 = 79,913 + 58,050 = 137,963 ft lb min

Uf 137,963

fhp = = = 4.18 hp

33,000 33,000

(b) Full Bearing, L D = 1 , S = 0.32

Page 58 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Table AT 20

ho

= 0.6305

cr

r

f = 6.86

cr

= 0.3695

ho = 0.6305(0.004 ) = 0.002522 in

BEARING:

r

f = 6.86

cr

1

f = 6.86

0.001

f = 0.00686

F = f W = (0.00686)(10,000) = 68.6 lb

U f 1 = Fvm = (68.6 )(2513) = 172,392 ft lb min , 5.224 hp

CAP:

hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 )

[ ]

hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 ) = (0.004) 1 + 0.74(0.3695) = 0.00440 in

2

Avips

F=

hav

F=

(2.5 10 )(89.36)(503) = 25.54 lb

6

0.00440

U f 2 = Fvm = (25.54 )(2513) = 64,182 ft lb min , 1.946 hp

Total Frictional Loss

= U f 1 + U f 2 = 172,392 + 64,182 = 236,574 ft lb min

Uf 236,574

fhp = = = 7.17 hp

33,000 33,000

q

= 2.60

rcr ns L

q

= 2.60

(4)(0.004)(20)(8)

q = 6.656 in3 sec

q

(d) s = 0.305

q

qs

= 0.305

6.656

Page 59 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

qs = 2.03 in 3 sec

(e) Equation(o)

U f 1 = cqto

12

U f 1 = 79,913 ft lb min = 79,913 in lb sec = 15,983 in lb sec

60

U f 1 = 15,983 = (112 )(6.656 )to

to = 21.4 F

Table 22.

cto

= 17.834

p

112to

= 17.834

156.25

to = 24.9 F

(f) Q = hcr Ab tb

assume hcr = 0.516 ft lb min sq.in. F

Ab = 25DL = 25(8)(8) = 1600 sq.in.

t

tb = oa

2

assume ambient = 100 F

180 100

tb = = 40 F

2

Q = (0.516 )(1600 )(40 ) = 33,024 ft lb min < U f 1

Therefore not enough to cool the bearing.

(g) Qr + Q = U f 1 + U f 2

Qr + 33,024 = 137,963

Qr = 104,939 ft lb min

Qr = 20,988 in lb sec

Qr = cqto

20,988 = (112)q(12)

q = 15.62 in3 sec

Page 60 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

IMPERFECT LUBRICATION:

588. A 0.5 x 0.75-in. journal turns at 1140 rpm. What maximum load may be

supported and what is the frictional loss if the bearing is (a) SAE Type I, bronze

base, sintered bearing, (b) nylon (Zytel) water lubricated, (c) Teflon, with

intermittent use, (d) one with carbon graphite inserts.

Solution:

(a) f = 0.12

Dn (0.5)(1140)

vm = = = 149.23 fpm

12 12

pvm = 50,000

p(149.23) = 50,000

p = 335 psi

W = pDL = (335)(0.5)(0.75) = 126 lb

F = f W = (0.12)(126) = 15.12 lb

U f = Fvm = (15.12 )(149.23) = 2256 ft lb min

pvm = 2500 , water

p(149.23) = 2500

p = 16.75 psi

W = pDL = (16.75)(0.5)(0.75) = 6.28 lb

F = f W = (0.16)(6.28) = 1.005 lb

U f = Fvm = (1.005)(149.23) = 150 ft lb min

f = 0.25

pvm = 20,000 , intermittent

p(149.23) = 20,000

p = 134 psi

W = pDL = (134)(0.5)(0.75) = 50.25 lb

F = f W = (0.25)(50.25) = 12.5625 lb

U f = Fvm = (12.5625)(149.23) = 1875 ft lb min

p(149.23) = 15,000

p = 100.5 psi

W = pDL = (100.5)(0.5)(0.75) = 37.69 lb

assume f = 0.20

Page 61 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

F = f W = (0.20)(37.69) = 7.54 lb

U f = Fvm = (7.54 )(149.23) = 1125 ft lb min

590. A bearing to support a load of 150 lb at 800 rpm is needed; D = 1 in. ; semi-

lubricated. Decide upon a material and length of bearing, considering sintered

metals, Zytel, Teflon, and graphite inserts.

Solution:

Dn (1)(800)

vm = = = 209.44 fpm

12 12

assume, L = D = 1 in

W 150

p= = = 150 psi

DL (1)(1)

pvm = (150)(209.44) = 31,416

Use sintered metal, limit pvm = 50,000

THRUST BEARINGS

592. A 4-in. shaft has on it an axial load of 8000 lb., taken by a collar thrust

bearing made up of five collars, each with an outside diameter of 6 in. The

shaft turns 150 rpm. Compute (a) the average bearing pressure, (b) the

approximate work of friction.

Solution:

4W 4(8000 )

(a) p = = = 283 psi

Do2 (6)2

F = f W = (0.065)(8000) = 520 lb

Dn (3)(150)

vm = = = 117.81 fpm

12 12

U f = nFvm = (5)(520 )(117.81) = 306,306 ft lb min

593. A 4-in. shaft, turning at 175 rpm, is supported on a step bearing. The bearing

area is annular, with a 4-in. outside diameter and a 3/4 in. inside diameter.

Take the allowable average bearing pressure as 180 psi. (a) What axial load

may be supported? (b) What is the approximate work of friction?

Solution:

Dn

vm =

12

Page 62 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

1

D= (4 + 0.75) = 2.375 in

2

Dn (2.375)(175)

vm = = = 108.81 fpm

12 12

assume f = 0.065 , average

4W

(a) p =

(

Do2 Di2 )

2 3

2

4 4

(b) U f = f Wvm = (0.065)(2182 )(108.81) = 15,433 ft lb min

- end -

Page 63 of 63

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

601. The radial reaction on a bearing is 1500 lb.; it also carries a thrust of 1000 lb.;

shaft rotates 1500 rpm; outer ring stationary; smooth load, 8-hr./day service, say

15,000 hr. (a) Select a deep-groove ball bearing. (b) What is the rated 90 % life

of the selected bearing? (c) For b = 1.34 , compute the probability of the selected

bearing surviving 15,000 hr.

Solution:

Fx = 1500 lb

Fy = 1000 lb

( )

B10 = (15,000 )(60 )(1500 ) 106 = 1350 mr

F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz

Cr = 1 , outer ring stationary

assume Ct = 1.8

F e= 0.56(1)(1500) + (1.8)(1000) = 2640 lb

1

B 3 1

Fr = 10 Fe = (1350)3 (2640) = 29,178 lb

Br

(a) Table 12.3

use 320, Fr = 29,900 lb

Fs = 29,900 lb

To check:

Fz 1000

= = 0.0340

Fs 29,400

Table 12.2, Ct = 1.93 , Q = 0.2286

Fz 1000

= = 0.667 > Q

Cr Fx (1.0 )(1500 )

F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz

F e= 0.56(1)(1500) + (1.93)(1000) = 2770 lb

1

B 3 1

Fr = 10 Fe = (1350)3 (2770) = 30,614 lb

Br

2.4 % higher than 29,900 lb. Safe.

Therefore use Bearing 320, Deep-Groove Ball Bearing.

(b) Fr = 29,900 lb

F e= 2770 lb

1

B 3

29,900 = 10 (2770 ) = 30,614 lb

1 mr

B10 = 1258 mr

Page 1 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

( )

B10 = (HR )(60 )(1500 ) 106 = 1258

HR 14,000 hr

1

1 b

ln

B P

(c) =

B10 1

ln

P10

1 1

ln = ln

P10 0.9

B10 = 1258 mr

B = 1350 mr

1

1 1.34

ln

1350 P

=

1258 1

0.9

ln

P = 0.891

602. A certain bearing is to carry a radial load of 500 lb. and a thrust of 300 lb. The

load imposes light shock; the desired 90 % life is 10 hr./day for 5 years at

n = 3000 rpm . (a) Select a deep-groove ball bearing. What is its bore? Consider

all bearings that may serve. (b) What is the computed rated 90 % life of the

selected bearing? (c) What is the computed probability of the bearing surviving

the specified life? (d) If the loads were changed to 400 and 240 lb., respectively,

determine the probability of the bearing surviving the specified life, and the 90 %

life under the new load.

Solution:

Fx = 500 lb

Fz = 300 lb

Assume Cr = 1

Fz 300

= = 0 .6

Cr Fx (1.0 )(500 )

Fz

Table 12.2, >Q

Cr Fx

(a) F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz

Cr = 1

Assume Ct = 1.8

F e= 0.56(1)(500) + (1.93)(300 ) = 820 lb

Page 2 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

F e= (1.1)(820) = 902 lb

1

B 3 1

Fr = 10 Fe = (1350)3 (2770) = 30,614 lb

Br

B10 = (5)(365)(10 )(60 )(3000 )(106 ) = 3285 mr

1

B 3 1

Fr = 10 Fe = (3285)3 (902) = 13,409 lb

Br

Table 12.3,

Bearing No. Fr , lb Fs , lb Bore

217 14,400 12,000 85 mm

312 14,100 10,900 60 mm

Fr = 14,100 lb

Fs = 10,900 lb

Fz 300

= = 0.0285

Fs 10,900

Ct = 1.99

Q = 0.22

F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz

F e= 0.56(1)(500) + (1.99)(300) = 877 lb

F e= (1.1)(877 ) = 965 lb

1

B 3

Fr = 10 Fe

Br

1

B 3

14,100 = 10 (965)

1

B10 = 3119 mr

( )

B10 = (YR)(365)(10 )(60 )(3000 ) 10 6 = 3119

YR = 4.75 years

1

1 b

ln

B P

(c) =

B10 1

ln

P10

Page 3 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

use b = 1.125

B10 = 3119 mr

B = 3285 mr

1

1 1.125

ln

3285 P

=

3119 1

0.9

ln

P = 0.8943

(d) Fx = 400 lb

Fz = 240 lb

Cr = 1

Fz 240

= = 0 .6

Cr Fx (1.0 )(400 )

Table 12.2

Ct = 2.15

Q = 0.21 < 0.6

F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz

F e= 0.56(1)(400) + (2.15)(240) = 740 lb

F e= (1.1)(740) = 814 lb

1

B 3

Fr = 10 Fe

Br

1

B 3

14,100 = 10 (814)

1

B10 = 5197 mr

1

1 b

ln

=

B P

B10 1

ln

P10

1

1 1.125

ln

3285 P

=

5197 1

0.9

ln

P = 0.939

Life:

B10 = (YR)(365)(10 )(60 )(3000 )(10 6 ) = 5197

Page 4 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

YR = 8 years

603. The smooth loading on a bearing is 500-lb radial, 100 lb. thrust; n = 300 rpm . An

electric motor drives through gears; 8 hr./day, fully utilized. (a) Considering

deep-groove ball bearings that may serve, choose one end specify its bore. For

the bearing chosen, determine (b) the rated 90 % life and (c) the probability of

survival for the design lufe.

Solution:

Fx = 500 lb

Fz = 100 lb

Table 12.1, 8 hr./day fully utilized, assume 25,000 hr

B10 = (25,000 )(60 )(300 )(106 ) = 450 mr

(a) assume Cr = 1

Fz 100

= = 0 .2

Cr Fx (1.0 )(500 )

F

consider Q > z

Cr Fx

Fe = Cr Fx = (1.0)(500) = 500 lb

1

B 3 1

Fr = 10 Fe = (450)3 (500) = 3832 lb

Br

Table 12.3

Bearing No. Fr , lb Fs , lb

207 4440 3070

306 4850 3340

305 3660 2390

Select 305, Fr = 3660 lb , Fs = 2390 lb

Bore (Table 12.4) = 25 mm

Fz 100

(a) = = 0.0418

Fs 2390

Table 12.2, 0.22 < Q0.26

F

Q> z

Cr Fx

Fe = Cr Fx = (1.0)(500) = 500 lb

1

B 3

3660 = 10 (500)

1

B10 = 392 mr

Rated Life:

Page 5 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

( )

B10 = (HR )(60 )(300 ) 106 = 392

HR 22,000 hr

1

1 b

ln

=

B P

(c)

B10 1

ln

P10

b = 1.125

1

1 1.125

ln

450 P

=

392 1

0.9

ln

P = 0.884

605. A No. 311, single-row, deep-groove ball bearing is used to carry a radial load of

1500 lb. at a speed of 500 rpm. (a) What is the 90 % life of the bearing in hours?

What is the approximate median life? What is the probability of survival if the

actual life is desired to be (b) 105 hr., (c) 104 hr.?

Solution:

Table 12.3, No. 311

Fs = 9400 lb

Fr = 12400 lb

Fx = 1500 lb

assume Cr = 1

Fe = Cr Fx = (1)(1500 ) = 1500 lb

1

B 3

(a) Fr = 10 Fe

Br

1

B 3

12400 = 10 (1500)

1

B10 = 565 mr

( )

B10 = (HR )(60 )(500 ) 106 = 565

HR 18,800 hr

Page 6 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

( ) ( )

(b) B = 105 (60)(500) 106 = 3000 mr

1

1 b

ln

=

B P

B10 1

ln

P10

b = 1.125

1

1 1.125

ln

3000 P

=

565 1

0.9

ln

P = 0.502

(c) 104 hr

( ) ( )

B = 104 (60)(500) 106 = 300 mr

1

1 b

ln

=

B P

B10 1

ln

P10

b = 1.125

1

1 1.125

ln

300 P

=

565 1

0.9

ln

P = 0.950

606. The load on an electric-motor bearing is 350 lb., radial; 24 hr. service,

n = 1200 rpm ; compressor drive; outer race stationary. (a) Decide upon a deep-

groove ball bearing, giving its significant dimensions. Then compute the selected

bearings 90 % life, and the probable percentage of failures that would occur

during the design life. What is the approximate median life of this bearing? (b)

The same as (a), except that a 200 series roller bearing is to be selected.

Solution:

Fx = 350 lb

Fe = Cr Fx

outer race stationary, Cr = 1

Fe = (1)(350) = 350 lb

Page 7 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Table 12.1

90 % Life, hrs = 50,000 hrs

( )

B = (50,000)(60)(1200) 106 = 3600 mr

1

B 3 1

(a) Fr = 10 Fe = (3600)3 (350 ) = 5364 lb

Br

Table AT 12.3

earing No. Fr , lb Fs , lb

208 5040 3520

209 5660 4010

306 4850 3340

307 5750 4020

Use No. 209 Fr = 5660 lb

Table 12.4, Dimension

Bore = 45 mm

O.D. = 85 mm

Width of Races = 19 mm

Max. Fillet r = 0.039 mm

90 % Life:

1

B 3

Fr = 10 Fe

Br

1

B 3

5660 = 10 (350)

1

B10 = 4229 mr

( )

B10 = (HR )(60 )(1200 ) 106 = 4229

HR 58,740 hr

Probability.

1

1 b

ln

=

B P

B10 1

ln

P10

b = 1.125

1

1 1.125

ln

3600 P

=

4229 1

0.9

ln

P = 0.916

% failures = 1 0.916 = 0.084 = 8.4 %

Page 8 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

use No. 207, Fr = 5900 lb

Bore = 35 mm

O.D. = 72 mm

Width of Races = 17 mm

90 % life:

1

B 3

Fr = 10 Fe

Br

1

B 3

5900 = 10 (350)

1

B10 = 4790 mr

( )

B10 = (HR )(60 )(1200 ) 106 = 4790

HR 66,530 hr

Probability.

1

1 b

ln

=

B P

B10 1

ln

P10

b = 1.125

1

1 1.125

ln

3600 P

=

4790 1

0.9

ln

P = 0.926

% failures = 1 0.926 = 0.074 = 7.4 %

Median Life = 5(66,530) = 332,650 hrs

608. A deep-groove ball bearing on a missile, supporting a radial load of 200 lb., is to

have a design life of 20 hr.; with only a 0.5 % probability of failure while

n = 4000 rpm . Using a service factor of 1.2 , choose a bearing. ( A 5- or 6- place

log table is desirable.)

Fx = 200 lb

assume Cr = 1

Page 9 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Fe = Cr Fx = (1.0)(200) = 200 lb

Fe = (1.2)(200) = 240 lb

( )

B10 = (20 )(60 )(4000 ) 106 = 4.8 mr

P = 1 0.005 = 0.995

1

1 b

ln

=

B P

B10 1

ln

P10

b = 1.125

1

1 1.125

ln

4.8 0.995

=

B10 1

0.9

ln

B10 = 72 mr

1

B 3 1

Fr = 10 Fe = (72)3 (240) = 998.4 lb

Br

Table 12.3

Select No. 201, Fr = 1180 lb

VARIABLE LOADS

610. A certain bearing is to carry a radial load of 10 kip at a speed of 10 rpm for 20 %

of the time, a load of 8 kips at a speed of 50 rpm for 50 % of the time, and a load

of 5 kips at 100 rpm during 30 % of the time, with a desired life of 3000 hr.; no

thrust. (a) What is the cubic mean load? (b) What ball bearings may be used?

What roller bearings?

Solution:

1

F 3n + F23n2 + F33n3 + L 3

(a) Fm = 1 1

n

n = n1 + n2 + n3

For 1 min.

n1= (0.2)(10) = 2 rev

n 2 = (0.5)(50) = 25 rev

n3 = (0.3)(100) = 30 rev

n = 2 + 25 + 30 = 57 rev

F1 = 10 kips

Page 10 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

F2 = 8 kips

F3 = 5 kips

1

(10 )3 (2 ) + (8)3 (25) + (5)3 (30 ) 3

Fm = = 6.88 kips

57

assume Cr = 1

Fe = (1.0)(6880) = 6880 lb

1 min = 57 rev

B10 = (3000 )(60 )(57 )(106 ) = 10.26 mr

1

B 3 1

Fr = 10 Fe = (10.26)3 (6880) = 14,950 lb

Br

Table 12.3, Ball Bearing

Use Bearing No. 217, Fr = 14,400 lb

Use Bearing No. 213, Fr = 14,900 lb

612. A deep-groove ball bearing No. 215 is to operate 30 % of the time at 500 rpm

with Fx = 1200 lb and Fz = 600 lb , 55 % of the time at 800 rpm with

Fx = 1000 lb and Fz = 500 lb , and 15 % of the time at 1200 rpm with

Fx = 800 lb and Fz = 400 lb . Determine (a) the cubic mean load; (b) the 90 % life

of this bearing in hours, (c) the average life in hours.

Solution:

Bearing No. 215, Fr = 11,400 lb , Fs = 9,250 lb

Table 12.2, Fz Fs

At 30 % of the time, 500 rpm

Fz 600

= = 0.065

Fs 9250

Ct = 1.66

Q = 0.266

Fz 600

= = 0 .5 > Q

Cr Fx (1)(1200 )

Fe1 = 0.56Cr Fc + Ct Fz = 0.56(1)(1200) + (1.66)(600) = 1668 lb

At 55 % of the time, 800 rpm

Fz 500

= = 0.054

Fs 9250

Page 11 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Ct = 1.73

Q = 0.257

Fz 500

= = 0 .5 > Q

Cr Fx (1)(1000 )

Fe 2 = 0.56Cr Fc + Ct Fz = 0.56(1)(1000) + (1.73)(500) = 1425 lb

At 15 % of the time, 1200 rpm

Fz 400

= = 0.043

Fs 9250

Ct = 1.84

Q = 0.242

Fz 400

= = 0 .5 > Q

Cr Fx (1)(800 )

Fe1 = 0.56Cr Fc + Ct Fz = 0.56(1)(800) + (1.84)(400) = 1184 lb

1

F 3n + F23n2 + F33n3 + L 3

(a) Fm = 1 1

n

n = n1 + n2 + n3

F1 = 1668 lb

F2 = 1425 lb

F3 = 1184 lb

For 1 min.

n1= (0.3)(500 ) = 150 rev

n 2 = (0.55)(800) = 440 rev

n3 = (0.15)(1200 ) = 180 rev

n = 150 + 440 + 180 = 770 rev

1

(1668) (150 ) + (1425) (440 ) + (1184 ) (180 )

3 3 3 3

Fm = = 1434 kips

770

(b) Fe = Fm = 1434 lb

1

B 3

Fr = 10 Fe

Br

1

B 3

11,400 = 10 (1434 )

1

B10 = 503 mr

For 1 min = 770 rev

Page 12 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

HR 11,000 hr

614. A shaft for the general-purpose gear-reduction unit described in 489 has radial

bearing reactions of RC = 613 lb and RD = 1629 lb ; n = 250 rpm . Assume that

the unit will be fully utilized for at least 8 hr./day, with the likelihood of the same

uses involving minor shock. (a) Select ball bearings for this shaft. (b) Select

roller bearings. (c) What is the probability of both bearings C and D surviving for

the design life?

Solution:

3

Problem 489, D = 1 in = 1.375 in

8

Ref: Design of Machine Members, Doughtie and Vallance

Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr

at C. Fr = RC = 613 lb

K t = 1.0

K p = 1 .0

K o = 1.0

Kr Na

Ks = 3

Nc

N a = 250 rpm

N c = 500 rpm

K r = 1.5

Ks = 3

(1.5)(250) = 0.90856

500

K a = 1.0

Ha

Kl = 3

H c K rel

Table 12.1, 8 hr/day, fully utilized, Text

H a = 25,000 hr

H c = 10,000 hr

assume K rel = 1.0 for 90 % reliability

25,000

Kl = 3 = 1.3572

10,000

Page 13 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr

Fc = (1.0)(1.3572)(1.0)(1.0 )(0.90856)(1.0)(613) = 756 lb

Table 9-7, Doughtie and Vallance,

Two-row spherical Type, No. 207

Bore = 1.3780 in, Fc = 880 lb

At D. Fr = RD = 1629 lb

Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr

Fc = (1.0)(1.3572)(1.0)(1.0 )(0.90856)(1.0)(1629) = 2009 lb

Table 9-7, Doughtie and Vallance,

Two-row spherical Type, No. 407

Bore = 1.3780 in, Fc = 2290 lb

(b) at C, Fc = 756 lb

Table 9.8, Doughtie and Vallance

Use No. 207, Bore = 1.3780 in, Fc = 1540 lb

at C, Fc = 2009 lb

Table 9.8, Doughtie and Vallance

Use No. 307, Bore = 1.3780 in, Fc = 2660 lb

Fc = 880 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0.90856)(1)(613)

K l = 1.58

Ha

Kl = 3

H c K rel

25,000

1.58 = 3

10,000 K rel

K rel = 0.634

Table 9-3, Reference

Probability = 95.8 %

Fc = 2290 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0.90856 )(1)(1627 )

K l = 1.547

Ha

Kl = 3

H c K rel

Page 14 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

25,000

1.547 = 3

10,000 K rel

K rel = 0.675

Table 9-3, Reference

Probability = 93.3 %

Fc = 1540 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0.90856)(1)(613)

K l = 2.765

Ha

Kl = 3

H c K rel

25,000

2.765 = 3

10,000 K rel

K rel = 0.118

Table 9-3, Reference

Probability = 98.8 %

Fc = 2660 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0.90856)(1)(1627 )

K l = 1.80

Ha

Kl = 3

H c K rel

25,000

1.80 = 3

10,000 K rel

K rel = 0.43

Table 9-3, Reference

Probability = 95.7 %

615. A shaft similar to that in 478 has the following radial loads on the bearings, left

to right: 803 lb, 988 lb, 84 lb, and 307 lb; no thrust. The minimum shaft diameter

at the bearings are 1.250 in, 1.125 in, 1.000 in, and 1.0625 in. Assume that the

service will not be particularly gentle; intermittently used, with n = 425 rpm . (a)

Select ball bearing for this shaft. (b) Select roller bearings.

Solution:

Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr

K a = 1.0

Page 15 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Ha

Kl = 3

H c K rel

H c = 10,000 hr

Table 12.1, Text, H a = 10,000 hr (intermittent)

90 % reliability, K rel = 1.0

10,000

Kl = 3 = 1 .0

10,000

K o = 1.0

K p = 1 .0

K r = 1.5 assumed

Kr Na

Ks = 3

Nc

N a = 425 rpm

N c = 500 rpm

Ks = 3

(1.5)(425) = 1.0844

500

K t = 1.0

Fc = (1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0844)(1.0)(803) = 870 lb

Table 9-7, Ref.

Two-row spherical type, 207

Fc = 880 lb

Bore = 1.3780 in

Table 9-7, Ref.

Two-row spherical type, 306

Fc = 1050 lb

Bore = 1.1811 in

Fc = (1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0844)(1.0)(84) = 91 lb

Page 16 of 17

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Deep-groove type, 106

Fc = 544 lb

Bore = 1.1811 in

Fc = (1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0844)(1.0)(307 ) = 333 lb

Table 9-7, Ref.

Deep-groove type, 106

Fc = 544 lb

Bore = 1.1811 in

Fc = 870 lb , Bore = 1.3780 in

use No. 207, Fc = 1540 lb

Fc = 1071 lb , Bore = 1.1811 in

use No. 206, Fc = 1320 lb

Fc = 91 lb , Bore = 1.1811 in

use No. 206, Fc = 1320 lb

Fc = 333 lb , Bore = 1.1811 in

use No. 206, Fc = 1320 lb

- end -

Page 17 of 17

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

701. For continuous duty in a speed reducer, two helical gears are to be rated at 7.4 hp

at a pinion speed of 1750 rpm; m w 2.75 ; the helix angle 15o ; 20o F.D. teeth in

the normal plane; let N p = 21 teeth, and keep b < 2 D p . Determine the pitch, face,

N g , and the material and heat treatment. Use through-hardened teeth with a

maximum of 250 BHM (teeth may be cut after heat treatment).

Solution:

= 15o

n = 20o

D p n p

vm =

12

N p 21

Dp = =

Pd Pd

n p = 1750 rpm

21

(1750)

Pd 9621

vm = =

12 Pd

33,000hp (33,000 )(7.4 )

Ft = = = 25.38 Pd

vm 9621

P

d

b 2 Dp

21 42

b = 2 =

Pd Pd

0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos

Fd = Ft + 1

lb

0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos )

2 2

Table AT 25

Assume C = 1660

= 15o

9621 42

0.05 25.38Pd + 1660 cos 2 15 cos15

Pd Pd

Fd = 25.38Pd + 1

lb

9621 42 2

0.05 + 25.38Pd + 1660 cos 2 15

Pd Pd

Page 1 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

465 65050

25.38 Pd +

Pd Pd

Fd = 25.38 Pd + 1

lb

481 65050 2

+ 25.38 Pd +

Pd Pd

For continuous service: Fw Fd

bD pQK g

Fw =

cos 2

2mg 2(2.75)

Q= = = 1.467

mg + 1 2.75 + 1

Table At 26, Bhn = 250

Sum of BHN = 500, n = 20o

K g = 131

42 21 (1.467 )(131) 181,670

Fw = 2

=

Pd Pd cos 15 Pd2

Fw Fd

By trial and error method

Pd Fd Fw

7 3967 3708

6 4758 5046

use Pd = 6

21 21

Dp = = = 3.5 in

Pd 6

42 42

b= = = 7 in

Pd 6

9621 9621

vm = = = 1604 fpm

Pd 6

Fig. AF 19, permissible error = 0.0018 in

Fig. AF 20

Use carefully cut gears, Pd = 6

Error = 0.001 in is o.k.

For material

Strength

sbY cos

Fs =

K f Pd

Page 2 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

Np 21

N ep = = = 23

cos cos3 15

3

N ep = 23 , n = 20o FD

Y = 0.565

assume K f = 2.0

Fs = N sf Fd

assume N sf = 2.0

s (7 )(0.565) cos15

= (4758)(2)

(2 )(6)

s = 29,892 psi

s

use sn = u

3

su = 3(29,892) = 89,676 psi

Use C1050, OQT 1100 F,

su = 122 ksi , BHN = 248 < 250

Ans.

Pd = 6

b = 7 in

N g = mw N p = (2.75)(21) = 58

Material. C1050, OQT 1100 F

3

1750 rpm of the pinion.; mg = 4.25 ; = 15o ; minimum D p = 4 in. ; continuous

4

o

service, 24 hr/day; 20 F.D. teeth in the normal plane, carefully cut; through-

hardened to a maximum BHN = 350. Decide upon the pitch, face width, material

and its treatment.

Solution:

(4.75)(1750)

vm = = 2176 fpm

12

33,000hp (33,000 )(50 )

Ft = = = 758 lb

vm (2176)

Dynamic load:

Fd = Ft +

( )

0.05vm Ft + Cb cos 2 cos

lb

1

( 2

0.05vm + Ft + Cb cos 2 )

Fig. AF 19, vm = 2176 fpm

Permissible error = 0.0014 in

Page 3 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

Table AT 25,

Steel and steel, 20o FD

C = 1660

Fd = 758 +

( )

0.05(2176) 758 + 1660b cos 2 15 cos15

lb

1

(

0.05(2176) + 758 + 1660b cos 152

)

2

105.1(758 + 1548.8b )

Fd = 758 + 1 lb

108.8 + (758 + 1548.8b )2

Wear load:

bD pQK g

Fw =

cos 2

2mg 2(4.25)

Q= = = 1.619

mg + 1 4.25 + 1

Table At 26, 20o FD,

Sum of BHN =2(350)=700

K g = 270

b(4.75)(1.619 )(270 )

Fw = = 2225b

cos 2 15

2

Fw Fd , bmin = 2 Pa = = 4.69 in.

Pd tan

By trial and error method

b Fd Fw

5 5203 11125

6 5811 13350

use b = 5 in

Material:

Strength:

sbY sbY cos

Fs = =

K f Pdn K f Pd

Np

N ep =

cos3

N p = Pd D p = (5)(4.375) = 22

22

N ep = = 25

cos3 15

Table AT 24, Load near middle

Page 4 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

N ep = 25 , n = 20o FD

Y = 0.580

assume K f = 1.7

s (5)(0.580) cos15

Fs = = 0.32955s

(1.7 )(5)

Fs = N sf Fd

for 24 hr/day service, heavy shock loading

N sf = 1.75

0.32955s = (1.75)(5203)

s = 27,629 psi

s

use sn = u

3

su = 3(27,629) = 82,887 psi

Table AT 9

Use 4150, OQT 1200 F,

su = 159ksi , BHN = 331 < 350

Ans.

Pd = 5

b = 5 in

Material. 4150, OQT 1200 F

705. Design the teeth for two herringbone gears for a single-reduction speed reducer

with mw = 3.80 . The capacity is 36 hp at 3000 rpm of the pinion; = 30o ; F.D.

teeth with n = 20o . Since space is at a premium, the initial design is for N p = 15

teeth and carburized teeth of AISI 8620; preferably b < 2 D p .

Solution:

N 15

Dp = p =

Pd Pd

b 2Dp

30

b = 2 Dp =

Pd

D p n p

vm =

12

15

(3000)

P

vm = d

11,781

=

12 Pd

Page 5 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

Ft = = = 101Pd

vm 11,781

Pd

Dynamic load

Fd = Ft +

( )

0.05vm Ft + Cb cos 2 cos

lb

1

( 2

0.05vm + Ft + Cb cos 2 )

o

n = 20

= 30 o

Assume C = 1660 , Table AT 25, 20o FD

11,781 30

0.05 101Pd + 1660 cos 2 30 cos 30

Pd Pd

Fd = 101Pd + 1

lb

11,781 30 2

0.05 + 101Pd + 1660 cos 2 30

Pd Pd

510 37,350

101Pd +

Pd Pd

Fd = 101Pd + 1

lb

589 37,350 2

+ 101Pd +

Pd Pd

Wear load

bD pQK g

Fw =

cos 2

2 mg 2(3.80)

Q= = = 1.583

mg + 1 3.80 + 1

For AISI 8620, carburized, 20o FD

K g = 750 for 1010 cycles

30 15 (1.583)(750) 712,350

Fw = 2

=

Pd Pd cos 30 Pd2

By trial and error, Fw Fd

Pd Fd Fw

5 4433 28,494

4 5454 44,522

6 3817 19,788

8 3173 11,130

9 3008 8794

vmax = 1400 fpm (Fig. AF 9)

Page 6 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

11,781

Pd vm =

Pd

5 2356.2

4 1963.5

6 1683

8 1473

9 1309 fpm

use Pd = 9

Fd = 3008 lb

Fw = 5794 lb > Fd

30 30

b= = = 3.3 in

Pd 9

use b = 3.0 in

sbY sbY cos

Fs = =

K f Pdn K f Pd

Np

N ep =

cos3

N p = 15

15

N ep = = 23

cos3 30

Table AT 24, Load near middle

N ep = 23 , n = 20o FD

Y = 0.565

assume K f = 1.7

8620, SOQT 450, su = 167 ksi

s

sn = u

3

su 167

sn = = = 83.5

2 2

Fs =

(83,500)(3.0)(0.565)cos 30 = 8011 lb > F (= 3008 lb )

(1.7)(9) d

Designed Data:

Pd = 9

b = 3.0 in

N p = 15

N g = mw N p = (3.8)(15) = 57

Page 7 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

N p 15

Dp = = = 1.67 in

Pd 9

N 57

Dg = g = = 6.33 in

Pd 9

CHECK PROBLEMS

707. The data for a pair of carefully cut gears are: Pdn = 5 , n = 20o , = 12o ,

b = 3.5 in. , N p = 18 , N g = 108 teeth; pinion turns 1750 rpm. Materials: pinion,

SAE 4150, OQT to BHN = 350; gear, SAE 3150, OQT to BHN = 300. Operation

is with moderate shock for 8 to 10 hr./day. What horsepower may be transmitted

continuously?

Solution:

N

Dp = p

Pd

Pd = Pdn cos = (5)cos15 = 4.89

18

Dp = = 3.681 in

4.89

Wear load

bD pQK g

Fw =

cos 2

b = 3.5 in.

2Ng 2(108)

Q= = = 1.7143

N p + N g 18 + 108

Table AT 26, n = 20o

Sum of BHN = 350 + 300 = 650

K g = 233

Fw =

(3.5)(3.681)(1.7143)(233) = 5379 lb

cos 2 12

Strength of gear

sbY

Fs = lb

K f Pdn

For gear: SAE 3150, OQT to BHN = 300

su = 151 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(151) = 75.5 ksi

Ng 108

N eg = = = 116

cos cos3 12

3

Page 8 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

Y = 0.763

snY = (75.5)(0.763) = 57.6

For pinion: SAE 4150, OQT to BHN = 350

su = 0.5BHN = 0.5(350) = 175 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(175) = 87.5 ksi

Np 18

N ep = = = 19

cos cos3 12

3

Y = 0.534

snY = (87.5)(0.534) = 46.7

Assume K f = 1.7

Fs =

(87,500)(3.5)(0.534) = 19,240 lb

(1.7 )(5)

For moderate shock, 8 to 10 hr./day

Use N sf = 1.5

Fs N sf Fd

19,240 = 1.5Fd

Fd 12,827 lb

Therefore use Fd = Fw = 5379 lb

0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos

Fd = Ft + 1

lb

0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos 2 )2

Fig. AF 20, carefully cut gears, Pdn = 5 , e = 0.001 in

Table AT 25, steel and steel, 20o FD

C = 1660

D p n p (3.681)(1750)

vm = = = 1686 fpm

12 12

Fd = Ft +

[ ]

0.05(1686) Ft + 1660(3.5) cos 2 12 cos12

lb

1

[ ]

0.05(1686) + Ft + 1660(3.5) cos 12 2

2

82.46[Ft + 5559]

Fd = Ft + 1

= 5379 lb

84.3 + [Ft + 5559]2

Trial and error

Ft = 1800 lb

Fv

hp = t m =

(1800)(1686) = 92 hp

33,000 33,000

Page 9 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

708. Two helical gears are used in a single reduction speed reducer rated at 27.4 hp at

a motor speed of 1750 rpm; continuous duty. The rating allows an occasional 100

% momentary overload. The pinion has 33 teeth. Pdn = 10 , b = 2 in. , n = 20o ,

= 20o , mw = 2.82 . For both gears, the teeth are carefully cut from SAE 1045

with BHN = 180. Compute (a) the dynamic load, (b) the endurance strength;

estimate K f = 1.7 . Also decide whether or not the 100 % overload is damaging.

(c) Are these teeth suitable for continuous service? If they are not suitable

suggest a cure. (The gears are already cut.)

Solution:

N

Dp = p

Pd

Pd = Pdn cos = (10) cos15 = 9.66

33

Dp = = 3.42 in

9.66

D p n p (3.42)(1750)

vm = = = 1567 fpm

12 12

33,000hp 33,000(27.4 )

Ft = = = 577 lb

vm 1567

(a) Dynamic load

0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos

Fd = Ft + 1

lb

0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos 2 )2

Fig. AF 20, carefully cut gears, Pdn = 10 , e = 0.001 in

Table AT 25, steel and steel, 20o FD

C = 1660

b = 2 in

Fd = 577 +

[ ]

0.05(1567 ) 577 + 1660(2)cos 2 15 cos15

= 2578 lb

1

[

0.05(1567 ) + 577 + 1660(2)cos 15

2

]2

sbY

Fs = lb

K f Pdn

For SAE 1045, BHN = 180

su = 0.5BHN = 0.5(180) = 90 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(90) = 45 ksi

Np 33

N ep = = = 37

cos cos3 15

3

Page 10 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

Y = 0.645

K f = 1 .7

Fs =

sbY

=

(45,000)(2)(0.645) = 3415 lb

K f Pdn (1.7 )(10)

For 100 % overload

Ft = 2(577 ) = 1154 lb

0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos

Fd = Ft + 1

lb

0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos )

2 2

Fd = 1154 +

[ ]

0.05(1567 ) 1154 + 1660(2)cos 2 15 cos15

= 3475 lb

1

[

0.05(1567 ) + 1154 + 1660(2) cos 15 2

]

2

bD pQK g

(c) Fw =

cos 2

b = 2 in.

2mw 2(2.82 )

Q= = = 1.476

mw + 1 2.82 + 1

Table AT 26, n = 20o

Sum of BHN = 2(180) = 360

K g = 62.5

Fw =

(2)(3.42)(1.476)(62.5) = 676 lb < F (= 2578 lb )

d

cos 2 15

Therefore not suitable for continuous service.

Cure: Through hardened teeth

For Bhn

2578

Kg = (62.5) = 238

676

min Bhn = 0.5(650) = 325

709. Two helical gears are used in a speed reducer whose input is 100 hp at 1200 rpm,

from an internal combustion engine. Both gears are made of SAE 4140, with the

pinion heat treated to a BHN 363 415, and the gear to 321 363; let the teeth

be F.D.; 20o pressure angle in the normal plane; carefully cut; helix angle

= 15o ; N p = 22 , N g = 68 teeth; Pd = 5 , b = 4 in . Calculate the dynamic load,

the endurance strength load, and the limiting wear load for the teeth. Should these

gears have long life if they operate continuously? (Data courtesy of the Twin

Disc Clutch Co.)

Solution:

Page 11 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

N p 22

Dp = = = 4.4 in

Pd 5

D p n p (4.4)(1200)

vm = = = 1382 fpm

12 12

33,000hp 33,000(100 )

Ft = = = 2388 lb

vm 1382

Dynamic load

0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos

Fd = Ft + 1

lb

0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos )2

2

Table AT 25, steel and steel, 20o FD

C = 1660

b = 4 in

Fd = 2388 +

[ ]

0.05(1382) 2388 + 1660(4) cos 2 15 cos15

= 5930 lb

1

[

0.05(1382 ) + 2388 + 1660(4)cos 152

]

2

sbY cos

Fs = lb

K f Pd

Assume K f = 1.7

Pinion

sn = 0.25BHN = 0.25(363) = 90.75 ksi

Np 22

N ep = = = 25

cos cos3 15

3

Y = 0.580

sbY cos (90,750)(4 )(0.580) cos15

Fs = = = 23,925 lb

K f Pd (1.7 )(5)

Gear

sn = 0.25BHN = 0.25(321) = 80.25 ksi

Np 68

N ep = = = 75

cos cos3 15

3

Y = 0.735

sbY cos (80,250 )(4)(0.735)cos15

Fs = = = 26,811 lb

K f Pd (1.7 )(5)

use Fs = 23,925 lb

Page 12 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

bD pQK g

Fw =

cos 2

Table AT 26, n = 20o

Sum of BHN = 684 to 778 use 700

K g = 270

2Ng 2(68)

Q= = = 1.511

N p + N g 22 + 68

Fw =

(4)(4.4)(1.511)(270) = 7696 lb

cos 2 15

Since Fw (= 7696 lb ) > Fd (= 5930 lb ) these gears have long life if they operate

continuously.

CROSSED HELICAL

710. Helical gears are to connect two shafts that are at right angles

( N1 = 20 , N 2 = 40 , Pdn = 10 , 1 = 2 = 45o ). Determine the center distance.

Solution:

D cos 1

N1 = 1 = Pdn D1 cos 1

Pcn

20 = (10)(D1 )cos 45

D1 = 2.83 in

N 2 = Pdn D2 cos 2

40 = (10)(D2 )cos 45

D2 = 5.66 in

C = 12 (D1 + D2 ) = 12 (2.83 + 5.66) = 4.25 in

712. Two shafts that are at right angles are to be connected by helical gears. A

tentative design is to use N1 = 20 , N 2 = 60 , Pdn = 10 , and a center distance of 6

in. What must be the helix angles?

Solution:

= 1 + 2 = 90o

N1

D1 =

Pdn cos 1

N2

D2 =

Pdn cos 2

C = 2 (D1 + D2 )

1

Page 13 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

N1 N2

2C = +

Pdn cos 1 Pdn cos 2

20 60

2(6 ) = +

10 cos 1 10 cos 2

2 6

12 = +

cos 1 cos 2

1 3

6= +

cos 1 cos 2

By trial and error method

1 3

6= +

cos 1 sin 1

1 = 39.5o

2 = 50.5o

- end -

Page 14 of 14

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

751. Decide upon the pitch, face, N g , material, and heat treatment of a pair of straight

bevel gears to transmit continuously and indefinitely a uniform loading of 5 hp at

900 rpm of the pinion, reasonable operating temperature, high reliability;

mg 1.75 ; D p 3.333 in . Pinion overhangs, gear is straddle mounted.

Solution:

1

(

L = rp2 + rg2 )2

1 1

tan p = =

mg 1.75

p = 29.75o

L sin p = rp

3.333

L sin 29.75 =

2

L = 3.358 in

33,000hp

Ft = lb

vm

D p n p (3.333)(900)

vm = = = 785.4 fpm

12 12

33,000(5)

Ft = = 210 lb

785.4

Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft

50 + vm2 50 + (785.4 ) 2

1 1

VF = = = 1.56

50 50

One gear straddle, one not

K m = 1.2

Table 15.2, uniform

N sf = 1.0

Fd = (1.56)(1.0)(1.2 )(210) = 393 lb

Wear load

2

s2 C

Fw = D pbI cd2 l

C e K t Cr

D p = 3.333 in

b = 0.3L = 0.3(3.358) = 1.0 in

Temperature factor

K t = 1.0 , reasonable operating temperature

Life factor for wear

Page 1 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

Reliability factor for wear

Cr = 1.25 high reliability

Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.7

Assume I = 0.080

Elastic coefficient (Table 15.4)

Steel on steel , Ce = 2800

Fw = Fd

2

2

= 393

(2800) (1.0)(1.25)

scd = 134,370 psi

Table 15.3, use Steel, (300)

scd = 135 ksi

Strength of bevel gears

s bJ K l

Fs = d

Pd K s K t K r

Size factor, assume K s = 0.71

Life factor for strength

K l = 1 for indefinite life

Temperature factor,

K t = 1 good operating condition

Reliability factor

K r = 1.5 high reliability

Geometry factor for strength (Fig. 15.5)

Assume J = 0.240

b = 1.0 in

sd = design flexural stress

Min. BHN = 300

sd = 19 ksi

Fs = F d

(19,000)(1.0)(0.240) 1

(0.71)(1)(1.5) = 393

Pd

Pd = 11

say Pd = 10

10 10

so that b = = = 1.0 in

Pd 10

Dg = D p mg = (3.333)(1.75) = 5.833 in

Page 2 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

say N g = 58

Use Pd = 10 , b = 1.0 in , N g = 58

Material = steel, min. Bhn = 300

752. A pair of steel Zerol bevel gears to transmit 25 hp at 600 rpm of the pinion;

mg = 3 ; let N p 20 teeth; highest reliability; the pinion is overhung, the gear

straddle mounted. An electric motor drives a multi-cylinder pump. (a) Decide

upon the pitch, face width, diameters, and steel (with treatment) for intermittent

service. (b) The same as (a) except that indefinite life is desired.

Solution:

N 20

Dp = p =

Pd Pd

20

(600)

D p n p Pd 1000

vm = = = fpm

12 12 Pd

10

Let b =

Pd

Dynamic load

Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft

33,000hp

Ft = lb

vm

33,000(25)

Ft = = 262.6 Pd

1000

Pd

1

1000

2

50 +

Pd

1

50 + vm 2

1.121 1.121

VF = = = 1 + 12 = 1 +

50 50 Pd Pd

Table 15.2, electric motor drives a multi-cylinder pump

Service factor, N sf = 1.25

One gear straddle, one not, K m = 1.2

1.121

Fd = 1 + (1.25)(1.2 )(262.6 )Pd = 394 Pd 1 + 1.121

Pd Pd

(a) Strength of Bevel Gears

s bJ K l

Fs = d

Pd K s K t K r

Size factor, assume K s = 0.71

Page 3 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

Intermittent service, use K l = 4.6

Temperature factor, say K t = 1.0

Reliability factor, highest reliability

K r = 3.0

Geometry factor for strength

N

mg = g

Np

N p = 20

N p = 3(20 ) = 60

Fig. 15.5, J = 0.205

10

b=

Pd

Design flexural stress, steel

Assume sd = 15 ksi

Fs = Fd

(15,000) 10 (0.205)(4.6) 1.121

Pd = 394 Pd 1 +

Pd (0.71)(1.0 )(3) P

d

66,408 1.121

= 394 P

d 1 +

Pd2 P

d

Pd = 4.814

say Pd = 5

10 10

b= = = 2.0 in

Pd 5

2

s2 C

Fw = D pbI cd2 l

C e K t Cr

N p 20

Dp = = = 4 in

Pd 5

K t = 1.0

Cl = 1.5

Reliability factor for wear, highest reliability

Cr = 1.25

Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.7

Page 4 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

N p = 20 , N g = 60

I = 0.083

Elastic coefficient, steel on steel (Table 15.4)

Ce = 2800

Pd = 5

Fw = Fd

2

2

(2800) (1.0)(1.25) 5

scd = 155,730 psi

Table 15.3

Use steel, min. BHN = 360, scd = 160 ksi

Pd = 5

b = 2 in

D p = 4 in

Dg = mg D p = (3)(4 ) = 12 in

steel, min. BHN = 360

K l = 1.0 , life factor for strength

Cl = 1.0 , life factor for wear

Strength:

s bJ K l

Fs = d

Pd K s K t K r

Fs = Fd

(15,000) 10 (0.205)(1.0) 1.121

Pd = 394 Pd 1 +

Pd (0.71)(1.0)(3) P

d

14,437 1.121

= 394 Pd 1 +

Pd 2 P

d

Pd = 2.799

say Pd = 3

10 10

b= = = 3.33 in

Pd 3

Wear load

Page 5 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

2

scd2 Cl

Fw = D pbI 2

C e K t Cr

N p 20

Dp = = = 6.67 in

Pd 3

Fw = Fd

2

2

(2800) (1.0)(1.25) 3

scd = 113,744 psi

Table 15.3

Use steel, min. BHN = 240, scd = 115 ksi

Pd = 3

b = 3.33 in

D p = 6.67 in

Dg = mg D p = (3)(6.67 ) = 20 in

steel, min. BHN = 240

753. Decide upon the pitch, face, and number of teeth for two spiral-bevel gears for a

speed reducer. The input to the pinion is 20 hp at 1750 rpm; mg 1.9 ; pinion

overhung, gear-straddle mounted. It is hoped not to exceed a maximum D p of 4

3/8-in.; steel gears with minimum 245 BHN on pinion and 210 BHN on gear.

The gear is motor-driven, subject to miscellaneous drives involving moderate

shock; indefinite life against breakage and wear with high reliability. If the gears

designed for the foregoing data are to be subjected to intermittent service only,

how much power could they be expected to transmit?

Solution:

D p n p (4.375)(1750)

(a) vm = = = 2000 fpm

12 12

33,000hp 33,000(20 )

Ft = = = 330 lb

vm 2000

Dynamic load

Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft

One gear straddle, one not

K m = 1.2

Table 15.2

Motor-driven, moderate shock

Page 6 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

N sf = 1.25

1

70 + vm2 2

1

VF = , spiral

70

1

70 + (2000) 2

1 2

VF = = 1.254

70

Fd = (1.254)(1.25)(1.2)(330) = 621 lb

Wear load

2

s2 C

Fw = D pbI cd2 l

C e K t Cr

D p = 4.375 in

Temperature Factor, K t = 1.0

Design contact stresses,

BHN = 245 , pinion

scd = 116 ksi

Life factor for wear

Cl = 1.0 , indefinite life

Reliability factor for wear

Cr = 1.25 , high reliability

Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.8

Assume I = 0.12

Elastic coefficient, steel on steel (Table 15.4)

Ce = 2800

2

Fw = (4.375)(b )(0.12)

(116,000)2 1.0 = 721b

(2800)2 (1.0)(1.25)

Fw = Fd

721b = 621

b = 0.8613 in

7

say b = in = 0.875 in

8

Strength of gear

s bJ K l

Fs = d

Pd K s K t K r

sd = design flexural stress

min. BHN = 210

sd = 15.4 ksi

Size factor, assume K s = 0.71

Page 7 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

K l = 1 for indefinite life

Temperature factor,

Kt = 1

Reliability factor

K r = 1.5 high reliability

Geometry factor Fig. 15.6

Assume J = 0.28

Fs =

(15,400)(0.875)(0.28) 1 3543

= P

Pd (0.71)(1)(1.5) d

Fs = Fd

3543

= 621

Pd

Pd = 5.7

say Pd = 6

7

Then, Pd = 6 , b = in , N p = D p Pd = (4.375)(6 ) = 26

8

N g = mw N p = (1.9 )(26 ) = 50

Strength

s bJ K l

Fs = d

Pd K s K t K r

sd = 15,400 psi (Gear)

For Pd = 6 , K s = 0.64

For indefinite service, K l = 4.6

K t = 1.0 , K r = 1.5

Geometry factor, Fig. 15.6, N p = 26 , N g = 50

J = 0.292

Fs =

(15,400)(0.875)(0.292) 4.6 = 3142 lb

(0.71)(1)(1.5)

6

Wear load

2

s2 C

Fw = D pbI cd2 l

C e K t Cr

D p = 4.375 in

K t = 1.0

scd = 116 ksi

Ce = 2800

Page 8 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

Cr = 1.25

Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.8

N p = 26 , N g = 50

I = 0.116

2

Fw = (4.375)(0.875)(0.116 )

(116,000)2 1.5 = 1098 lb

(2800)2 (1.0)(1.25)

use Fw = Fd

Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft

1098 = (1.254)(125)(1.2)Ft

Ft = 584 lb

Fv

hp = t m =

(584)(2000) = 35 hp

33,000 33,000

CHECK PROBLEMS

755. A pair of straight-bevel gears are to transmit a smooth load of 45 hp at 500 rpm

3

of the pinion; mg = 3 . A proposed design is Dg = 15 in. , b = 2 in. , Pd = 4 .

8

Teeth are carburized AISI 8620, SOQT 450 F. The pinion overhangs, the gear is

straddle-mounted. Would these gears be expected to perform with high reliability

in continuous service? If not would you expect more than 1 failure in 100?

Solution:

D 15

D p = g = = 5 in

mg 3

D p n p (5)(500)

vm = = = 655 fpm

12 12

33,000hp 33,000(45)

Ft = = = 2267 lb

vm 655

Dynamic load

Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft

50 + vm2 50 + (655) 2

1 1

VF = = = 1.512

50 50

One gear straddle, one not

K m = 1.2

Smooth load, N sf = 1.0

Fd = (1.512)(1.0)(1.2 )(2267 ) = 4113 lb

Page 9 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

s bJ K l

Fs = d

Pd K s K t K r

Size factor, for Pd = 4 ,

K s = 0.71

Life factor for strength

Kl = 1

Temperature factor,

Kt = 1

Geometry factor for strength (Fig. 15.5)

N p = Pd D p = (4 )(5) = 20

N g = Pd Dg = (4 )(15) = 60

J = 0.205

Fs =

(30,000)(2.375)(0.205) 1 5143

4 (0.71)(1)(K ) = K

r r

Fs = Fd

5143

= 4113

Kr

K r = 1.25 < 1.5 will not perform high reliability.

Wear load

2

s2 C

Fw = D pbI cd2 l

C e K t Cr

D p = 5 in

b = 2.375 in

Table 15.3, scd = 225 ksi

Table 15.4, Ce = 2800

Geometry factor for wear, Figure 15.7

N p = 20 , N g = 60

I = 0.083

Kt = 1

life factor for wear Cl = 1

2

Fw = (5)(2.375)(0.083)

(225,000)2 1 =

6364

(2800)2 (1)(Cr ) Cr2

Fw = Fd

Page 10 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

6364

= 4113

Cr2

Cr = 1.244 1.25 , high reliability

Since K r < 1.5 ,this will not perform high reliability but 1 in 100, K r 1.12 < 1.25

756. A gear catalog rates a pair of cast-iron, straight-bevel gears at 15.26 hp at 800

rpm of the 16-tooth pinion; mg = 3.5 , b = 3 in. , Pd = 3 ; pinion overhangs,

straddle-mounted gear. Assume the cast iron to be class 30. If the load is smooth

is this rating satisfactory, judging by the design approach of the Text for good

reliability (a) when strength alone is considered, (b) when long continuous

service is desired?

Solution:

N 16

Dp = p = = 5.333 in

Pd 3

D p n p (5.333)(800)

vm = = = 1117 fpm

12 12

33,000hp 33,000(15.26 )

Ft = = = 451 lb

vm 1117

Dynamic load

Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft

50 + vm2 50 + (1117 ) 2

1 1

VF = = = 1.668

50 50

One gear straddle, one not

K m = 1.2

Smooth load, N sf = 1.0

Fd = (1.668)(1.0)(1.2)(451) = 903 lb

(a) Strength

s bJ K l

Fs = d

Pd K s K t K r

Pd = 3 ,

K s = 0.76

Kl = 1

Kt = 1

K r = 1.5

sd = 4.6 ksi , cast-iron class 30

N p = 16

Page 11 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

N g = mw N p = (3.5)(16 ) = 56

J = 0.184

(4,600)(3)(0.184) 1

Fs = = 742 lb < 903 lb(= Fd )

3 (0.76)(1)(1.5)

with

K l = 1.4 for 106 cycles

Fs = (1.4)(742) = 1040 lb > 903 lb(= Fd )

Therefore satisfactory for 106 cycles.

Wear load

2

s2 C

Fw = D pbI cd2 l

C e K t Cr

D p = 5.333 in

b = 3 in

Table 15.3, scd = 50 ksi , cast-iron class 30

Table 15.4, cast-iron and cast-iron Ce = 2250

Cl = 1

Kt = 1

Cr = 1.25

Geometry factor for wear, Figure 15.7

N p = 16 , N g = 56

I = 0.077

2

Fw = (5.333)(3)(0.077 )

(50,000)2 1 = 389 lb < Fd (= 903 lb )

(2250)2 (1)(1.25)

Therefore, not satisfactory for long continuous service.

757. An 870-rpm motor drives a belt conveyor through bevel gears having 18 and 72

3

teeth; Pd = 6 , b = 1 in . Both gears are straddle-mounted. What horsepower may

4

these gears transmit for an indefinite life with high reliability if both gears are (a)

cast-iron, class 40; (b) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F; (c) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F,

flame hardened (d) AISI 8620, SOQT 450 F?

Solution:

N 18

D p = p = = 3 in

Pd 6

D p n p (3)(870)

vm = = = 683 fpm

12 12

Dynamic load

Page 12 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft

Both gears straddle mounted

K m = 1.0

Table 15.2, N sf = 1.0

50 + vm2 50 + (683) 2

1 1

VF = = = 1.523

50 50

Fd = (1.523)(1.0)(1.0)Ft = 1.523Ft

Strength

s bJ K l

Fs = d

Pd K s K t K r

sd = 7 ksi , cast-iron class 40

3

b = 1 in

4

K l = 1 , indefinite life

Pd = 6

K s = 0.64

Kt = 1

K r = 1.5 , high reliability

Figure 15.5, N p = 18 , N g = 72

J = 0.204

Fs =

(7000)(1.75)(0.204) 1

= 434 lb

6 (0.64)(1)(1.5)

Wear:

2

s2 C

Fw = D pbI cd2 l

C e K t Cr

D p = 3 in

3

b = 1 in

4

Table 15.3, scd = 65 ksi , cast-iron class 40

Table 15.4, cast-iron and cast-iron Ce = 2250

Cl = 1 , indefinite life

Kt = 1

Cr = 1.25 , high reliability

Geometry factor for wear, Figure 15.7

N p = 18 , N g = 72

I = 0.082

Page 13 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

Fw = (3)(1.75)(0.082 )

(65,000) 1

2

= 230 lb

(2250)2 (1)(1.25)

Fd = Fw

1.523Ft = 230

Ft = 151 lb

Fv

hp = t m =

(151)(683) = 3 hp

33,000 33,000

Strength

sd = 19,000 psi

Fs =

(19,000)(1.75)(0.204) 1

(0.64)(1)(1.5) = 1178 lb

6

Wear:

2

s2 C

Fw = D pbI cd2 l

C e K t Cr

Table 15.3, scd = 135 ksi

Table 15.4, steel and steel, Ce = 2800

2

Fw = (3)(1.75)(0.082)

(135,000) 1

2

= 640 lb

(2800)2 (1)(1.25)

Fd = Fw

1.523Ft = 640

Ft = 420 lb

Fv

hp = t m =

(420)(683) = 8.7 hp

33,000 33,000

Strength

sd = 13.5 ksi

Fs =

(13,500)(1.75)(0.204) 1

(0.64 )(1)(1.5) = 837 lb

6

Wear:

2

s2 C

Fw = D pbI cd2 l

C e K t Cr

Table 15.3, scd = 190 ksi

Table 15.4, steel and steel, Ce = 2800

Page 14 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

Fw = (3)(1.75)(0.082)

(190,000) 1

2

= 1269 lb

(2800)2 (1)(1.25)

Fd = Fs

1.523Ft = 837

Ft = 550 lb

Fv

hp = t m =

(550)(683) = 11.4 hp

33,000 33,000

Strength

sd = 30 ksi (55 63 Rc)

Fs =

(30,000)(1.75)(0.204) 1

(0.64)(1)(1.5) = 1859 lb

6

Wear:

2

s2 C

Fw = D pbI cd2 l

C e K t Cr

Table 15.3, scd = 225 ksi

Table 15.4, steel and steel, Ce = 2800

2

Fw = (3)(1.75)(0.082)

(225,000) 1

2

= 1779 lb

(2800)2 (1)(1.25)

Fd = Fw

1.523Ft = 1779

Ft = 1168 lb

Fv

hp = t m =

(1168)(683) = 24.2 hp

33,000 33,000

Pd = 5 , N p = 20 , N p = 60 , b = 2 in . Both gears are made of AISI 4140 steel,

OQT 800 F. What reliability factor is indicated for these gears for strength and

for wear (a) for smooth loads, (b) for light shock load from the power source and

heavy shock on the driven machine?

Solution:

N 20

Dp = p = = 4 in

Pd 5

D p n p (4)(800)

vm = = = 838 fpm

12 12

Page 15 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

33,000hp 33,000(15)

Ft = = = 591 lb

vm 838

Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft

50 + vm2 50 + (838) 2

1 1

VF = = = 1.579

50 50

assume K m = 1.0

Fd = (1.579 )(N sf )(1.0 )(591) = 933 N sf

Strength of bevel gear

s bJ K l

Fs = d

Pd K s K t K r

For AISI 4140, OQT 800 F, BHN = 429

sd = 24 ksi

assume K l = 1

Kt = 1

Pd = 5

K s = 0.675

Figure 15.5, N p = 20 , N g = 60

J = 0.205

Fs =

(24,000)(2)(0.205) 1 2916

= K

5 (0.675)(1)(K r ) r

Fs = Fd

2916

= 933 N sf

Kr

3.1254

Kr =

N sf

Wear load:

2

s2 C

Fw = D pbI cd2 l

C e K t Cr

BHN = 429

Table 15.3, scd = 190 ksi

Table 15.4, steel and steel, Ce = 2800

D p = 4 in

b = 2 in

Assume Cl = 1.0 , K t = 1.0

Fig. 15.7, N p = 20 , N g = 60

I = 0.083

Page 16 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

2

(190,000 ) 1

2

3058

( )( )(

Fw = 4 2 0.083 ) =

(2800 )2 (1)(Cr ) Cr2

Fd = Fw

3058

933 N sf =

Cr2

1.810

Cr =

N sf

(a) Table 15.2, smooth load

N sf = 1.0

3.1254 3.1254

For strength, K r = = = 3.1254

N sf 1

1.810 1.810

For wear, Cr = = = 1.810

N sf 1

N sf = 2.0

3.1254 3.1254

For strength, K r = = = 1.5627

N sf 2

1.810 1.810

For wear, Cr = = = 1.2799

N sf 2

- end -

Page 17 of 17

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

791. (a) Determine a standard circular pitch and face width for a worm gear drive with

an input of 2 hp at 1200 rpm of the triple-threaded worm; the 1.58-in. ( Dw ) is

steel with a minimum BHN = 250; gear is manganese bronze (Table AT 3);

mw = 12 . Consider wear and strength only. Use a n to match the lead angle .

Solution:

1200 + vmg

a) Fd = Ft lb

1200

33,000hp

Ft =

vmg

Dg ng

vmg =

12

n 1200

ng = w = = 100 rpm

mw 12

Dg = mw Dw tan

N t Pc

tan =

Dw

N P N m P (3)(12)Pc

Dg = mw Dw t c = t w c = = 11.46 Pc

Dw

(11.45Pc )(100)

vmg = = 300 Pc

12

33,000(2 ) 220

Ft = =

300 Pc Pc

1200 + 300 Pc 220 55(4 + Pc )

Fd = = lb

1200 Pc Pc

Wear load

Fw = Dg bK w

say b = 2 Pc ,

Dg = 11.46 Pc

Fw = Fd

Pc

55(4 + Pc )

22.92 Pc2 K w =

Pc

Page 1 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

Dg 11.46 Pc

tan = = = 0.60443Pc

mw Dw (12)(1.58)

Kw Pc Pc (std) max i16.11 n

36 0.678 24.4 16 14

50 0.605 5/8 20.7 25 20

5

Use n = 20o , = 20.7o , Pc = in

8

Fw = Fd

Pc

5

55 4 +

(11.46) 5 (b)(50) = 5 8

8

8

b = 1.1365 in

5

say b = 1 in

32

To check for strength.

sYbPcn sYbPc cos

Fs = =

For manganese bronze,

s = 30,000 psi

n = 20o

Y = 0.392

= 20.7o

5

Pc = in

8

5

b = 1 in

32

(30,000)(0.392)1 5 5

cos 20.7

Fs = 32 8 = 2530 lb > Fd

5

use Pc = in

8

5

b =1 in

32

Page 2 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

cos n f tan

(b) e = tan

cos n tan + f

n = 20o

= 20.7o

Dwnw (1.58)(1200 )

vr = = = 531 fpm > 70 fpm

12 cos 12 cos 20.7

0.32 0.32

f = = = 0.0334

0.36

vr (531)0.36

cos 20 0.0334 tan 20.7

e = tan 20.7 = 0.902 = 90.2%

cos 20 tan 20.7 + 0.0334

1750-rpm motor. The diameter Dw of the integral worm has been estimated to be

7

1 in. ; the next computations are to be for a steel worm with a minimum BHN =

8

250; phosphor-bronze gear (Table AT 3); mw = 11 . Probably, the worm should

not have less than 4 threads. (a) Considering wear and strength only (i16.13),

decide upon a pitch and face width that satisfies these requirements (i16.11,

Text); specifying the pressure angle, diameters, and center distance. How does

Dw used compare with that from equation (m), i16.11, Text? What addendum

and dedendum are recommended by Dudley? Compute a face length for the

worm. (b) Compute the efficiency. What do you recommend as the next trial for

a better reducer?

Solution:

33,000hp

Ft =

vmg

Dg ng

vmg =

12

n 1750

ng = w = = 159.1 rpm

mw 11

PN Pm N P (11)(4 )

Dg = c g = c w t = c = 14 Pc

(14 Pc )(159.1)

vmg = = 583Pc

12

33,000(20 ) 1132

Ft = =

583Pc Pc

Page 3 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

1200 + vmg

Fd = Ft lb

1200

1200 + 583Pc 1132 1132(1 + 0.4858 Pc )

Fd = = lb

1200 Pc Pc

(a) Wear

Fw = Dg bK w

b = 2 Pc ,

Dg = 14 Pc

Fw = Fd

Pc

1132(1 + 0.4858 Pc )

28 Pc2 K w =

Pc

Table AT 27, steel, min. BHN = 250, and bronze

And by trial and error ethod

NP 4(Pc )

tan = t c = = 0.6791Pc

Dw ( )(1.875)

Kw Pc Pc (std) max i16.11 n

36 1.213 1 40.33 16 14

50 1.071 1 40.33 25 20

60 1.000 1.0 34.18 35 25

Fw = Fd

Pc

1

b = 2 in

sYbPcn sYbPc cos

Fs = =

For phosphor-bronze,

s = sn = 31,000 psi

Page 4 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

Fs =

(31,000)(0.470 )(2.0)(1.0)cos 34.18 = 7674 lb > F , ok

d

use Pc = 1.0 in

b = 2.0 in

n = 25o

7

Dw = 1 in

8

7

Dg = mw Dw tan = (11)1 tan 34.18 = 14.0 in

8

1 1 7

C = (Dw + Dg ) = 1 + 14 = 7.9375 in

2 2 8

Equation (m)

Dw =

C 0.875

in =

(7.9375)0.875 = 2.785 in > 1.875 in , ok

2 .2 2 .2

Addendum and dedendum (by Dudley)

Whole depth = 0.7 Pcn = 0.7 Pc cos = 0.7(1.0)cos 34.18 = 0.5791 in

Dedendum = whole depth addendum = 0.5791 in 0.2633 in = 0.3158 in

N

Face length = Pc 4.5 + g

50

N g = mw N p = (11)(4 ) = 44

44

Face length = 1.0 4.5 + = 5.38 in

50

Or

[

Face length = 2 2a(Dg 2a ) ]

1

2

Dg = 14 in

a = 0.2633 in

1

Face length = 2{2(0.2633)[14 2(0.2633)]} 2 = 5.33 in

Use Face length = 5.38 in

cos n f tan

(b) e = tan

cos n tan + f

Dwnw (1.875)(1750 )

vr = = = 1038 fpm > 70 fpm

12 cos 12 cos 34.18

Page 5 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

0.32 0.32

f = = = 0.0263 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )

0.36

vr (1038)0.36

n = 25o , = 34.18o ,

cos 25 0.0263 tan 34.18

e = tan 34.18 = 0.94 = 94%

cos 25 tan 34.18 + 0.0263

recommendation for next trial

n = 30o

max = 45o

793. The input to a worm-gear set is to be 25 hp at 600 rpm of the worm with

m w = 20 . The hardened-steel worm is to be the shell type with a diameter

approximately as given in i16.11, Text, and a minimum of 4 threads; the gear is

to be chilled phosphor bronze (Table AT 3). (a) Considering wear and strength

only determine suitable values of the pitch and face width. Let n be appropriate

to the value of . (b) Compute the efficiency. (c) Estimate the radiating area of

the case and compute the temperature rise of lubricant. Is special cooling needed?

Solution:

33,000hp

Ft =

vmg

Dg ng

vmg =

12

n 600

ng = w = = 30 rpm

mw 20

PN Pm N P (20 )(4 ) 80 Pc

Dg = c g = c w t = c =

80 Pc

(30)

vmg =

= 200 Pc

12

33,000(25) 4125

Ft = =

200 Pc Pc

1200 + vmg

Fd = Ft lb

1200

1200 + 200 Pc 4125 687.5(6 + Pc )

Fd = = lb

1200 Pc Pc

shell type: Dw = 2.4 Pc + 1.1 in

NP

tan = t c =

(4)Pc =

4 Pc

Dw ( )(2.4 Pc + 1.1) (2.4 Pc + 1.1)

Page 6 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

Fw = Dg bK w

b = 2 Pc ,

80 Pc

Dg =

Fw = Fd

80 Pc 687.5(6 + Pc )

(2 Pc )(K w ) =

Pc

687.5(6 + Pc )

50.93Pc2 K w =

Pc

Table AT 27, Hardened steel and chilled bronze

By trial and error method

Kw Pc Pc (std) max i16.11 n

90 1.017 1.0 20 16 14

125 0.907 1.0 20 25 20

Fw = Fd

80 1687.5(6 + 1)

(b )(125) =

1

b = 1.512 in

5

say b = 1 in

8

cos n f tan

(b) e = tan

cos n tan + f

n = 20o

= 20o

Dw = 2.4 Pc + 1.1 = 2.4 + 1.1 = 3.5 in

Dwnw (3.5)(600 )

vr = = = 585 fpm

12 cos 12 cos 20

0.32 0.32

f = 0.36 = = 0.0323 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )

vr (585)0.36

cos 20 0.0323 tan 20

e = tan 20 = 0.9023 = 90.23%

cos 20 tan 20 + 0.0323

Page 7 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

1

C=

2

(Dw + Dg )

Dw = 3.5 in

80 Pc 80(1)

Dg = = = 25.5 in

1

C = (3.5 + 25.5) = 14.5 in

2

Amin = 43.2(14.5) = 4072 sq.in.

1.7

Temperature rise = t

Qc = hcr At ft lb min

Figure AF 21, A = 4072 sq.in. = 28.3 sq. ft.

hcr = 0.42 ft lb min sq.in. F

Q = Qc

80,600 = (0.42)(4072)(t )

t = 47 F

with t1 = 100 F

t2 = 147 F < 150 F

Therefore, no special cooling needed.

794. A 50-hp motor turning at 1750 rpm is to deliver its power to a worm-gear

reducer, whose velocity ratio is to be 20. The shell-type worm is to be made of

high-test cast iron; since a reasonably good efficiency is desired, use at least 4

threads; manganese bronze gear (Table AT 3). (a) Decide upon Dw and n , and

determine suitable values of the pitch and face width. Compute (b) the efficiency,

(c) the temperature rise of the lubricant. Estimate the radiating area of the case. Is

special cooling needed?

Solution:

33,000hp

Ft =

vmg

Dg ng

vmg =

12

n 1750

ng = w = = 87.5 rpm

mw 20

PN Pm N P (20 )(4 ) 80 Pc

Dg = c g = c w t = c =

Page 8 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

80 Pc

(87.5)

vmg =

= 583Pc

12

33,000(50 ) 2830

Ft = =

583Pc Pc

1200 + vmg

(a) Fd = Ft lb

1200

1200 + 583Pc 2830 1375(2.06 + Pc )

Fd = = lb

1200 Pc Pc

Wear load

Fw = Dg bK w

b = 2 Pc ,

80 Pc

Dg =

Fw = Fd

80 Pc 1375(2.06 + Pc )

(2 Pc )(K w ) =

Pc

1375(2.06 + Pc )

50.93Pc2 K w =

Pc

NP

tan = t c

Dw

Shell-type

Dw = 2.4 Pc + 1.1 in

4 Pc

tan =

(2.4 Pc + 1.1)

Table AT 27, high-test cast-iron and manganese bronze

By trial and error and using Table AT 27 ( n )

Kw Pc Pc (std) max i16.11 n

80 1.012 1.0 20 16 14

115 0.885 7/8 19.2 25 20

7

Use = 19.2o , n = 20o , Pc = in

8

7

Dw = 2.4 Pc + 1.1 = 2.4 + 1.1 = 3.2 in

8

Fw = Fd

Page 9 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

7

1375 2.06 +

80 7 8

(b )(115) =

8 7

8

b = 1.80 in

7

say b = 1 in

8

cos n f tan

(b) e = tan

cos n tan + f

= 19.2o

n = 20o

Dwnw

vr =

12 cos

nw = 1750 rpm

Dw = 3.2 in

Dwnw (3.2 )(1750 )

vr = = = 1552 fpm

12 cos 12 cos19.2

0.32 0.32

f = 0.36 = = 0.0227 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )

vr (1552)0.36

cos 20 0.0227 tan 19.2

e = tan 19.2 = 0.9273 = 92.73%

cos 20 tan 19.2 + 0.0227

Qc = hcr At ft lb min

A = Amin = 43.2C1.7 sq.in.

1

C = (Dw + Dg )

2

Dw = 3.2 in

7

80

= = 22.3 in

80 Pc 8

Dg =

1

C = (3.2 + 22.35) = 12.75 in

2

A = 43.2(12.75) = 3272 sq.in.

1.7

Figure AF 1

3272

A= = 22.7 ft 2

144

hcr = 0.43 ft lb min sq.in. F

Page 10 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

Q = Qc

119,955 = (0.43)(3272)(t )

t = 85 F

with t1 = 100 F

t2 = 185 F > 150 F

Therefore, special cooling is needed.

CHECK PROBLEMS

gear (Table AT 3); triple-threaded worm with Pc = 1.15278 in. , Dw = 3.136 in. ,

1

n = 25o , b = 2 in. , mw = 12 , nw = 580 rpm . The output is 16 hp. Compute (a)

4

the dynamic load, (b) the endurance strength of the teeth and the indicated

service factor on strength, (c) the limiting wear load (is it good for indefinitely

continuous service?), (d) the efficiency and input hp, (e) the temperature rise of

the oil (estimate case area as Amin , i16.6). (f) Determine the tangential and radial

components of the tooth load. (g) Is this drive self-locking?

Solution:

33,000hp

Ft =

vmg

Dg ng

vmg =

12

nw 580

ng = = = 48.3 rpm

mw 20

PN P m N (1.15278)(12 )(3)

Dg = c g = c w t = = 13.21 in

(13.21)(48.3)

vmg = = 167 fpm

12

1200 + vmg

(a) Fd = Ft

1200

1200 + 167

Fd = Ft

1200

33,000(16 )

Ft = = 3162 lb

167

1200 + 167

Fd = (3162 ) = 3602 lb

1200

Page 11 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

(b) Fs = =

N P (3)(1.15278)

tan = t c =

Dw (3.136 )

= 19.34o

For manganese-bronze, s = sn = 30,000 psi

For n = 25o , Y = 0.470

(30,000)(0.470) 2 1 (1.15278)cos19.34

Fs = 4 = 10,984 lb

Service factor

F 10,984

N sf = s = = 3.05

Fd 3602

(c) Fw = Dg bK w

Dg = 13.21 in

b = 2.25 in

Table AT 27, hardened-steel worn and manganese bronze gear

n = 25o

K w = 100

Fw = (13.21)(2.25)(100) = 2972 lb < Fd (= 3602 lb )

Therefore, not good for indefinitely continuous service

cos n f tan

(d) e = tan

cos n tan + f

Dwnw (1.15278)(580 )

vr = = = 185.5 fpm

12 cos 12 cos19.34

0.32 0.32

f = 0.36 = = 0.0488 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )

vr (185.5)0.36

cos 25 0.0488 tan 19.34

e = tan 19.34 = 0.85 = 85%

cos 25 tan 19.34 + 0.0488

hp 16 hp

hpi = o = = 18.82 hp

e 0.85

Qc = hcr At ft lb min

A = Amin = 43.2C1.7 sq.in.

Page 12 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

1

C=

2

(Dw + Dg )

1

C = (1.15278 + 13.21) = 7.18 in

2

A = 43.2(7.18) = 1233 sq.in.

1.7

Figure AF 1

1233

A= = 8.6 ft 2

144

hcr = 0.47 ft lb min sq.in. F

Q = Qc

93,159 = (0.47 )(1233)(t )

t = 161 F

cos n sin + f cos

= 3162

cos 25 sin 19.34 + 0.0488 cos19.34

Wt = Ft = 1305 lb

cos n cos f sin cos 25 cos19.34 0.0488 sin 19.34

on the gear

Ft = 3162 lb

radial components

Ft sin n 3162 sin 25

S= = = 1593 lb

cos n cos f sin cos 25 cos19.34 0.0488 sin 19.34

gear. The lead angle of the 5-threaded worm = 28o57' , Pc = 1.2812 in. ,

1

n = 25o , b = 2 in. , mw = 8 ; worm speed = 1750 rpm. The gear case is 35 3/8

2

in. high, 22 in. wide, 14 in. deep. Compute (a) the efficiency, (b) the limiting

wear load, the strength load, and the corresponding safe input and output

horsepowers. (c) The manufacturer rates this reducer at 53-hp input. Is this rating

conservative or risky? (d) What is the calculated temperature rise of the oil with

no special cooling? (e) The manufacturer specifies that for continuous service

power should not exceed 36.5 hp if there is to be no artificial cooling and if t is

to be less than 90 F. Make calculations and decide whether the vendor is on the

safe side. (Data courtesy of the Cleveland Worm Gear Co.)

Solution:

Page 13 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

cos n f tan

(a) e = tan

cos n tan + f

= 28o57' = 28.95o

n = 25o

Dwnw

vr =

12 cos

nw = 1750 rpm

N P

Dg = g c

N g = mw N t = (8)(5) = 40

Dg =

(40)(1.2812) = 16.31 in

NP

tan = t c

Dw

tan 28.95 =

(5)(1.2812)

Dw

Dw = 3.686 in

(3.686 )(150 )

vr = = 1923 fpm

12 cos 28o57'

0.32 0.32

f = 0.36 = = 0.0210 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )

vr (1923)0.36

cos 25 0.0210 tan 28.95

e = tan 28.95 = 0.9475 = 94.75%

cos 25 tan 28.95 + 0.0210

(b) Fw = Dg bK w

Dg = 16.31 in

b = 2.5 in

Table AT 27, hardened-steel worn and phosphor bronze gear

n = 25o

K w = 100

Fw = (16.31)(2.5)(100) = 4078 lb

Fs = =

For phosphor-bronze, s = sn = 31,000 psi

For n = 25o , Y = 0.470

Fs =

(31,000)(0.470 )(2.5)(1.2812 )cos 28.95 = 13,000 lb

Page 14 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

1200 + vmg

Fd = Ft

1200

Dg ng

vmg =

12

n 1750

ng = w = = 218.75 rpm

mw 8

(16.31)(218.75)

vmg = = 934 fpm

12

Fw = Fd

1200 + 934

4078 = Ft

1200

Ft = 2293 lb

Fv

safe output = hpo = t mg =

(2293)(934) = 64.9 hp

33,000 33,000

hp 64.9

safe input = hpi = o = = 68.5 hp

e 0.9475

Qc = hcr At ft lb min

A = 2[(22)(14) + (22)(35.375)] = 2172.5 sq.in.

Figure AF 1

2172.5

A= = 15 ft 2

144

hcr = 0.45 ft lb min sq.in. F

Q = Qc

118,676 = (0.45)(2172.5)(t )

t = 121.4 F

(e) t = 90 F

hpi t

=

hpi t

hpi 90

=

68.5 124

hpi = 50.8 hp

Since 36.5 hp < 50.8 hp, therefore on the safe side.

Page 15 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

HEATING

799. The input to a worm-gear reducer is 50.5 hp at 580 rpm of the 4-threaded worm.

The gear case is 22 x 31 x 45 in. in size; n = 25o , Pc = 1.5 in , Dw = 4.432 in ,

f = 0.035 , room temperature = 80 F. Compute the steady-state temperature for

average cooling.

Solution:

NP 4(1.5)

tan = t c =

Dw (4.432 )

= 23.3o

cos n f tan

e = tan

cos n tan + f

cos 25 0.035 tan 23.3

e = tan 23.3 = 0.9025

cos 25 tan 23.3 + 0.035

Q = (1 e )(hpi ) = (1 0.9025)(50.5)(33,000) = 162,484 ft lb min

Qc = hcr At ft lb min

A = 2[(22)(31) + (31)(45)] = 4154 sq.in.

Figure AF 1

4154

A= = 28.85 ft 2

144

hcr = 0.42 ft lb min sq.in. F

Q = Qc

162,484 = (0.42)(4154 )(t )

t = 93 F

t1 = 80 F

t2 = 173 F

Dg 14 in , Pc = 1.0 in , n = 25o , area of case 1500 sq.in. , vr 1037 fpm ;

input = 20 hp at 1750 rpm of the worm; room temperature = 80 F. Compute the

steady-state temperature of the lubricant for average ventilation.

Solution:

NP 4(1.0 )

tan = t c =

Dw (1.875)

= 34.2o

0.32 0.32

f = = = 0.0263 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )

0.36

vr (1037 )0.36

Page 16 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

cos n f tan

e = tan

cos n tan + f

cos 25 0.0263 tan 34.2

e = tan 34.2 = 0.94

cos 25 tan 34.2 + 0.0263

Q = (1 e )(hpi ) = (1 0.94)(20)(33,000) = 39,600 ft lb min

Qc = hcr At ft lb min

A = 1500 sq.in.

Figure AF 1

1500

A= = 10.4 ft 2

144

hcr = 0.46 ft lb min sq.in. F

Q = Qc

39,600 = (0.46 )(1500)(t )

t = 57 F

t1 = 80 F

t2 = 137 F

n = 25o . The area of the case is closely 1800 sq. in.; ambient temperature = 100

F; oil temperature = 180 F. Operation is at a steady thermal state. Compute the

indicated coefficient of friction.

Solution:

Qc = hcr At ft lb min

Figure AF 1

1800

A= = 12.5 ft 2

144

hcr = 0.46 ft lb min sq.in. F

A = 1800 sq.in.

t = 180 100 = 80 F

Qc = hcr At = (0.46)(1800)(80) = 66,240 ft lb min

Q = (1 e )(hpi )(33,000) ft lb min

Q = Qc

(1 e)(hpi )(33,000) = 66,240

e = 0.9035

cos n f tan

e = tan

cos n tan + f

Page 17 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

N t Pc 4(1.0 )

tan = =

Dw (2 )

= 32.5o

cos 25 f tan 32.5

0.9035 = tan 32.5

cos 25 tan 32.5 + f

0.5217 + 0.9035 f = 0.5774 0.4059 f

f = 0.0425

FORCE ANALYSIS

1

804. The input to a 4-threaded worm is 21 hp at 1750 rpm; e = 90% , Dw = 2 in ,

4

o

Dg = 14 in , N g = 44 , n = 25 . (a) From the horsepowers in and out, compute

the tangential forces on the worm Wt and the gear Ft . (b) Using this value of Ft ,

compute Wt from equation (k), i16.8, Text. (Check?) (c) Compute the separating

force. (d) What is the end thrust on the worm shaft? On the gear shaft?

Solution:

hpi = 21 hp

hpo = (hpi )(e ) = (21)(0.90) = 18.9 hp

N Dg

mw = g =

N t Dw tan

44 14

=

4 1

2 tan

4

= 29.5o

cos n f tan

e = tan

cos n tan + f

cos 25 f tan 29.5

0.90 = tan 29.5

cos 25 tan 29.5 + f

0.4615 + 0.90 f = 0.5128 0.32 f

f = 0.0420

Dg ng

vmg =

12

ng N t

=

nw N g

Page 18 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

ng 4

=

1750 44

ng = 159 rpm

(14)(159)

vmg = = 583 fpm

12

33,000hpo 33,000(18.9)

(a) Ft = = = 1070 lb

vmg 583

33,000hpi

Wt =

vw

D n (2.25)(1750)

vw = w w = = 1031 fpm

12 12

33,000(21)

Wt = = 672 lb

1031

= 1070

cos 25 sin 29.5 + 0.0420 cos 29.5

(b) Wt = Ft = 672 lb

cos n cos f sin cos 25 cos 29.5 0.0420 sin 29.5

Ft sin n 1070 sin 25

(c) S = = = 589 lb

cos n cos f sin cos 25 cos 29.5 0.0420 sin 29.5

(d) End thrust

Worm shaft = Ft = 1070 lb

Gear shaft = Wt = 672 lb

- end -

Page 19 of 19

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

LEATHER BELTS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

rpm of the driver D1 ; mw 1.85 ; use a medium double belt, cemented joint, a

squirrel-cage, compensator-motor drive with mildly jerking loads; center distance

is expected to be about twice the diameter of larger pulley. (a) Choose suitable

iron-pulley sizes and determine the belt width for a maximum permissible

s = 300 psi . (b) How does this width compare with that obtained by the ALBA

procedure? (c) Compute the maximum stress in the straight port of the ALBA

belt. (d) If the belt in (a) stretches until the tight tension F1 = 525 lb ., what is

F1 F2 ?

Solution:

Select D1 = 7 in . min.

20

t= in

64

D n (7 )(2700)

vm = 1 1 = = 4948 fpm

12 12

4000 fpm < 4948 fpm < 6000 fpm

hp = 1

(F F2 )vm

33,000

60 = 1

(F F2 )(4948)

33,000

F1 F2 = 400 lb

F1 = 3F2

3F2 F2 = 400 lb

F2 = 200 lb

F1 = 3F2 = 3(200) = 600 lb

F1 = sbt

sd = 300

For cemented joint, = 1.0

sd = 300 psi

20

F1 = 600 = (300 )(b )

64

b = 6.4 in

say b = 6.5 in

Page 1 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

hp = (hp in., Table 17.1)(bCmC p )(C f1 C f 2 L)

Table 17.1, vm = 4948 fpm

Medium Double Ply

hp in = 12.448

Table 17.2

Squirrel cage, compensator, starting

Cm = 0.67

Pulley Size, D1 = 7 in

C p = 0 .6

Jerky loads, C f = 0.83

hp = 60 = (12.448)(b )(0.67 )(0.6)(0.83)

b = 14.5 in

say b = 15 in

F1 600

(c) s = = = 128 psi

bt 20

(1)(15)

64

1 1 1 1 1

(d) 2 Fo2 = F12 + F22 = (600)2 + (200)2

Fo = 373.2 lb

F1 = 525 lb

1 1 1

2(373.2) = (525) + F

2 2

2

2

F2 = 247 lb

F1 525

= = 2.1255

F2 247

842. A 20-hp, 1750 rpm, slip-ring motor is to drive a ventilating fan at 330 rpm. The

horizontal center distance must be about 8 to 9 ft. for clearance, and operation is

continuous, 24 hr./day. (a) What driving-pulley size is needed for a speed

recommended as about optimum in the Text? (b) Decide upon a pulley size (iron

or steel) and belt thickness, and determine the belt width by the ALBA tables. (c)

Compute the stress from the general belt equation assuming that the applicable

coefficient of friction is that suggested by the Text. (d) Suppose the belt is

installed with an initial tension Fo = 70 lb in . (17.10), compute F1 F2 and the

stress on the tight side if the approximate relationship of the operating tensions

1 1 1

and the initial tensions is F1 + F = 2 F .

2

2

2

o

2

Page 2 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Solution:

vm = 4000 to 4500 fpm

assume vm = 4250 fpm

D n

vm = 1 1

12

D (1750 )

4250 = 1

12

D1 = 9.26 in

say D1 = 10 in

23

(b) Using Heavy Double Ply Belt, t = in

64

Minimum pulley diameter for vm 4250 fpm , D1 = 10 in

Use D1 = 10 in

D n (10 )(1750)

vm = 1 1 = = 4581 fpm

12 12

ALBA Tables

(

hp = (hp in., Table 17.1)(bCmC p ) C f1 C f 2 L )

hp in = 13.8

Slip ring motor, Cm = 0.4

Pulley Size, D1 = 10 in

C p = 0 .7

Table 17.7, 24 hr/day, continuous

N sf = 1.8

Assume C f = 0.74

hp = (1.8)(20) = (13.8)(b )(0.4)(0.7 )(0.74 )

b = 12.59 in

use b = 13 in

12 vs2 e f 1

F1 F2 = bt s

32.2 e f

4581

vs = = 76.35 fps

60

= 0.035 lb cu. in. for leather

23

t= in

64

b = 13 in

Page 3 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

33,000(1.8)(20 )

F1 F2 = = 260 lb

4581

f = 0.3 on iron or steel

D D1

2

C

C = 8 ~ 9 ft use 8.5 ft

1750

D2 = (10 ) = 53 in

330

53 10

= = 2.72 rad

8.5(12 )

f = (0.3)(2.72) = 0.816

e f 1 e 0.816 1

= 0.816 = 0.5578

e f e

23 12(0.035)(76.35)

2

F1 F2 = 260 = (13) s (0.5578)

64 32.2

s = 176 psi

1 1 1

(d) F1 2 + F22 = 2 Fo2

Fo = (70 lb in )(13 in ) = 910 lb

F1 F2 = 260 lb

F2 = F1 260 lb

1 1 1

F1 + (F1 260)2 = 2(910)2 = 60.33

2

F1 = 1045 lb

F2 = 1045 260 = 785 lb

F11045

s= = = 224 psi

bt 23

(13)

64

F1 1045

= = 1.331

F2 785

reciprocating compressor and turns at 1140 rpm; for the cast-iron motor pulley,

D1 = 16 in ; D2 = 53 in , a flywheel; cemented joints;l C = 8 ft . (a) Choose an

appropriate belt thickness and determine the belt width by the ALBA tables. (b)

Using the design stress of 17.6, compute the coefficient of friction that would be

needed. Is this value satisfactory? (c) Suppose that in the beginning, the initial

tension was set so that the operating F1 F2 = 2 . Compute the maximum stress in

a straight part. (d) The approximate relation of the operating tensions and the

Page 4 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

1 1 1

initial tension Fo is F1 + F = 2 F . For the condition in (c), compute Fo . Is it

2

2

2

o

2

Solution:

(a) Table 17.1

D n (16)(1140 )

vm = 1 1 = = 4775 fpm

12 12

Use heavy double-ply belt

23

t= in

64

hp in = 14.1

(

hp = (hp in., Table 17.1)(bCmC p ) C f1 C f 2 L)

line starting electric motor , Cm = 0.5

Table 17.7, squirrel-cage, electric motor, line starting, reciprocating compressor

N sf = 1.4

D1 = 16 in , C p = 0.8

assume, C f = 0.74

hp = (1.4)(100) = 140 hp

hp = 140 = (14.1)(b )(0.5)(0.8)(0.74)

b = 33.5 in

use b = 34 in

= 1.00 for cemented joint.

sd = 400 psi

12 vs2 e f 1

F1 F2 = bt s

32.2 e f

4775

vs = = 79.6 fps

60

= 0.035 lb cu. in. for leather

23

t= in

64

b = 34 in

33,000(1.4 )(100 )

F1 F2 = = 968 lb

4775

23 12(0.035)(79.6 ) e f 1

2

F1 F2 = 968 = (34 ) 400 f

64 32.2 e

Page 5 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

e f 1

= 0.2496

e f

f = 0.28715

D D1

2

C

C = 8 ft

53 16

= = 2.7562 rad

8(12)

f (2.7562) = 0.28715

f = 0.1042 < 0.3

Therefore satisfactory.

(c) F1 F2 = 968 lb

F1 = 2F2

2 F2 F2 = 968 lb

F1 = 2 F2 = 2(968) = 1936 lb

F 1936

s= 1 = = 159 psi

bt 23

(34)

64

1 1 1

2 Fo2 = F12 + F22

1 1 1

2 F = (1936)2 + (968)2

o

2

Fo = 1411 lb

1411

Fo = = 41.5 lb in of width is less than Taylors recommendation and is reasonable.

34

compressor for a 40-ton refrigerating plant, flat leather belt, cemented joints. The

diameter of the fiber driving pulley is 13 in., D2 = 70 in ., a cast-iron flywheel;

C = 6 ft.11 in. Because of space limitations, the belt is nearly vertical; the

surroundings are quite moist. (a) Choose a belt thickness and determine the width

by the ALBA tables. (b) Using recommendations in the Text, compute s from

the general belt equation. (c) With this value of s , compute F1 and F1 F2 . (d)

1 1 1

Approximately, F1 2 + F22 = 2 Fo2 , where Fo is the initial tension. For the

condition in (c), what should be the initial tension? Compare with Taylor, 17.10.

(e) Compute the belt length. (f) The data are from an actual drive. Do you have

any recommendations for redesign on a more economical basis?

Page 6 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Solution:

D1n1 (13)(865)

(a) vm = = = 2944 fpm

12 12

Table 17.1, use Heavy Double Ply,

Dmin = 9 in for vm = 2944 fpm

belts less than 8 in wide

23

t= in

64

( )

hp = (hp in., Table 17.1)(bCmC p ) C f1 C f 2 L

hp in = 9.86

Table 17.2

Cm = 0.67

C p = 0 .8

C f = (0.74 )(0.80 ) = 0.592

Table 17.7, electric motor, compensator-started (squirrel cage) and reciprocating

compressor

N sf = 1.4

hp = (1.4)(50) = 70 hp

hp = 70 = (9.86)(b )(0.67 )(0.8)(0.592 )

b = 22.4 in

use b = 25 in

12 vs2 e f 1

F1 F2 = bt s

32.2 e f

b = 25 in

23

t= in

64

= 0.035 lb cu. in. for leather

2944

vs = = 49.1 fps

60

Leather on iron, f = 0.3

D D1

= 2

C

70 13

= = 2.35 rad

6(12)

f = (0.3)(2.35) = 0.705

Page 7 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

e f 1 e 0.705 1

= 0.705 = 0.5059

e f e

33,000(1.4 )(50 )

F1 F2 = = 785 lb

2944

23 12(0.035)(49.1)

2

F1 F2 = 785 = (25) s (0.5059 )

64 32.2

s = 204 psi

Cemented joint, = 1.0

s = 204 psi

23

(c) F1 = sbt = (204 )(25) = 1833 lb

64

F2 = 1833 785 = 1048 lb

F1 1833

= = 1.749

F2 1048

1 1 1

(d) 2 Fo2 = F12 + F22

1 1 1

2 F = (1833)2 + (1048)2

o

2

Fo = 1413 lb

1413

Fo = = 56.5 lb in

25

Approximately less than Taylors recommendation ( = 70 lb/in.)

(e) L 2C + 1.57(D2 + D1 ) +

(D2 D1 )2

4C

(70 13)

2

= 286 in

4(6)(12)

(f) More economical basis

D n

vm = 1 1

12

D (865)

4500 = 1

12

D1 = 19.87 in

use D1 = 20 in

Page 8 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

CHECK PROBLEMS

846. An exhaust fan in a wood shop is driven by a belt from a squirrel-cage motor that

runs at 880 rpm, compensator started. A medium double leather belt, 10 in. wide

is used; C = 54 in .; D1 = 14 in . (motor), D2 = 54 in ., both iron. (a) What

horsepower, by ALBA tables, may this belt transmit? (b) For this power,

compute the stress from the general belt equation. (c) For this stress, what is

F1 F2 ? (d) If the belt has stretched until s = 200 psi on the tight side, what is

F1 F2 ? (e) Compute the belt length.

Solution:

20

t= in

64

hp = (hp in )(b )CmC pC f

Table 17.1 and 17.2

Cm = 0.67

C p = 0 .8

C f = 0.74

b = 10 in

D n (14)(880)

vm = 1 1 = = 3225 fpm

12 12

hp in = 6.6625

hp = (6.6625)(10)(0.67 )(0.8)(0.74) = 26.43 hp

12 vs2 e f 1

(b) F1 F2 = bt s

32.2 e f

b = 10 in

20

t= in

64

= 0.035 lb cu. in.

3225

vs = = 53.75 fps

60

D D1

= 2

C

54 14

= = 2.4 rad

54

Leather on iron f = 0.3

f = (0.3)(2.4) = 0.72

Page 9 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

e f 1 e 0.72 1

= 0.72 = 0.51325

e f e

33,000(26.43)

F1 F2 = = 270 lb

3225

20 12(0.035)(53.75)

2

F1 F2 = 270 = (10 ) s (0.51325)

64 32.2

s = 206 psi

20

(c) F1 = sbt = (206 )(10 ) = 644 lb

64

F2 = 644 270 = 374 lb

F1 644

= = 1.72

F2 374

20

F1 = sbt = (200 )(10 ) = 625 lb

64

F2 = 625 270 = 355 lb

F1 625

= = 1.76

F2 355

(e) L 2C + 1.57(D2 + D1 ) +

( D2 D1 )

2

4C

(54 14)2 = 222 in

4(54)

leather belt in a dusty location. The 8-in motor pulley turns 1750 rpm;

D2 = 12 in . (compressor shaft); C = 5 ft . The belt has been designed for a net

belt pull of F1 F2 = 40 lb in of width and F1 F2 = 3 . Compute (a) the

horsepower, (b) the stress in tight side. (c) For this stress, what needed value of

f is indicated by the general belt equation? (d) Considering the original

data,what horsepower is obtained from the ALBA tables? Any remarks?

Solution:

D1n1 (8)(1750)

(a) vm = = = 3665 fpm

12 12

b = 6 in

F1 F2 = (40)(6) = 240 lb

Page 10 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

hp =

(F1 F2 )vm = (240)(3665) = 26.65 hp

33,000 33,000

(b) F1 = 3F2

3F2 F2 = 240 lb

F2 = 120 lb

F1 = 360 lb

F

s= 1

bt

For heavy single-ply leather belt

13

t= in

64

360

s= = 295 psi

13

(6)

64

12 vs2 e f 1

(c) F1 F2 = bt s

32.2 e f

= 0.035 lb cu. in.

3665

vs = = 61.1 fps

60

F1 F2 = 240 lb

13 12(0.035)(61.1) e f 1

2

F1 F2 = 240 = (6 ) 295 f

64 32.2 e

e f 1

= 0.7995

e f

D D1

= 2

C

12 8

= = 3.075 rad

5(12)

e f = 4.9875

f = 1.607

f (3.075) = 1.607

f = 0.5226

hp = (hp in )(b )CmC pC f

vm = 3665 fpm

hp in = 6.965

Page 11 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

b = 10 in

Cm = 1.0 (assumed)

C p = 0 .6

C f = 0.74

848. A 10-in. medium double leather belt, cemented joints, transmits 60 hp from a 9-

in. paper pulley to a 15-in. pulley on a mine fab; dusty conditions. The

compensator-started motor turns 1750 rpm; C = 42 in . This is an actual

installation. (a) Determine the horsepower from the ALBA tables. (b) Using the

general equation, determine the horsepower for this belt. (c) Estimate the service

factor from Table 17.7 and apply it to the answer in (b). Does this result in better

or worse agreement of (a) and (b)? What is your opinion as to the life of the belt?

Solution:

D n (9 )(1750)

vm = 1 1 = = 4123 fpm

12 12

(a) hp = (hp in )(b )CmC pC f

Table 17.1 and 17.2

Medium double leather belt

20

t= in

64

vm = 4123 fpm

hp in = 11.15

Cm = 0.67

C p = 0 .7

C f = 0.74

b = 10 in

hp = (11.15)(10)(0.67 )(0.7 )(0.74) = 38.7 hp

12 vs2 e f 1

(b) F1 F2 = bt s f

32.2 e

b = 10 in

= 0.035 lb cu. in.

s = 400

= 1.0 cemented joint

s = 400 psi

D D1

= 2

C

Page 12 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

15 9

= = 2.9987 rad

42

Leather on paper pulleys, f = 0.5

f = (0.5)(2.9987 ) = 1.5

e f 1

= 0.77687

e f

4123

vs = = 68.72 fps

60

20 12(0.035)(68.72 )

2

F1 F2 = (10 ) 400 (0.77687 ) = 822 lb

64 32.2

hp =

( F1 F2 )vm (822)(4123)

= = 102.7 hp

33,000 33,000

N sf = 1.6

102.7

hp = = 64.2 hp < 102.7 hp

1 .6

Therefore, better agreement

MISCELLANEOUS

849. Let the coefficient of friction be constant. Find the speed at which a leather belt

may transmit maximum power if the stress in the belt is (a) 400 psi, (b) 320 psi.

(c) How do these speeds compare with those mentioned in 17.9, Text? (d)

Would the corresponding speeds for a rubber belt be larger or smaller? (HINT:

Try the first derivative of the power with respect to velocity.)

Solution:

12 vs2 e f 1

F1 F2 = bt s

32.2 e f

hp = 1

(F F2 )vm

33,000

60(F1 F2 )vs

hp =

33,000

60vs bt 12 vs2 e f 1

hp = s

33,000 32.2 e f

60bt e f 1 12 vs2

hp = s v s

33,000 e f 32.2

Page 13 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

= s =0

d (vs ) 33,000 e f 32.2 32.2

36 vs2

s=

32.2

= 0.035 lb cu. in.

36(0.035)vs2

400 =

32.2

vs = 101.105 fps

vm = 6066 fpm

36(0.035)vs2

320 =

32.2

vs = 90.431 fps

vm = 5426 fpm

36(0.045)vs2

400 =

32.2

vs = 89.166 fps

vm = 5350 fpm < 6066 fpm

850. A 40-in. pulley transmits power to a 20-in. pulley by means of a medium double

leather belt, 20 in. wide; C = 14 ft , let f = 0.3 . (a) What is the speed of the 40-in

pulley in order to stress the belt to 300 psi at zero power? (b) What maximum

horsepower can be transmitted if the indicated stress in the belt is 300 psi? What

is the speed of the belt when this power is transmitted? (See HINT in 849).

Solution:

12 vs2 e f 1

F1 F2 = bt s f

32.2 e

Page 14 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

60(F1 F2 )vs

hp =

33,000

60bt e f 1 12 vs2

hp = s v s

33,000 e f 32.2

d (hp ) 60bt e f 1 12 vs2 24 vs2

= s =0

d (vs ) 33,000 e f 32.2 32.2

36 vs2

s= for maximum power

32.2

(a) At zero power:

12 vs2

s=

32.2

s = 300 psi

= 0.035 lb cu. in.

12(0.035)vs2

300 =

32.2

vs = 151.6575 fps

vm = 9100 fpm

12vm 12(9100 )

Speed, 40 in pulley, n2 = = = 869 rpm

D2 (40)

(b) Maximum power

36 vs2

s=

32.2

36(0.035)vs2

300 =

32.2

vs = 87.5595 fps

vm = 5254 fpm

60bt e f 1 12 vs2

hp = s v s

33,000 e f 32.2

20

t= in

64

b = 20 in

D D1

= 2

C

40 20

= = 3.0225 rad

14(12)

f = 0 .3

Page 15 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

f = (0.3)(3.0225) = 0.90675

e f 1

= 0.5962

e f

20

60(20)

64 (0.5962)300 12(0.035)(87.5595) (87.5595) = 118.64

2

hp =

33,000 32.2

vm = 5254 fpm

1200 rpm; 12-in. paper motor pulley; 78-in. compressor pulley, cast-iron;

C = 84 in . A tension pulley is placed so that the angle of contact on the motor

pulley is 193o and on the compressor pulley, 240o. A 12-in. medium double

leather belt with a cemented joint is used. (a) What will be the tension in the

tight side of the belt if the stress is 375 psi? (b) What will be the tension in the

slack side? (c) What coefficient of friction is required on each pulley as indicated

by the general equation? (d) What force must be exerted on the tension pulley to

hold the belt tight, and what size do you recommend?

Solution:

(a) F1 = sbt

b = 12 in

20

t= in

64

20

F1 = (375)(12 )

64

33,000hp

(b) F1 F2 =

vm

D n (12)(1200 )

vm = 1 1 = = 3770 fpm

12 12

Table 17.7, N sf = 1.2

33,000(1.2 )(100 )

F1 F2 = = 1050 lb

3770

F2 = F1 1050 = 1406 1050 = 356 lb

12 vs2 e f 1

(c) F1 F2 = bt s f

32.2 e

3770

vs = = 62.83 fps

60

Page 16 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

20 12(0.035)(62.83) e f 1

1050 = (12) 375 e f

64 32.2

e f 1

= 0.8655

e f

f = 2.006

Motor pulley

= 193o = 193 = 3.3685 rad

180

f (3.3685) = 2.006

f = 0.5955

Compressor Pulley

= 2403o = 240 = 4.1888 rad

180

f (4.1888) = 2.006

f = 0.4789

(d) Force:

D D1 78 12

1 = 2 = = 2.356 rad

C 84

D D1 78 12

2 = + 2 = + = 3.9273 rad

C 84

Page 17 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

1 2.356

1 = 1 1 = 3.3685 2.356 = 0.6197 rad = 35.5o

2 2

2 3.9273

2 = + 2 2 = + 4.1888 3.9273 = 0.6544 rad = 37.5o

2 2

Q = F1 (sin 1 + sin 2 ) = 1406(sin 35.5 + sin 37.5) = 1672 lb of force exerted

Size of pulley; For medium double leather belt,

vm = 3770 fpm , width = 12 in > 8 in

D = 6 + 2 = 8 in

Page 18 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

852. A 40-hp motor, weighing 1915 lb., runs at 685 rpm and is mounted on a pivoted

3

base. In Fig. 17.11, Text, e = 10 in ., h = 19 in . The center of the 11 -in.

16

motor pulley is 11 in. lower than the center of the 60-in. driven pulley;

C = 48 in . (a) With the aid of a graphical layout, find the tensions in the belt for

maximum output of the motor if it is compensator started. What should be the

width of the medium double leather belt if s = 300 psi ? (c) What coefficient of

friction is indicated by the general belt equation? (Data courtesy of Rockwood

Mfg. Co.)

Solution:

(a)

R = 1915 lb

Graphically

b 26 in

a 9 in

[ M B =0 ]

eR = F1a + F2b

(10)(1915) = (F1 )(9) + (F2 )(26)

9 F1 + 26 F2 = 19,150

For compensator started

hp = 1.4(rated hp ) = 1.4(40 ) = 56 hp

33,000hp

F1 F2 =

vm

Page 19 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

D1n1 (11.5)(685)

vm = = = 2062 fpm

12 12

33,000(56 )

F1 F2 = = 896 lb

2062

F2 = F1 896

Substituting

9 F1 + 26(F1 896) = 19,150

F1 = 1213 lb

F2 = 1213 896 = 317 lb

20

For medium leather belt, t = in

64

F1 = sbt

20

1213 = (300 )(b )

64

b = 13 in

12 vs2 e f 1

(c) F1 F2 = bt s

32.2 e f

2062

vs = = 34.37 fps

60

= 0.035 lb cu. in.

20 12(0.035)(34.37 ) e f 1

896 = (13) 300 e f

64 32.2

e f 1

= 0.775

e f

f = 1.492

D D1 60 11.5

= 2 = = 2.1312 rad

C 48

f (2.1312 ) = 1.492

f = 0.70

853. A 50-hp motor, weighing 1900 lb., is mounted on a pivoted base, turns 1140 rpm,

3

and drives a reciprocating compressor; in Fig. 17.11, Text, e = 8 in .,

4

5

h = 17 in . The center of the 12-in. motor pulley is on the same level as the

16

center of the 54-in. compressor pulley; C = 40 in . (a) With the aid of a graphical

layout, find the tensions in the belt for maximum output of the motor if it is

compensator started. (b) What will be the stress in the belt if it is a heavy double

Page 20 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

leather belt, 11 in. wide? (c) What coefficient of friction is indicated by the

general belt equation? (Data courtesy of Rockwood Mfg. Co.)

Solution:

(a) For compensator-started

hp = 1.4(50) = 70 hp

33,000hp

F1 F2 =

vm

D n (12 )(1140)

vm = 1 1 = = 3581 fpm

12 12

33,000(70 )

F1 F2 = = 645 lb

2062

b 25 in

a 5 in

R = 1900 lb

eR = F 1a + F2b

(8.75)(1900) = F 1 (5) + F2 (25)

F 1+5F2 = 3325 lb

645 + F 2+5F2 = 3325 lb

F2 = 447 lb

F1 = 645 + F2 = 645 + 447 = 1092 lb

23

t= in

64

b = 11 in

Page 21 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

F1 1092

s= = = 276 psi

bt 20

(11)

64

12 vs2 e f 1

(c) F1 F2 = bt s

32.2 e f

3581

vs = = 59.68 fps

60

= 0.035 lb cu. in.

23 12(0.035)(59.68) e f 1

645 = (11) 276 e f

64 32.2

f = 1.241

D D1 54 12

= 2 = = 2.092 rad

C 40

f (2.092 ) = 1.492

f = 0.60

RUBBER BELTS

854. A 5-ply rubber belt transmits 20 horsepower to drive a mine fan. An 8-in., motor

pulley turns 1150 rpm; D2 = 36 in ., fan pulley; C = 23 ft . (a) Design a rubber

belt to suit these conditions, using a net belt pull as recommended in 17.15,

Text. (b) Actually, a 9-in., 5-ply Goodrich high-flex rubber belt was used. What

are the indications for a good life?

Solution:

D2 D1 36 8

(a) = = = 3.040 rad = 174o

C 23(12 )

K = 0.976

bv N K

hp = m p

2400

K = 0.976

D n (8)(1150)

vm = 1 1 = = 2409 fpm

12 12

Np = 5

b(2409 )(5)(0.976 )

hp = 20 =

2400

b = 4.1 in

min. b = 5 in

Page 22 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

855. A 20-in., 10-ply rubber belt transmits power from a 300-hp motor, running at 650

rpm, to an ore crusher. The center distance between the 33-in. motor pulley and

the 108-in. driven pulley is 18 ft. The motor and crusher are so located that the

belt must operate at an angle 75o with the horizontal. What is the overload

capacity of this belt if the rated capacity is as defined in 17.15, Text?

Solution:

bv N

hp = m p

2400

b = 20 in

D n (33)(650)

vm = 1 1 = = 5616 fpm

12 12

N p = 10

hp =

(20)(5616)(10 ) = 468 hp

2400

468 300

Overlaod Capacity = (100% ) = 56%

300

V-BELTS

NOTE: If manufacturers catalogs are available, solve these problems from catalogs as

well as from data in the Text.

856. A centrifugal pump, running at 340 rpm, consuming 105 hp in 24-hr service, is to

be driven by a 125-hp, 1180-rpm, compensator-started motor; C = 43 to 49 in .

Determine the details of a multiple V-belt drive for this installation. The B.F.

Goodrich Company recommended six C195 V-belts with 14.4-in. and 50-in.

sheaves; C 45.2 in .

Solution:

Table 17.7

N sf = 1.2 + 0.2 = 1.4 (24 hr/day)

Design hp = N sf (transmitted hp) = (1.4)(125) = 175 hp

Fig. 17.4, 175 hp, 1180 rpm

Dmin = 13 in , D-section

D2 1180 50

= =

D1 340 14.4

use D1 = 14.4 in > 13 in

D2 = 50 in

Page 23 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

D1n1 (14.4)(1180 )

vm = = = 4449 fpm

12 12

103 0.09 c vm2 vm

Rated hp = a

K D e 106 103

vm d 1

Table 17.3, D-section

a = 18.788 , c = 137.7 , e = 0.0848

D

Table 17.4, 2 = 3.47

D1

K d = 1.14

103

0.09

137.7 (4449) 4449

2

Rated hp = 18.788 (1.14)(14.4) (0.0848) 106 103 = 28.294 hp

4449

a = 8.792 , c = 38.819 , e = 0.0416

103 0.09 c v2 v

Rated hp = a e m6 m3

vm K d D1 10 10

103

0 .09

38.819 (4449) 4449

2

Rated hp = 8.792 (0.0416) = 20.0 hp

4449 (1.14)(14.4) 106 103

Table 17.5,

D2 D1 50 14.4

= = 0.77

C 46

K = 0.88

Table 17.6

(D D1 )2

L 2C + 1.57(D2 + D1 ) + 2

4C

(50 14.4)

2

= 200 in

4(46)

use C195, L = 197.9 in

K L = 1.07

Adjusted rated hp = (0.88)(1.07 )(20) = 18.83 hp

Design hp 175

No. of belts = = = 9.3 belts use 9 belts

Adjusted rated hp 18.83

Page 24 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

B + B 2 32(D2 D1 )

2

C=

16

B = 4 L 6.28(D2 + D1 ) = 4(197.9) 6.28(50 + 14.4) = 387.2 in

387.2 + (387.2)2 32(50 14.4)2

C= = 44.9 in

16

pump at a speed of 330 rpm. The pump is for 12-hr. service and normally

requires 44 hp, but it is subjected to peak loads of 175 % of full load; C 50 in .

Determine the details of a multiple V-belt drive for this application. The Dodge

Manufacturing Corporation recommended a Dyna-V Drive consisting of six

5V1800 belts with 10.9-in. and 37.5-in. sheaves; C 50.2 in .

Solution:

Table 17.7, (12 hr/day)

N sf = 1.4 0.2 = 1.2

Design hp = (1.2)(1.75)(50) = 105 hp

Fig. 17.4, 105 hp, 1160 rpm

Dmin = 13 in , D-section

D2 1160 46.4

=

D1 330 13.2

use D1 = 13.2 in > 13 in

D2 = 46.4 in

D n (13.2)(1160 )

vm = 1 1 = = 4009 fpm

12 12

103 0.09 c vm2 vm

Rated hp = a

K D e 106 103

vm d 1

Table 17.3, D-section

a = 18.788 , c = 137.7 , e = 0.0848

D 46.4

Table 17.4, 2 = = 3 .5

D1 13.2

K d = 1.14

103

0.09

137.7 (4009) 4009

2

Rated hp = 18.788 (0.0848) = 24.32 hp

4009 (1.14)(13.2) 106 103

a = 8.792 , c = 38.819 , e = 0.0416

Dmin = 9 in

Page 25 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

D2 1160 32

=

D1 330 9.1

use D1 = 9.1 in

D n (9.1)(1160 )

vm = 1 1 = = 2764 fpm

12 12

103

0.09

38.819 (2764)2 2764 = 10.96 hp

Rated hp = 8.792 (0.0416)

2764 (1.14)(9.1) 106 103

Table 17.5,

D2 D1 32 9.1

= = 0.458

C 50

K = 0.935

Table 17.6

L 2C + 1.57(D2 + D1 ) +

( D2 D1 )

2

4C

(32 9.1)2 = 167 in

4(50)

use C158, L = 160.9 in

K L = 1.02

Adjusted rated hp = (0.935)(1.02)(10.96) = 10.45 hp

Design hp 105

No. of belts = = = 10 belts

Adjusted rated hp 10.43

B + B 2 32(D2 D1 )

2

C=

16

B = 4 L 6.28(D2 + D1 ) = 4(160.9) 6.28(32 + 9.1) = 385.5 in

385.5 + (385.5)2 32(32 9.1)2

C= = 46.8 in

16

Use 10-C158 belts, D1 = 9.1 in

D2 = 32 in , C = 46.8 in

858. A 200-hp, 600-rpm induction motor is to drive a jaw crusher at 125 rpm; starting

load is heavy; operating with shock; intermittent service; C = 113 to 123 in .

Recommend a multiple V-flat drive for this installation. The B.F. Goodrich

Company recommended eight D480 V-belts with a 26-in. sheave and a 120.175-

in. pulley; C 116.3 in .

Solution:

Page 26 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Table 17.7

N sf = 1.6 0.2 = 1.4

hp = (1.4)(200) = 280 hp

Fig. 17.14, 280 hp, 600 rpm

Use Section E

But in Table 17.3, section E is not available, use section D

Dmin = 13

D2 600

= = 4 .8

D1 125

For D1max :

D + D2

min C = 1 + D1

2

D + 4.8 D1

113 = 1 + D1

2

D1 = 28 in

min C = D2

D2 = 113 in

113

D1 = = 23.5 in

4 .8

1

use D1 (13 + 23.5) = 18 in

2

D2 = (4.8)(18) = 86.4 in

L 2C + 1.57(D2 + D1 ) +

(D2 D1 )2

4C

(86.4 18)

2

= 410 in

4(118)

using D1 = 19 in , D2 = 91.2 in , C = 118 in

(91.2 19)

2

= 420 in

4(118)

Therefore use D420 sections

D1 = 19 in , D2 = 91.2 in

D n (19)(600)

vm = 1 1 = = 2985 fpm

12 12

103 0.09 c v2 v

Rated hp = a e m6 m3

vm K d D1 10 10

Table 17.3, D-section

a = 18.788 , c = 137.7 , e = 0.0848

D

Table 17.4, 2 = 4.8

D1

Page 27 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

K d = 1.14

103

0.09

137.7 (2985)2 2985 = 29.6 hp

Rated hp = 18.788 (0.0848)

2985 (1.14)(19) 106 103

Therefore, Fig. 17.14, section D is used.

Adjusted rated hp = K K L (rated hp )

Table 17.5,

D2 D1 91.2 19

= = 0.612

C 118

K = 0.83 (V-flat)

Table 17.6, D420

L = 420.8 in

K L = 1.12

Adjusted rated hp = (0.83)(1.12)(29.6) = 27.52 hp

Design hp 280

No. of belts = = = 10 belts

Adjusted rated hp 27.52

859. A 150-hp, 700-rpm, slip-ring induction motor is to drive a ball mill at 195 rpm;

heavy starting load; intermittent seasonal service; outdoors. Determine all details

for a V-flat drive. The B.F. Goodrich Company recommended eight D270 V-

belts, 17.24-in sheave, 61-in. pully, C 69.7 in .

Solution:

Table 17.7,

N sf = 1.6 0.2 = 1.4

Design hp = (1.4)(150) = 210 hp

Fig. 17.4, 210 hp, 700 rpm

Dmin = 13 in , D-section

103 0.09 c v2 v

Rated hp = a e m6 m3

vm K d D1 10 10

d (hp )

For Max. Rated hp, =0

vm

d 3

10

0.91 3

v c vm vm

Rated hp = a m3 e

10 K d D1 103 103

v

Let X = m3

10

Page 28 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

c

hp = aX 0.91 X eX 3

K d D1

v D1n1 D1 (700)

X = m3 = =

10 12 103 12 103

12 103 X

D1 =

700

700c

hp = aX 0.91 3

eX 3

12 10 K d

d (hp )

= 0.91aX 0.09 3eX 2 = 0

d (X )

0.91a

X 2.09 =

3e

Table 17.3, D-section

a = 18.788 , c = 137.7 , e = 0.0848

2.09

v 0.91(18.788)

X 2.09 = m3 =

10 3(0.0848)

vm = 7488 fpm

D n

vm = 1 1 = 7488

12

D (700)

vm = 1 = 7488

12

D1 = 40.86 in

max D1 = 40.86 in

1

ave. D1 = (13 + 40.86 ) = 26.93 in

2

use D1 = 22 in

D2 700 79

=

D1 195 22

D1 = 22 in , D2 = 79 in

D + D2 22 + 79

Min. C = 1 + D1 = + 22 = 72.5 in

2 2

Or Min. C = D2 = 79 in

L 2C + 1.57(D2 + D1 ) +

(D2 D1 )2

4C

(79 22)2 = 327 in

4(79)

use D330, L = 330.8 in

B + B 2 32(D2 D1 )

2

C=

16

Page 29 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

689 + (689)2 32(79 22)2

C= = 81.12 in

16

D n (22)(700)

vm = 1 1 = = 4032 fpm

12 12

K d = 1.14

103

0.09

137.7 (4032) 4032

2

Rated hp = 18.788 ( )

(1.14)(22 ) 0.0848 106 103 = 39.124 hp

4032

Adjusted rated hp = K K L (rated hp )

Table 17.5,

D2 D1 79 22

= = 0.70

C 81.12

K = 0.84 (V-flat)

Table 17.6

D330

K L = 1.07

Adjusted rated hp = (0.84)(1.07 )(39.124 ) = 35.165 hp

Design hp 210

No. of belts = = = 5.97 belts use 6 belts

Adjusted rated hp 35.165

860. A 30-hp, 1160-rpm, squirrel-cage motor is to be used to drive a fan. During the

summer, the load is 29.3 hp at a fan speed of 280 rpm; during the winter, it is 24

hp at 238 rpm; 44 < C < 50 in .; 20 hr./day operation with no overload. Decide

upon the size and number of V-belts, sheave sizes, and belt length. (Data

courtesy of The Worthington Corporation.)

Solution:

Table 17.7

N sf = 1.6 + 0.2 = 1.8

Design hp = (1.8)(30) = 54 hp

Speed of fan at 30 hp

30 24

n2 = (280 238) + 238 = 286 rpm

29.3 24

at 54 hp, 1160 rpm. Fig. 17.4

use either section C or section D

Minimum center distance:

C = D2

Page 30 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

D1 + D2

or C = + D1

2

D2 1160

= = 4.056

D1 286

use C = 4.056 D1

44 in < C < 50 in , use C = 47 in

47

D1max = = 11.6 in

4.056

use C-section, Dmin = 9 in

Let D1 = 10 in , D1 = 41 in

L 2C + 1.57(D2 + D1 ) +

( D2 D1 )

2

4C

(41 10.1)2 = 179.3 in

4(47 )

use C137, L = 175.9 in

B + B 2 32(D2 D1 )

2

C=

16

B = 4 L 6.28(D2 + D1 ) = 4(175.9) 6.28(41 + 10.1) = 328.7 in

382.7 + (382.7 )2 32(41 10.1)2

C= = 45.2 in 44 in

16

C173, satisfies 44 in < C < 50 in

0.91 3

v c vm vm

Rated hp = a m3 e

10 K d D1 103 103

D n (10.1)(1160)

vm = 1 1 = = 3067 fpm

12 12

Table 17.4

D2

= 4.056 , K d = 1.14

D1

Table 17.3, D-section

a = 8.792 , c = 38.819 , e = 0.0416

103

0.09

38.819 (3067 )2 3067 = 12.838 hp

Rated hp = 8.792 (0.0416)

3067 (1.14)(10.1) 106 103

Adjusted rated hp = K K L (rated hp )

Table 17.5,

D2 D1 41 10.1

= = 0.68

C 45.2

K = 0.90

Page 31 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Table 17.6

L = 175.9 , C173

K L = 1.04

Adjusted rated hp = (0.90)(1.04)(12.838) = 12.02 hp

Design hp 54

No. of belts = = = 4.5 belts use 5 belts

Adjusted rated hp 12.02

POWER CHAINS

NOTE: If manufacturers catalogs are available, solve these problems from catalogs as

well as from data in the Text.

cylinder Diesel engine to a counter-shaft; engine speed 1000 rpm, counter-shaft

speed 500 rpm. The center distance is fixed at 24 in. The cain will be subjected to

intermittent overloads of 100 %. (a) Determine the pitch and the number of

chains required to transmit this power. (b) What is the length of the chain

required? How much slack must be allowed in order to have a whole number of

pitches? A chain drive with significant slack and subjected to impulsive loading

should have an idler sprocket against the slack strand. If it were possible to

change the speed ratio slightly, it might be possible to have a chain with no

appreciable slack. (c) How much is the bearing pressure between the roller and

pin?

Solution:

D2 n1 1000

= =2

D1 n2 500

D2 = 2D1

D

C = D2 + 1 = 24 in

2

D

2 D1 + 1 = 24

2

D1 = 9.6 in

D2 = 2 D1 = 2(9.6 ) = 19.2 in

vm = = = 2513 fpm

12 12

Table 17.8, use Chain No. 35,

Limiting Speed = 2800 fpm

Page 32 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Assume N1 = 21

N 2 = 2 N1 = 42

[Roller-Bushing Impact]

1.5

100 N ts 0.8

hp = K r P

n

Chain No. 35

3

P = in

8

N ts = 21

n = 1000 rpm

K r = 29

1.5 0.8

100(21) 3

hp = 29 = 40.3 hp

1000 8

hp = 0.004 N ts1.08 n 0.9 P 30.07 P

3

3 0.07

3 8

hp = 0.004(21) (1000)

1.08 0.9

= 2.91 hp

8

design hp 60

No. of strands = = = 21

rated hp 2.91

3

Use Chain No. 35, P = in , 21 strands

8

N + N 2 ( N 2 N1 )

2

(b) L 2C + 1 + pitches

2 40C

24

C= = 64

3

8

N1 = 21

N 2 = 42

21 + 42 (42 21)

2

L = 2(64) + + = 159.67 pitches 160 pitches

2 40(64 )

Amount of slack

1

(

h = 0.433 S 2 L2 )

2

L = C = 24 in

Page 33 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

(160159.67) 3 in

S = 24 in + 8 = 24.062 in

2

1

[

h = 0.433 (24.062) (24)

2

]

2 2

= 0.75 in =

3

4

in

Table 17.8, Chain No. 25

C = 0.141 in

3

E = in

16

J = 0.05 in

3

A = C (E + 2 J ) = 0.141 + 2(0.05) = 0.04054 in 2

16

FV

= 60 hp

33,000

F (2513)

= 60 hp

33,000

F = 787.9 lb

787.9

F= = 37.5 lb strand

21

37.5

pb = = 925 psi

0.04054

flexible coupling to a worm-gear speed reducer, whose mw 35 , and then via a

roller chain to the conveyor shaft that is to turn about 12 rpm; motor rpm is 1750.

Operation is smooth, 8 hr./day. (a) Decide upon suitable sprocket sizes, center

distance, and chain pitch. Compute (b) the length of chain, (c) the bearing

pressure between the roller and pin. The Morse Chain Company recommended

15- and 60-tooth sprockets, 1-in. pitch, C = 24 in ., L = 88 pitches .

Solution:

Table 17.7

N sf = 1.2 0.2 = 1.0 (8 hr/day)

design hp = 1.0(2) = 2.0 hp

1750

n1 = = 50 rpm

35

n2 = 12 rpm

Minimum number of teeth = 12

Page 34 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Use N1 = 12

[Link Plate Fatigue]

hp = 0.004 N ts1.08 n 0.9 P 30.07 P

hp 2 .0

P 3 0.07 P P 3 = = = 1 .0

0.004(12 ) (50 )

1.08 0.9 1.08 0.9

0.004 N ts n

Use Chain No. 80, P = 1.0 in

To check for roller-bushing fatigue

1.5

100 N ts 0.8

hp = K r P

n

K r = 29

1.5

100(12 )

hp = 17 (1)0.8 = 2747 hp > 2 hp

1000

(a) N1 = 12

n 50

N 2 = 1 N1 = (12) = 50 teeth

n2 12

D

C = D2 + 1

2

PN1 (1.0 )(12 )

D1 = = 3.82 in

D2

PN1

=

(1.0)(50) = 15.92 in

3.82

C 15.92 + = 17.83 in

2

use C = 18 in

C = 18 pitches

chain pitch = 1.0 in, Chain No. 80

N1 + N 2 ( N 2 N1 )

2

(b) L 2C + +

2 40C

12 + 59 (50 12)

2

L 2(18) + + = 69 pitches

2 40(18)

use L = 70 pitches

Table 17.8, Chain No. 80

C = 0.312 in

5

E = in

8

Page 35 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

J = 0.125 in

PN ts n1 (1)(12 )(50 )

vm = = = 50 fpm

12 12

3

A = C (E + 2 J ) = 0.141 + 2(0.05) = 0.04054 in 2

16

FV

= 60 hp

33,000

33,000(2 )

F= = 1320 lb

50

F 1320

pb = = = 4835 psi

C (E + 2 J ) 5

0.312 + 2(0.125)

8

with moderate shock. The 1-in output shaft of the gearmotor turns n = 500 rpm .

The 1 -in. driven shaft turns 250 rpm; C 16 in . (a) Determine the size of

sprockets and pitch of chain that may be used. If a catalog is available, be sure

maximum bore of sprocket is sufficient to fit the shafts. (b) Compute the center

distance and length of chain. (c) What method should be used to supply oil to the

chain? (d) If a catalog is available, design also for an inverted tooth chain.

Solution:

Table 17.7

N sf = 1.2

design hp = 1.2(5) = 6 hp

D2 500

= =2

D1 250

D

C = D2 + 1

2

D

16 = 2 D1 + 1

2

D1 = 6.4 in

D2 = 2 D1 = 2(6.4) = 12.8 in

D n (6.4)(500)

vm = 1 1 = = 838 fpm

12 12

hp = 0.004 N ts1.08 n 0.9 P 30.07 P

D (6.4 ) 20.11

N ts = N1 1 = =

P P P

Page 36 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

1.08

20.11

(500 ) P

0.9 3 0.07 P

hp = 0.004

P

6 = 27.47 P1.920.07 P

P = 0.45 in

1

use P = in , Chain No. 40

2

D1 (6.4)

N1 = = 40

P 1

2

N 2 = 2 N1 = 80

1

Size of sprocket, N1 = 40 , N 2 = 80 , P = in .

2

(b) C = 16 in

16 in

C= = 32 pitches

1

in

2

N1 + N 2 ( N 2 N1 )

2

L 2C + +

2 40C

40 + 80 (80 40)

2

L 2(32) + + = 125.25 pitches

2 40(32)

use L = 126 pitches

Use Type II Lubrication ( vmax = 1300 fpm ) oil is supplied from a drip lubricator to link

plate edges.

864. A roller chain is to transmit 20 hp from a split-phase motor, turning 570 rpm, to a

reciprocating pump, turning at 200 rpm; 24 hr./day service. (a) Decide upon the

tooth numbers for the sprockets, the pitch and width of chain, and center

distance. Consider both single and multiple strands. Compute (b) the chain

length, (c) the bearing pressure between the roller and pin, (d) the factor of safety

against fatigue failure (Table 17.8), with the chain pull as the force on the chain.

(e) If a catalog is available, design also an inverted-tooth chain drive.

Solution:

Table 17.7

N sf = 1.4 + 0.2 (24 hr/day)

design hp = 1.6(20) = 32 hp

n 570

(a) 1 = = 2.85

n2 200

Page 37 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

D2 n1

= 2.85

D1 n2

Considering single strand

hp = 0.004 N ts1.08 n 0.9 P 30.07 P

min N ts = 17

hp = 32 = 0.004(17 ) (570)0.9 P 30.07 P

1.08

P 3 0.07 P = 1.24

P = 1.07 in

use P = 1.0 in

3 0.07 (1)

hp = 32 = 0.004( N1 ) (570 ) (1)

1.08 0.9

N1 = 21

570

N2 = (21) = 60

200

5

Roller width = in

8

D

C = D2 + 1

2

PN1 (1)(21)

D1 = = 6.685 in

D2

PN 2

=

(1)(60) = 19.10 in

6.685

C = 19.10 + = 22.44 in

2

Use C = 23 in

23

C= pitches

1

Considering multiple strands

1

Assume, P = in

2

1.08 0.9 3 0.07 P

hp = 0.004 N ts n P

hp = 0.004(21)

1.08

(570)0.9 (0.5)30.07 (0.5) = 4.148 hp

32 hp

No. of strands = = 7 .7

4.148 hp

Use 8 strands

N1 + N 2 ( N 2 N1 )

2

L 2C + +

2 40C

Page 38 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

21 + 60 (60 21)

2

L 2(23) + + = 88.15 pitches

2 40(23)

use L = 88 pitches

Table 17.8, P = 1 in

5

E = in

8

J = 0.125 in

C = 0.312 in

33,000hp

F=

vm

D n (6.685)(570)

vm = 1 1 = = 998 fpm

12 12

33,000(32 )

F= = 1058 lb

998

F 1058

pb = = = 3876 psi

C (E + 2 J ) 5

0.312 + 2(0.125)

8

Fu

(d) Factor of Safety = , based on fatigue

4F

F 14,500

Factor of Safety = u = = 3.43

4 F 4(1058)

865. A 5/8-in. roller chain is used on a hoist to lift a 500-lb. load through 14 ft. in 24

sec. at constant velocity. If the load on the chain is doubled during the speed-up

period, compute the factor of safety (a) based on the chains ultimate strength, (b)

based on its fatigue strength. (c) At the given speed, what is the chains rated

capacity ( N s = 20 teeth ) in hp? Compare with the power needed at the constant

speed. Does it look as though the drive will have a long life?

Solution:

Table 17.8

5

P = in

8

Fu = 6100 lb

Page 39 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Fu

(a) Factor of Safety =

F

F = (500)(2 ) = 1000 lb

6100

Factor of Safety = = 6 .1

1000

F

(b) Factor of Safety = u (fatigue)

4F

6100

Factor of Safety = = 1.5

4(1000)

14 ft 60 sec

(c) vm = = 35 fpm

24 sec 1 min

N s = 20

5

P = in

8

Rated hp = 0.004 N ts1.08 n 0.9 P 30.07 P [Link Plate Fatigue]

5

(20)n

PN s n 8

vm = = = 35 fpm

12 12

n = 33.6 rpm

5

3 0.07

0.9 5 8

Rated hp = 0.004(20) (33.6 )

1.08

= 0.6 hp

8

Hp needed at constant speed

hp =

Fvm

=

(500)(35) = 0.53 hp < 0.6 hp

33,000 33,000

Therefore safe for long life.

WIRE ROPES

866. In a coal-mine hoist, the weight of the cage and load is 20 kips; the shaft is 400

ft. deep. The cage is accelerated from rest to 1600 fpm in 6 sec. A single 6 x 19,

IPS, 1 -in. rope is used, wound on an 8-ft. drum. (a) Include the inertia force

but take the static view and compute the factor of safety with and without

allowances for the bending load. (b) If N = 1.35 , based on fatigue, what is the

expected life? (c) Let the cage be at the bottom of the shaft and ignore the effect

of the ropes weight. A load of 14 kips is gradually applied on the 6-kip cage.

How much is the deflection of the cable due to the load and the additional energy

absorbed? (d) For educational purposes and for a load of 0.2 Fu , compute the

energy that this 400-ft rope can absorb and compare it with that for a 400-ft., 1

-in., as-rolled-1045 steel rod. Omit the weights of the rope and rod. What is the

energy per pound of material in each case?

Page 40 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Solution:

(a)

1 min

(1600 fpm )

v2 v1 60 sec = 4.445 fps 2

a= =

t 6 sec

Wh = 20 kips

For 6 x 19 IPS,

w 1.6 Dr2 lb ft

400

wL = 1.6 Dr2 2

kips = 0.64 Dr kips

1000

Ft wL Wh = ma

20 + 0.64 Dr2

m=

32.2

20 + 0.64 Dr2

Ft 0.64 Dr2 20 = (4.445)

32.2

2

Ft = 22.76 + 0.73Dr

3

Dr = 1 in

4

2

3

Ft = 22.76 + 0.731 = 25 kips

4

F Fb

N= u

Ft

Table AT 28, IPS

Fu 42 Dr2 tons

Fu = 42(1.75) = 129 tons = 258 kips

2

Fb = sb Am

EDw

sb =

Ds

Page 41 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

EAm Dw

Fb =

Ds

Table At 28, 6 x 19 Wire Rope

Dw = 0.067 Dr = 0.067(1.75) = 0.11725 in

Ds = 8 ft = 96 in

E = 30,000 ksi

Am 0.4 Dr2

Am = 0.4(1.75) = 1.225 sq in

2

Fb =

(30,000)(1.225)(0.11725) = 45 kips

(96)

F Fb 258 45

N= u = = 8.52

Ft 25

without bending load

F 258

N= u = = 10.32

Ft 25

IPS, su 260 ksi

2 NFt

Dr Ds =

( p su )su

(1.75)(96) = 2(1.35)(25)

( p su )(260)

p su = 0.0015

Fig. 17.30, 6 x 19 IPS

Number of bends to failure = 7 x 105

FL

(c) =

Am Er

Am = 1.225 sq in

Er 12,000 ksi (6 x 19 IPS)

F = 14 kips

L = 400 ft = 4800 in

=

(14)(4800) = 4.57 in

(1.225)(12,000)

1 1

U = F = (14 )(4.57 ) = 32 in kips

2 2

Page 42 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

FL

=

Am Er

=

(51.6)(4800) = 16.85 in

(1.225)(12,000)

1 1

U = F = (51.6 )(16.85) = 434 in kips

2 2

For 1 in, as-rolled 1045 steel rod

su = 96 ksi

Fu = su A = (96 ) (1.75) = 230.9 kips

2

4

F = 0.2 Fu = 0.2(230.9) = 46.2 kips

FL

=

AE

=

(46.2)(4800 ) = 3.073 in

(1.75) (30,000 )

2

4

1 1

U = F = (46.2 )(3.073) = 71 in kips < U of wire rope.

2 2

868. A hoist in a copper mine lifts ore a maximum of 2000 ft. The weight of car, cage,

and ore per trip is 10 kips, accelerated in 6 sec. to 2000 fpm; drum diameter is 6

ft. Use a 6 x 19 plow-steel rope. Determine the size (a) for a life of 200,000

cycles and N = 1.3 on the basis of fatigue, (b) for N = 5 by equation (v), 17.25,

Text. (c) What is the expected life of the rope found in (b) for N = 1.3 on the

basis of fatigue? (d) If a loaded car weighing 7 kips can be moved gradually onto

the freely hanging cage, how much would the rope stretch? (e) What total energy

is stored in the rope with full load at the bottom of te shaft? Neglect the ropes

weight for this calculation. (f) Compute the pressure of the rope on the cast-iron

drum. Is it reasonable?

Solution:

1 min

(2000 fpm )

a=

v2 v1

= 60 sec = 5.56 fps 2

t 6 sec

Page 43 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

For 6 x 19 IPS,

w 1.6 Dr2 lb ft

2000

wL = 1.6 Dr2 2

kips = 3.2 Dr kips

1000

Wh = 10 kips

wL + Wh

Ft wL Wh = a

32.2

a 5.56

Ft = + 1(wL + Wh ) = ( ) (

+ 1 3.2 Dr2 + 10 = 1.17267 3.2 Dr2 + 10 )

32 . 2 32 . 2

2 NFt

(a) Dr Ds =

( p su )su

Fig. 17.30, 200,000 cycles, 6 x 19

p su = 0.0028

PS: su 225 ksi

Ds = 6 ft = 72 in

N = 1 .3

Dr (72) =

(

2(1.3)(1.17267 ) 3.2 Dr2 + 10 )

(0.0028)(225)

45.36 Dr = 9.7566 Dr2 + 30.49

Dr2 4.64916 Dr + 3.1251 = 0

Dr = 0.815 in

7

say Dr = in

8

F Fb

N= u

Ft

EDw

sb =

Ds

Dw = 0.067 Dr

sb =

(30,000)(0.067 Dr ) = 27.92 D

r

72

Fb = sb Am

Am = 0.4 Dr2

Fb = (27.92 Dr )(0.4 Dr2 ) = 11.17 Dr3

Fu = 36 Dr2 tons for PS

Fu = 72 Dr2 kips

Fu Fb = NFt

Page 44 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

72 Dr2 11.17 Dr3 = (5.8634)(3.2 Dr2 + 10)

Dr = 1.216 in

1

use Dr = 1 in

4

2 NFt

(c) Dr Ds =

( p su )su

(1.25)(72) = 2(1.3)(1.17267 )[3.2(1.25) ]

2

+ 10

( p su )(225)

p su = 0.00226

Fig. 17.20

Expected Life = 3 x 105 cycles

(d) F = 7 kips

Er = 12,000 ksi

L = 2000 ft = 24,000 in

7

For (a) Dr = in

8

FL

=

Am Er

2

7

Am 0.4 Dr3 = 0.4 = 0.30625 sq in

8

=

(7 )(24,000) = 45.7 in

(0.30625)(12,000)

1

For (b) Dr = 1 in

4

FL

=

Am Er

2

3 1

Am 0.4 D = 0.41 = 0.625 sq in

r

4

=

(7 )(24,000) = 22.4 in

(0.625)(12,000)

1 1

(e) For (a) U = F = (7 )(45.7 ) = 160 in kips

2 2

1 1

For (b) U = F = (7 )(22.4 ) = 78.4 in kips

2 2

(f) Limiting pressure, cast-iron sheaves, 6 x19, p = 500 psi .

Page 45 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

p = 0.0028(225) = 0.630 kips = 630 psi > 500 psi , not reasonable.

For (b) p su = 0.00226

p = 0.00226(225) = 0.5085 kips = 508.5 psi 500 psi , reasonable.

869. For a mine hoist, the cage weighs 5900 lb., the cars 2100 lb., and the load of coal

in the car 2800 lb.; one car loaded loaded at a time on the hoist. The drum

diameter is 5 ft., the maximum depth is 1500 ft. It takes 6 sec. to accelerate the

loaded cage to 3285 fpm. Decide on a grade of wire and the kind and size of rope

on the basis of (a) a life of 2 105 cycles and N = 1.3 against fatigue failure, (b)

static consideration (but not omitting inertia effect) and N = 5 . (c) Make a final

recommendation. (d) If the loaded car can be moved gradually onto the freely

hanging cage, how much would the rope stretch? (e) What total energy has the

rope absorbed, fully loaded at the bottom of the shaft? Neglect the ropes weight

for this calculation. (f) Compute the pressure of the rope on the cast-iron drum. Is

it all right?

Solution:

a=

v2 v1

= 60 sec = 9.125 fps 2

t 6 sec

wL + Wh

Ft wL Wh = a

32.2

Assume 6 x 19 IPS,

w 1.6 Dr2 lb ft

1500

wL = 1.6 Dr2 2

kips = 2.4 Dr kips

1000

a 9.125

Ft = + 1(wL + Wh ) = + 1(2.4 Dr2 + 10 ) = 3.08 Dr2 + 13.86

32.2 32.2

5

(a) Fig. 17.30, 2 x 10 cycles

p su = 0.0028

Page 46 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

2 NFt

Dr Ds =

( p su )su

Ds = 5 ft = 60 in

Ds 45 Dr

60

Dr max = = 1.33 in

45

1

use Dr = 1 in

4

2

1

Ft = 3.081 + 13.86 = 18.67 kips

4

2(1.3)(18.67 )

su = = 231 ksi

1

(0.0028)1 (60 )

4

1

Use Plow Steel, 6 x 19 Wire Rope, Dr = 1 in .

4

Fu Fb

(b) N =

Ft

EDw

sb =

Ds

1

Dw = 0.067 Dr = 0.0671 = 0.08375 in

4

Ds = 60 in

E = 30,000 ksi

sb =

(30,000)(0.08375) = 41.875 ksi

60

2

1

Am = 0.4 D = 0.41 = 0.625 in 2

2

r

4

Fb = sb Am = (41.875)(0.625) = 26.17 kips

N =5

Fu = NFt + Fb = (5)(18.67 ) + 26.17 = 119.52 kips = 59.76 tons

Fu 59.76

= = 38.25

Dr 1 2

2

1

4

Table AT 28,

Fu

Use IPS, 6 x 19, = 42 > 38.25

Dr2

Page 47 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

(c) Recommendation:

1

6 x 19, improved plow steel, Dr = 1 in

4

FL

(d) =

Am Er

F = 2100 + 2800 = 4900 lb

Er 12 106 psi

L = 1500 ft = 18,000 in

=

(4900)(18,000) = 11.76 in

(0.625)(12 106 )

1 1

(e) U = F = (4900 )(11.76 ) = 28,800 in lb

2 2

(f) p su = 0.0028

su = 231 ksi

p = 0.0028(231,000) = 646.8 psi

For cast-iron sheave, limiting pressure is 500 psi

p = 646.8 psi > 500 psi , not al right.

870. The wire rope of a hoist with a short lift handles a total maximum load of 14 kips

each trip. It is estimated that the maximum number of trips per week will be

1000. The rope is 6 x 37, IPS, 1 3/8 in. in diameter, with steel core. (a) On the

basis of N = 1 for fatigue, what size drum should be used for a 6-yr. life? (n)

Because of space limitations, the actual size used was a 2.5-ft. drum. What is the

factor of safety on a static basis? What life can be expected ( N = 1 )?

Solution:

(a)

365 days 1 wk 1000 trips

No. of cycles = (6 yr ) = 312,857 cycles 3 105 cycles

1 yr 7 days 1 wk

Figure 17.30, 6 x 37, IPS

p su = 0.00225

2 NFt

Dr Ds =

( p su )su

For IPS, su 260 ksi

Ft = 14 kips

N = 1 .0

Dr = 1.375 in

2 NFt

Dr Ds =

( p su )su

Page 48 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

2(1.0)(14)

(1.375)Ds =

(0.00225)(260)

Ds = 34.8 in

(b) Ds = 2 ft = 30 in

Static Basis

F Fb

N= u

Ft

Table AT 28, 6 x 37

Dw 0.048Dr = 0.048(1.375) = 0.066 in

Am 0.4 Dr2 = 0.4(1.375) = 0.75625 in 2

2

EDw Am (30,000 )(0.066 )(0.75625)

Fb = sb Am = = = 49.9 kips

Ds 30

F Fb 196.6 49.9

N= u = = 10.5

Ft 10.5

Life: N = 1.0 (fatigue)

2 NFt

Dr Ds =

( p su )su

(1.375)(30) = 2(1.0)(14)

( p su )(260)

p su = 0.0026

Figure 17.30, Life 2.5 105 cycles , 6 x 37.

871. A wire rope passes about a driving sheave making an angle of contact of 540o, as

shown. A counterweight of 3220 lb. is suspended from one side and the

acceleration is 4 fps2. (a) If f = 0.1 , what load may be noised without slipping on

the rope? (b) If the sheave is rubber lined and the rope is dry, what load may be

raised without slipping? (c) Neglecting the stress caused by bending about the

sheave, find the size of 6 x 19 MPS rope required for N = 6 and for the load

found in (a). (d) Compute the diameter of the sheave for indefinite life with say

N = 1.1 on fatigue. What changes could be made in the solution to allow the use

of a smaller sheave?

Page 49 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Solution:

4 fps 2

F2 = (3220 lb )1 = 2820 lb

2

32.2 fps

(a) F1 = F2 e f

= 540o = 3

f = 0.10

F1 = (2820)e (0.10 )(3 ) = 7237 lb

f = 0.495

F1 = (2820)e (0.495 )(3 ) = 249,466 lb

(c) Ft = F1 = 7237 lb

F (Fb 0 ) Fu

N= u =

Ft Ft

Fu 32 Dr2 tons for MPS

Fu 64 Dr2 kips

Fu = 64,000 Dr2 lb

Fu = NFt

64,000 Dr2 = (6)(7237 )

Dr = 0.824 in

use Dr = 0.875 in

Page 50 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

2 NFt

(d) Dr Ds =

( p su )su

Indefinite life, p su = 0.0015

MPS: su 195 ksi = 195,000 psi

(0.875)Ds = 2(1.1)(7237 )

(0.0015)(195,000)

Ds = 62.2 in

To reduce the size of sheave, increase the size of rope.

872. A traction elevator with a total weight of 8 kips has an acceleration of 3 fps2; the

6 cables pass over the upper sheave twice, the lower one once, as shown..

Compute the minimum weight of counterweight to prevent slipping on the

driving sheave if it is (a) iron with a greasy rope, (b) iron with a dry rope, (c)

rubber lined with a greasy rope. (d) Using MPS and the combination in (a),

decide upon a rope and sheave size that will have indefinite life ( N = 1 will do).

(e) Compute the factor of safety defined in the Text. (f) If it were decided that

5 105 bending cycles would be enough life, would there be a significant

difference in the results?

Solution:

3 fps 2

F1 = (8 kips )1 + = 8.745 kips

2

32.2 fps

= 3(180o ) = 3

F

F2 = f1

e

Wc = weight of counterweight

F2

Wc = = 1.10274 F2

3

1

32.2

1.10274 F1

Wc =

e f

(a) Iron sheave, greasy rope, f = 0.07

1.10274(8.745)

Wc = = 4.986 kips

e (0.07 )(3 )

(b) Iron sheave, dry rope, f = 0.12

1.10274(8.745)

Wc = = 3.112 kips

e (0.12 )(3 )

(c) Rubber lined with a greasy rope, f = 0.205

1.10274(8.745)

Wc = = 1.397 kips

e (0.205 )(3 )

Page 51 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

2 NFt

(d) Dr Ds =

( p su )su

Indefinite life, p su = 0.0015

Ft = F1 = 8.745 kips total

8.745

Ft = = 1.458 kips each rope

6

Ft = 1458 lbs

N =1

Table AT 28, 6 x 19

Ds 45 Dr

2(1)(1458)

Dr (45Dr ) =

(0.0015)(195,000)

Dr = 0.47 in

1

Use Dr = in = 0.5 in

2

Fu Fb

(e) N =

Ft

Table AT 28, MPS

Fu = 32 Dr2 tons = 64,000 Dr2 lb = 64,000(0.5) lb = 16,000 lb

2

EDw Am

Fb =

Ds

E = 30 106 psi

6 x 19, Dw = 0.067 Dr

Ds 45 Dr

Am = 0.4 Dr2 = 0.4(0.5) = 0.1 sq. in.

2

Fb =

(30 10 )(0.067 )(0.1) = 4467 lb

6

45

16,000 4467

N= = 7.91

1458

Fig. 17.30, 6 x 19.

p su = 0.0017

2 NFt

Dr Ds =

( p su )su

Page 52 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

2(1)(1458)

Dr (45Dr ) =

(0.0017)(195,000)

Dr = 0.44 in

since Dr = 0.44 in 0.47 in as in (d), therefore, no significant difference will result.

873. A 5000-lb. elevator with a traction drive is supported by a 6 wire ropes, each

passing over the driving sheave twice, the idler once, as shown. Maximum values

are 4500-lb load, 4 fps2 acceleration during stopping. The brake is applied to a

drum on the motor shaft, so that the entire decelerating force comes on the

cables, whose maximum length will be 120 ft. (a) Using the desirable Ds in

terms of Dr , decide on the diameter and type of wire rope. (b) For this rope and

N = 1.05 , compute the sheave diameter that would be needed for indefinite life.

(c) Compute the factor of safety defined in the Text for the result in (b). (d)

Determine the minimum counterweight to prevent slipping with a dry rope on an

iron sheave. (e) Compute the probable life of the rope on the sheave found in (a)

and recommend a final choice.

Solution:

(a)

Ft = 4500 lb

Wh = 5000 lb

W + wL

Wh + wL Ft = h a

32.2

assume 6 x 19

w = 1.6 Dr2 lb ft

wL = (1.6 Dr2 )(120) = 192 Dr2 per rope

wL = 6(192 Dr2 ) = 1152 Dr2

5000 + 1152 Dr2

5000 + 1152 D 4500 =

2

r

(4)

32 .2

2 2

1152 Dr + 500 = 621.12 + 143.11Dr

Dr = 0.3465 in

3

say Dr = 0.375 in = in

8

Page 53 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

3 7

Ds 45 Dr = 45 = 16 in

8 8

3

Six 6 x 19 rope, Dr = in

8

3

(a) Dr = 0.375 in = in

8

4500

Ft = = 750 lb

6

N = 1.05

2 NFt

Dr Ds =

( p su )su

assume IPS, su = 260 ksi = 260,000 psi

Indefinite life, p su = 0.0015

(0.375)Ds = 2(1.05)(750)

(0.0015)(260,000)

Ds = 10.77 in

Fu Fb

(c) N =

Ft

Ft = 750 lb

IPS

2

2 2 3

Fu 42 D tons = 84,000 D lb = 84,000 lb = 11,813 lb

r r

8

EDw Am

Fb =

Ds

6 x 19,

Ds = 10.77 in as in (b)

3

Dw = 0.067 Dr = 0.067 = 0.025 in

8

2

23

Am = 0.4 D = 0.4 = 0.05625 sq. in.

r

8

6

E = 30 10 psi

Fb =

(30 10 )(0.025)(0.05625) = 3917 lb

6

10.77

Page 54 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

11,813 3917

N= = 10.53

750

(c) F1 = Ft = 4500 lb

F1 = F2 e f

For iron sheave, dry rope, f = 0.12

= 540o = 3

F1 4500

F2 = f

= (0.12 )(3 ) = 1452 lb

e e

a

CW 1 + = F2

32.2

4

CW 1 + = 1452

32.2

CW = 1291 lb

874. A traction elevator has a maximum deceleration of 5 fps2 when being braked on

the downward motion with a total load of 10 kips. There are 5 cables that pass

twice over the driving sheave. The counterweight weighs 8 kips. (a) Compute the

minimum coefficient of friction needed between ropes and sheaves for no

slipping. Is a special sheave surface needed? (b) What size 6 x 19 mild-plow-

steel rope should be used for N = 4 , including the bending effect? (Static

approach.) (c) What is the estimated life of these ropes ( N = 1 )?

Solution:

a = 8.05 fps 2

(a) F1 = 10 kips

8.05

F2 = (8 kips )1 = 6 kips

32.2

= 3

F1

= e f

F2

Page 55 of 56

SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

10

= e f (3 )

6

f = 0.0542

F Fb

(b) N = u

Ft

10

Ft = = 2 kips

5

EDw Am

Fb =

Ds

Dw = 0.067 Dr

Ds 45 Dr

Am 0.4 Dr2

E = 30 106 psi

Fb =

(30 10 )(0.067 D )(0.4 D ) = 17.87 D

6

r

2

r 2

kips

r

45Dr

Fu 32 Dr2 tons = 64 Dr2 kips

64 Dr2 17.87 Dr2

N =4=

2

Dr = 0.4164 in

7

use Dr = in

16

7

(c) Ds 45 Dr = 45 = 20 in

16

2 NFt

Dr Ds =

( p su )su

Ft = 2 kips each rope

MPS, su = 195 ksi

N = 1 .0

7 2(1.0)(2)

(20) =

16 ( p su )(195)

p su = 0.0023

Expected life, Figure 17.30, 3 x 105 bending cycles.

- end -

Page 56 of 56

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

ENERGY TO BRAKES

881. A motor operates a hoist through a pair of spur gears, with a velocity ratio of 4.

The drum on which the cable wraps is on the same shaft as the gear, and the

torque cause by the weight of the load and hoist is 12,000 ft-lb. The pinion is on

the motor shaft. Consider first on which shaft to mount the brake drum; in the

process make trial calculations, and try to think of pros and cons. Make a

decision and determine the size of a drum that will not have a temperature rise

greater than t = 150o F when a 4000-lb. load moves down 200 ft. at a constant

speed. Include a calculation for the frp/sq. in. of the drums surface.

Solution:

Consider that brake drum is mounted on motor shaft that has lesser torque.

12,000 ft lb

T f= = 3000 ft lb = 36,000 in lb

4

From Table AT 29,

Assume f = 0.35 , p = 75 psi , max. vm = 5000 fpm

FD

Tf =

2

2T f

F = fN =

D

2T f

N=

fD

N

p=

A

A = Db

N 2T f 2(36,000 )

p= = = = 75

Db D bf D 2b(0.35)

2

D 2b = 873

use D 2b = 873

873

b= 2

D

Then,

U ft lb

t o F = f

Wm c

Assume a cast-iron,

= 0.253 lb in3

c = 101

Wm = V

Page 1 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

D2

V = Dbt + D 2t = t Db +

4 4

U f = (4000 )(200 ) = 800,000 ft lb

t = 150o F

Uf

Wm = V =

ct

800,000

0.253V =

(150)(101)

V = 208.7 in 3

But

D2

V = t Db +

4

873

b= 2

D

873 D 2

V = t +

D 4

For minimum V :

dV 873 D

= t 2 + = 0

dD D 2

D = 2(873)

3

D = 12 in

For t :

873 (12 )2

V = 208.7 = t +

12 4

t = 0.611 in

5

say t = in

8

873 1

b= = 6.0625 in = 6 in

(12 )2

16

5 1

Therefore use D = 12 in , t = in , b = 6 in

8 16

fhp

For fhp sq. in. =

A

Fvm

fhp =

33,000

Page 2 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

2T f 2(36,000)

F= = = 6000 lb

D 12

vm = 5000 fpm (max.)

fhp =

(6000)(5000) = 909 hp

33,000

1

A = Db = (12 ) 6 in 2

16

fhp 909

fhp sq. in. = = = 3.98 (peak value)

A 228.55

distance of 260 ft. Tire diameter is 30 in.; all frictional energy except for the

brake is to be neglected. (a) What total averaging braking torque must be

applied? (b) What must be the minimum coefficient of friction between the tires

and the road in order for the wheels not to skid if it is assumed that weight is

equally distributed among the four wheels (not true)? (c) If the frictional energy

is momentarily stored in 50 lb. of cast iron brake drums, what is the average

temperature rise of the drums?

Solution:

(a) Solving for the total braking torque.

W 2

U f = KE =

2g 1

(

vs vs22 )

W = 3500 lb

vs1 = 60 mph = 88 fps

vs2 = 0 mph = 0 fps

g = 32.2 fps 2

3500

Uf =

2(32.2)

(882 02 ) = 421,000 ft lb

fhp = f

(T ft lb )m = (T f in lb )n

33,000 63,000

2 2

vs vs1 0 (88) 2

a= 2 = = 14.892 fps 2

2s 2(260)

vs vs1 0 88

t= 2 = = 5.91 sec

a 14.892

KE U 421,000

fhp = = f = = 130 hp

(t )(550) 550t 550(5.91)

Page 3 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

1

vm

(88 fps )(60 sec min )

n= = 2 = 336 rpm

D 30

ft

12

T n

fhp = f

63,000

63,000(130 )

Tf = = 24,375 in lb

336

F

(b) f =

N

3500

for each wheel, N = = 875 lb

4

24,375

Tf = = 6094 in lb

4

2T 2(6094)

F= f = = 406 in lb

D 30

F 406

f = = = 0.464

N 875

Uf

(c) t =

Wm c

U f = 421,000 ft lb

Wm = 50 lb

c = 101 ft lb lb F for cast-iron

421,000

t = = 83.4o F

(50)(101)

884. An overhead traveling crane weighs 160,000 lb. with its load and runs 253 fpm.

It is driven by a 25-hp motor operating at 1750 rpm.The speed reduction from the

motor to the 18-in. wheels is 32 to 1. Frictional energy other than at the brake is

negligible. (a) How much energy must be absorbed by the brake to stop this crane

in a distance of 18 ft.? (b) Determine the constant average braking torque that

must be exerted on the motor shaft. (c) If all the energy is absorbed by the rim of

the cast-iron brake drum, which is 8 in. in diameter, 1 in. thick, with a 3 -in.

face, what will be its temperature rise? (d) Compute the average rate at which the

energy is absorbed during the first second (fhp). Is it reasonable?

Solution:

Page 4 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

W 2

U f = KE =

2g

(vs1 vs22 )

W = 160,000 lb

g = 32.2 fps 2

vs1 = 253 fpm = 4.22 fps

vs2 = 0 fps

Uf =

160,000

2(32.2)

[ ]

(4.22)2 02 = 44,245 ft lb

fhp (63,000 )

(b) T f =

n

2 2

vs vs1 0 (4.22)2

a= 2 = = 0.495 fps 2

2s 2(18)

vs vs1 0 4.22

t= 2 = = 8.53 sec

a 0.495

U 44,245

fhp = f = = 9.43 hp

550t 550(8.53)

fhp (63,000 ) (9.43)(63,000 )

Tf = = = 68 in lb on the motor shaft.

n 1

(1750)

2

Uf

(c) t =

Wm c

V = Dbt (rim only) on the motor shaft

D = 8 in

b = 3.25 in

t = 0.5 in

V = (8)(3.25)(0.5) = 40.84 in 3

Wm = V

= 0.253 lb in3 for cast iron

c = 101 ft lb lb F for cast-iron

Wm = (0.253)(40.84) = 10.33 lb

44,245

t = = 42.4o F

(10.33)(101)

Page 5 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

a = 0.495 fps 2

U f = KE =

160,000

2(32.2)

[ ]

(4.22)2 (3.73)2 = 9680 ft lb

Uf 9680

fhp = = = 17.6 hp < 25 hp , therefore reasonable.

550t 550(1)

885. The diagrammatic hoist shown with its load weighs 6000 lb. The drum weighs

8000 lb., has a radius of gyration k = 1.8 ft ; D = 4 ft . A brake on the drum shaft

brings the hoist to rest in 10 ft. from vs = 8 fps (down). Only the brake frictional

energy is significant, and it can be reasonably assumed that the acceleration is

constant. (a) From the frictional energy, compute the average braking torque. (b)

If the average fhp/sq. in. is limited to 0.15 during the first second, what brake

contact area is needed?

Solution:

63,000 fhp

Tf =

n

I1 2 W

U f = KE1 KE2 =

2

( (

1 22 ) + 2 vs21 vs21

2g

)

vs1 = 8 fps , vs2 = 0 fps

2vs1 2(8)

1 = = = 4 rad s , 2 = 0 rad s

D 4

W k2

I1 = 1

g

W1 = 8000 lb

k = 1.8 ft

W2 = 6000 lb

Page 6 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

g = 32.2 fps 2

80000(1.8)

2

Uf =

I1 2

( W

( )

1 22 ) + 2 vs21 vs21 = (4)2 + 60000 (8)2 = 12,400 ft lb

2 2g 2(32.2) 2(32.2)

2 2

vs2 vs1

a=

2s

s = 10 ft

0 2 82

a= = 3.2 fps 2

2(10 )

vs vs1 0 8

t= 2 = = 2.5 sec

a 3.2

U 12,400

fhp = f = = 9 hp

550t 550(2.5)

60

n= rpm

2

1

= (4 rad s 0) = 2 rad s 0

2

60(2 )

n= = 19.1 rpm

2

63,000 fhp 63,000(9 )

Tf = = = 29,700 in lb

n 19.1

vs2 = vs1 + at = 8 3.2(1) = 4.8 fps

2vs22(4.8)

2 = = = 2.4 rad sec

D 4

80000(1.8)

2

Uf =

2(32.2 )

[ ] [ ]

(4)2 (2.4)2 + 60000 (8)2 (4.8)2 = 6106 ft lb

2(32.2)

U 6106

fhp = f = = 11.10 hp

550t 550(1)

fhp 11.10

A= = = 74 in 2

fhp sq.in. 0.15

887. The same as 885, except that a traction drive, arranged as shown, is used; the

counterweight weighs 4000 lb. The ropes pass twice about the driving sheave; the

brake drum is on this same shaft.

Page 7 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

Problem 887.

Solution:

WT 2

(a) U f = KE = (

2g 1

)

vs vs22

KE of pulley is negligible

vs1 = 8 fps , vs2 = 0 fps

10,000 2

Uf = (8) = 9,940 ft lb

2(32.2)

vs22 vs21 0 2 82

a= = = 3.2 fps 2

2s 2(10)

vs vs1 0 8

t= 2 = = 2.5 sec

a 3.2

U 9940

fhp = f = = 7.23 hp

550t 550(2.5)

D = 4 ft

2v 2(8)

1 = s1 = = 4 rad sec

D 4

2v 2(0)

2 = s2 = = 0 rad sec

D 4

1 1

= (1 + 2 ) = (4 + 0) = 2 rad sec

2 2

60 60(2 )

n= = 19.1 rpm

2 2

Page 8 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

Braking torque, T f = = = 23,850 in lb

n 19.1

vs1 = 8 fps

vs2 vs1 = at

vs2 8 = 3.2(1)

vs2 = 4.8 fps

Uf =

10,000

2(32.2)

[ ]

(8)2 (4.8)2 = 6360 ft lb

U 6360

fhp = f = = 11.56 hp

550t 550(1)

fhp 11.56

Contact area = A = = = 77.1 in 2

fhp sq.in. 0.15

SINGLE-SHOE BRAKES

888. For the single-shoe, short-block brake shown (solid lines) derive the expressions

for brake torque for (a) clockwise rotation, (b) counterclockwise rotation. (c) In

which direction of rotation does the brake have self-actuating properties? If

f = 0.25 , for what proportions of e and c would the brake be self-actuating?

Solution:

Page 9 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

FD

Tf =

2

F = fN

[ M H =0 ]

fN e + Wa = N c

N c fN e = Wa

Wa

N=

c fe

fWa

F=

c fe

fWaD

Tf =

2(c fe )

FD

Tf =

2

F = fN

[ M H =0 ]

Page 10 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

Wa = fN e + N c

Wa

N=

c + fe

fWa

F=

c + fe

fWaD

Tf =

2(c + fe )

c > fe

with f = 0.25

c > 0.25e

889. The same as 888, except that the wheel and brake shoe are grooved, 2 degrees

between the sides of the grooves (as in a sheave, Fig. 17.38, Text).

Solution:

[ F V =0 ]

2 N1 sin = N

F = 2 f N1

Page 11 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

N fN

F =2f =

2 sin sin

Wa

N=

c fe

fWa

F=

(c fe )sin

fWaD

Tf =

2(c fe )sin

Wa

N=

c + fe

fWa

F=

(c + fe)sin

fWaD

Tf =

2(c + fe ) sin

c > fe

with f = 0.25

c > 0.25e

890. Consider the single-shoe, short-block brake shown (solid lines) with the drum

rotating clockwise; let e be positive measured downward and D = 1.6c . (a) Plot

the mechanical advantage MA (ordinate) against f values of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4,

0.5 (abscissa) when e c has values 2, 0.5, 0, -0.5, -1. (b) If f may vary from 0.3

to 0.4, which proportions give the more nearly constant brake response? Are

proportions good? (c) What proportions are best if braking is needed for both

directions of rotation?

Solution:

Page 12 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

Tf

(a) MA = , Clockwise rotation

Wa

fD

MA =

2(c fe )

D = 1 .6 c

1.6 fc

MA =

2(c fe )

0 .8 f

MA =

fe

1

c

Tabulation:

Values of MA

ec

f 2 0.5 0 -0.5 -1

0.1 0.100 0.084 0.08 0.076 0.073

0.2 0.267 0.178 0.16 0.145 0.133

0.3 0.600 0.284 0.24 0.209 0.185

0.4 1.600 0.400 0.32 0.267 0.229

0.5 0.533 0.40 0.320 0.267

Page 13 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

Plot:

fe

They are good because 1 > except e c = 2 .

c

(c) e c = 0 is the best if braking is needed for both directions of rotation with MA the

same.

1 3 11

a = 32 in ., c = 9 in ., e = 4 in ., width of contact surface = 2 in. The brake

2 8 16

block lined with molded asbestos, subtends 80o, symmetrical about the center

line; it is permitted to absorb energy at the rate of 0.4 hp/in.2; n = 200 rpm .

Assume that p is constant, that F and N act at K , and compute (a) pvm and

the approximate braking torque, (b) the force W to produce this torque, (c) the

mechanical advantage, (d) the temperature rise of the 3/8-in.-thick rim, if it

absorbs all the energy with operation as specified, in 1 min. (e) How long could

this brake be so applied for t = 400 o F ? See 893.

Solution:

Page 14 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

D = 15 in

a = 32.5 in

c = 9.375 in

e = 4.6875 in

b = 2 in

Fvm = fpAvm ft lb min

Fvm

= 0.4 hp in 2

A

Fvm (0.4 hp )(33,000 ft lb hp min ) 13,200 ft lb min

= =

A in 2 in 2

Fvm

= fpvm

A

f = 0.35 from Table AT 29, molded asbestos on cast iron

Fvm

= 13,200 = 0.35 pvm

A

pvm = 37,700 ft lb sq in min

Fvm

= 13,200 ft lb sq. in. min

A

15

vm = Dn = (200 ) = 785 fpm

12

Db

A=

2

= (80) = 1.3963 rad

180

Page 15 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

Db (1.3963)(15)(2)

A= = = 21 sq. in.

2 2

F (785)

= 13,200

21

F = 353 lb

FD (353)(15)

Tf = = = 2650 in lb

2 2

f Wa

F=

c fe

F = 353 lb

f = 0.35

a = 32.5 in

e = 4.6875 in

c = 9.375 in

F (c fe ) (353)[9.375 (0.35)(4.6875)]

W= = = 240 lb

fa (0.35)(32.5)

(c) Solving for MA

MA =

fD

=

(0.35)(15) = 0.34

2(c fe ) 2[9.375 (0.35)(4.6875)]

U f , ft lb

t o F =

Wm c

Wm = Dbt

D = 15 in

b = 2 in

3

t = in = 0.375 in

8

= 0.253 lb in3 for cast iron

Page 16 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

U f = 550t ( fhp )

t = 1 min = 60 sec

U f = 550(60 )( fhp ) = 33,000 fhp

fhp =

Tf n

=

(2650)(200) = 8.4127 hp

63,000 63,000

U f = 33,000(8.4127 ) = 277,619 ft lb

Uf 277,619

t = = = 310o F

Wm c (8.942)(101)

U f = Wm ct

U f = (8.942 )(101)(400 ) = 361,260 ft lb

550(8.4127 )(t ) = 361,260

t = 78 sec = 1.3 min

1

892. For a single-block brake, as shown, a = 26 in ., c = 7 in ., e = 3.75 in .,

2

1

D = 15 in ., drum contact width b = 3 in . The molded asbestos lining subtends

2

o

= 60 , symmetrical about the vertical axis; force W = 300 lb .; n = 600 rpm .

Assume that p is constant, that F and N act at K , and compute (a) pvm and

the braking torque, (b) the energy rate in fhp/in.2 of contact surface. (c) the

mechanical advantage, (d) the temperature of the 3/8-in.-thick rim, if it absorbs

all the energy with the operation as specified in 1 min. (e) How long could this

brake be so applied for t rim = 400o F ? See 894.

Page 17 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

Solution:

For greater braking torque, T f , use counterclockwise rotation

[ M A =0]

aW + efN = cN

Wa

N=

c ef

f Wa

F=

c ef

From Table AT 29, f = 0.35 for molded asbestos

W = 300 lb

a = 26 in

c = 7.5 in

e = 3.75

F=

(0.35)(300)(26) = 442 lb

7.5 (3.75)(0.35)

Fvm = fpAvm

Dn (15)(600)

vm = = = 2536 fpm

12 12

Db

A=

2

= 60 = 1.047 rad

180

A=

(1.047 )(15)(3.5) = 27.5 in 2

2

Fvm = (442)(2536) = (0.35)(27.5) pvm

pvm = 116,500 ft lb sq. in. min

Page 18 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

FD (442 )(15)

Tf = = = 3315 in lb

2 2

fhp =

Tf n

=

(3315)(600) = 31.6 hp

63,000 63,000

2

A = 27.5 in

31.6 hp

fhp in 2 = = 1.15 hp in 2

27.5 in 2

T 3315

(c) MA = f = = 0.425

Wa (300)(26)

U , ft lb

(d) t o F = f

Wm c

Wm = Dbt

3

t = in = 0.375 in

8

D = 15 in

b = 3.5 in

= 0.253 lb in3 for cast iron

c = 101 ft lb lb F for cast iron

For 1 min

1,042,800

t = = 660o F

(15.648)(101)

(e) t rim = 400o F

U f = (400 )(15.648)(101) = 632,179 ft lb

Uf 632,179

=

t min = = 0.61 min

33,000 fhp 33,000(31.6)

Page 19 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

LONG-SHOE BRAKES

FIXED SHOES

893. The brake is as described in 891 and is to absorb energy at the same rate but the

pressure varies as p = P sin . Derive the equations needed and compute (a) the

maximum pressure, (b) the moment M F H of F about H , (c) the moment M N H

of N about H , (d) the force W , (e) the braking torque, (f) the x and y

components of the force at H .

Solution:

p = P sin = P sin

D

r=

2

dN = pbrd

dF = fpbrd

Page 20 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

T f = rdF

T f = fpbr 2 d

T f = fbr 2 P sin d

T f = fbr 2 P(cos 1 cos 2 )

Tf

P=

fbr (cos 1 cos 2 )

2

D

r=

2

c

tan =

r e

c = 9.375 in

15

r = = 7.5 in

2

e = 4.6875 in

9.375

tan =

7.5 4.6875

= 73.3o

= 80o

80

1 = = 73.3 = 33.3o

2 2

80

2 = + = 73.3 + = 113.3o

2 2

f = 0.35

b = 2 in

r = 7.5 in

Tf

P=

fbr 2 (cos 1 cos 2 )

Tf Tf

P= = psi

(0.35)(2)(7.5)2 (cos 33.3 cos113.3) 48.5

63,000 fhp

Tf =

n

( )

fhp = fhp in 2 ( A)

Db

A=

2

= 80 = 1.396 rad

180

Page 21 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

A=

(1.396)(15)(2) = 21 in 2

2

fhp in 2 = 0.4

fhp = (0.4)(21) = 8.4 hp

n = 200 rpm

63,000(8.4 )

Tf = = 2646 in lb

200

T 2646

P= f = = 55 psi = max .P (2 > 90o )

48.5 48.5

2

MF H = (r R cos ) fbrP sin d

1

2

M F H = fbrP (r sin R sin cos )d

1

2

R

MF H = fbrP r cos sin 2

2 1

R

(

M F H = fbrP r (cos 1 cos 2 ) sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )

2

R = c 2 + (r e ) = (9.375)2 + (7.5 4.6875)2

2

= 9.788 in

9.788

M F H = (0.35)(2 )(7.5)(55)7.5(cos 33.3 cos113.3) ( )

sin 2 113.3 sin 2 33.3

2

M F H = 1900 in lb

(c) M N H = R sin dN

2

MN H = RP sin 2 brd

1

2

MN H = brRP sin 2 d

1

brRP 2

MN H =

2 1

(

1 cos 2 d )

brRP 1

2

MN = sin 2

2

H

2 1

brRP

MN H = [2(2 1 ) (sin 22 sin 21 )]

4

2 1 = = 1.396 rad

22 = 2(113.3) = 226.6o

21 = 2(33.3) = 66.6o

Page 22 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

MN =

(2)(7.5)(9.788)(55) [2(1.396) (sin 226.6 sin 66.6)]

H

4

MN H = 8956 in lb

(d) M H =0

Wa + M F H M N H =0

a = 32.5 in

W (32.5) + 1900 8956 = 0

W = 217 lb

(e) T f = 2646 in lb

(f) F x =0

H x W cos + dN sin + dF cos = 0

2 2

H x = W cos Pbr sin 2 d fPbr sin cos d

1 1

brP

H x = W cos [2(2 1 ) (sin 22 sin 21 )] fbrP sin 2 2 sin 2 1

( )

4 2

H x = 217 cos 73.3

(2 )(7.5)(55)

[2(1.396) (sin 226.6 sin 66.6)]

4

( )

2

H x = 931 lb

H x = 931 lb

F y =0

H y + W sin dN cos + dF sin = 0

2 2

H y = brP sin cos d fbrP sin 2 d W sin

1 1

brP fbrP

Hy =

2

(

sin 2 2 sin 2 1

4

) [2(2 1 ) (sin 22 sin 21 )] W sin

Hy =

(2)(7.5)(55) sin 2 113.3 sin 2 33.3

( )

2

4

H y = 305 lb

H y = 305 lb

Page 23 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

894. The brake is as described in 892, but the pressure varies as p = P sin . Assume

the direction of rotation for which a given W produces the greater T f , derive the

equations needed, and compute (a) the maximum pressure, (b) the moment of F

about A , (c) The moment of N about A , (d) the braking torque, (e) the x and y

components of the force at A .

Solution:

p = P sin

dN = pbrd

dN = Pbr sin d

dF = fdN = fPbr sin d

Page 24 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

c

tan =

r+e

D

r= = 7.5 in

2

7 .5

tan =

7.5 + 3.75

= 33.69o

60

1 = = 3.69o

= 33.69

2 2

60

1 = + = 33.69 + = 63.69o

2 2

M F A = (R cos r )dF

2

MF A = (R cos r ) fPbr sin d

1

2

M F A = fPbr (R sin cos r sin )d

1

R

( )

M F A = fPbr sin 2 2 sin 2 1 + r (cos 2 cos 1 )

2

R = c 2 + (e + r ) = (7.5)2 + (3.75 + 7.5)2

2

= 13.52 in

13.52

M F A = (0.35)P(3.5)(7.5) (sin 63.69 sin 3.69) + 7.5(cos 63.69 cos 3.69)

2 2

2

M F A = 11.43P

MN A = R sin dN

2

MN A = RPbr sin 2 d

1

brPR 2

MN A =

2 1

(

1 cos 2 d )

brPR

MN A = [2(2 1 ) (sin 22 sin 21 )]

4

2 1 = = 1.047 rad

22 = 2(63.69) = 127.38o

21 = 2(3.69) = 7.38o

MN A =

(3.5)(7.5)P(13.52) [2(1.047 ) (sin 127.38 sin 7.38)]

4

M N A = 126.68 P

(a) M A =0

Wa + M F A M N A =0

W = 300 lb

Page 25 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

a = 26 in

(300)(26) + 11.43P 126.68P = 0

P = 67.68 psi

(c) M N A = 126.68(67.68) = 8575 in lb

(d) T f = rdF

2

T f = fPbr 2 sin d

1

T f = (0.35)(60.68)(3.5)(7.5) (cos 3.69 cos 63.69)

2

T f = 2587 in lb

(e) [ F x =0 ]

H x W cos + dN sin dF cos = 0

2 2

H x = W cos Pbr sin 2 d + fPbr sin cos d

1 1

Pbr

H x = W cos [2(2 1 ) (sin 22 sin 21 )] + fPbr sin 2 2 sin 2 1

( )

4 2

H x = 300 cos 33.69

(67.68)(3.5)(7.5) [2(1.047 ) (sin 127.38 sin 7.38)]

4

+

(0.35)(67.68)(3.5)(7.5) sin 2 63.69 sin 2 3.69

( )

2

H x = 136 lb

H x = 136 lb

[ F y =0 ]

H y + W sin dN cos dF sin = 0

2 2

H y = Pbr sin cos d + fPbr sin 2 d W sin

1 1

Pbr fPbr

Hy =

2

(

sin 2 2 sin 2 1 +

4

)

[2(2 1 ) (sin 22 sin 21 )] W sin

Hy =

(67.68)(3.5)(7.5) sin 2 63.69 sin 2 3.69

( )

2

+

(0.35)(67.68)(3.5)(7.5)

[2(1.047) (sin 127.38 sin 7.38)] 300 sin 33.69

4

Page 26 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

H y = 766 lb

895. (a) For the brake shown, assume p = P cos and the direction of rotation for

which a given force W results in the greater braking torque, and derive equations

for T f in terms of W , f , and the dimensions of the brake. (b) Under what

circumstances will the brake be self-acting? (c) Determine the magnitude and

location of the resultant forces N and F .

Solution:

p = P cos

dN = pbrd = Pbr cos d

dF = fdN = fpbrd = fPbr cos d

2

MF H = (r + c sin )dF

1

2

MF H = (r + c sin ) fPbr cos d

1

Page 27 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

2

MF H = fPbr (r cos + c sin cos )d

1

2

1

M F H = fPbr r sin + c sin 2

2 1

1

[

M F H = fPbr r [sin ( 2 ) sin ( 1 )] + c sin 2 ( 2 ) sin 2 ( 1 ) ]

2

1

(

M F H = fPbr r (sin 2 + sin 1 ) + c sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )

2

2

MN H = cos dN

1

2

MN H = cPbr cos 2 d

1

cPbr 2

2 1

MN H = (1 + cos 2 )d

cPbr

MN H = [2 + sin 2 ]21

4

cPbr

MN H = [2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )]

4

[

MH = 0 ]

Wa + M F H M N H =0

1 cPbr

(

Wa + fPbr r (sin 2 + sin 1 ) + c sin 2 2 sin 2 1 = )

[2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )]

2 4

Wa

P=

cbr

[2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )] fbr 2r (sin 2 + sin 1 ) + c sin 2 2 sin 2 1

[ ( )]

4 2

4Wa

P=

{ [ (

br c[2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )] 2 f 2r (sin 2 + sin 1 ) + c sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )]}

T f = rdF

2

Tf = fPbr 2 cos d

1

4 fWabr 2 (sin 2 + sin 1 )

Tf =

[ ]

br {c[2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )] 2 f 2r (sin 2 + sin 1 ) + c(sin 2 2 sin 2 1 ) }

4 fWar (sin 2 + sin 1 )

Tf =

[ ]

c[2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )] 2 f 2r (sin 2 + sin 1 ) + c (sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )

D

where r = e =

2

Page 28 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

[ ]

(b) c[2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )] > 2 f 2r (sin 2 + sin 1 ) + c (sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )

4 fr (sin 2 + sin 1 )

c>

2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 ) 2 f (sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )

(c) N = dN

2

N = Pbr cos d

1

F = fN

F = fPbr (sin 2 + sin 1 )

Let A = vertical distance from O .

2

M F Loc . =

1

( A r cos )dF

2

M F Loc . (

= P A cos r cos 2 fbrd

1

)

2

M F Loc . = Pfbr

1

(A cos r cos )d

2

2 1

M F Loc . = Pfbr A cos r (1 + cos 2 ) d

1

2

2

1 1

M F Loc . = Pfbr A sin r + sin 2

2 2 1

1 1

M = Pfbr [ A(sin 2 + sin 1 )] r ( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )

F Loc .

2 2

Then M F Loc . = 0

2 2

1 1

A(sin 2 + sin 1 ) = r ( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )

2 2

1 1

r ( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )

2 2

A=

(sin 2 + sin 1 )

r [2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )]

A=

4(sin 2 + sin 1 )

Page 29 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

896. For the brake shown with 1 2 , assume that the direction of rotation is such

that a given W results in the greater braking torque and that p = P sin . (a)

Derive equations in terms of 1 and 2 for the braking torque, for the moment

M F H and for M N H . (b) Reduce the foregoing equations for the condition

1 = 2 . (c) Now suppose that , taken as = 1 + 2 , is small enough that

sin , cos 1 , 1 = 2 = . What are the resulting equations?

2

Solution:

p = P sin

dN = Pbr sin d

dF = fdN = fPbr sin d

1 = 90 1

2 = 90 + 2

T f = rdF

Page 30 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

2

T f = fPbr 2 sin d

1

2

T f = fPbr 2 (sin 1 + sin 2 )

M F H = (r c cos )dF

2

M F H = fbPr (r c cos )sin d

1

2

M F H = fPbr (r sin c sin cos )d

1

2

1

MF H = fPbr r cos c sin 2

2 1

1

(

M F H = fPbr r (cos 1 cos 2 ) c sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )

2

1

[ ]

M F H = fPbr r [cos(90 1 ) cos(90 + 2 )] c sin 2 (90 + 2 ) sin 2 (90 1 )

2

1

(

M F H = fPbr r (sin 1 + sin 2 ) c cos 2 2 cos 2 1 )

2

1

[( ) (

M F H = fPbr r (sin 1 + sin 2 ) c 1 sin 2 2 1 sin 2 1 )]

2

1

(

M F H = fPbr r (sin 1 + sin 2 ) + c sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )

2

MN H = r sindN

2

MN H = bPr 2 sin 2 d

1

2

Pbr 2

2 1

MN H = (1 cos 2 )d

Pbr 2

MN H = [2 sin 2 ]12

4

Pbr 2

MN H = [2(2 1 ) (sin 22 sin 21 )]

4

Pbr 2

MN H = {2[(90 + 2 ) (90 1 )] [sin 2(90 + 2 ) sin 2(90 1 )]}

4

Pbr 2

MN H = [2( 2 + 1 ) ( sin 2 2 sin 21 )]

4

Page 31 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

Pbr 2

MN H = [2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )]

4

(b) 1 = 2

T f = 2 fbPr 2 sin 1

1

( )

M F H = fPbr r (sin 1 + sin 2 ) + c sin 2 2 sin 2 1

2

2

M F H = 2 fPbr sin 1

Pbr 2

MN H = [2( 2 + 1 ) ( sin 2 2 sin 21 )]

4

bPr 2

MN H = (41 + 2 sin 21 )

4

bPr 2

MN H = (41 + 4 sin 1 cos 1 )

4

MN H = bPr 2 (1 + sin 1 cos 1 )

(c) = 1 + 2

sin

cos 1

1 = 2 =

2

T f = 2 fbPr 2 sin 1

T f = 2 fbPr 2 sin = 2 fbPr 2 = fbPr 2

2 2

MF H = 2 fPbr 2 sin 1

M F H = 2 fbPr 2 sin = 2 fbPr 2 = fbPr 2

2 2

MN H = bPr 2 + (1) = bPr 2

2 2

Page 32 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

897. The brake shown is lined with woven asbestos; the cast-iron wheel is turning at

60 rpm CC; width of contact surface is 4 in. A force W = 1300 lb . is applied via

linkage systemnot shown; = 90o . Let p = P sin . (a) With the brake lever as a

free body, take moments about the pivot J and determine the maximum pressure

and compare with permissible values. Compute (b) the braking torque, (c) the

frictional energy in fhp. (d) Compute the normal force N , the average pressure

on the projected area, and decide if the brake application can safely be

continuous.

Solution:

(a)

dF = fdN

p = P sin

dN = pbrd = Pbr sin d

dF = fPbr sin d

M F J = (R cos r )dF

2

M F J = fPbr (R cos r )sin d

1

Page 33 of 97

SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

2

M F J = fPbr (R sin cos r sin )d

1

1

2

2 1

1

( )

M F J = fPbr R sin 2 2 sin 2 1 + r (cos 2 cos 1 )

2

12.5

tan =

10

= 51.34o

1 =

2

o

= 90

90

1 = 51.34 = 6.34o

2

90

1 = + = 51.34 + = 96.34o

2 2

b = 4 in

r = 10 in

for woven asbestos f = 0.4 (Table At 29)

R= (12.5)2 + (10)2 = 16 in

1

( )

M F J = fPbr R sin 2 2 sin 2 1 + r (cos 2 cos 1 )

2

16

( )

M F J