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# SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

## TENSION, COMPRESSION, SHEAR

DESIGN PROBLEMS

1. The link shown, made of AISI C1045 steel, as rolled, is subjected to a tensile load
of 8000 lb. Let h = 1.5b . If the load is repeated but not reversed, determine the
dimensions of the section with the design based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield
strength. (c) If this link, which is 15 in. long., must not elongate more than 0.005
in., what should be the dimensions of the cross section?

Problems 1 3.
Solution:
For AISI C1045 steel, as rolled (Table AT 7)
su = 96 ksi
s y = 59 ksi
E = 30 10 6 psi

F
sd =
A
where
F = 8000 lb
A = bh
but
h = 1.5b
therefore A = 1.5b 2

## (a) Based on ultimate strength

N = factor of safety = 6 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s F
sd = u =
N A
96,000 8000
=
6 1.5b 2
5
b = 0.577 in say in .
8

Page 1 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

15
h = 1.5b = in
16

## (b) Based on yield strength

N = factor of safety = 3 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s F
sd = u =
N A
59,000 8000
=
3 1.5b 2
9
b = 0.521 in say in .
16
27
h = 1.5b = in
32

FL
(c) Elongation = =
AE
where,
= 0.005 in
F = 8000 lb
E = 30 10 6 psi
L = 15 in
A = 1.5b 2
then,
FL
=
AE
0.005 =
(8000)(15)
(1.5b )(30 10 )
2 6

3
b = 0.730 in say in .
4
1
h = 1.5b = 1 in
8

2. The same as 1 except that the material is malleable iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35
018.

Solution:
For malleable iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35 018(Table AT 6)
su = 55 ksi
s y = 36.5 ksi
E = 25 10 6 psi

Page 2 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F
sd =
A
where
F = 8000 lb
A = bh
but
h = 1.5b
therefore A = 1.5b 2

## (a) Based on ultimate strength

N = factor of safety = 6 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s F
sd = u =
N A
55,000 8000
=
6 1.5b 2
7
b = 0.763 in say in .
8
5
h = 1.5b = 1 in
16

## (b) Based on yield strength

N = factor of safety = 3 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s F
sd = u =
N A
36,500 8000
=
3 1.5b 2
11
b = 0.622 in say in .
16
1
h = 1.5b = 1 in
32

FL
(c) Elongation = =
AE
where,
= 0.005 in
F = 8000 lb
E = 25 10 6 psi
L = 15 in
A = 1.5b 2
then,

Page 3 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

FL
=
AE
0.005 =
(8000)(15)
(1.5b )(25 10 )
2 6

7
b = 0.8 in say in .
8
5
h = 1.5b = 1 in
16

3. The same as 1 except that the material is gray iron, ASTM 30.

Solution:
For ASTM 30 (Table AT 6)
su = 30 ksi , no s y
E = 14.5 10 6 psi
Note: since there is no s y for brittle materials. Solve only for (a) and (c)
F
sd =
A
where
F = 8000 lb
A = bh
but
h = 1.5b
therefore A = 1.5b 2

## N = factor of safety = 7 ~ 8 say 7.5 (Table 1.1)

s F
sd = u =
N A
30,000 8000
=
7 .5 1.5b 2
3
b = 1.1547 in say 1 in .
16
25
h = 1.5b = 1 in
32
FL
(c) Elongation = =
AE
where,
= 0.005 in
F = 8000 lb
E = 14.5 10 6 psi

Page 4 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

L = 15 in
A = 1.5b 2
then,
FL
=
AE
0.005 =
(8000)(15)
(1.5b )(14.5 10 )
2 6

1
b = 1.050 in say 1 in .
16
19
h = 1.5b = 1 in
32

4. A piston rod, made of AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 2), is subjected to a
repeated, reversed load. The rod is for a 20-in. air compressor, where the
maximum pressure is 125 psig. Compute the diameter of the rod using a design
factor based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield strength.

Solution:
From Fig. AF 2 for AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F
su = 152.5 ksi
s y = 132.5 ksi

F = force = (20)2 (125) = 39,270 lb = 39.27 kips
4
From Table 1.1, page 20
Nu = 8
Ny = 4

## (a) Based on ultimate strength

N F
A= u
su
2 (8)(39.27 )
d =
4 152.5
5
d = 1.62 in say 1 in
8

## (b) Based on yield strength

NyF
A=
sy
2 (4 )(39.27 )
d =
4 132.5

Page 5 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

1
d = 1.23 in say 1 in
4

## 5. A hollow, short compression member, of normalized cast steel (ASTM A27-58,

65 ksi), is to support a load of 1500 kips with a factor of safety of 8 based on the
ultimate strength. Determine the outside and inside diameters if Do = 2 Di .

Solution:
su = 65 ksi
Nu = 8
F = 1500 kips
3Di2
A=
4
(D 2
o Di2 =) 4
(4 D i
2
)
Di2 =
4
3Di2 N u F (8)(1500 )
A= = =
4 su 65
7
Di = 8.85 in say 8 in
8
7 3
Do = 2 Di = 2 8 = 17 in
8 4

## 6. A short compression member with Do = 2 Di is to support a dead load of 25 tons.

The material is to be 4130 steel, WQT 1100 F. Calculate the outside and inside
diameters on the basis of (a) yield strength, (b) ultimate strength.

Solution:
From Table AT 7 for 4130, WQT 1100 F
su = 127 ksi
s y = 114 ksi

N u = 3 ~ 4 , say 4
N y = 1.5 ~ 2 , say 2
3Di2
Area, A =
4
(D2
o )
Di2 =
4
(4 D i
2
)
Di2 =
4
F = 25 tons = 50 kips

## (a) Based on yield strength

3Di2 N y F (2 )(50 )
A= = =
4 sy 114

Page 6 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

5
Di = 0.61 in say in
8
5 1
Do = 2 Di = 2 = 1 in
8 4
(b) Based on ultimate strength
3Di2 N u F (4 )(50 )
A= = =
4 su 127
7
Di = 0.82 in say in
8
7 3
Do = 2 Di = 2 = 1 in
8 4

## 7. A round, steel tension member, 55 in. long, is subjected to a maximum load of

7000 lb. (a) What should be its diameter if the total elongation is not to exceed
0.030 in? (b) Choose a steel that would be suitable on the basis of yield strength if

Solution:

FL FL
(a) = or A =
AE E
where,
F = 7000 lb
L = 55 in
= 0.030 in
E = 25 10 6 psi

A = d2 =
(7000)(55)
4 (
(0.030) 30 106 )
3
d = 0.74 in say in
4
Ny = 3

sy =
NyF
=
(3)(7000) = 47,534 psi
A
(0.75)2
4
s y 48 ksi
say C1015 normalized condition ( s y = 48 ksi )

8. A centrifuge has a small bucket, weighing 0.332 lb. with contents, suspended on a
manganese bronze pin (B138-A, hard) at the end of a horizontal arm. If the pin
is in double shear under the action of the centrifugal force, determine the diameter

Page 7 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

needed for 10,000 rpm of the arm. The center of gravity of the bucket is 12 in.
from the axis of rotation.

Solution:
From Table AT 3, for B138-A, hard
sus = 48 ksi
W
F = 2r
g
where
W = 0.332 lb
g = 32.2 fps 2
2 n 2 (10,000 )
= = = 1047 rad sec
60 60
r = 12 in
W 0.332
F = 2r = (1047 )2 (1) = 11,300 lb = 11.3 kips
g 32.2
From Table 1.1, page 20
N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4
N F
A= u
su
(4 )(11.3)
2 d 2 = for double shear
4 48
25
d = 0.774 in say in
32

CHECK PROBLEMS

3
9. The link shown is made of AISIC1020 annealed steel, with b = in and
4
1
h = 1 in . (a) What force will cause breakage? (b) For a design factor of 4 based
2
on the ultimate strength, what is the maximum allowable load? (c) If N = 2.5
based on the yield strength, what is the allowable load?

Problem 9.

Page 8 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:
For AISI C1020 annealed steel, from Table AT 7
su = 57 ksi
s y = 42 ksi

(a) F = su A
3 1
A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2
4 2
F = (57 )(1.125) = 64 kips
s A
(b) F = u
Nu
Nu = 4
3 1
A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2
4 2
F=
(57 )(1.125) = 16 kips
4

sy A
(c) F =
Ny
N y = 2 .5
3 1
A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2
4 2
F=
(42)(1.125) = 18.9 kips
2

10. A -in.bolt, made of cold-finished B1113, has an effective stress area of 0.334 sq.
in. and an effective grip length of 5 in. The bolt is to be loaded by tightening until
the tensile stress is 80 % of the yield strength, as determined by measuring the
total elongation. What should be the total elongation?

Solution:
sL
=
E
from Table AT 7 for cold-finished B1113
s y = 72 ksi
then, s = 0.80 s y = 0.8(72 ) = 57.6 ksi
E = 30 106 psi = 30,000 ksi
sL (57.6)(5)
= = = 0.0096 in
E 30,000

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SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

11. A 4-lb. weight is attached by a 3/8-in. bolt to a rotating arm 14-in. from the center
of rotation. The axis of the bolts is normal to the plane in which the centrifugal
force acts and the bolt is in double shear. At what speed will the bolt shear in two
if it is made of AISI B1113, cold finish?

Solution:
From Table AT 7, sus = 62 ksi = 62,000 psi
2
1 3
A = 2 ( ) = 0.2209 in 2
4 8
W
F = 2 r = sus A
g
4
2 (14) = (62,000)(0.2209)
32.2
2 n
= = 88.74
60
n = 847 rpm

12. How many -in. holes could be punched in one stroke in annealed steel plate of
AISI C1040, 3/16-in. thick, by a force of 60 tons?

Solution:

## For AISI C1040, from Figure AF 1

su = 80 ksi
sus = 0.75su = 0.75(80 ) ksi = 60 ksi
A = dt

## F = 60 tons = 120 kips

n = number of holes
F 120
n= = = 9 holes
Asus (0.2209 )(60 )

13. What is the length of a bearing for a 4-in. shaft if the load on the bearing is 6400
lb. and the allowable bearing pressure is 200 psi of the projected area?

Solution:
pDL = W
where
p = 200 psi
D = 4 in
W = 6400 lb

Page 10 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(200)(4)L = 6400
L = 8 in

BENDING STRESSES

DESIGN PROBLEMS

14. A lever keyed to a shaft is L = 15 in long and has a rectangular cross section of
h = 3t . A 2000-lb load is gradually applied and reversed at the end as shown; the
material is AISI C1020, as rolled. Design for both ultimate and yield strengths. (a)
What should be the dimensions of a section at a = 13 in ? (b) at b = 4 in ? (c) What
should be the size where the load is applied?

Problem 14.
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled, Table AT 7
su = 65 ksi
s y = 49 ksi
Nu = 8
Ny = 4
th 3
I= , moment of inertial
12
but h = 3t
h4
I=
36

Page 11 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

## Based on ultimate strength

s
s= u
Nu

Mc Fac
(a) s = =
I I
h
c=
2
F = 2000 lbs = 2 kips

(2)(13) h
s=
65
= 2
8 h 4

36
h = 3.86 in
h 3.86
t= = = 1.29 in
3 3
say
1
h = 4.5 in = 4 in
2
1
t = 1.5 in = 1 in
2

Mc Fbc
(b) s = =
I I
h
c=
2
F = 2000 lbs = 2 kips

(2)(4) h
s=
65
= 2
8 h 4

36
h = 2.61 in
h 2.61
t= = = 0.87 in
3 3
say
h = 3 in
t = 1 in

(c)

Page 12 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

3 h 4 .5 3
=
4 13 4
h = 2.33 in
1 t 1 .5 1
=
4 13 4
t = 0.78 in
say
5
h = 2.625 in or h = 2 in
8

15. A simple beam 54 in. long with a load of 4 kips at the center is made of cast steel,
SAE 080. The cross section is rectangular (let h 3b ). (a) Determine the
dimensions for N = 3 based on the yield strength. (b) Compute the maximum
deflection for these dimensions. (c) What size may be used if the maximum
deflection is not to exceed 0.03 in.?

Solution:
For cast steel, SAE 080 (Table AT 6)
s y = 40 ksi
E = 30106 psi

Page 13 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

From Table AT 2
FL (4 )(54 )
Max. M = = = 54 kips in
4 4
bh3
I=
12
but h = 3b
h4
I=
36

sy Mc
(a) s = =
Ny I
h
c=
2
(54) h
40
= 2
3 h4

36
h = 4.18 in
h 4.18
b= = = 1.39 in
3 3

1 h 4 .5 1
say h = 4 in , b = = = 1.5 in = 1 in
2 3 3 2

(b) =
FL3
=
(4000)(54)3 = 0.0384 in
48EI (1.5 )(4.5 )3

48(30 106 )
12
FL3
(c) =
h4
48E
36

0.03 =
(4000)(54)3 (36)
48(30 106 )(h 4 )
h = 4.79 in
h 4.79
b= = = 1.60 in
3 3

1 h 5.25 3
say h = 5.25 in = 5 in , b = = = 1.75 in = 1 in
4 3 3 4

Page 14 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

16. The same as 15, except that the beam is to have a circular cross section.

Solution:
s Mc
(a) s = y =
Ny I
d4
I=
64
d
c=
2
d
M
s= 4 =
2 32M
d d3

64
40 32(54 )
=
3 d3
d = 3.46 in
1
say d = 3 in
2

FL3
(b) =
48EI
d4
I=
64
64(4000 )(54 )
3
64 FL3
= = = 0.0594 in
48 E ( d 4 ) 48(30 10 6 )( )(3.5)4
64 FL3
(c) =
48E ( d 4 )
64(4000 )(54)
3
0.03 =
48(30 106 )( )d 4
d = 4.15 in
1
say d = 4 in
4

17. A simple beam, 48 in. long, with a static load of 6000 lb. at the center, is made of
C1020 structural steel. (a) Basing your calculations on the ultimate strength,
determine the dimensions of the rectangular cross section for h = 2b . (b)
Determine the dimensions based on yield strength. (c) Determine the dimensions
using the principle of limit design.

Page 15 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:

## From Table AT 7 and Table 1.1

su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
N u = 3 ~ 4 , say 4
N y = 1.5 ~ 2 , say 2

FL (6 )(48)
M= = = 72 in kips
4 4
Mc
s=
I
h
c=
2
bh3
I=
12
h
but b =
2
4
h
I=
24
h
M
s = 4 = 3
2 12 M
h h
24

## (a) Based on ultimate strength

s 12 M
s= u = 3
Nu h
65 12(72 )
=
4 h3
h = 3.76 in

Page 16 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

h 3.76
b= = = 1.88 in
2 2

3 h 3.75 7
say h = 3.75 in = 3 in , b = = = 1.875 in = 1 in
4 2 2 8

## (b) Based on yield strength

s y 12 M
s= = 3
Ny h
48 12(72 )
=
2 h3
h = 3.30 in
h 3.30
b= = = 1.65 in
2 2
1 h 3 .5 3
say h = 3.5 in = 3 in , b = = = 1.75 in = 1 in
2 2 2 4

## (c) Limit design (Eq. 1.6)

bh 2
M = sy
4
h 2
h
72 = (48)
2
4
h = 2.29 in
h 2.29
b= = = 1.145 in
2 2
1 h 2 .5 1
say h = 2.5 in = 2 in , b = = = 1.25 in = 1 in
2 2 2 4

18. The bar shown is subjected to two vertical loads, F1 and F2 , of 3000 lb. each, that
are L = 10 in apart and 3 in. ( a , d ) from the ends of the bar. The design factor is 4
based on the ultimate strength; h = 3b . Determine the dimensions h and b if the
bar is made of (a) gray cast iron, SAE 111; (b) malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-
52, grade 35 018; (c) AISI C1040, as rolled (Fig. AF 1). Sketch the shear and
moment diagrams approximately to scale.

Page 17 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Problems18, 19.
Solution:
F1 = F2 = R1 = R2 = 3000 lb

Moment Diagram

## M = R1a = (3000)(3) = 9000 lbs in = 9 kips in

N = factor of safety = 4 based on su
bh3
I=
12
h
c=
2
h 3
h
3 h4
I= =
12 36

## (a) For gray cast iron, SAE 111

su = 30 ksi , Table AT 6
h
M
= 4 = 3
s Mc 2 18M
s= u =
N I h h

36
30 18(9 )
s= = 3
4 h
h = 2.78 in
h 2.78
b= = = 0.93 in
3 3
say h = 3.5 in , b = 1 in

## (b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35 018

Page 18 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su = 55 ksi , Table AT 6
h
M
= 4 = 3
s Mc 2 18M
s= u =
N I h h

36
55 18(9 )
s= = 3
4 h
h = 2.28 in
h 2.28
b= = = 0.76 in
3 3
1 3
say h = 2 in , b = in
4 4

## (c) For AISI C1040, as rolled

su = 90 ksi , Fig. AF 1
h
M
= 4 = 3
s Mc 2 18M
s= u =
N I h h

36
90 18(9 )
s= = 3
4 h
h = 1.93 in
h 1.93
b= = = 0.64 in
3 3
7 5
say h = 1 in , b = in
8 8

## 19. The same as 18, except that F1 acts up ( F2 acts down).

Solution:

[ M A =0 ] R1 = R2 = 1875 lb

Page 19 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

## (a) For gray cast iron

su 18M
s= = 3
N h
30 18(5.625)
=
4 h3
h = 2.38 in
h 2.38
b= = = 0.79 in
3 3
1 3
say h = 2 in , b = in
4 4
(b) For malleable cast iron

su 18M
s= = 3
N h
55 18(5.625)
=
4 h3
h = 1.95 in
h 1.95
b= = = 0.65 in
3 3
7 5
say h = 1 in , b = in
8 8

Page 20 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

## (c) For AISI C1040, as rolled

su 18M
s= = 3
N h
90 18(5.625)
=
4 h3
h = 1.65 in
h 1.65
b= = = 0.55 in
3 3
1 1
say h = 1 in , b = in
2 2

20. The bar shown, supported at A and B , is subjected to a static load F of 2500 lb.
at = 0 . Let d = 3 in , L = 10 in and h = 3b . Determine the dimensions of the
section if the bar is made of (a) gray iron, SAE 110; (b) malleable cast iron,
ASTM A47-52, grade 32 510; (c) AISI C1035 steel, as rolled. (d) For economic
reasons, the pins at A, B, and C are to be the same size. What should be their
diameter if the material is AISI C1035, as rolled, and the mounting is such that
each is in double shear? Use the basic dimensions from (c) as needed. (e) What
sectional dimensions would be used for the C1035 steel if the principle of limit
design governs in (c)?

## Problems 20, 21.

Solution:

Page 21 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

[ M A =0 ] 3RB = 13(2500)
RB = 10,833 lb
[ M B =0 ] 3RA = 10(2500 )
RA = 8333 lb
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

h = 3b
bh3
I=
12
h4
I=
36
h
c=
2
h
M
= 4 = 3
Mc 2 18M
s=
I h h

36

## (a) For gray cast iron, SAE 110

su = 20 ksi , Table AT 6
N = 5 ~ 6 , say 6 for cast iron, dead load
s 18M
s= u = 3
N h
20 18(25)
=
6 h3

Page 22 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

h = 5.13 in
h
b = = 1.71 in
3
1 3
say h = 5 in , b = 1 in
4 4
(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-32 grade 32510
su = 52 ksi , s y = 34 ksi
N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4 for ductile, dead load
s 18M
s= u = 3
N h
52 18(25)
=
4 h3
h = 3.26 in
h
b = = 1.09 in
3
3 1
say h = 3 in , b = 1 in
4 4
(c) For AISI C1035, as rolled
su = 85 ksi , s y = 55 ksi
N = 4 , based on ultimate strength
s 18M
s= u = 3
N h
85 18(25)
=
4 h3
h = 2.77 in
h
b = = 0.92 in
3
say h = 3 in , b = 1 in

## (d) For AISI C1035, as rolled

ssu = 64 ksi
N = 4 , RB = 10.833 kips
s R
ss = su = B
N A

A = 2 D 2 = D 2
4 2
64 10.833
ss = =
4 2
D
2
D = 0.657 in

Page 23 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

11
say D = in
16
(e) Limit Design
bh 2
M = sy
4
For AISI C1035 steel, s y = 55 ksi
h
b=
3
h 2
h
M = 25 = (55)
3
4
h = 1.76 in
h
b = = 0.59 in
3
7 5
say h = 1.875 in = 1 in , b = in
8 8

21. The same as 20, except that = 30o . Pin B takes all the horizontal thrust.

Solution:

FV = F cos
[ M A =0 ] 3RB = 13FV
3RB = 13(2500) cos 30
RB = 9382 lb
[ M B =0 ] 3RA = 10 FV
3RA = 10(2500 ) cos 30
RA = 7217 lb
Shear Diagram

Page 24 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Moment Diagram

## M = (2165)(10) = 21,650 lb in = 21.65 kips in

18M
s= 3
h
(a) For gray cast iron, SAE 110
su = 20 ksi , Table AT 6
N = 5 ~ 6 , say 6 for cast iron, dead load
s 18M
s= u = 3
N h
20 18(21.65)
=
6 h3
h = 4.89 in
h
b = = 1.63 in
3
1 3
say h = 5 in , b = 1 in
4 4
(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-32 grade 32510
su = 52 ksi , s y = 34 ksi
N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4 for ductile, dead load
s 18M
s= u = 3
N h
52 18(21.65)
=
4 h3
h = 3.11 in
h
b = = 1.04 in
3
say h = 3 in , b = 1 in
(c) For AISI C1035, as rolled
su = 85 ksi , s y = 55 ksi
N = 4 , based on ultimate strength

Page 25 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su 18M
s= = 3
N h
85 18(21.65)
=
4 h3
h = 2.64 in
h
b = = 0.88 in
3
5 7
say h = 2 in , b = in
8 8

## (d) For AISI C1035, as rolled

ssu = 64 ksi
N = 4 , RBV = 9382 lb
RBH = FH = F sin = 2500 sin 30 = 1250 lb
= (9382) + (1250)
2 2
RB2 = RBV
2 2
+ RBH
RB = 9465 lb
s R
ss = su = B
N A

A = 2 D 2 = D 2
4 2
64 9.465
ss = =
4 D2
2
D = 0.614 in
5
say D = in
8
(e) Limit Design
bh 2
M = sy
4
For AISI C1035 steel, s y = 55 ksi
h
b=
3
h 2
h
M = 21.65 = (55)
3
4
h = 1.68 in
h
b = = 0.56 in
3
7 5
say h = 1.875 in = 1 in , b = in
8 8

Page 26 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

22. A cast-iron beam, ASTM 50, as shown, is 30 in. long and supports two gradually
applied, repeated loads (in phase), one of 2000 lb. at e = 10 in from the free end,
and one of 1000 lb at the free end. (a) Determine the dimensions of the cross
section if b = c 3a . (b) The same as (a) except that the top of the tee is below.

Problem 22.
Solution:

## For cast iron, ASTM 50

su = 50 ksi , suc = 164 ksi
N = 7 ~ 8 , say 8

M = F1d + F2 (d + e )
where:
F1 = 2000 lb
F2 = 1000 lb
d = 30 10 = 20 in
d + e = 30 in
M = (2000)(20) + (1000)(30) = 70,000 lb in = 70 kips in

Mc
s=
I
Solving for I , moment of inertia

## (3a )(a ) a + (3a )(a ) 5a = [(3a )(a ) + (3a )(a )]y

2 2
3a
y=
2

Page 27 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

I=
(3a )(a )3 + (3a )(a )(a 2 ) + (a )(3a )3 + (3a )(a )(a 2 ) = 17 a 4
12 12 2

(a)

3a
ct =
2
5a
cc =
2
Based on tension
s Mct
st = u =
N I
(70) 3a
50
= 2
8 17a 4

2
a = 1.255 in
Based on compression
s Mcc
sc = uc =
N I
(70) 5a
164
= 2
8 17a 4

2
a = 1.001 in
Therefore a = 1.255 in
1
Or say a = 1 in
4
And b = c = 3a = 3(1.25) = 3.75 in

Page 28 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

3
Or b = c = 3 in
4

## (b) If the top of the tee is below

5a
ct =
2
3a
cc =
2
17a 4
I=
2
M = 70 kips in

Based on tension
s Mct
st = u =
N I
(70) 5a
50
= 2
8 17 a 4

2
a = 1.488 in
Based on compression
s Mcc
sc = uc =
N I
(70) 3a
164
= 2
8 17a 4

2
a = 0.845 in
Therefore a = 1.488 in
1
Or say a = 1 in
2
1
And b = c = 3a = 4 in
2

CHECK PROBLEMS

Page 29 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

23. An I-beam is made of structural steel, AISI C1020, as rolled. It has a depth of 3
in. and is subjected to two loads; F1 and F2 = 2F1 ; F1 is 5 in. from one end and
F2 is 5 in. from the other ends. The beam is 25 in. long; flange width is
b = 2.509 in ; I x = 2.9 in 4 . Determine (a) the approximate values of the load to
cause elastic failure, (b) the safe loads for a factor of safety of 3 based on the yield
strength, (c) the safe load allowing for flange buckling (i1.24), (f) the maximum
deflection caused by the safe loads.

Problems 23 25.
Solution:

## [ M A =0 ] 5F1 + 20(2 F1 ) = 25RB

RB = 1.8F1
[ F V =0 ] F1 + 2 F1 = RA + RB
RA = 3F1 1.8F1 = 1.2 F1
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

Page 30 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

## M = 9F1 = maximum moment

For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi

Mc
(a) s y =
I
d 3
where c = = = 1.5 in
2 2
s y = 48 =
(9 F1 )(1.5)
2 .9
F1 = 10.31 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 20.62 kips

sy Mc
(b) s = =
N I
48 (9 F1 )(1.5)
s= =
3 2 .9
F1 = 3.44 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 6.88 kips

L 25
(c) = = 9.96 < 15 (page 34)
b 2.509
sc = 20 ksi ( page 34, i1.24)
Mc
sc =
I
20 =
(9 F1 )(1.5)
2 .9
F1 = 4.30 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 8.60 kips

## (d) For maximum deflection,

by method of superposition, Table AT 2
3
Fb a(L + b) 2
ymax =
3EIL 3 , a > b
or
3
Fa b(L + a ) 2
ymax =
3EIL 3 , b > a

Page 31 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

ymax caused by F1
3
F a b(L + a1 ) 2
ymax1 = 1 1 1
3EIL 3 , b1 > a1
where E = 30,000 ksi
a1 = 5 in
b1 = 20 in
L = 25 in
I = 2.9 in 4
3
F1 (5) 20(25 + 5) 2
ymax1 = = 0.0022 F1
3(30,000)(2.9)(25) 3

ymax caused by F2
3
F b a (L + b2 ) 2
ymax 2 = 2 2 2
3EIL 3 , a2 > b2
where b2 = 5 in
a2 = 20 in
3
2 F1 (5) 20(25 + 5) 2
ymax 2 = = 0.0043F1
3(30,000)(2.9)(25) 3

Total deflection =
= ymax1 + ymax 2 = 0.022 F1 + 0.0043F1 = 0.0065F1

## Deflection caused by the safe loads in (a)

a = 0.0065(10.31) = 0.067 in
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (b)
b = 0.0065(3.44) = 0.022 in
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (c)
c = 0.0065(4.30) = 0.028 in

24. The same as 23, except that the material is aluminum alloy, 2024-T4, heat treated.

Solution:

## For aluminum alloy, 2024-T4, heat treated

s y = 47 ksi

Mc
(a) s y =
I

Page 32 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

s y = 47 =
(9 F1 )(1.5)
2 .9
F1 = 10.10 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 20.20 kips

sy Mc
(b) s = =
N I
47 (9 F1 )(1.5)
s= =
3 2 .9
F1 = 3.36 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 6.72 kips

L 25
(c) = = 9.96 < 15 (page 34)
b 2.509
sc = 20 ksi ( page 34, i1.24)
Mc
sc =
I
20 =
(9 F1 )(1.5)
2 .9
F1 = 4.30 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 8.60 kips

## (d) Total deflection =

= ymax1 + ymax 2 = 0.022 F1 + 0.0043F1 = 0.0065F1

## Deflection caused by the safe loads in (a)

a = 0.0065(10.10) = 0.066 in
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (b)
b = 0.0065(3.36) = 0.022 in
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (c)
c = 0.0065(4.30) = 0.028 in

25. A light I-beam is 80 in. long, simply supported, and carries a static load at the
midpoint. The cross section has a depth of d = 4 in , a flange width of b = 2.66 in ,
and I x = 6.0 in 4 (see figure). (a) What load will the beam support if it is made of

C1020, as-rolled steel, and flange buckling (i1.24) is considered? (b) Consider the
stress owing to the weight of the beam, which is 7.7 lb/ft, and decide whether or
not the safe load should be less.

Page 33 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:

## (a) For C1020, as rolled, su = 65 ksi

Consider flange buckling
L 80
= = 30
b 2.66
L
since 15 < < 40
b
22.5 22.5
sc = = = 15 ksi
L
2
(30 )
2

1 + 1800 1 +
b 1800
Mc
s=
I
d 4
c = = = 2 in
2 2

From Table AT 2
FL F (80 )
M= = = 20 F
4 4
Mc
s = sc =
I
15 =
(20 F )(2 )
6
F = 2.25 kips , safe load

## (b) Considering stress owing to the weight of the beam

wL2
addl M = (Table AT 2)
8
where w = 7.7 lb ft

Page 34 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

## wL2 7.7 (80)

2
addl M = = = 513 lb in = 0.513 kips in
8 12 8
M = 20 F + 0.513 = total moment
Mc
s = sc =
I
15 =
(20 F + 0.513)(2)
6
F = 2.224 kips
Therefore, the safe load should be less.

26. What is the stress in a band-saw blade due to being bent around a 13 -in. pulley?
The blade thickness is 0.0265 in. (Additional stresses arise from the initial tension
and forces of sawing.)

Solution:

t
c= = 0.0265 = 0.01325 in
2
r = 13.75 + 0.01325 = 13.76325 in
Using Eq. (1.4) page 11 (Text)
Ec
s=
r
where E = 30 106 psi

s=
(30 10 )(0.01325) = 28,881 psi
6

13.76325

27. A cantilever beam of rectangular cross section is tapered so that the depth varies
uniformly from 4 in. at the fixed end to 1 in. at the free end. The width is 2 in. and
the length 30 in. What safe load, acting repeated with minor shock, may be
applied to the free end? The material is AISI C1020, as rolled.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi (Table AT 7)
Designing based on ultimate strength,
N = 6 , for repeated, minor shock load

Page 35 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su 65
s= = = 10.8 ksi
N 6

4 1 h 1
=
30 x
h = 0.10 x + 1
wh 3
I=
12
h
c=
2
M = Fx
(Fx ) h
s=
Mc
= 2 = 6 Fx = 3Fx = 3Fx
I wh

3

2h 2
h 2
(0.10 x + 1)2
12
Differentiating with respect to x then equate to zero to solve for x giving maximum
stress.
ds (0.10 x + 1)2 (1) 2( x )(0.10 x + 1)(0.10 )
= 3F =0
dx (0.10 x + 1)4
0.10 x + 1 2(0.10 x ) = 0
x = 10 in
h = 0.10(10) + 1 = 2 in
s 3Fx
s= u = 2
N h
3F (10 )
10.8 =
(2)2
F = 1.44 kips

TORSIONAL STRESSES

DESIGN PROBLEMS

Page 36 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

28. A centrifugal pump is to be driven by a 15-hp electric motor at 1750 rpm. What
should be the diameter of the pump shaft if it is made of AISI C1045 as rolled?

Solution:

## For C1045 as rolled,

s y = 59 ksi
sus = 72 ksi
Designing based on ultimate strength
s
s = us , N = 6 (Table 1.1)
N
72
s= = 12 ksi
6
33,000hp 33,000(15)
Torque, T = = = 45 ft lb = 540 in lb = 0.540 in kips
2 n 2 (1750 )
For diameter,
16T
s=
d3
16(0.540 )
12 =
d3
d = 0.612 in
5
say d = in
8

29. A shaft in torsion only is to transmit 2500 hp at 570 rpm with medium shocks. Its
material is AISI 1137 steel, annealed. (a) What should be the diameter of a solid
shaft? (b) If the shaft is hollow, Do = 2 Di , what size is required? (c) What is the
weight per foot of length of each of these shafts? Which is the lighter? By what
percentage? (d) Which shaft is the more rigid? Compute the torsional deflection
of each for a length of 10 ft.

Solution:
33,000hp 33,000(2500 )
T= = = 23,036 ft lb = 276 in kips
2 n 2 (570 )
For AISI 1137, annealed
s y = 50 ksi (Table AT 8)
s ys = 0.6 s y = 30 ksi

## Designing based on yield strength

N = 3 for medium shock, one direction

Page 37 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Design stress
s 30
s = ys = = 10 ksi
N 3

## (a) Let D = shaft diameter

Tc
s=
J
D4
J=
32
D
c=
2
16T
s=
D3
16(276 )
10 =
D3
D = 5.20 in
1
say D = 5 in
4

(b) J = =
[
(Do4 Di4 ) (2 Di )4 Di4 ] = 15 D i
4

32 32 32
Do 2 Di
c= = = Di
2 2
TDi 32T
s= =
15 Di 15 Di3
4

32
32(276 )
10 =
15 Di3
Di = 2.66 in
Do = 2 Di = 5.32 in
say
5
Di = 2 in
8
1
Do = 5 in
4

## (c) Density, = 0.284 lb in3 (Table AT 7)

Page 38 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

## For solid shaft

w = weight per foot of length

w = 12 D 2 = 3D 2 = 3 (0.284 )(5.25) = 73.8 lb ft
2

## For hollow shaft

4
[ 2
]
w = 12 (Do2 Di2 ) = 3 (Do2 Di2 ) = 3 (0.284 ) (5.25) (2.625) = 55.3 lb ft
2

## Therefore hollow shaft is lighter

73.8 55.3
Percentage lightness = (100%) = 33.5%
55.3

## (d) Torsional Deflection

TL
=
JG
where
L = 10 ft = 120 in
G = 11.5 103 ksi
D4
For solid shaft, J =
32
(276)(120) 180
= 0.039 rad = (0.039 ) = 2 .2
o
=

(5.25) (11.5 10 )
4 3

32
(Do4 Di4 )
For hollow shaft, J =
32
(276)(120) 180
= 0.041 rad = (0.041) = 2 .4
o
=

[(5.25) (2.625) ](11.5 10 )
4 4 3

32
Therefore, solid shaft is more rigid, 2.2o < 2.4o

30. The same as 29, except that the material is AISI 4340, OQT 1200 F.

Solution:
33,000hp 33,000(2500 )
T= = = 23,036 ft lb = 276 in kips
2 n 2 (570 )
For AISI 4340, OQT 1200 F
s y = 130 ksi
s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(130 ) = 78 ksi

## Designing based on yield strength

Page 39 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

## N = 3 for mild shock

Design stress
s 78
s = ys = = 26 ksi
N 3

## (a) Let D = shaft diameter

Tc
s=
J
D4
J=
32
D
c=
2
16T
s=
D3
16(276 )
26 =
D3
D = 3.78 in
3
say D = 3 in
4

(b) J = =
[
(Do4 Di4 ) (2 Di )4 Di4 ] = 15 D i
4

32 32 32
Do 2 Di
c= = = Di
2 2
TDi 32T
s= =
15 Di 15 Di3
4

32
32(276 )
26 =
15 Di3
Di = 1.93 in
Do = 2 Di = 3.86 in
say
Di = 2 in
Do = 4 in

## (c) Density, = 0.284 lb in3 (Table AT 7)

Page 40 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

## For solid shaft

w = weight per foot of length

w = 12 D 2 = 3D 2 = 3 (0.284 )(3.75) = 37.6 lb ft
2

## For hollow shaft

4
[ 2
]
w = 12 (Do2 Di2 ) = 3 (Do2 Di2 ) = 3 (0.284 ) (4 ) (2 ) = 32.1 lb ft
2

## Therefore hollow shaft is lighter

37.6 32.1
Percentage lightness = (100% ) = 17.1%
32.1

## (d) Torsional Deflection

TL
=
JG
where
L = 10 ft = 120 in
G = 11.5 103 ksi
D4
For solid shaft, J =
32
(276)(120) 180
= 0.148 rad = (0.148) = 8.48
o
=

(3.75) (11.5 10 )
4 3

32
(Do4 Di4 )
For hollow shaft, J =
32
(276)(120 ) 180
= 0.122 rad = (0.122 ) = 6.99
o
=
4
[(4 ) (2 ) ](11.5 10 )
4 3
32
Therefore, hollow shaft is more rigid, 6.99o < 8.48o .

31. A steel shaft is transmitting 40 hp at 500 rpm with minor shock. (a) What should
be its diameter if the deflection is not to exceed 1o in 20 D ? (b) If deflection is
primary what kind of steel would be satisfactory?

Solution:
33,000hp 33,000(40 )
(a) T = = = 420 ft lb = 5.04 in kips
2 n 2 (500 )
G = 11.5 103 ksi
L = 20 D

Page 41 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

180
TL
=
JG

=
(5.04)(20 D )
180 D4

32
(
11.5 103 )

D = 1.72 in
3
say D = 1 in
4

16T 16(5.04 )
(b) s = = = 4.8 ksi
D 3 (1.75)3

## Based on yield strength

N =3
s ys = Ns = (3)(4.8) = 14.4 ksi
s ys
14.4
sy = =
= 24 ksi
0.6 0.6
Use C1117 normalized steel s y = 35 ksi

32. A square shaft of cold-finish AISI 1118 transmits a torsional moment of 1200 in-
lb. For medium shock, what should be its size?

Solution:

## For AISI 1118 cold-finish

s y = 75 ksi
s ys = 0.6 s y = 45 ksi
N = 3 for medium shock
s T
s = ys =
N Z
where, h = b
2b 2 h 2b3
Z = = (Table AT 1)
9 9
T = 1200 in lb = 1.2 in kips
45 1.2(9 )
s= =
3 2b 3
b = h = 0.71 in
3
say b = h = in
4

Page 42 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

CHECK PROBLEMS

33. A punch press is designed to exert a force sufficient to shear a 15/16-in. hole in a
-in. steel plate, AISI C1020, as rolled. This force is exerted on the shaft at a
radius of -in. (a) Compute the torsional stress in the 3.5-in. shaft (bending
neglected). (b) What will be the corresponding design factor if the shaft is made
of cold-rolled AISI 1035 steel (Table AT 10)? Considering the shock loading that
is characteristics of this machine, do you thick the design is safe enough?

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
sus = 49 ksi

F = sus ( Dt )
15
where D = in
16
1
t = in
2
15 1
F = 49( ) = 72.2 kips
16 2
T = Fr
3
where r = in
4
3
T = (72.2 ) = 54.2 in kips
4

16T
(a) s =
d3
where d = 3.5 in
16(54.2 )
s= = 6.44 ksi
(3.5)3

## (b) For AISI 1035 steel, s us = 64 ksi

sus 64
Design factor , N = = = 9.94 , the design is safe ( N 10 )
s 6.44

34. The same as 33, except that the shaft diameter is 2 in.

Solution:

Page 43 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

d = 2.75 in

16T
(a) s =
d3
16(54.2 )
s= = 13.3 ksi
(2.75)3

## (b) For AISI 1035 steel, s us = 64 ksi

sus 64
Design factor , N = = = 4.8 , the design is not safe ( N < 10 )
s 13.3

35. A hollow annealed Monel propeller shaft has an external diameter of 13 in. and
an internal diameter of 6 in.; it transmits 10,000 hp at 200 rpm. (a) Compute the
torsional stress in the shaft (stress from bending and propeller thrust are not
considered). (b) Compute the factor of safety. Does it look risky?

Solution:

## For Monel shaft,

s us = 98 ksi (Table AT 3)
N = 3 ~ 4 , for dead load, based on ultimate strength

Tc
(a) s =
J

J=
( ) [
Do4 Di4 (13.5)4 (6.5)4
=
]
= 3086 in 4
32 32
Do 13.5
c= = = 6.75 in
2 2
33,000hp 33,000(10,000 )
T= = = 262,606 ft lb = 3152 in kips
2 n 2 (200 )

s=
(3152)(6.75) = 6.9 ksi
3086
(b) Factor of safety,

sus 98
N= = = 14.2 , not risky
s 6 .9

Page 44 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

STRESS ANALYSIS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

36. A hook is attached to a plate as shown and supports a static load of 12,000 lb. The
material is to be AISI C1020, as rolled. (a) Set up strength equations for
dimensions d , D , h , and t . Assume that the bending in the plate is negligible.
(b) Determine the minimum permissible value of these dimensions. In estimating
the strength of the nut, let D1 = 1.2d . (c) Choose standard fractional dimensions
which you think would be satisfactory.

Problems 36 38.

Solution:
s = axial stress
ss = shear stress

(a)

F 4F
s= = 2
1
d2 d
4
4F
Equation (1) d =
s

Page 45 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F 4F 4F 4F
s= = = =
1
(
D 2 D12 ) ( 2
D D12
) [
D (1.2d )
2 2
] ( D 1.44d 2
2
)
4
4F
Equation (2) D = + 1.44d 2
s
F F
ss = =
D1h 1.2 dh
F
Equation (3) h =
1.2 dss
F
ss =
Dt
F
Equation (4) t =
Dss

## (b) Designing based on ultimate strength,

Table AT 7, AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
sus = 49 ksi

## N = 3 ~ 4 say 4, design factor for static load

s 65
s= u = = 16 ksi
N 4
s 49
ss = us = = 12 ksi
N 4

F = 12,000 lb = 12 kips

## From Equation (1)

4F 4(12)
d= = = 0.98 in
s (16)
From Equation (2)
4F 4(12)
+ 1.44(0.98) = 1.53 in
2
D= + 1.44d 2 =
s (
16 )
From Equation (3)
F 12
h= = = 0.27 in
1.2 dss 1.2 (0.98)(12 )
From Equation (4)
F 12
t= = = 0.21 in
Dss (1.53)(12)

Page 46 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

## (c) Standard fractional dimensions

d = 1 in
1
D = 1 in
2
1
h = in
4
1
t = in
4

37. The same as 36, except that a shock load of 4000 lb. is repeatedly applied.

Solution:

## (b) N = 10 ~ 15 for shock load, based on ultimate strength

say N = 15 , others the same.
s 65
s= u = = 4 ksi
N 15
s 49
ss = us = = 3 ksi
N 15

F = 4000 lb = 4 kips

## From Equation (1)

4F 4(4)
d= = = 1.13 in
s (4)
From Equation (2)
4F 4(4)
+ 1.44(1.13) = 1.76 in
2
D= + 1.44d 2 =
s (4)
From Equation (3)
F 4
h= = = 0.31 in
1.2 ds s 1.2 (1.13)(3)
From Equation (4)
F 4
t= = = 0.24 in
Dss (1.76)(3)

Page 47 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

## (c) Standard fractional dimensions

1
d = 1 in
8
3
D = 1 in
4
3
h = in
8
1
t = in
4

38. The connection between the plate and hook, as shown, is to support a load F .
Determine the value of dimensions D , h , and t in terms of d if the connection
is to be as strong as the rod of diameter d . Assume that D1 = 1.2d , sus = 0.75su ,
and that bending in the plate is negligible.

Solution:

F
s=
1
d2
4
1
F = d 2s
4
1 s
(1) F = d 2 u
4 N

Page 48 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F F
s= =
1 1
4
(
D 2 D12
4
) (
D 2 1.44d 2 )
1
(
F = D 2 1.44d 2 s
4
)
1 s
(
(2) F = D 2 1.44d 2 u )
4 N
F F
ss = =
D1h 1.2 dh
F = 1.2 dhss
s 0.75su
F = 1.2 dh us = 1.2 dh
N N
5s
(3) F = 0.9 dh u
N
F
ss =
Dt
F = Dtss
s 0.75su
F = Dt us = Dt
N N
s
(4) F = 0.75 Dt u
N

## Equate (2) and (1)

1 s 1 s
F = (D 2 1.44d 2 ) u = d 2 u
4 N 4 N
2 2
D = 2.44d
D = 1.562d
Equate (3) and (1)
s 1 s
F = 0.9 dh u = d 2 u
N 4 N
d
h= = 0.278d
4(0.9)
Equate (4) and (1)
s 1 s
F = 0.75 Dt u = d 2 u
N 4 N
s 1 s
F = 0.75 (1.562d )(t ) u = d 2 u
N 4 N
d
t= = 0.214d
4(0.75)(1.562)

Page 49 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

39. (a) For the connection shown, set up strength equations representing the various
methods by which it might fail. Neglect bending effects. (b) Design this
connection for a load of 2500 lb. Both plates and rivets are of AISI C1020, as
rolled. The load is repeated and reversed with mild shock. Make the connection
equally strong on the basis of yield strengths in tension, shear, and compression.

Problems 39, 40
Solution:

F
(a) ss =
1
5 D 2
4
4F
Equation (1) D =
5 ss
F
s=
t (b 2 D )
F
Equation (2) b = + 2D
ts
F
s=
5 Dt
F
Equation (3) t =
5 Ds

## (b) For AISI C1020, as rolled

s y = 48 ksi (Table AT 7)
s ys = 0.6 s y = 28 ksi

N = 4 for repeated and reversed load (mild shock) based on yield strength
48
s= = 12 ksi
4
28
ss = = 7 ksi
4
From Equation (1)

Page 50 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

4F
D=
5 ss
where
F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips
4F 4(2.5) 5
D= = = 0.30 in say in
5 ss 5 (7 ) 16

## From Equation (3)

F 2 .5 5
t= = = 0.13 in say in
5 Ds 5 32
5 (12 )
16

## From Equation (2)

F 2 .5 5
b = + 2D = + 2 = 1.96 in say 2 in
ts 5 16
(12 )
32

40. The same as 39, except that the material is 2024-T4, aluminum alloy.

Solution:
(a) Same as 39.

## (b) ) For 2024-T4, aluminum alloy

s y = 47 ksi (Table AT 3)
s ys = 0.55s y = 25 ksi

N = 4 for repeated and reversed load (mild shock) based on yield strength
47
s= = 12 ksi
4
25
ss = = 6 ksi
4
From Equation (1)
4F
D=
5 ss
where
F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips
4F 4(2.5) 3
D= = = 0.33 in say in
5 ss 5 (6) 8

## From Equation (3)

Page 51 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F 2 .5 1
t= = = 0.11 in say in
5 Ds 3 8
5 (12 )
8

## From Equation (2)

F 2 .5 3 1
b = + 2D = + 2 = 2.42 in say 2 in
ts 1 8 2
(12 )
8

41. (a) For the connection shown, set up strength equations representing the various
methods by which it might fail. (b) Design this connection for a load of 8000 lb.
Use AISI C1015, as rolled, for the rivets, and AISI C1020, as rolled, for the
plates. Let the load be repeatedly applied with minor shock in one direction and
make the connection equally strong on the basis of ultimate strengths in tension,
shear, and compression.

Problem 41.
Solution:

(a)

3
F
F
sP = or sP = 4 Equation (1)
t (b D ) t (b 2 D )

F
ssR = Equation (2)
1
4 D 2 (2 )
4

Page 52 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F
sR = Equation (3)
4 Dt

## suR = 61 ksi , susR = 0.75suR = 45 ksi

For AISI C1020, as rolled
suP = 65 ksi

## N = 6 , based on ultimate strength

s 65
s P = uP = = 10.8 ksi
N 6
s 61
s R = uR = = 10.1 ksi
N 6
s 45
ssR = usR = = 7.5 ksi
N 6
F = 8000 lb = 8 kips
Solving for D
F
ssR =
2 D 2
F 8 7
D= = = 0.412 in say in
2 ssR 2 (7.5) 16
Solving for t
F
sR =
4 Dt
F 8 1
t= = = 0.453 in say in
4 Ds R 7 2
4 (10.1)
16
Solving for b
F
Using s P =
t (b D )
F 8 7
b= +D= + = 1.92 in say 2 in
ts P 1 16
(10.8)
2
3
F
Using s P = 4
t (b 2 D )

Page 53 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

3F 3(8) 7
b= + 2D = + 2 = 1.99 in say 2 in
1
4 (10.8)
4ts P 16
2
Therefore
b = 2 in
7
D = in
16
1
t = in
2

42. Give the strength equations for the connection shown, including that for the shear
of the plate by the cotter.

Problems 42 44.
Solution:
Axial Stresses

F 4F
s= = Equation (1)
1
D12 D12
4

F
s= Equation (2)
(L D2 )e

Page 54 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F
s= Equation (3)
D2e

F 4F
s= = Equation (4)
1
(
a 2 D22 ) ( )
a 2 D22
4

F 4F
s= = 2
Equation (5)
1 D 4 D2e
D22 D2 e 2
4

Shear Stresses

F
ss = Equation (6)
2eb

F
ss = Equation (7)
2(L D2 + e )t

Page 55 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F
ss = Equation (8)
at

F
ss = Equation (9)
D1m

F
ss = Equation (10)
2 D2 h

43. A steel rod, as-rolled AISI C1035, is fastened to a 7/8-in., as-rolled C1020 plate
by means of a cotter that is made of as-rolled C1020, in the manner shown. (a)
Determine all dimensions of this joint if it is to withstand a reversed shock load
F = 10 kips , basing the design on yield strengths. (b) If all fits are free-running
fits, decide upon tolerances and allowances.

## Solution: (See figure of Prob. 42)

7
t = in = 0.875 in , ssy = 0.6 s y
8
For steel rod, AISI C1035, as rolled
s y1 = 55 ksi
ssy1 = 33 ksi
For plate and cotter, AISI C1020, as rolled
s y2 = 48 ksi
ssy2 = 28 ksi

say N = 7

## From Equation (1) (Prob. 42)

sy 4F
s= 1 =
N D12
55 4(10 )
=
7 D12
D1 = 1.27 in
1
say D1 = 1 in
4

Page 56 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

## From Equation (9)

ssy F
ss = 1 =
N D1m
33 10
=
7 1
1 m
4
m = 0.54 in
9
say m = in
16
From Equation (3)
sy F
s= 1 =
N D2 e
55 10
s= =
7 D2 e
D2e = 1.273
From Equation (5)
sy 4F
s= 1 = 2
N D2 4 D2e
55 4(10 )
=
7 D2 4(1.273)
2

D2 = 1.80 in
3
say D2 = 1 in
4
and D2e = 1.273
3
1 e = 1.273
4
e = 0.73 in
3
say e = in
4
5
Say D2 = 2 in , e = in
8
From Equation (8)
ssy F
ss = 2 =
N at
28 10
=
7 a (0.875)
a = 0.91 in
say a = 1 in

Page 57 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

## From Equation (4)

sy 4F
s= 2 =
N (a D22 )
2

48 4(10)
=
7 (a 2 2 2 )
a = 2.42 in
1
say a = 2 in
2
1
use a = 2 in
2
From Equation (7)
ssy F
ss = 2 =
N 2(L D2 + e )t
28 10
=
7 5
2 L 2 + (0.875)
8
L = 2.80 in
say L = 3 in
From Equation (6)
ssy F
ss = 2 =
N 2eb
28 10
=
7 5
2 b
8
b = 2 in
From Equation (10)
ssy F
ss = 2 =
N 2 D2 h
28 10
=
7 2(2)h
5
h = 0.625 in = in
8
Summary of Dimensions
L = 3 in
5
h = in
8
b = 2 in
7
t = in
8

Page 58 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

9
m= in
16
1
a = 2 in
2
1
D1 = 1 in
4
D2 = 2 in
5
e = in
8

## (b) Tolerances and allowances, No fit, tolerance = 0.010 in

L = 3 0.010 in
h = 0.625 0.010 in

t = 0.875 0.010 in
m = 0.5625 0.010 in
a = 2.500 0.010 in
D1 = 1.25 0.010 in
Female Male
+ 0.0030 0.0040
b = 2.0 in b = 2.0 in
0.0000 0.0058
allowance = 0.0040 in
+ 0.0030 0.0040
D2 = 2.0 in D2 = 2.0 in
0.0000 0.0058
allowance = 0.0040 in
+ 0.0016 0.0020
e = 0.625 in e = 0.625 in
0.0000 0.0030
allowance = 0.0020 in

44. A 1-in. ( D1 ) steel rod (as-rolled AISI C1035) is to be anchored to a 1-in. steel
plate (as-rolled C1020) by means of a cotter (as rolled C1035) as shown. (a)
Determine all the dimensions for this connection so that all parts have the same
ultimate strength as the rod. The load F reverses direction. (b) Decide upon
tolerances and allowances for loose-running fits.

## (a) For AISI C1035, as rolled

su1 = 85 ksi
sus1 = 64 ksi
For AISI C1020, as rolled

Page 59 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su2 = 65 ksi
sus2 = 48 ksi

Ultimate strength
Use Equation (1)
1 1 2
Fu = su1 D12 = (85) (1) = 66.8 kips
4 4
Equation (9)
Fu = sus1 D1m
66.8 = (64)( )(1)m
m = 0.33 in
3
say m = in
8
From Equation (3)
Fu = su1 D2e
66.8 = (85)D2 e
D2e = 0.7859
From Equation (5)
1
Fu = su1 D22 D2 e
4
1
66.8 = (85) D22 0.7859
4
D2 = 1.42 in
3
say D2 = 1 in
8
3
D2e = 1 e = 0.7859
8
e = 0.57 in
9
say e = in
16
From Equation (4)
1
Fu = su2 (a 2 D22 )
4
1 3
2

66.8 = (65) a 2 1
4 8
a = 1.79 in
3
say a = 1 in
4
From Equation (8)

Page 60 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Fu = sus2 at
66.8 = (48)( )(a )(1)
a = 0.44 in
1
say a = in
2
3
use a = 1 in
4
From Equation (2)
Fu = su2 (L D2 )e
3 9
66.8 = (65) L 1
8 16
L = 3.20 in
1
say L = 3 in
4
From Equation (7)
Fu = 2 sus2 (L D2 e )t
3 9
66.8 = 2(48) L 1 (1)
8 16
L = 1.51 in
1
say L = 1 in
2
1
use L = 3 in
4
From Equation (6)
Fu = 2 sus1 eb
9
66.8 = 2(64 ) b
16
b = 0.93 in
say b = 1 in
From Equation (10)
Fu = 2 sus1 D2 h
3
66.8 = 2(64 ) 1 h
8
h = 0.38 in
3
say h = in
8
Dimensions
1
L = 3 in
4

Page 61 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

3
h= in
8
b = 1 in
t = 1 in
3
m = in
8
3
a = 1 in
4
D1 = 1 in
3
D2 = 1 in
8
9
e = in
16

## (b) Tolerances and allowances, No fit, tolerance = 0.010 in

L = 3.25 0.010 in
h = 0.375 0.010 in
t = 1.000 0.010 in
m = 0.375 0.010 in
a = 1.75 0.010 in
D1 = 1.000 0.010 in
For Loose Running Fits (RC 8) Table 3.1
Female Male
+ 0.0035 0.0045
b = 1 .0 in b = 1 .0 in
0.0000 0.0065
allowance = 0.0045 in
+ 0.0040 0.0050
D2 = 1.375 in D2 = 1.375 in
0.0000 0.0075
allowance = 0.0050 in
+ 0.0028 0.0035
e = 0.5625 in e = 0.5625 in
0.0000 0.0051
allowance = 0.0035 in

45. Give all the simple strength equations for the connection shown. (b) Determine
the ratio of the dimensions a , b , c , d , m , and n to the dimension D so that the
connection will be equally strong in tension, shear, and compression. Base the
calculations on ultimate strengths and assume sus = 0.75su .

Page 62 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Problems 45 47.
Solution:
(a) Neglecting bending

1
Equation (1): F = s D 2
4
1
Equation (2): F = ss 2 c 2
4
Equation (3): F = s(2bc )
Equation (4): F = s(ac )
Equation (5): F = s[2(d c )b]
Equation (6): F = ss (4mb )
Equation (7): F = ss (2nb )
Equation (8): F = s(d c )a

su s
(b) s = and ss = us
N N
Therefore
ss = 0.75s
Equate (2) and (1)
1 1
F = ss 2 c 2 = s D 2
4 4
1 1
0.75s c 2 = s D 2
2 4
c = 0.8165 D
Equate (3) and (1)
1
F = s (2bc ) = s D 2
4
1
2b(0.8165 D ) = D 2
4
b = 0.4810 D

Page 63 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

## Equate (4) and (1)

1
F = sac = s D 2
4
1
a (0.8165 D ) = D 2
4
a = 0.9619 D
Equate (5) and (1)
1
F = s[2(d c )b ] = s D 2
4
1
2(d 0.8165 D )(0.4810 ) = D 2
4
d = 1.6329 D
Equate (6) and (1)
1
F = ss (4mb ) = s D 2
4
1
0.75(4m )(0.4810 D ) = D 2
4
m = 0.5443D
Equate (7) and (1)
1
F = ss (2nb ) = s D 2
4
1
0.75(2n )(0.4810 D ) = D 2
4
n = 1.0886 D
Equate (8) and (1)
1
F = s (d c )a = s D 2
4
(1.6329 D 0.8165D )a = 1 D 2
4
a = 0.9620 D

Summary
a = 0.9620 D
b = 0.4810 D
c = 0.8165 D
d = 1.6329 D
m = 0.5443D
n = 1.0886 D

46. The same as 45, except that the calculations are to be based on yield strengths. Let
ssy = 0.6 s y .

Page 64 of 131
SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

## Solution: (Refer to Prob. 45)

(a) Neglecting bending

1
Equation (1): F = s D 2
4
1
Equation (2): F = ss 2 c 2
4
Equation (3): F = s(2bc )
Equation (4): F = s(ac )
Equation (5): F = s[2(d c )b]
Equation (6): F = ss (4mb )
Equation (7): F = ss (2nb )
Equation (8): F = s(d c )a

sy s sy
(b) s = and ss =
N N
Therefore
ss = 0.6s
Equate (2) and (1)
1 1
F = ss 2 c 2 = s D 2
4 4
1 1
0 .6 s c 2 = s D 2
2 4
c = 0.9129 D
Equate (3) and (1)
1
F = s (2bc ) = s D 2
4
1
2b(0.9129 D ) = D 2
4
b = 0.4302 D

## Equate (4) and (1)

1
F = sac = s D 2
4
1
a (0.9129 D ) = D 2
4
a = 0.8603D
Equate (5) and (1)
1
F = s[2(d c )b ] = s D 2
4

Page 65 of 131
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

## VARYING STRESSES NO CONCENTRATION

DESIGN PROBLEMS

141. The maximum pressure of air in a 20-in. cylinder (double-acting air compressor)
is 125 psig. What should be the diameter of the piston rod if it is made of AISI
3140, OQT at 1000 F, and if there are no stress raisers and no column action? Let
N = 1.75 ; indefinite life desired. How does your answer compare with that
obtained for 4?

Solution:
For AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F
su = 153 ksi
s y = 134 ksi

## sn = 0.5su = 0.5(153) = 76.5 ksi

sn = 0.5su = (0.8)(0.85)(76.5) = 52 ksi
Soderberg line
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
For double-acting

Fmax = F = pA = (125) (20 ) = 39,270 lb = 39.27 kips
2

4
Fmin = F = 39.27 kips
sm = 0
4 F 4(39.27 ) 50
sa = = = 2
d2 d2 d
50
2
= 0+
1 1 d
=
N 1.75 52
d = 1.2972 in
5
say d = 1 in
16
comparative to Problem 4.

142. A link as shown is to be made of AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F. The load F = 5 kips
is repeated and reversed. For the time being, ignore stress concentrations. (a) If
its surface is machined, what should be its diameter for N = 1.40 . (b) The same
as (a), except that the surface is mirror polished. What would be the percentage
saving in weight? (c) The same as (a), except that the surface is as forged.

Page 1 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

## Prob. 142 144

Solution:
For AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F
su = 105 ksi
s y = 85 ksi

## sn = 0.5su = 0.5(105) = 52.5 ksi

sm = 0
4F 4(5) 20
sa = 2
= 2
=
d d d2
Soderberg line
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
1 s
= 0+ a
N sn
s
sa = n
N
Size factor = 0.85

## (a) Machined surface

Surface factor = 0.85 (Fig. AF 5)
sn = 0.5su = (0.80)(0.85)(0.85)(52.5) ksi = 30.345 ksi
20 30.345
sa = 2
=
D 1 .4
D = 0.542 in
9
say D = in
16
(b) Mirror polished surface
Surface factor = 1.00 (Fig. AF 5)
sn = 0.5su = (0.80)(0.85)(1.00)(52.5) ksi = 35.7 ksi
20 35.7
sa = 2
=
D 1 .4

Page 2 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

D = 0.5 in
2 2
9 1

Savings in weight = 2 (100% ) = 21%
16 2
9

16
(c) As forged surface
Surface factor = 0.40 (Fig. AF 5)
sn = 0.5su = (0.80)(0.85)(0.40 )(52.5) ksi = 14.28 ksi
20 14.28
sa = =
D2 1 .4
D = 0.79 in
3
say D = in
4

143. The same as 142, except that, because of a corrosive environment, the link is
made from cold-drawn silicon bronze B and the number of reversals of the load
is expected to be less than 3 x 107.

Solution:
For cold-drawn silicon bronze, Type B.
sn = 30 ksi at 3 x 108
s y = 69 ksi
su = 93.75 ksi
0.085
3 108
sn at 3 x 10 = (30 )
7

7
= 36.5 ksi
3 10
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(36.5) = 24.82 ksi
20 24.82
sa = 2
=
D 1 .4
D = 0.60 in
5
say D = in
8

144. The same as 142, except that the link is made of aluminum alloy 2024-T4 with a
minimum life of 107 cycles.

Solution:
For AA 2024-T4
s y = 47 ksi
su = 68 ksi
sn = 20 ksi at 5 x108

Page 3 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

0.085
5 108
sn at 10 (20 )
7
7
= 27.9 ksi
10
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(27.9) = 19 ksi
20 19
sa = 2
=
D 1 .4
D = 0.685 in
11
say D = in
16

145. A shaft supported as a simple beam, 18 in. long, is made of carburized AISI 3120
steel (Table AT 10). With the shaft rotating, a steady load of 2000 lb. is appliled
midway between the bearings. The surfaces are ground. Indefinite life is desired
with N = 1.6 based on endurance strength. What should be its diameter if there
are no surface discontinuities?

Solution:

sn = 90 ksi
s y = 100 ksi
su = 141 ksi

## Size Factor = 0.85

Surface factor (ground) = 0.88
sn = (0.85)(0.88)(90) = 67.32 ksi
sm = 0
32 M
sa =
D3
FL (2000 )(18)
M= = = 9000 in lb = 9.0 in kips
4 4
Soderberg line
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn

Page 4 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 s
= 0+ a
N sn
s
sa = n
N
32(9 ) 67.32
=
D3 1 .6

D = 1.2964 in
1
say D = 1 in
4

146. (a) A lever as shown with a rectangular section is to be designed for indefinite
life and a reversed load of F = 900 lb . Find the dimensions of a section without
discontinuity where b = 2.8t and L = 14 in . for a design factor of N = 2 . The
material is AISI C1020, as rolled, with an as-forged surface. (b) compute the
dimensions at a section where e = 4 in .

## Problems 146, 147

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
s n = 0.5su = 32.5 ksi
Surface factor (as forged) = 0.55

(a) sm = 0
Mc
sa =
I
tb3 t (2.8t )
3
I= = = 1.8293t 4
12 12
b 2.8t
c= = = 1.4t
2 2
M = FL = (900)(14) = 12,600 in lb = 12.6 in kips
sa =
(12.6)(1.4t ) = 9.643
1.8293t 4 t3
sn = (0.85)(0.55)(32.5) = 15.20 ksi

Page 5 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Soderberg line
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
1 s
= 0+ a
N sn
s
sa = n
N
9.643 15.20
=
t3 2

t = 1.08 in
b = 2.8t = 2.8(1.08) = 3.0 in
1
say t = 1 in , b = 3.0 in
16

## (b) M = Fe = (900)(4 ) = 3,600 in lb = 3.6 in kips

sa =
(3.6)(1.4t ) = 2.755
18293t 4 t3
2.755 15.20
=
t3 2

t = 0.713 in
b = 2.8t = 2.8(0.713) = 1.996 in
23
say t = in , b = 2 in
32

147. The same as 146, except that the reversal of the load are not expected to exceed
105 (Table AT 10).

Solution:
sn = 32.5 ksi
0.085
106
sn at 10 = (32.5) 5
5
= 39.5 ksi
10
sn = (0.85)(0.55)(39.5) = 18.5 ksi

sn
(a) sa =
N
9.643 18.5
=
t3 2

Page 6 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

t = 1.014 in
b = 2.8t = 2.8(1.014) = 2.839 in
13
say t = 1 in , b = 2 in
16

sn
(b) sa =
N
2.755 18.5
=
t3 2

t = 0.6678 in
b = 2.8t = 2.8(0.6678) = 1.870 in
11 7
say t = in , b = 1 in
16 8

## 148. A shaft is to be subjected to a maximum reversed torque of 15,000 in-lb. It is

machined from AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 2). What should be its
diameter for N = 1.75 ?

Solution:
For AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F
su = 152 ksi
s y = 134 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 76 ksi
For machined surface,
Surface factor = 0.78
Size factor = 0.85
sns = (0.6)(0.85)(0.78)(134) = 53.3 ksi
s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(134 ) = 80.4 ksi
1 sms sas
= +
N s ys sns
sms = 0
16T
sas =
D3
T = 15 in kips
16(15) 240
sas = =
D3 D3
1 s
= 0 + as
N sns
s
sas = ns
N

Page 7 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

240 53.3
=
D 3 1.75

D = 1.3587 in
3
say D = 1 in
8

149. The same as 148, except that the shaft is hollow with the outside diameter twice
the inside diameter.

Solution:
Do = 2 Di
16TDo 16(15)(2 Di ) 32
sas = = =
4 4
[
(Do Di ) (2 Di ) Di
4
]
4
Di3
s
sas = ns
N
32 53.3
=
Di3 1.75

Di = 0.694 in
11 3
say Di = in , Do = 1 in
16 8

150. The link shown is machined from AISI 1035 steel, as rolled, and subjected to a
repeated tensile load that varies from zero to 10 kips; h = 2b . (a) Determine these
dimensions for N = 1.40 (Soderberg) at a section without stress concentration.
(b) How much would these dimensions be decreased if the surfaces of the link
were mirror polished?

## Problems 150, 151, 158.

Solution:
For AISI 1035, steel as rolled
su = 85 ksi
s y = 55 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 42.5 ksi

Page 8 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1
Fm = (10 + 0 ) = 5 kips
2
1
Fa = (10 0 ) = 5 kips
2
F 5 10
sm = m = 2
= 2
bh 1.5b 3b
F 5 10
sa = a = 2
= 2
bh 1.5b 3b
(a) Soderberg line
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
For machined surface,
Factor = 0.88

## Size factor = 0.85

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.88)(42.5) = 25.4 ksi
1 10 10
= 2 + 2
1.40 3b (55) 3b (25.4 )

b = 0.5182 in
9
say b = in
16
27
h = 1.5b = in
32

Factor = 1.00

## Size factor = 0.85

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(1.00)(42.5) = 28.9 ksi
1 10 10
= 2 + 2
1.40 3b (55) 3b (28.9 )

b = 0.4963 in
1
say b = in
2
3
h = 1.5b = in
4

151. The same as 150, except that the link operates in brine solution. (Note: The
corroding effect of the solution takes precedence over surface finish.)

Page 9 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Solution:
Table AT 10, in brine, AISI 1035,
sn = 24.6 ksi
s y = 58 ksi
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(24.6) = 16.73 ksi
1 10 10
= 2 + 2
1.40 3b (55) 3b (16.73)

b = 0.60 in
5
say b = in
8
15
h = 1.5b = in
16

152. The simple beam shown, 30-in. long ( = a + L + d ), is made of AISI C1022 steel,
as rolled, left a forged. At a = 10 in , F1 = 3000 lb. is a dead load. At
d = 10 in , F2 = 2400 lb. is repeated, reversed load. For N = 1.5 , indefinite life,
and h = 3b , determine b and h . (Ignore stress concentration).

## Problem 152, 153

Solution:
For AISI C1022, as rolled
su = 72 ksi
s y = 52 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 36 ksi
For as forged surface
Figure AF 5, factor = 0.52
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(0.52)(36) = 16 ksi

Page 10 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

M A =0
10(3000) + 20(2400 ) = 30 R2
R2 = 2600 lb
F V =0
R1 + R2 = F1 + F2
R1 + 2600 = 3000 + 2400
R1 = 2800 lb
Shear Diagram

## M C1 = (2800 )(10 ) = 28,000 in lb = 28 in kips

M D1 = (2600 )(10 ) = 26,000 in lb = 26 in kips

Then

M A =0
10(3000) + 30 R2 = 20(2400 )
R2 = 600 lb
F V =0
R1 + F2 = F1 + R2
R1 + 2400 = 3000 + 600
R1 = 1200 lb

Page 11 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Shear Diagram

## M C2 = (1200 )(10 ) = 12,000 in lb = 12 in kips

M D2 = (600 )(10 ) = 6,000 in lb = 6 in kips

Then using
M max = M C1 = 28 in kips
M min = M C2 = 12 in kips
1
Mm = (M max + M min ) = 1 (28 + 12) = 20 in kips
2 2
1 1
M a = (M max M min ) = (28 12 ) = 8 in kips
2 2
M c M c
sm = m , sa = a
I I
b(3b )
3 3
bh
I= = = 2.25b 4
12 12
h
c = = 1.5b
2
Mm Ma
sm = 3
, sa =
1.5b 1.5b3
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
20 8

1 1.5b3 1.5b3
= +
1.5 52 16
b = 0.96 in
say b = 1 in
h = 3b = 3 in

153. The same as 152, except that the cycles of F2 will not exceed 100,000 and all
surfaces are machined.

Solution:

Page 12 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

0.085
106
( )
sn at 10 cycles = 36 5
5
= 43.8 ksi
10
su = 72 ksi
Machined surface, factor = 0.90
sn = (0.85)(0.90)(43.8) = 33.5 ksi
20 8

1 1.5b3 1.5b3
= +
1.5 52 33.5
b = 0.8543 in
7
say b = in
8
5
h = 3b = 2 in
8

154. A round shaft, made of cold-finished AISI 1020 steel, is subjected to a variable
torque whose maximum value is 6283 in-lb. For N = 1.5 on the Soderberg
criterion, determine the diameter if (a) the torque is reversed, (b) the torque varies
from zero to a maximum, (c) the torque varies from 3141 in-lb to maximum.

Solution:
For AISI 1020, cold-finished
su = 78 ksi
s y = 66 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 39 ksi
size factor = 0.85
sns = (0.6)(0.85)(39) = 20 ksi
s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(66 ) = 40 ksi
1 sms sas
= +
N s ys sns

## (a) Reversed torque

sms = 0
16T
sas =
D3
T = 6283 in lb
16(6283) 32,000 32
sas = 3
= 3
psi = 3 ksi
D D D
1 sas
= 0+
N sns

Page 13 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

32
3
= 0+
1 D
1.5 20
D = 1.34 in
3
say D = 1 in
8

## (b) Tmin = 0 , Tmax = 6283 in lb

1
Tm = (6283) = 3141 in lb
2
1
Ta = (6283) = 3141 in lb
2

16(3141) 16,000 16
sms = 3
= 3
psi = 3 ksi
D D D
16(3141) 16,000 16
sas = 3
= 3
psi = 3 ksi
D D D
16 16

1 D3 D 3
= +
1.5 40 20
D = 1.22 in
1
say D = 1 in
4

## (c) Tmin = 3141 in lb , Tmax = 6283 in lb

1
Tm = (6283 + 3141) = 4712 in lb
2
1
Ta = (6283 3141) = 1571 in lb
2

16(4712 ) 24,000 24
sms = 3
= 3
psi = 3 ksi
D D D
16(1571) 8,000 8
sas = 3
= 3
psi = 3 ksi
D D D
24 8

1 D3 D 3
= +
1.5 40 20
D = 1.145 in
5
say D = 1 in
32

Page 14 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

CHECK PROBLEMS

155. A simple beam 2 ft. long is made of AISI C1045 steel, as rolled. The dimensions
of the beam, which is set on edge, are 1 in. x 3 in. At the midpoint is a repeated,
reversed load of 4000 lb. What is the factor of safety?

Solution:
For AISI C1045, as rolled
su = 96 ksi
s y = 59 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(96) = 48 ksi
size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(48) = 40.8 ksi
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
sm = 0
6M
sa = 2
bh
h = 3 in
b = 1 in
FL (4000 )(24 )
M= = = 24,000 in lb = 24 in kips
4 4
6(24 )
sa = = 16 ksi
(1)(3)2
1 16
= 0+
N 40.8
N = 2.55

156. The same as 155, except that the material is normalized and tempered cast steel,
SAE 080.

Solution:
Table AT 6
sn = 35 ksi
s y = 40 ksi
sn = (0.85)(35) = 29.75 ksi
1 16
= 0+
N 29.75
N = 1.86

157. A 1 -in. shaft is made of AISI 1045 steel, as rolled. For N = 2 , what repeated
and reversed torque can the shaft sustain indefinitely?

Page 15 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Solution:
For AISI 1045, as rolled
su = 96 ksi
s y = 59 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(96) = 48 ksi

## sns = (0.6)(0.85)(48) = 24.48 ksi

s ys = 0.6 s y = (0.6 )(59 ) = 35.4 ksi
1 sms sas
= +
N s ys sns
sms = 0
1 s
= 0 + as
2 24.48
sas = 12.24 ksi
16T
sas = = 12.24
D 3
T = 8 in kips

## VARIABLE STRESSES WITH STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

158. The load on the link shown (150) is a maximum of 10 kips, repeated and
reversed. The link is forged from AISI C020, as rolled, and it has a in-hole
drilled on the center line of the wide side. Let h = 2b and N = 1.5 . Determine b
and h at the hole (no column action) (a) for indefinite life, (b) for 50,000
repetitions (no reversal) of the maximum load, (c) for indefinite life but with a
ground and polished surface. In this case, compute the maximum stress.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
For as forged surface
Surface factor = 0.55
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.55)(32.5) = 12.2 ksi
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn

Page 16 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Fig. AF 8, b h > 1
Assume K t = 3.5
d 1
Figure AF 7, r = = in = 0.125 in
2 8
a = 0.01 in
1 1
q= = = 0.926
a 0.01
1+ 1+
r 0.125
K f = q K t 1 + 1 = 0.926(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.3
( )
sm = 0
F 10
sa = =
b(h d ) b(2b 0.25)
1 K s
(a) = 0+ f a
N sn
1
= 0+
(3.3)(10)
1.5 b(2b 0.25)(12.2)
2
2b 0.25b = 4.06
b 2 0.125b 2.03 = 0
b = 1.489 in
1
say b = 1 in , h = 2b = 3 in
2

## (b) For 50,000 repetitions or 50,000 cycles

0.085
106
sn = (12.2 )
4
= 15.74 ksi
5 10
(log K ) 3 (log 3.3 ) 3
K fl =
n f

=
(5 104 ) = 2.0
log K
10 f 10log 3.3
1 K fl sa
=
N sn
1
=
(2.0)(10)
1.5 b(2b 0.25)(15.74)
2b 2 0.25b = 1.906
b 2 0.125b 0.953 = 0
b = 1.04 in
1 1
say b = 1 in , h = 2b = 2 in
16 8

## (c) For indefinite life, ground and polished surface

Surface factor = 0.90

Page 17 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.90)(32.5) = 20 ksi
1 K f sa
=
N sn
1
=
(3.3)(10)
1.5 b(2b 0.25)(20)
b 2 0.125b 1.2375 = 0
b = 1.18 in
3 3
say b = 1 in , h = 2b = 2 in
16 8
Kf F
Maximum stress =
b(h d )
b h > 1 , d h = 0.25 2.375 = 0.105
Figure AF 8
K t = 3.5
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.926(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.315

smax =
(3.315)(10) = 13.14 ksi
1.1875(2.375 0.25)

159. A connecting link as shown, except that there is a 1/8-in. radial hole drilled
through it at the center section. It is machined from AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F, and
it is subjected to a repeated, reversed axial load whose maximum value is 5 kips.
For N = 1.5 , determine the diameter of the link at the hole (a) for indefinite life;
(b) for a life of 105 repetitions (no column action). (c) In the link found in (a)
what is the maximum tensile stress?

Problem 159

Solution:
For AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F
su = 135 ksi
s y = 126 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(135) = 67.5 ksi
For machined surface, Fig. AF 7, surface factor = 0.80
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.80)(67.5) = 36.72 ksi

Page 18 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn

Fig. AF 8, b h > 1
Assume K t = 2.5
d 1
Figure AF 7, r = = in = 0.0625 in
2 16
a = 0.0025 in
1 1
q= = = 0.96
a 0.0025
1+ 1+
r 0.0625
K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.96(2.5 1) + 1 = 2.44
(a) Indefinite life, K f = 2.44
sn = 36.72 ksi
sm = 0
F 4F 4(5) 20
sa = = = =
D 2 2
D 4 Dd 1 D 0.5 D
2
Dd D 2 4 D
4 8
1 K s
= 0+ f a
N sn
1
=
(2.44)(20)
1.5 36.72(D 2 0.5D )
D 2 0.5D = 2.00
D = 0.88 in
7
say D = in
8

## (b) For a life of 105 repetitions or cycles

0.085
106
sn = (36.72 ) 5 = 44.66 ksi
10
(log K ) 3 (log 2.4 ) 3
n f

K fl = log K f =
(105 ) = 1.81
10 10log 2.44
1 K fl sa
=
N sn
1
=
(1.81)(20)
1.5 44.66(D 2 0.5 D )
D 2 0.5D = 1.216
D = 0.71 in

Page 19 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

3
say D = in
4

4K f F
(c) smax =
D 2 0.5D
7 d 0.125
D = in , = = 0.14
8 D 0.875
Figure AF 8
K t = 2.6
K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.96(2.6 1) + 1 = 2.54
4(2.54)(5)
smax = 2
= 25.82 ksi
7 7
0.5
8 8

160. A machine part of uniform thickness t = b 2.5 is shaped as shown and machined
all over from AISI C1020, as rolled. The design is for indefinite life for a load
repeated from 1750 lb to 3500 lb. Let d = b . (a) For a design factor of 1.8
(Soderberg), what should be the dimensions of the part? (b) What is the
maximum tensile stress in the part designed?

## Problems 160, 161

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
For machined surface
Surface factor = 0.90
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.90)(32.5) = 20 ksi
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
(a) For flat plate with fillets
Figure AF 9
b d
r= =
3 3

Page 20 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

r 1
= = 0.333
d 3
h 2b
= =2
d b
K t = 1.65
a = 0.01 in
1
q= 1.0
a
1+
r
K f K t = 1.65
Fm
sm =
bt
Fa
sa =
bt
b
t=
2 .5
1
Fm = (3500 + 1750 ) = 2625 lb
2
1
Fa = (3500 1750 ) = 875 lb
2
2625 6562.5
sm = =
b b2
b
2 .5
875 2187.5
sa = =
b b2
b
2 .5
1 6562.5 (1.65)(2187.5)
= +
1.8 48,000b 2 20,000b 2
b = 0.7556 in
or b = 0.75 in
b 0.75
t= = = 0.3 in
2 .5 2 .5

## For flat plate with central hole

Fig. AF 8, b h > 1 , d h = b 2b = 1 2
Assume K f K t = 2.9
Fm Fm F
sm = = = m
(h d )t (2b b )t bt
Fa Fa F
sa = = = a
(h d )t (2b b )t bt

Page 21 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

2625 6562.5
sm = =
b b2
b
2 .5
875 2187.5
sa = =
b b2
b
2 .5
1 6562.5 (2.9)(2187.5)
= +
1.8 48,000b 2 20,000b 2
b = 0.904 in
15
or b = 0.9375 in = in
16
b 3
t= = in
2 .5 8
15
d = b = in
16
15 3 15
use b = in , t = in , d = in
16 8 16

(b) smax = sm + K f sa
d 15
r= = in
2 32
1
q= = 0.98
0.01
1+
15

32
K t = 2.9
K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.98(2.9 1) + 1 = 2.86
Fm 6562.5 6562.5
sm = = = 2
= 7467 psi
bt b2 15

16
F 2187.5 2187.5
sa = a = = 2
= 2489 psi
bt b2 15

16
smax = sm + K f sa = 7467 + (2.86 )(2489 ) = 14,586 psi

162. The beam shown has a circular cross section and supports a load F that
varies from 1000 lb to 3000 lb; it is machined from AISI C1020 steel, as
rolled. Determine the diameter D if r = 0.2 D and N = 2 ; indefinite life.

Page 22 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

## Problems 162 164.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
For machined surface
Surface factor = 0.90
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(0.90 )(32.5) = 24.86 ksi
M A =0
12 F = 24 B
F = 2B
F
B=
2
F
A= B=
2
At discontinuity
6F
M= = 3F
2
M max = 3(3000) in lb = 9000 in lb = 9 in kips
M min = 3(1000) in lb = 3000 in lb = 3 in kips
1
M m = (9 + 3) = 6 in kips
2
1
M a = (9 3) = 3 in kips
2
32 M
s=
D3
Figure AF 12
D d =1.5d d =1.5
r d = 0.2d d = 0.2
K t = 1.42
assume K f K t = 1.42

Page 23 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1 (32 )(6 ) (1.42 )(32 )(3)
= +
2 48D 3 24.86D 3
D = 1.821 in
13
say D = 1 in
16
At maximum moment
12 F
M= = 6F
2
M max = 6(3000) in lb = 18000 in lb = 18 in kips
M min = 6(1000) in lb = 6000 in lb = 6 in kips
1
M m = (18 + 6 ) = 12 in kips
2
1
M a = (18 6 ) = 6 in kips
2
32 M
s=
D3
K f = 1.00
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1 (32 )(12 ) (1.0 )(32 )(6 )
= +
2 48D 3 24.86D 3
D = 1.4368 in
13
Therefore use D = 1 in
16
164. The shaft shown is machined from C1040, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 1). It is
subjected to a torque that varies from zero to 10,000 in-lb. ( F = 0 ). Let r = 0.2 D
and N = 2 . Compute D . What is the maximum torsional stress in the shaft?

Solution:

## For C1040, OQT 1000 F

su = 104 ksi
s y = 72 ksi

Page 24 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

## sn = 0.5su = 0.5(104) = 52 ksi

For machined surface
Surface factor = 0.85
Size factor = 0.85
sns = (0.60)(0.85)(0.85)(52) = 22.5 ksi
1
Ta = Tm = (10,000 ) = 5000 in lb = 5 in kips
2
s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(72 ) = 43.2 ksi
16T
sms = sas =
D3
1 sms K fs sas
= +
N s ys sns
Figure AF 12
D d =1.5d d =1.5
r d = 0.2d d = 0.2
K ts = 1.2
assume K fs K ts = 1.2
1
=
(16)(5) + (1.2)(16)(5)
2 43.2D 3 22.5D 3
D = 1.5734 in
9
say D = 1 in
16
smax = sm + K f sa

smax =
(16)(5) +
(1.2)(16)(5) = 14.686 ksi
3 3
9 9
1 1
16 16

165. An axle (nonrotating) is to be machined from AISI 1144, OQT 1000 F, to the
proportions shown, with a fillet radius r 0.25 D ; F varies from 400 lb to 1200
lb.; the supports are to the left of BB not shown. Let N = 2 (Soderberg line). (a)
At the fillet, compute D and the maximum tensile stress. (b) Compute D at
section BB. (c) Specify suitable dimensions keeping the given proportions, would
a smaller diameter be permissible if the fillet were shot-peened?

## Problems 165 167

Page 25 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Solution:
For AISI 1144, OQT 1000 F
su = 118 ksi
s y = 83 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 59 ksi
For machined surface
Surface factor = 0.83
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(0.83)(59) = 41.62 ksi

## (a) At the fillet

D d =1.5d d =1.5
r d = 0.25d d = 0.25
K t = 1.35
assume K f K t = 1.35
M = 6F
M max = 6(1200) in lb = 7200 in lb = 7.2 in kips
M min = 6(400) in lb = 2400 in lb = 2.4 in kips
1
M m = (7.2 + 2.4 ) = 4.8 in kips
2
1
M a = (7.2 2.4 ) = 2.4 in kips
2
32 M
s=
D3
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1 (32 )(4.8) (1.35)(32 )(2.4 )
= +
2 83D 3 41.62D 3
D = 1.4034 in
7
say D = 1 in
16

## (b) At section BB,

M = 30 F
M max = 30(1200) in lb = 36000 in lb = 36 in kips
M min = 30(400) in lb = 12000 in lb = 12 in kips
1
M m = (7.2 + 2.4 ) = 4.8 in kips
2
1
M a = (7.2 2.4 ) = 2.4 in kips
2

Page 26 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

32 M
s=
D3
K f = 1 .0
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1
=
(32)(36) + (1.0)(32)(12)
2 83 (1.5 D )3 41.62 (1.5 D )3
D = 1.6335 in
11
say D = 1 in
16

## (c) Specified dimension:

D = 2 in , 1.5 D = 3 in

## A smaller diameter is permissible if the fillet were shot-peened because of increased

fatigue strength.

## 166. A pure torque varying from 5 in-kips to 15 in-kips is applied at section C.

( F = 0 ) of the machined shaft shown. The fillet radius r = D 8 and the torque
passes through the profile keyway at C. The material is AISI 1050, OQT 1100 F,
and N = 1.6 . (a) What should be the diameter? (b) If the fillet radius were
increased to D 4 would it be reasonable to use a smaller D ?

Solution:

Tmax = 15 in kips
Tmin = 5 in kips
1
Tm = (15 + 5) = 10 in kips
2
1
Ta = (15 5) = 5 in kips
2
For AISI 1050, OQT 1100 F
su = 101 ksi
s y = 58.5 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(101) = 50.5 ksi

Page 27 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

## For machined surface

Surface factor = 0.85
Size factor = 0.85
sns = (0.60)(0.85)(0.85)(50.5) = 21.9 ksi
(a) At the fillet
r d =r D = =1 8
D d =1.5
K ts = 1.3
assume K fs K ts = 1.3
At the key profile
K fs = 1.6
use K fs = 1.6
s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(58.5) = 35.1 ksi
1 sms K fs sas
= +
N s ys sns
1
=
(16)(10) + (1.6)(16)(5)
1.6 35.1D 3 21.9D 3
D = 1.7433 in
3
say D = 1 in
4

(b) r = D 4
r D = 0.25
D d =1.5
Figure AF 12
K ts = 1.18
K fs K ts = 1.18 < 1.6
Therefore, smaller D is not reasonable.

170. The beam shown is made of AISI C1020 steel, as rolled; e = 8 in . The load F is
repeated from zero to a maximum of 1400 lb. Assume that the stress
concentration at the point of application of F is not decisive. Determine the
depth h and width t if h 4t ; N = 1.5 0.1 for Soderberg line. Iteration is
necessary because K f depends on the dimensions. Start by assuming a logical
K f for a logical h (Fig. AF 11), with a final check of K f . Considerable
estimation inevitable.

Page 28 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Problem 170
Solution:

1
A= B= F
2
At the hole
F
M = eB = (8) = 4 F
2
M max = 4 F
M min = 0
1
M m = (4 F ) = 2 F = 2(1.4 ) = 2.8 in kips
2
1
M a = (4 F ) = 2 F = 2(1.4 ) = 2.8 in kips
2
Mc
s=
I

I=
(h 2d )3 t
12
1
d = in = 0.5 in
2
1 11
c = 1 + = 1.75 in
2 22
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(32.5) = 27.62 ksi
Fig. AF 7, c d = 1.75 0.5 = 3.5 > 0.5

Page 29 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Assume K t = 3.5
1 1
r = = 0.25 in
2 2
a = 0.010 in
1 1
q= = = 0.962
a 0.010
1+ 1+
r 0.25
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.962(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.4
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1 12(2.8)(1.75) (3.4 )(12 )(2.8)(1.75)
= +
1.5 48(h 2d )3 t 27.62(h 2d ) t
3

(h 2d )3 t = 12.70
[h 2(0.50)]3 t = 12.70
(4t 1)3 t = 12.70
t = 0.8627 in
7
say t = in
8
h = 4t = 3.5 in
1 1 1
h > 1 + 1 + in
2 2 2
h > 3.5 in
Figure AF 11, h d > 10
h = 10d = 10(0.50) = 5 in
1
d
= 2 = 0 .5
b 5 1 1
2 2
Therefore K t = 3.5 , K f = 3.4
1
Use h = 5 in , t = 1 in
4

171. Design a crank similar to that shown with a design factor of 1.6 0.16 based on
the modified Goodman line. The crank is to be forged with certain surfaces
milled as shown and two -in. holes. It is estimated that the material must be of
the order of AISI 8630, WQT 1100 F. The length L = 17 in. , a = 5 in. , and the
load varies form + 15 kips to 9 kips. (a) Compute the dimensions at section AB
with h = 3b . Check the safety of the edges (forged surfaces). (Iteration involves;
one could first make calculations for forged surfaces and then check safety at
holes.) (b) Without redesigning but otherwise considering relevant factors ,

Page 30 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

quantitatively discuss actions that might be taken to reduce the size; holes must
remain as located.

Problems 171-174.
Solution:

## (a) AISI 8630, WQT 1100 F

su = 96 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(96) = 48 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
As-forged surface (Fig. AF I)
Surface factor = 0.4
sn = (0.85)(0.42)(48) = 17 ksi

## Milled surface (Machined)

Surface factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(0.85)(48) = 34.68 ksi

At AB, machined
1 sm K f sa
= +
N su sn
Figure AF 11
1
b = in = 0.5 in
2
1
d = in = 0.25 in
4
d 0.25
= in = 0.5
b 0 .5
Assume K f = 3.50
q = 0.998
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.998(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.495
Mc
s=
I

I=
(h 2d ) b
3

12

Page 31 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

h 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
c= + = h 1 + = (4h 4 + 1) = (4h 3)
2 2 2 4 2 4 8 8
h = 3b
1
M (4h 3)
s=
8
3
1
h 2 4 b

12
3
M (12b 3)
s= 2
(3b 0.5)3 b
4.5M (4b 1)
s=
(3b 0.5)3 b
M = F (L a )
M max = (15)(17 5) = 180 in kips
M min = ( 9)(17 5) = 108 in kips
1
M m = (180 108) = 36 in kips
2
1
M a = (180 + 108) = 144 in kips
2
1 sm K f sa
= +
N su sn
1 4.5(36 )(4b 1) (3.495)(4.5)(144 )(4b 1)
= +
1.6 96(3b 0.5)3 b 34.68(3b 0.5) b
3

(4b 1) = 1
(3b 0.5)3 b 107.2
(3b 0.5)3 b = 107.2
(4b 1)
b = 2.6 in
5
say b = 2 in
8
7
h = 3b = 7 in
8
Checking at the edges (as forged)
M max = (15)(17 ) = 255 in kips
M min = ( 9)(17 ) = 153 in kips
1
M m = (255 153) = 51 in kips
2

Page 32 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1
M a = (255 + 153) = 204 in kips
2
6M 6M 2 M
s= 2 = 3 = 3
bh 9b 3b
K f 1 .0
1 sm K f sa
= +
N su sn
1 2(51) (1.0)(2)(204)
= 3 +
1.6 3b (96) 3b3 (17 )
b = 2.373 in
3
say b = 2 in
8
5 3
since b = 2 in > 2 in , safe.
8 8

CHECK PROBLEMS

## 173. For the crank shown, L = 15 in , a = 3 in , d = 4.5 in , b = 1.5 in . It is as forged

from AISI 8630, WQT 1100 F, except for machined areas indicated. The load F
varies from +5 kips to 3 kips. The crank has been designed without detailed
attention to factors that affect its endurance strength. In section AB only,
compute the factor of safety by the Soderberg criterion. Suppose it were desired
to improve the margin of safety, with significant changes of dimensions
prohibited, what various steps could be taken? What are your particular
recommendations?

Solution:

## For as forged surface

sn = 17 ksi
For machined surface
sn = 34.68 ksi

s n = 72 ksi
In section AB, machined

Page 33 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

M = F (L a )
M max = (+ 5)(15 3) = 60 in kips
M min = ( 3)(15 3) = 36 in kips
1
M m = (60 36 ) = 12 in kips
2
1
M a = (60 + 36 ) = 48 in kips
2
d = h = 4.5 in , b = 1.5 in
h
=3
b
4.5M (4b 1)
s=
(3b 0.5)3 b
4.5(12 )[4(1.5) 1]
sm = = 2.8125 ksi
[3(1.5) 0.5]3 (1.5)
4.5(48)[4(1.5) 1]
sa = = 11.25 ksi
[3(1.5) 0.5]3 (1.5)
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
K f = 3.495 from Problem 171.
1 2.8125 (3.495)(11.25)
= +
N 72 34.68
N = 0.85 < 1 , unsafe
To increase the margin of safety
1. reduce the number of repetitions of loads
2. shot-peening
3. good surface roughness

Recommendation:
No. 1, reducing the number of repetitions of loads.

175. The link shown is made of AISI C1020, as rolled, machined all over. It is loaded
3 9 5
in tension by pins in the D = in holes in the ends; a = in , t = in ,
8 16 16
1
h = 1 in . Considering sections at A, B, and C, determine the maximum safe
8
axial load for N = 2 and indefinite life (a) if it is repeated and reversed; (b) if it
is repeated varying from zero to maximum; (c) if it is repeatedly varies or
F = W to F = 3W . (d) Using the results from (a) and (b), determine the ratio of
the endurance strength for a repeated load to that for a reversed load (Soderberg
line).

Page 34 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

## Problems 175 - 178

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
For machined all over
Surface factor = 0.90
sn = (0.85)(0.90)(0.80)(32.5) = 20 ksi
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
at A, Figure AF 8
9
b = in
16
1
h = 1 in
8
3
d = D = in
8
5
t = in
16
3
d
= 8 = 0.33
h 11
8
9
b 16
= = 0.5
h 1
1
8
K tA = 3.6
d 3
r = = in
2 16
a = 0.01 in

Page 35 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 1
q= = = 0.95
a 0.01
1+ 1+
r 3
16
k fA = q ktA 1 + 1 = 0.95(3.6 1) + 1 = 3.47
( )
F F 64 F
s= = =
(h d )t 1 1 3 5 15
8 8 16
1 64 Fm 3.47(64)Fa
= +
2 15(48) 15(20)
8
1= Fm + 1.48 Fa at A
45

At B Figure AF 9
9
d = a = in
16
1
h = 1 in
8
3
r = in
16
5
t = in
16
3
r 16
= = 0.33
d 9
16
1
1
h
= 8 =2
d 9
16
K tB = 1.63
a = 0.01 in
1 1
q= = = 0.95
a 0.01
1+ 1+
r 3
16
k fB = q (ktB 1) + 1 = 0.95(1.63 1) + 1 = 1.6
F F 256 F
s= = =
dt
9 5 45

16 16

Page 36 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 256 Fm 1.6(256)Fa
= +
2 45(48) 45(20)
32
1= Fm + 0.455 Fa at B
135

b
at C, Figure AF 8, >1
h
1
D= in
8
9
h = a = in
16
1
d
= 8 = 0.22
h 9
16
K tC = 3.5
d 1
r = = in
2 16
a = 0.01 in
1 1
q= = = 0.862
a 0.01
1+ 1+
r 1
16
k fC = q (ktC 1) + 1 = 0.862(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.2
F F 256 F
s= = =
(h d )t 9 1 5 35
16 8 16
1 256 Fm 3.2(256)Fa
= +
2 35(48) 35(20)
32
1= Fm + 1.17 Fa at C
105

Equations
8
At A, 1 = Fm + 1.48 Fa
45
32
At B, 1 = Fm + 0.455 Fa
135
32
At C, 1 = Fm + 1.17 Fa
105

Page 37 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

## (a) Repeated and reversed load

Fm = 0
Fa = F
use at A
8
1= Fm + 1.48 Fa
45
8
1 = (0 ) + 1.48 Fa
45
F = 0.676 kip

(b) Fm = Fa = F
8
at A, 1 = F + 1.48 F
45
F = 0.603 kip
32
at B, 1 = F + 0.455 F
135
F = 1.480 kips
32
at C, 1 = F + 1.17 F
105
F = 0.678 kip
use F = 0.603 kip

## (c) Fmin = W , Fmax = 3W

1
Fm = (3W W ) = W
2
1
Fa = (3W + W ) = 2W
2
8
at A, 1 = W + 1.48(2W )
45
W = 0.319 kip
32
at B, 1 = W + 0.455(2W )
135
W = 0.884 kip
32
at C, 1 = W + 1.17(2W )
105
W = 0.378 kip
use W = 0.319 kip
Fmax = 0.957 kip

Page 38 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

F (b ) 0.603
(d) Ratio = = = 0.892
F (a ) 0.676

179. A steel rod shown, AISI 2320, hot rolled, has been machined to the following
3 1
dimensions: D = 1 in. , c = in. , e = in. A semicircular groove at the
4 8
1 1
midsection has r = in. ; for radial hole, a = in. An axial load of 5 kips is
8 4
repeated and reversed ( M = 0 ). Compute the factor of safety (Soderberg) and
make a judgement on its suitability (consider statistical variations of endurance
strength i4.4). What steps may be taken to improve the design factor?

Problems 179-183

Solution:
AISI 2320 hot-rolled (Table AT 10)
su = 96 ksi
s y = 51 ksi
sn = 48 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
Surface factor = 0.85 (machined)
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.85)(48) = 27.74 ksi
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
sm = 0 , reversed
sa = s
1 K f sa
=
N sn
s
sa = n
NK f
at the fillet, Figure AF 12
1
r = e = in
8

Page 39 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

3
d =c= in
4
D = 1 in
1
r 8
= = 0.17
d 3
4
D 1
= = 1.3
d 3
4
K t = 1.55
a = 0.010 in
1 1
q= = = 0.926
a 0.010
1+ 1+
r 1
8
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.926(1.55 1) + 1 = 1.51
4(5)
sa = s = 2
= 11.32 ksi
3

4
sn 27.74
N= = = 1.62
sa K f (11.32)(1.51)

## At the groove, Figure AF 14

1 3
d = b = D 2r = 1 in 2 in = in
8 4
D = 1 in
1
r = in
8
1
r 8
= = 0.17
d 3
4
D 1
= = 1.3
d 3
4
K t = 1.75
a = 0.010 in

Page 40 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 1
q= = = 0.926
a 0.010
1+ 1+
r 1
8
K f = q K t 1 + 1 = 0.926(1.75 1) + 1 = 1.7
( )
4F 4(5)
sa = s = 2
= 2
= 11.32 ksi
d 3

4
s 27.74
N= n = = 1.44
sa K f (11.32)(1.7 )

## At the hole, Figure AF8

D = h = 1 in
1
d = a = in
4
1
D 4
= = 0.25
h 1
K t = 2.44
a = 0.010 in
1 1
q= = = 0.926
a 0.010
1+ 1+
r 1
8
K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.926(2.44 1) + 1 = 2.33
F 5
sa = s = = = 9.34 ksi
D 2
(1)
2
1
Dd (1)
4 4 4
sn 27.74
N= = = 1.27
sa K f (9.34)(2.33)

## Factor of safety is 1.27

From i4.4
s = 0.76sn
sn
N= = 1.32 min > 1.27
0.76 sn
Therefore, dimensions are not suitable.

Steps to be taken:
1. Reduce number of cycle to failure

Page 41 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

## 2. Good surface condition

3. Presetting

186. A stock stud that supports a roller follower on a needle bearing for a cam is
5 7 3
made as shown, where a = in , b = in , c = in . The nature of the junction
8 16 4
of the diameters at B is not defined. Assume that the inside corner is sharp. The
material of the stud is AISI 2317, OQT 1000 F. Estimate the safe, repeated load
F for N = 2 . The radial capacity of the needle bearing is given as 1170 lb. at
2000 rpm for a 2500-hr life. See Fig. 20.9, p. 532, Text.

Problem 186
Solution:
AISI 2317, OQT 1000 F
su = 106 ksi
s y = 71 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 53 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(53) = 45 ksi
Figure AF 12
5
d = a = in
8
3
D = c = in
4
r d 0 , sharp corner
3
D 4
= = 1.2
d 5
8
Assume K t = 2.7
K f K t = 2 .7
32 M
s=
a3
7
M = Fb = F = 0.4375 F
16

Page 42 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

5
a= in = 0.625 in
8
32(0.4375)F
s= = 18.25 F
(0.625)3
sm = sa = s = 18.25F
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1 18.25 F (2.7 )(18.25 F )
= +
2 71 45
F = 0.370 kip = 370 lb < less than radial capacity of the needle bearing. Ok.

187. The link shown is made of AISI C1035 steel, as rolled, with the following
3 7 1 1
dimensions a = in. , b = in. , c = 1 in. , d = in. , L = 12 in. , r = in. The
8 8 2 16
axial load F varies from 3000 lb to 5000 lb and is applied by pins in the holes.
(a) What are the factors of safety at points A, B, and C if the link is machined all
over? What are the maximum stresses at these points?

## Problems 187, 188

Solution:
AISI C1035, as rolled
su = 85 ksi
s y = 55 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 42.5 ksi
size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.6)(0.85)(42.5) = 21.68 ksi
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1
Fm = (5 + 3) = 4 kips
2
1
Fa = (5 3) = 1 kip
2

Page 43 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

(a) at A, Figure AF 9
1
r = in
16
3
d = a = in
8
7
h = b = in
8
1
r 16
= = 0.17
d 3
8
7
h 8
= = 2.33
d 3
8
K t = 1.9
a = 0.010 in
1 1
q= = = 0.862
a 0.010
1+ 1+
r 1
16
K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.862(1.9 1) + 1 = 1.78
F
s=
ac
4
sm = = 10.67 ksi
3
(1)
8
1
sa = = 2.67 ksi
3
(1)
8
1 10.67 (1.78)(2.67 )
= +
N 55 21.68
N = 2.42

At B, same as A, K f = 1.78
F
s=
(b a )c
4
sm = = 8 ksi
7 3
(1)
8 8

Page 44 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1
sa = = 2 ksi
7 3
(1)
8 8
1 8 (1.78)(2 )
= +
N 55 21.68
N = 3.23

At C, Figure AF 8
1
d = in
2
h = c = 1 in
b h >1
1
d 2
= = 0.5
h 1
K t = 2.2
a = 0.010 in
d 1
r = = in = 0.25 in
2 4
1 1
q= = = 0.962
a 0.010
1+ 1+
r 0.25
K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.962(2.2 1) + 1 = 2.15
F
s=
(b a )(c d )
4
sm = = 16 ksi
7 3 1
1
8 8 2
1
sm = = 4 ksi
7 3 1
1
8 8 2
1 16 (2.15)(4 )
= +
N 55 21.68
N = 1.45

## (b) Maximum stresses

at A
s A = sm + K f sa = 10.67 + 1.78(2.67 ) = 15.42 ksi
at B
sB = sm + K f sa = 8 + 1.78(2 ) = 11.56 ksi

Page 45 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

at C
sC = sm + K f sa = 16 + 2.15(4 ) = 24.6 ksi

IMPACT PROBLEMS

189. A wrought-iron bar is 1in. in diameter and 5 ft. long. (a) What will be the stress
and elongation if the bar supports a static load of 5000 lb? Compute the stress
and elongation if a 5000 lb. weight falls freely 0.05 in. and strikes a stop at the
end of the bar. (b) The same as (a), except that the bar is aluminum alloy 3003-
H14.

Solution:
D = 1 in. , L = 5 ft
For wrought iron,
E = 28 106 psi
(a) elongation
F = 5000 lb

=
FL
=
(5000)(5)(12) = 0.01364 in

AE
4
(
(1)2 28 106 )
Stress and elongation
h = 0.05 in
W = 5000 lb
L = 5 ft = 60 in
1
W W 2hEA 2
s = + 1 +
A A LW
1
6 2
2

5000 5000
2(0.05 ) (
28 10 )
(1)
s= + 1 + 4 = 24,741 psi
2 2
(1) (1) (60)(5000)
4 4

sL (24,741)(60 )
= = = 0.053 in
E 28 106

## (b) Aluminum alloy 3003-H14

E = 10 106 psi
F = 5000 lb

=
FL
=
(5000)(5)(12) = 0.038 in
AE (1)2 10 106
( )
4
Stress and elongation
h = 0.05 in

Page 46 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

W = 5000 lb
L = 5 ft = 60 in
1
W W 2hEA 2
s = + 1 +
A A LW
1
6 2
2

5000 5000
2(0.05 ) 10 (
10 ) (1)
s= + 1 + 4 = 18,475 psi
2 2
(1) (1) (60)(5000)
4 4

sL (18,475)(60 )
= = = 0.111 in
E 10 106

190. What should be the diameter of a rod 5 ft. long, made of an aluminum alloy
2024-T4, if it is to resist the impact of a weight of W = 500 lb dropped through a
distance of 2 in.? The maximum computed stress is to be 20 ksi.

Solution:
For aluminum alloy, 2024-T4
E = 10.6 106 psi
W = 500 lb
h = 2 in
L = 5 ft = 60 in
s = 20 ksi = 20,000 psi
1
W W 2hEA 2
s = + 1 +
A A LW
1

20,000 = + 1+
(
5000 5000 2(2 ) 10.6 106 A 2 )
A A (60)(500)
1
40 A = 1 + (1 + 1413 A)2
D 2
A= = 0.9332
4
1
D = 1.09 in , say D = 1 in
16

191. A rock drill has the heads of the cylinder bolted on by 7/8-in. bolts somewhat as
shown. The grip of the bolt is 4 in. (a) If the shank of the bolt is turned down to
the minor diameter of the coarse-thread screw, 0.7387 in., what energy may each
bolt absorb if the stress is not to exceed 25 ksi? (b) Short bolts used as described
above sometimes fail under repeated shock loads. It was found in one instance
that if long bolts, running from head to head, were used, service failures were
eliminated. How much more energy will the bolt 21 in. long absorb for a stress of

Page 47 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

25 ksi. That the bolt 4 in. long? As before, let the bolt be turned down to the
minor diameter. The effect of the threads on the strength is to be neglected.

Problem 191
Solution:
s2 2
U= ( AL ) = s AL
2E 2E
2
D
(a) A =
4
L = 4 in
D = 0.7387 in
E = 30106 psi
s = 25 ksi = 25,000 psi

## (25,000)2 (0.7387 )2 (4)

U= 4 = 17.86 in lb
(
2 30 106 )
(b) L = 21 in

## (25,000)2 (0.7387 )2 (21)

U= 4 = 93.75 in lb
(
2 30 106 )
U = 93.75 17.86 = 75.89 in lb

192. As seen in the figure, an 8.05-lb body A moving down with a constant
acceleration of 12 fps2, having started from rest at point C. If A is attached to a
steel wire, W & M gage 8 (0.162 in. diameter) and if for some reason the sheave
D is instantly stopped, what stress is induced in the wire?

## Problems 192, 193

Solution:
s 2 AL
U=
2E
1 2 1
U = mv = m(2ah ) = mah = maL
2 2

Page 48 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

s 2 AL
= maL
2E
2maE 2WaE
s2 = =
A gA
W = 8.05 lb
a = 12 fps 2
g = 32 fps 2
b = 12 fps 2
E = 30106 psi
D 2
A=
4
8WaE 8(8.05)(12)(30 106 )
s2 = =
D 2 g (0.162)2 (32)
s = 93,741 psi

193. The hoist A shown, weighing 5000 lb. and moving at a constant v = 4 fps is
attached to a 2 in. wire rope that has a metal area of 1.6 sq. in. and a modulus
E = 12 106 psi . When h = 100 ft , the sheave D is instantly stopped by a brake
(since this is impossible, it represents the worst conceivable condition).
Assuming that the stretching is elastic, compute the maximum stress in the rope.

Solution:

s 2 AL
U=
2E
1 W 2
U = mv 2 = v
2 2g
s 2 AL W 2
= v
2E 2g
Wv 2 E
s2 =
gAL
W = 5000 lb

Page 49 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

v = 4 fps
E = 12 106 psi
A = 1.6 in 2
L = h = 100 ft
g = 32 fps 2

s2 =
(5000)(4)2 (12 106 )
(32)(1.6)(100)
s = 13,693 psi

194. A coarse-thread steel bolt, in. in diameter, with 2 in. of threaded and 3 in. of
unthreaded shank, receives an impact caused by a falling 500-lb weight. The area
at the root of the thread is 0.334 sq. in. and the effects of threads are to be
neglected. (a) What amount of energy in in-lb. could be absorbed if the maximum
calculated stress is 10 ksi? (b) From what distance h could the weight be
dropped for this maximum stress? (c) How much energy could be absorbed at the
same maximum stress if the unthreaded shank were turned down to the root
diameter.

Solution:
s 2 AL
U=
2E
(a) U = U1 + U 2
s12 A1L1
U1 =
2E
2
s AL
U2 = 2 2 2
2E
A1 = 0.334 in 2

A2 = (0.75) = 0.442 in 2
4
s1 = 10,000 psi
s A (10,000 )(0.334 )
s2 = 1 1 = = 7556 psi
A2 0.442
L1 = 2 in
L2 = 3 in
E = 30 10 6 psi

U1 =
(10,000)2 (0.334)(2) = 1.113 in lb
2(30 106 )

U2 =
(7556)2 (0.442)(3) = 1.262 in lb
2(30 106 )

Page 50 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

## U = U1 + U 2 = 1.113 + 1.262 = 2.375 in lb

1

W 2hEA 2
(b) s = 1 + 1 +
A LW

1

2

W 2hE
s = 1 + 1 +
A1 L L
W 1 + 2
A1 A2

1

W 2hEA1 A2 2
s = 1 + 1 +
A1 W ( A2 L1 + A1L2 )

W = 500 lb
A1 = 0.334 in 2
A2 = 0.442 in 2
L1 = 2 in
L2 = 3 in
E = 30106 psi
s = 10,000 psi
1

10,000 =
500
1 + 1 +
( )
2h 30 106 (0.334 )(0.442 ) 2

0.334 500[(0.442 )(2 ) + (0.334 )(3)]
h = 0.0033 in

s 2 AL
(c) U =
2E
A = 0.334 in 2
L = 5 in
E = 30106 psi
s = 10,000 psi

U=
(10,000) (0.334)(5)
2
= 2.783 in lb
2(30 106 )

196. A part of a machine that weighs 1000 lb. raised and lowered by 1 -in. steel rod
that has Acme threads on one end (see i8.18 Text, for minor diameter). The
length of the rod is 10 ft. and the upper 4 ft are threaded. As the part being

Page 51 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

lowered it sticks, then falls freely a distance of 1/8 in. (a) Compute the maximum
stress in the rod. (b) What would be the maximum stress in the rod if the lower
end had been turned down to the root diameter?

Solution:
1

W 2hEA 2
s= 1 + 1 +
A LW

1

2

W 2hE
s = 1 + 1 +
A1 L L
W 1 + 2
A1 A2

1

W 2hEA1 A2 2
s = 1 + 1 +
A1 W ( A2 L1 + A1L2 )

1
see i8.18 , D2 = 1 in , D1 = 1.25 in
2
(1.25) 2
A1 = = 1.227 in 2
4
(1.5)2
A2 = = 1.767 in 2
4
L1 = 4 in
L2 = 6 in
1
h = in = 0.125 in
8
W = 1000 lb
E = 30106 psi
1

s=
1000
1 + 1 +
( )
2(0.125) 30 106 (1.227 )(1.767 ) 2
= 28,186 psi
1.227 1000[(1.767 )(4 ) + (1.227 )(6 )]

1

W 2hEA 2
(b) s = 1 + 1 +
A LW

2
A = A1 = 1.227 in
L = L1 + L2 = 10 in

Page 52 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

s=
1000
1 + 1 +
( )
2(0.125) 30 106 (1.227 ) 2
= 25,552 psi
1.227 10(1000 )

## 197. A weight W of 50 lb is moving on a smooth horizontal surface with a velocity of

2 fps when it strikes head-on the end of a -in. round steel rod, 6 ft. long.
Compute the maximum stress in the rod. What design factor based on yield
strength is indicated for AISI 1010, cold drawn?

Solution:

1
2
Wv E2
s=
g AL1 + We
o W
W
We = b
3
Wb = AL
= 0.284 lb in3
2
3 2
A= = 0.442 in
4 4
L = 6 ft = 72 in
Wb = (0.284)(0.442)(72) = 9.038 lb
9.038
We = = 3.013 lb
3
W = 50 lb
v = 2 fps
g o = 32 fps 2
E = 30106 psi
L = 6 ft
1
2
(50)(2) (30 10 ) = 8166 psi
2 6
s=
(32)(0.442)(6)1 + 3.013
50
For AISI 1010, cold drawn
s y = 55 ksi = 55,000 psi
s y 55,000
N= = = 6.74
s 8166

Page 53 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

199. A rigid weight of 100 lb is dropped a distance of 25 in. upon the center of a 12
in., 50-lb. I-beam ( I x = 301.6 in 4 ) that is simply supported on supports 10 ft
apart. Compute the maximum stress in the I-beam both with and without
allowing for the beams weight.

Solution:

## Without beams weight

y
s = sst
yst
FL3
y=
48EI
F 48EI
k= = 3
y L
1

W 2hk 2
y = = 1 + 1 +
k W

6
E = 3010 psi
L = 10 ft = 120 in
I = 301.6 in 4
48(30 106 )(301.6)
k= = 251,333 lb in
(120)3
W = 100 lb
h = 25 in
1

100 2(25)(251,333) 2
y= 1 + 1 + = 0.1415 in
251,333 100

yst =
WL3
=
(100)(120) 3
= 0.0004 in
48EI 48(30 106 )(301.6)
Mc
sst =
I
WL (100 )(120 )
M= = = 3000 in lb
4 4
h 12
c= = = 6 in
2 2
sst =
(3000)(6) = 59.68 psi
301.6
0.1415
s = (59.68) = 21,112 psi
0.0004

Page 54 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

## with mass of beam

1
2h 2
y = yst + yst 1 +
yst
1
h - correction factor =
W
1+ e
W
17Wb
We =
35
Wb = (50 lb ft )(10 ft ) = 500 lb
17(500 )
We = = 243 lb
35
1
h - correction factor = = 0.292
243
1+
100
1

2(25)(0.292 ) 2
y = 0.00041 + 1 + = 0.0764 in
0 . 0004
y 0.0764
s = sst = (59.68) = 11,400 psi
yst 0.0004

201. A 3000 lb. automobile (here considered rigid) strikes the midpoint of a guard rail
that is an 8-in. 23-lb. I-beam, 40 ft. long; I = 64.2 in4 . Made of AISI C1020, as
rolled, the I-beam is simply supported on rigid posts at its ends. (a) What level
velocity of the automobile results in stressing the I-beam to the tensile yield
strength? Compare results observed by including and neglecting the beams
mass.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi = 48,000 psi
F Wv 2
=
2 2 go
F 48 EI
k= = 3
L
Mc FLc
s= =
I 4I
4 Is
F=
Lc
F F 2 L3 16 I 2 s 2 L3 s 2 IL
= = 2 2 =
2 96 EI L c (96 EI ) 6 Ec 2

Page 55 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

## neglecting mass of beam

F s 2 IL Wv 2
= =
2 6 Ec 2 2 go
3Wv 2 Ec 2
s2 =
2 g o IL
W = 3000 lb
g o = 32 fps 2
h 8
c = = = 4 in
2 2
E = 30106 psi
I = 64.2 in4
L = 40 ft
s = s y = 48 ksi = 48,000 psi

s = (48,000 ) =
2 2
=
( )
3Wv 2 Ec 2 3(3000 )v 2 30 106 (4 )
2

2 g o IL 32(64.2 )(40 )
v = 6.62 fps
Including mass of beam

2
2
3Wv Ec 1
s2 =
2 g o IL 1 + We

W
17Wb
We =
35
Wb = (23 lb ft )(40 ft ) = 920 lb
17(920 )
We = = 447 lb
35

s 2 = (48,000) =
2 3Wv 2
Ec 2
=
3(3000 )v 2
(30 10 6
)(4 )2
1
447
2 go IL 32(64.2)(40) 1 +
3000
v = 7.10 fps

## DATA LACKING DESIGNERS DECISIONS

202. A simple beam is struck midway between supports by a 32.2-lb. weight that has
fallen 20 in. The length of the beam is 12 ft. If the stress is not to exceed 20 ksi,
what size I-beam should be used?

Solution:

Page 56 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1
2h 2
y = yst + yst 1 +
yst
y
s = sst
yst
h = 20 in
s = 20,000 psi
WL3
yst =
48EI
1
y 96 EIh 2
= 1 + 1 +
yst WL3
with correction factor
1
2
y 96 EIh 1
= 1 + 1 +
yst WL 3
We
1+
W
Mc WLd
sst = =
I 8I
17 wL
We =
35
1

2

WLd 96 EIh 1
s= 1 + 1 +
8I WL3 1 + 17 wL

35W

W = 32.2 lb
h = 20 in
L = 12 ft = 144 in
E = 30106 psi
1

2

(32.2)(144)d 96 30 106 (I )(20)
( ) 1
1 + 1 +
(32.2)(144)3 1 + 17(w)(12)
s=
8I
35(32.2)

1

579.6d 1 2
s= 1 + 1 + 599 I
I 1 + 0.181w

From The Engineers Manual
By Ralph G. Hudson, S.B.

Page 57 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

## Use 3, 5.7 lb, I = 2.5 in4

1
579.6(3) 1 2
s= 1 + 1 + 599(2.5) = 19,600 psi < 20,000 psi
2.5 1 + 0.181(5.7 )

## Therefore use 3-in depth, 5.7-lb I-beam ( I = 2.5 in4 )

204. A 10-in., 25.4-lb.., I-bean, AISI 1020, as rolled, is 10 ft. long and is simply
supported at the ends shown. There is a static load of F1 = 10 kips , 4 ft from the
left end, and a repeated reversed load of F2 = 10 kips , 3 ft from the right end. It is
desired to make two attachments to the beam through holes as shown. No
significant load is supported by these attachments, but the holes cause stress
concentration. Will it be safe to make these attachments as planned? Determine
the factor of safety at the point of maximum moment and at points of stress
concentration.

Problem 204
Solution:
Mass of beam negligible
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
su = 65 ksi
( M A = 0)
4 F1 + (10 3)F2 = 10 B
1
B = (4 F1 + 7 F2 )
10
( M B = 0)
3F2 + (10 4)F1 = 10 A
1
A = (6 F1 + 3F2 )
10
F1 = 10 kips
F2 = 10 to 10 kips
1
Bmin = [4(10 ) + 7( 10 )] = 3 kips
10

Page 58 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1
Bmax = [4(10) + 7(10)] = 11 kips
10
1
Amin = [6(10 ) + 3( 10 )] = 3 kips
10
1
Amax = [6(10 ) + 7(30 )] = 9 kips
10
Figure AF 11,
1
e = 1 in ,
2
1
d = in
4
1 1
c = 1 + 2 = 1.625 in
2 4
h = 10 in
h 10 1
b = e = 1 = 3.5 in
2 2 2
d 0.25
= = 0.07
b 3 .5
e 1.50
= = 6 > 0 .5
d 0.25
Use K t = 3.0
1
q= = 0.926
0.010
1+
1
8
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.926(3 1) + 1 = 2.85
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
size factor = 0.85
sn = 0.85(32.5) = 27.6 ksi
left hole, M = (2)A
M max = 2(9) = 18 ft kips
M min = 2(3) = 6 ft kips
Mc
s=
I
1
M m = (18 + 6 ) = 12 ft kips = 144 in kips
2
1
M a = (18 6 ) = 6 ft kips = 72 in kips
2
c = 1.625 in
I = 122.1 in 4 (Tables)

Page 59 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

sm =
(144)(1.625) = 1.92 ksi
122.1
sa =
(72 )(1.625) = 0.96 ksi
122.1
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1 1.92 (2.85)(0.96 )
= +
N 48 27.6
N = 7 .2

## right hole , M = (1.5)B

M max = 1.5(11) = 16.5 ft kips
M min = 1.5( 3) = 4.5 ft kips
Mc
s=
I
1
M m = (16.5 4.5) = 6 ft kips = 72 in kips
2
1
M a = (16.5 + 4.5) = 10.5 ft kips = 126 in kips
2
c = 1.625 in
I = 122.1 in 4 (Tables)
sm =
(72)(1.625) = 0.96 ksi
122.1
sa =
(126)(1.625) = 1.68 ksi
122.1
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1 0.96 (2.85)(1.68)
= +
N 48 27.6
N = 5.67

at maximum moment, or at , F2
M max = 3(11) = 33 ft kips
M min = 3( 3) = 9 ft kips
Mc
s=
I
1
M m = (33 9 ) = 12 ft kips = 144 in kips
2
1
M a = (33 + 9 ) = 21 ft kips = 252 in kips
2

Page 60 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

10
c= = 5 in
2
I = 122.1 in 4 (Tables)
sm =
(144)(5) = 5.90 ksi
122.1
sa =
( 252 )(5)
= 10.32 ksi
122.1
K f = 1 .0
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1 5.90 (1.0 )(10.32 )
= +
N 48 27.6
N =2

Since the design factor at the holes is much larger than at the point of maximum moment,
it is safe to make these attachment as planned.

205. The runway of a crane consists of L = 20 ft. lengths of 15-in., 42.9-lb. I-beams,
as shown, each section being supported at its ends; AISI C1020, as rolled. The
wheels of the crane are 9 ft apart, and the maximum load expected is
F = 10,000 lb on each wheel. Neglecting the weight of the beam, find the design
factor (a) based on variable stresses for 105 cycles, (b) based on the ultimate
strength. (Hint. Since the maximum moment will occur under the wheel, assume
the wheels at some distance x from the point of support, and determine the
dM
reaction, R1 as a function of x ; = 0 gives position for a maximum bending
dx
moment.)

Problem 205.
Solution:
( M R2 = 0 )
(L x )F + (L x a )F = LR1
R =
(2 L 2 x a )F
1
L
x
M = R1 x = (2 L 2 x a )F
L

Page 61 of 62
SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

dM F
= [(2 L 2 x a ) + x( 2 )] = 0
dx L
2L 2x a 2x = 0
1 a
x = L
2 2
2
a a
L L F
M max = 2 2 L L a a F = 2

L 2 2L
L = 20 ft = 240 in
a = 9 ft = 108 in
F = 10,000 lb = 10 kips
2
108
240 (10 )
M max = 2
= 720.75 in kips
2(240 )
For 15-in., 42.9 lb, I-beam
I = 441.8 in4
15
c = = 7.5 in
2
Mc (720.75)(7.5)
smax = = = 12.24 ksi
I 441.8
For AISI C1029, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 32.5 ksi
size factor = 0.85
sn = 0.85(32.5) = 27.6 ksi

## (a) at 105 cycles

0.085
106
sn = 27.6 5 = 34 ksi
10
s 34
N= n = =7
s 12.24

su 65
(b) N = = = 5.31
s 12.24

- end -

Page 62 of 62
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

## SIMPLE TENSION INCLUDING TIGHTENING STRESSES

DESIGN PROBLEMS

221. A 5000-lb. gear box is provided with a steel (as rolled B1113) eyebolt for use
in moving it. What size bolt should be used: (a) if UNC threads are used? (b)
If UNF threads are used? (c) If the 8-thread series is used? Explain the basis
of your choice of design factor.

Solution:
B1113, as rolled
s y = 45 ksi (Table AT-7)
Fe = 5000 lb
sy 1 3
i5.6, sd = ( As ) 2 D < in
6 4
3
For D = in
4
As 0.35 sq.in.
sy 1
sd = (0.35) 2
6
sy
sd =
10
use design factor = 10

45,000 psi
sd =
10
sd = 4500 psi

Fe 5000
As = = = 1.111 sq.in.
sd 4500

## Table AT 14 and Table 5.1

3
Use D = 1 in , As = 1.155 sq.in.
8

Page 1 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

3
Use D = 1 in , As = 1.155 sq.in.
8

3
Use D = 1 in , As = 1.233 sq.in.
8

222. A motor weighing 2 tons is lifted by a wrought-iron eye bolt which is screwed
into the frame. Decide upon a design factor and determine the size of the
eyebolt if (a) UNC threads are used, (b) UNF threads are used. Note: Fine
threads are not recommended for brittle materials.

Solution:
Table AT-7
Wrought iron, s y = 25 ksi

## Assume design factor = 10

sy
sd =
10
25,000 psi
sd =
10
sd = 2500 psi

Fe 2(2000 )
As = = = 1.60 sq.in.
sd 2500

Table AT 17

3
Use D = 1 in , As = 1.90 sq.in.
4

1
Use D = 1 in , As = 1.581 sq.in.
2

Page 2 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

224. A wall bracket, Fig. 8-13, Text, is loaded so that the two top bolts that fasten it
to the wall are each subjected to a tensile load of 710 lb. The bolts are to be
cold forged from AISI C1020 steel with UNC threads, Neglecting the effect of
shearing stresses, determine the diameter of these bolts if they are well
tightened.

Figure 8-13

Solution:

## s y = 66 ksi (Table AT-7)

Fe = 710 lb
s 3 3
Fe = y ( As ) 2 D < in
6 4
66,000 3
710 = ( As ) 2
6
3
As = 0.161 sq.in. , D < in
4

## Table AT 14 , UNC Threads

9
Use D = in , As = 0.1820 sq.in.
16

Page 3 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

## 225. A connection similar to Fig. 5.9, Text, is subjected to an external load Fe of

1250 lb. The bolt is made from cold-finished AISI B1113 steel with UNC
threads. (a) Determine the diameter of the bolt if it is well tightened. (b)
Compute the initial tension and corresponding approximate tightening torque

if si = 0.85s y (i5.8).

Figure 5.9

Solution:
Cold-finished AISI B1113
Table A-7, s y = 72 ksi
Fe = 1250 lb
sy 3
(a) Fe = ( As ) 2
6
72,000 3
1250 = ( As ) 2
6
3
As = 0.2214 sq.in. , D <
in
4
Table AT 14 , UNC Threads

5
Use D = in , As = 0.2260 sq.in.
8

## (b) si = 0.85s y = 0.85(72,000 ) = 61,200 psi

Initial Tension
Fi = si As = (61,200 )(0.2260 ) = 13,831 lb
Tightening torque
T = CDFi

Page 4 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

5
T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (13,831) = 1729 in lb
8

## 226. The cylinder head of a 10 x 18 in. Freon compressor is attached by 10 stud

bolts made of SAE Grade 5. The cylinder pressure is 200 psi. (a) What size
bolts should be used? (b) What approximate tightening torque should be
needed to induce a tightening stress si of 0.9 times the proof stress?

Solution:
Table 5.2
Assume s y = 88 ksi

200 (10)
2

(a) Fe = 4 = 1571 lb
10
s 3 3
Fe = y ( As ) 2 , D < in
6 4
88,000 3
1571 = ( As ) 2
6
3
As = 0.2255 sq.in. , D < in
4
Table AT 14 , UNC Threads

5
Use D = in , As = 0.2260 sq.in.
8

(b) T = CDFi
C = 0 .2
si = 0.9 s p
s p = 85 ksi , (Table 5.2)
si = 0.9(85,000 ) = 76,500 psi
Fi = si As = (76,500 )(0.2260 ) = 17,289 lb
Tightening torque
5
T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (17,289 ) = 2161 in lb
8

227. The American Steel Flange Standard specifies that 8 bolts are to be used on
flanges for 4-in. pipe where the steam or water pressure is 1500 psi. It is also
specified that, in calculating the bolt load, the outside diameter of the gasket,
which is 6 3/16 in., should be used. Determine (a) the diameter of the UNC bolts
if they are well-tightened and made of ASTM 354 BD (Table 5-2), (b) the
approximate torque to tighten the nuts if the initial stress is 90 % of the proof

Page 5 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

stress. The Standard specifies that 1 1/4 in. bolts with 8 th./in. be used (these

Solution:

## Table 5.2, ASTM 354 BD

s p = 120 ksi
s y = 125 ksi
2
3
1500 6
Fe = 4 16 = 5638 lb
8

sy 3 3
(a) Fe = ( As ) 2 , D< in
6 4
125,000 3
5638 = ( As ) 2
6
3
As = 0.4184 sq.in. , D <
in
4
Table AT 14 , UNC Threads

7
Use D = in , As = 0.4620 sq.in.
8
3
D> in
4
use
sd = (1 0.85)s y = 0.15(125,000 ) = 18,750 psi
Fe 5638
As = = = 0.3007 sq.in.
sd 18,750
Table AT 14 , UNC Threads
3
Use D = in , As = 0.334 sq.in.
8
(b) T = 0.2 DFi
si = 0.9 s p
si = 0.9(120,000 ) = 108,000 psi

## Fi = si As = (108,000 )(0.3340 ) = 36,072 lb

Tightening torque
3
T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (36,072 ) = 5411 in lb
4

Page 6 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1
D < 1 in as specified by the standard.
4

CHECK PROBLEMS

228. A cap screw, in.-10-UNC-2, with a hexagonal head that is 9/16 in. thick,
carries a tensile load of 3000 lb. If the material is AISI 1015, cold drawn, find
the factor of safety based on ultimate strengths of (a) the threaded shank, (b)
the head against being sheared off, and (c) the bearing surface under the head.
(d) Is there any need to consider the strength of standard cap-screw heads in
design?

Solution:
For in. UNC, Table AT 14,
As = 0.334 sq.in.

1
A = 1 in.
8

## For AISI 1015, cold drawn

su = 77 ksi , sus = 58 ksi

F 3000
(a) s == = 8982 psi
As 0.334
s 77,000
N= u = = 8.57
sd 8982

F
(b) ss =
Dt
9
t= in
16
3000
ss = = 2264 psi
3 9

4 16
s 58,000
N = us = = 25.6
ss 2264

Page 7 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

360o
(c) = = 30 o
12

2
1
1
1 A A 1 8
Area = 6(2 ) tan = 6(2 ) tan 30 = 1.096 sq.in.
2 2 2 2 2

F 3000
sb = = 2
= 4586 psi
Area Ab 3
1.096
4 4
s 77,000
N= u = = 16.8
sb 4586

(d) No need to consider the strength of standard cap-screw heads since its factor of
safety is very much higher than for the threaded shank.

229. A bolt, 1 1/8 in.-7-UNC-2, is subjected to a tensile load of 10,000 lb. The head
has a thickness of in. and the nut a thickness of 1 in. If the material is SAE
grade 2 (Table 5.2), find the design factor as based on ultimate stresses (a) of
the threaded shank, (b) of the head against being sheared off, and (c) of the
bearing surface under the head. The bolt head is finished. (d) Is there any need
to consider the strength of standard bolt heads in design?

Solution:
1
For SAE grade 2 (Table 5.2), D = 1 in
8
su = 55 ksi , sus = 0.75su
For 1 1/8 in.-7-UNC-2 (Table AT 14)
As = 0.763 sq.in.

11
A =1 in
16

F = 10,000 lb.

Page 8 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

F 10,000
(a) s == = 13,106 psi
As 0.763
s 55,000
N= u = = 4 .2
sd 13,106

F
(b) ss =
Dt
3
t= in
4
10,000
ss = = 3773 psi
1 3
1
8 4
s 0.75(55,000 )
N = us = = 11
ss 3773

360o
(c) = = 30 o
12

2
11
1

1 A A
1
Area = 6(2 ) tan = 6(2 ) 16 tan 30 = 2.4661 sq.in.
2 2 2 2 2

F 10,000
sb = = 2
= 6793 psi
Area Ab 1
2.4661 1
4 8
s 55,000
N= u = = 8 .1
sb 6793

(d) No need to consider the strength of standard bolt head in design since its factor of
safety is higher than for the threaded shank.

230. An axial force is applied to a regular nut which of course tends to shear the
threads on the screw. (a) What is the ratio of the force necessary to shear the
threads (all threads initially in intimate contact) to the force necessary to pull
the bolt in two? Use coarse threads, a 1 -in. bolt, and assume that
sus = 0.75su . The head thickness is 1 in. and the nut thickness is 1 5/16 in. (b)
Is failure of the thread by shear likely in this bolt?

Page 9 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Solution:
1 - in. UNC
As = 1.405 sq.in.

## (a) Fs = shear force = susDt

1
D = 1 in.
2
5
t = 1 in.
16
sus = 0.75su
1 5
Fs = (0.75su )( )1 1 = 4.6388su
2 16
F = su As = 1.405su
4.6388su
Ratio = = 3 .3
1.405su

## (b) Ratio > 1, failure by shear is not likely to occur.

231. For bolted structural joints, specifications suggest that -in. bolts (high-
strength material) be tightened to an initial tension of Fi = 12,500 lb . What
with T = 90 ft lb ., which is the value in the specification?

Solution:
1
T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (12,500 ) = 1250 in lb
2

## T = 90 ft lb = 1080 in lb < 1250 in lb o.k.

232. One method of estimating the initial tensile stress in a tightened bolt is to turn
the nut until it is snug, but with no significant stress in the bolt. Then the nut is
turned through a predetermined angle that induces a certain unit strain
corresponding to the desired stress. A - in. bolt of the type shown in Fig.
5.4, Text, is turned down until, for practical purposes, the diameter of the
entire shank is the minor diameter. The material is AISI 4140, OQT 1200 oF.
The grip is 5 in. and the effective strain length is estimated to be 5.3 in. If the
initial tensile stress at the root diameter is to be about 75 % of the yield
strength, through what angle should the nut be turned after it is just snug? The
threads are UNC and the parts being bolted are assumed to be rigid.

Solution:

Page 10 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

## For in., UNC

Dr = 0.6273 in
As = 0.334 sq.in.
Th in. = 10
AISI 4140, OQT 1200 oF
s y = 115 ksi

## s = 0.75(115) = 86.25 ksi

sL
=
E
L = 5.3 in
1
pitch, p = in = 0.10 in
10

=
p
(360o )
sL
=
pE
(360o )

=
(86,250)(5.3) (360o ) = 55o
(0.10)(30 106 )
233. When both ends of a bolt are accessible for micrometer measurements, the
total elongation caused by tightening can be determined by measuring
lengths before and after tightening. In order to reduce this total elongation to
unit elongation, thence to stress, the effective strain length for the bolt must be
known. For a 1 -in steel bolt, threaded for its full length, 8-thread series, the
effective strain length has been found by experiment to be
Le = 0.97G + 1.1 in. , where G is the grip (by W.A. McDonald, North
Carolina State College). Let the bolt material be AISI 8742, OQT 1000 oF. (a)
It is desired that the initial tensile stress be about 0.7 s y . What total elongation
should be obtained for a grip length of 4.8 in.? (b) Investigate the approximate
tightening torque for the specified condition. How could this torque be
obtained?

Solution:
Table 5.1

Page 11 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Dr = 1.0966 in
As = 1.000 sq.in.
Th in. = 8
AISI 8742, OQT 1000 oF
s y = 147 ksi

(a) si = 0.70 s y
si = 0.70(147 ) = 102.9 ksi = 102,900 psi

si Le
=
E
Le = 0.97G + 1.1 in.
G = 4.8 in
Le = 0.97(4.8) + 1.1 in. = 5.756 in

si Le (102,900 )(5.756 )
= = = 0.01975 in
E 30 10 6

64TL
(b) = =
p Dr4G
G = 11.5 106 psi
1
p = in = 0.125 in
8
0.01975 64T (5.756 )
= =
0.125 (1.0966 )4 (11.5 106 )
T = 22,408 in lb

ELASTIC CONSIDERATIONS

## 235. The member C shown is part of a swivel connection that is to be clamped by a

1-in. bolt D to the member B, which has large dimensions in the plane
perpendicular to the paper. Both B and C are aluminum alloy 2024-T4, HT
aged. The bolt is made of AISI C1113, cold-drawn steel; consider the
unthreaded shank to be 2 in. long; it is well tightened with a torque of 250 ft-
lb.; UNC threads, unlubricated. (a) Estimate the initial tension by equation
(5.2), assume elastic action, and compute the bolt elongation and the total
deformation of B and C. Let the effective strain length be 2 in. (b) After
tightening an external axial force Fe of 5000 lb. is applied to member C.
Determine the total normal stresses in the bolt and in B and C. (c) Determine
the load required to open the connection. Draw a diagram similar to Fig.
5.6, Text, locating points A, B, D and M.

Page 12 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

## Prob. 235, 236

Solution:
For aluminum alloy, 2024-T4 HT aged,
E = 10.6 106 psi
s y = 47 ksi
For AISI C1113, cold-drawn steel,
E = 30106 psi
s y = 72 ksi

## (a) T = 0.2 DFi

D = 1 in.
T = 250 ft lb = 3000 in lb
Fi = 15,000 lb
Deformations: L = 2 in.
Table AT 14, 1-in. UNC Bolt,
As = 0.66 sq.in.
2
Ab = (1) = 0.785 sq.in.
4
Bolt:
i = i =
FL (15,000)(2) = 0.00127 in
Ab Ei (0.785)(30 10 6 )
Member B and C
FL
c = i
Ac Ec

Ac = De2 D 2
4 4
h
De = (Nut or head width across flats) +
2
Table AT 14
1
A = 1 in
2

Page 13 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1 2 1
De = 1 + = 2 in.
2 2 2

Ac = De2 D2
4 4

Ac =
4
[(2.5) (1) ] = 4.1234 sq.in.
2
2

c =
Fi L
=
(15,000)(2) = 0.000686 in.
Ac Ec (4.1234 ) 10.6 10 6( )
(b) Fe = 5000 lb
kb b
= 5000
0.000686
Fb = Fe = Fe
kb + k c b + c 0.000686 + 0.00127
Fb = 1754 lb
Bolt:
Ft = Fi + Fb = 15,000 + 1754 = 16,754 lb
F 16,754
sb = t = = 29,132 psi
As 0.606
Member B and C
kc
Fc = Fi Fe
kb + kc
c
Fc = Fi Fe

b + c

0.00127
Fc = 15,000 5000 = 11,754 lb
0.00127 + 0.000686
F 11,754
sc = c = = 2851 psi
Ac 4.1234
+ c
= 15,000
0.00127 + 0.000686
Fo = Fi i = 23,102 lb
i 0.00127
Fig. 5.6

Page 14 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

237. A 1-in. steel bolt is used to clamp two aluminum (2014-T6, HT aged) plates
together as shown by Fig. 5.9, Text. The aluminum plates have a total
thickness of 2 in. and an equivalent diameter of 2 in. The bolt is heated to a
temperature of 200 oF, the inserted in the aluminum plates, which are at 80 oF,
and tightened so as to have a tensile tightening stress of 30 ksi in the
unthreaded shank while steel at 200 oF. What is the tensile stress in the bolt
after assembly has cooled to 80 oF? The deformations are elastic.

Figure 5.9

Solution:
For aluminum 2014-T6
E = 10.6 106 psi

sb = 30,000 psi
2
Fi = sb Ab = (30,000 ) (1) = 23,562 lb
4

## Steel bolt. E b = 30 10 6 psi

s L (30,000)(2)
i = b = = 0.002 in.
Eb 30 10 6

Fi L
c = .
Ac E c

Ac = De2 D 2
4 4

4
[ 2 2
]
Ac = (2 ) (1) = 2.3562 sq.in.

Page 15 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

E c = 10.6 10 6 psi

c = i =
FL (23,562)(2) = 0.001887 in
( )
Ac Ec (2.3562 ) 10.6 10 6
L = L c = 2 0.001887 = 1.998113 in.
L = Lt
= 0.000007 in. (in. F ) for steel
L = (0.000007 )(1.998113)(80 200) = 0.001678 in.
i = i + L = 0.002 0.001678 = 0.000322 in.
s L
i = b
Eb
s (2 )
0.000322 = b 6
30 10
sb = 4830 psi

238. A 1 1/8-in. steel bolt A passes through a yellow brass (B36-8) tube B as
shown. The length of the tube is 30 in. (virtually the unthreaded bolt length),
the threads on the bolt are UNC, and the tubes cross-sectional area is 2 sq. in.
After the nut is snug it is tightened turn. (a) What normal stresses will be
produced in the bolt and in the tube? Assume that washers, nut, and head are
rigid. (b) What are the stresses if an axial load of 5 kips is now applied to the
bolts end? Compute the bolt load that just results in a zero stress in the tube.

Prob. 238

Solution:
For Yellow brass, B36-8,
E = 15 106 psi
Steel bolt
E = 30 106 psi
Table AT 14, 1 1/8 in., UNC
Dr = 0.9497 in.
As = 0.763 sq.in.
Th in = 7

Page 16 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

L = 30 in.
i
=
p
1
p = in.
7
1
= turn
4
1 1 1
i = = in.
4 7 28
FL
i = i
Ab Eb
1 Fi (30 )
=
28 1 2
1 (30 10 )
6

4 8
Fi = 35,500 lb

Fi 35,500
(a) Bolt: sb = = = 46,527 psi
As 0.763

Fi
Tube: sc =
Ac
Ac = 2 sq.in.
F 35,500
sc = i = = 17,750 psi
Ac 2

(b) Fe = 5000 lb
Ac Ec (2)(15 106 )
kc = = = 1,000,000 lb in
L 30
2
1
1 (30 10 )
6

kb = b b =
AE 4 8
= 994,000 lb in
L 30

Bolts:
kb
Ft = Fi + Fe
kb + k c
994,000
Ft = 35,500 + (5000 ) = 38,000 lb
994,000 + 1,000,000
F 38,000
st = t = = 49,800 psi
As 0.763

Page 17 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Tube:
kc
Fc = Fi Fe
k +
b c k
1,000,000
Fc = 35,500 (5000) = 33,000 lb
994,000 + 1,000,000
F 33,000
sc = c = = 16,500 psi
Ac 2
For zero stress in the tube
k +k 994,000 + 1,000,000
Fo = b c Fi = (35,500) = 70,787 lb
kc 1,000,000

ENDURANCE STRENGTH

DESIGN PROBLEMS

## 239. As shown diagrammatically, a bearing is supported in a pillow block attached

to an overhead beam by two cap screws, each of which, it may be assumed,
carried half the total bearing load. This load acts vertically downward, varying
from 0 to 1500 lb. The screws are to be made of AISI C1118, as rolled, and
they are tightened to give an initial stress of about si = 0.5s y . The pillow
block is made of class-20 cast iron. Assume that the effective length of screw
is equal to the thickness t , as shown, and that the head and beam are rigid
(overly conservative?). The equivalent diameter of the compression area may
be taken as twice the bolt diameter. For a design factor of 1.75, determine the
size of the screw: (a) from the Soderberg line, (b) from the modified Goodman
line. (c) What size do you recommend using?

Problem 239

Solution:
For AISI C1118, as rolled
s y = 46 ksi
su = 75 ksi

si = 0.5s y

Page 18 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

## si = 0.5(46) = 23 ksi = 23,000 psi

Fi = si As = 23 As kip = 23,000 As lb

kb
Fb = Fe
kb + k c
AE
kb = b b
Lb
Eb = 30 10 6 psi (steel)
Lb = t

Ac Ec
kc =
Lc
For cast-iron class 20
Ec = 9.6 10 6 psi
Lc = t

Ac = De2 D 2
4 4

Ab = D 2
4
De = 2 D
3 2
Ac = (2 D ) D 2 =
2
D = 3 Ab
4 4 4
AE
kb = b b
Lb
Ab (30106 )
kb =
t
3 A (9.6 106 )
kc = b
t
kb 30 106 300
= =
kb + kc 30 10 + 3(9.6 10 ) 588
6 6

Fb1 = 0
kb
Fe =
300 1500
Fb 2 = = 383 lb
kb + k c 588 2
1 1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 23,000 As + (383 + 0 ) = 23,000 As + 192 lb
2 2
1 1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (383 0 ) = 192 lb
2 2

Page 19 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

## sn = 0.5su = 0.5(75,000 psi ) = 37,500 psi

sn = (0.8)(0.85)(37,500 psi ) = 25,500 psi

N = 1.75

## Fm 23,000 As 192 192

sm = = + = 23,000 +
As As As As
F 192
sa = a =
As As

## (a) Soderberg line

1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
192 192
23,000 + (1.8)
1 As As
= +
1.75 46,000 25,500
As = 0.2482 sq.in.

## Table AT 14, UNC

3
Use D = in. , As = 0.334 sq.in.
4

## (b) Modifies Goodman line

1 sm K f sa
= +
N su sn
192 192
23,000 + (1.8)
1 As As
= +
1.75 75,000 25,500
As = 0.0609 sq.in.
Table AT 14, UNC
3
Use D = in. , As = 0.0775 sq.in.
8

Page 20 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

3
(c) Recommended, D = in. UNC
4

240. A connection similar to Fig. 5.9, Text, is subjected to an external load that
varied from 0 to 1250 lb. The bolt is cold forged from AISI B1113 steel; UNC
threads.The aluminum parts C (3003 H14) have a total thickness of 1 in.
and an external diameter of 2 D . It is desired that the connection not open for
an external load of 1.5Fe . Determine (a) the initial tensile load on the bolt, (b)
the bolt diameter for N = 2 based on the Soderberg line.

Fig. 5.9

Solution:

kc
(a) Fi = QFe lb
k +
b ck
Q = 1 .5
AE
kb = b b
Lb

Ab = D 2
4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
1
Lb = 1 in.
2
AE
kc = c c
Lc

Ac = De2 D 2
4 4
De = 2 D
3 2
Ac = (2 D ) D 2 =
2
D = 3 Ab
4 4 4
Ec = 10 10 6 psi (3003-H14 aluminum)

Page 21 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1
Lc = 1 in.
2
kb = b
(
A 30 106 )
1
1
2

kc = b
(
3 A 10 106 )
1
1
2
kc
=
(
3 10 106 )
= 0.5
(
kb + kc 30 106 + 3 10 106 )
Fe = 1250 lb
kc
Fi = QFe lb
kb + kc
Fi = (1.5)(1250)(0.5) = 937.5 lb

su = 83 ksi
s y = 72 ksi

## sn = 0.5su = 0.5(83) = 41.5 ksi = 41,500 psi

sn = (0.8)(0.85)(41,500 psi ) = 28,220 psi

kb
Fb = Fe
kb + k c
Fb1 = 0
kb 30 106
Fb 2 = Fe = 6
(1250) = 625 lb
kb + k c
6
( )
30 10 + 3 10 10

1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 937.5 + 1 (625 + 0) = 1250 lb
2 2
1 1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (625 0 ) = 312.5 lb
2 2
F 1250
sm = m =
As As

Page 22 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Fa 312.5
sa = =
As As

## Soderberg line, K f = 1.8 Table AT 12

1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1
=
1250
+
(1.8)(312.5)
2 72,000 As 28,220 As
As = 0.07459 sq.in.

## Table AT 14, UNC

3
Use D = in. , As = 0.0775 sq.in.
8

243. This problem concerns the Freon compressor of 226: size, 10 x 18 in.; 10
studs, UNC; made of C1118, as rolled; 200 psi gas pressure. The initial
tension in the bolts, assumed to be equally loaded, is such that a cylinder
pressure of 300 psi is required for the joint to be on the opening. The bolted
parts are cast steel and for the first calculations, it will be satisfactorily to
assume the equivalent diameter of the compressed parts to be twice the bolt
size. (a) For N = 2 on the Soderberg criterion, what bolt size is required? (b)
Compute the torque required for the specified initial tension.

Solution:
(10)
2
Fo = 300 = 2356 lb.
4 10
kc
Fi = Fo
k +
b c k
AE
kb = b b
Lb

Ab = D 2
4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
Lb = L
AE
kc = c c
Lc

Ac = De2 D 2
4 4
De = 2 D

Page 23 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Ac = (2 D )2 3 2
D2 =
D = 3 Ab
4 4 4
Cast Steel, Ec = 30 10 6 psi
Lc = L

kb =
(
Ab 30106 )
L
3 A (30 106 )
kc = b = 3kb
L
kc 3kb
Fi = Fo = (2356 ) = 1767 lb
k +
b c k k
b + 3k b

kb
(a) Fb = Fe
k +
b ck
Fb1 = 0
kb kb (10)2 (200)
Fb 2 = Fe = = 393 lb
k +
b ck k
b + 3k b 4 10

1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 1767 + 1 (393 + 0) = 1964 lb
2 2
1 1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (393 0 ) = 196 lb
2 2
Fm 1964
sm = =
As As
F 196
sa = a =
As As
For C1118, as rolled
su = 75 ksi
s y = 46 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(75) = 37.5 ksi = 37,500 psi

sn = (0.8)(0.85)(37,500 psi ) = 25,500 psi
K f = 1.8 Table AT 12
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1
=
1964
+
(1.8)(196)
2 46,000 As 25,500 As
As = 0.1131 sq.in.

Page 24 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

## Table AT 14, UNC

1
Use D = in. , As = 0.1419 sq.in.
2

## (b) T = 0.2 DFi

1
T = 0.2 (1767 ) = 176.7 in lb.
2

245. A cast-iron (class 35) Diesel-engine cylinder head is held on 8 stud bolts with
UNC threads. These bolts are made of AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 oF (Fig.
AF2). Assume that the compressed material has an equivalent diameter twice
the bolt size. The maximum cylinder pressure is 750 psi and the bore of the
engine is 8 in. Let the initial bolt load be such that a cylinder pressure of 1500
psi brings the joint to the point of opening. For a design factor of 2, determine
the bolt diameter (a) using the Soderberg equation, (b) using the Goodman
equation. (c) What approximate torque will be required to induce the desired
initial stress? (d) Determine the ratio of the initial stress to the yield strength.

Considering the lessons of experience (i5.8), what initial stress would you
recommend? Using this value, what factor of safety is computed from the
Soderberg equation?

Solution:
(8)
2
Fo = 1500 = 9425 lb.
4 8
kc
Fi = Fo
k
b c+ k
Ab Eb
kb =
Lb

Ab = D 2
4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
Lb = L
AE
kc = c c
Lc

Ac = De2 D 2
4 4
De = 2 D
3 2
Ac = (2 D ) D 2 =
2
D = 3 Ab
4 4 4

Page 25 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

## Ec = 14.5 10 6 psi , for cast-iron (class 35)

Lc = L
Ab (30106 )
kb =
L
3 A (14.5 106 )
kc = b
L
kc
Fi = Fo

= (9425)
( )
3 14.5 106
= 5578 lb
kb + k c
6
(
30 10 + 3 14.5 10
6
)

kb
Fb = Fe
kb + k c
Fb1 = 0
kb 30 106 (8)2 (750 )
Fb 2 = Fe = = 1923 lb
kb + k c
6
(
30 10 + 3 14.5 10
6
)
4 8

1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 5578 + 1 (1923 + 0) = 6540 lb
2 2
1 1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (1923 0 ) = 962 lb
2 2

Fm 6540
sm = =
As As
F 962
sa = a =
As As
(a) For AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 oF
su = 153 ksi
s y = 134 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(153) = 76.5 ksi = 76,500 psi

sn = (0.8)(0.85)(76,500 psi ) = 52,000 psi
Table AT 12, K f = 3.3 (hardened)
Soderberg Equation
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1
=
6540
+
(3.3)(962)
2 134,000 As 52,000 As
As = 0.2197 sq.in.

Page 26 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

## Table AT 14, UNC

5
Use D = in. , As = 0.226 sq.in.
8

## (b) Goodman Equation

1 sm K f sa
= +
N su sn
1
=
6540
+
(3.3)(962)
2 153,000 As 52,000 As
As = 0.2076 sq.in.

## Table AT 14, UNC

5
Use D = in. , As = 0.226 sq.in.
8

## (c) T = 0.2 DFi

5
T = 0.2 (5578) = 697 in lb.
8

Fi 5578
(d) si = = = 24,681 psi
As 0.226
s 24,681
Ratio = i = = 0.184
s y 134,000

## i5.8 si = 0.85s y = 0.85(134,000 ) = 113,900 psi

Factor of safety
Fi = si As = (113,900)(0.226) = 25,742 lb
1
Fm = 25,742 + (1923) = 26,704 lb
2
1
Fa = (1923) = 962 lb
2
F 26,704
sm = m = = 118,159 psi
As 0.226
F 962
sa = a = = 4257 psi
As 0.226
Soderberg Equation

Page 27 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1 118,159 (3.3)(4257 )
= +
N 134,000 52,000
N = 0.87

## 246. A 30,000-lb. body is to be mounted on a shaker (vibrator). The shaker will

exert a harmonic force of F = 30,000 sin 2 t f lb. on the body where f cps is
the frequency and t sec. is the time. The frequency can be varied from 5 to
10,000 cps. The harmonic force will exert a tensile load on the bolts that
attach the body to the shaker when F is positive. Determine the minimum
number of -in.-UNF bolts that must be used for N = 2 based on Soderberg
line. The material of the bolts is to be AISI 8630, WQT 1100 oF; the material
of the body that is to be vibrated is aluminum alloy, 2014-T6 and the joint is
not to open for an external force that is 1.25 times the maximum force exerted
by the shaker. It may be assumed that the equivalent diameter of the material
in compression is twice the bolt diameter.

Solution:
Fe min = 0
Fe max = 30,000 lb
kc
Fi = QFe
k +
b ck
Q = 1.25
AE
kb = b b
Lb

Ab = D2
4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
Lb = L

Page 28 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Ac Ec
kc =
Lc

Ac = De2 D2
4 4
De = 2 D

Ac = (2 D )2 3 2
D2 =
D = 3 Ab
4 4 4
Ec = 10.6 10 6 psi , (Aluminum 2014-T6)
Lc = L
Ab Eb Ab (30 106 )
kb = =
Lb L
Ac Ec 3 Ab (10.6 106 )
kc = =
Lc L
kc
Fi = QFe
kb + kc
3(10.6 106 )
Fi = (1.25)(30,000) 6
= 19,296 lb
30 10 + 3(10.6 10 )
6

kb
Fb = Fe
kb + k c
Fb1 = 0
kb 30 106
Fb 2 = Fe = 6
(30,000) = 14,563 lb
30 10 + 3(10.6 10 )
6
kb + k c

1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 19,296 + 1 (14,563 + 0) = 26,578 lb
2 2
1 1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (14,563 0 ) = 7282 lb
2 2

Fm
sm =
nAs
F
sa = a
nAs
For -in.-UNF (Table AT 14)
As = 0.1419 sq.in.
F 26,578 187,300
sm = m = =
nAs 0.1419n n

Page 29 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Fa 7282 51,318
sa = = =
nAs 0.1419n n

## For AISI 8630, WQT 1100 oF

K f = 3 .3
su = 137 ksi
s y = 125 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(137 ) = 68.5 ksi = 68,500 psi

sn = (0.8)(0.85)(68,500 psi ) = 46,580 psi

Soderberg Equation, N = 2
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1 187,300 (3.3)(51,318)
= +
2 125,000n 46,580n
n = 10.3

## Minimum number of bolts = 10 bolts

248. The maximum external load on the cap bolts of an automotive connecting rod
end, imposed by inertia forces at top dead center, is taken to be 4000 lb.; the
minimum load is zero at bottom dead center. The material is AISI 4140, OQT
1100oF (qualifying for SAE grade 5); assume that sn = 0.45su . The grip for
through bolts is 1.5 in. For design purposed, let each bolt take half the load,
3
and use an equivalent De = 1 in. for the connected parts. The threads extend
8
a negligible amount into the grip. For the initial computation, use an opening
load Fo = 1.75 Fe . Considering the manner in which the bolt is loaded, we
decide that a design factor of 1.4 (Soderberg) should be quite adequate. (a)
Does a 5/16-24 UNF satisfy this situation? If not, what size do you
recommend? (b) Experience suggests that, in situations such as this, an initial

stress of the order suggested in i5.8, Text, is good insurance against fatigue

## failure. Decide upon such an si and recomputed N . How does it change?

Would you be concerned about the safety in this case? Consider the variation
of si as a consequences of the use of torque wrench and also the stress
relaxation with time (due to seating and other factors), and discuss. Compute
the required tightening torque for each si .

Page 30 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Solution:
Fo = 1.75Fe = 1.75(4000) = 7000 lb
kc
Fi = Fe
kb + k c
AE
kb = b b
Lb

Ab = D2
4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
Lb = 1.5 in.
AE
kc = c c
Lc

Ac = De2 D2
4 4
2
3 2 2
Ac = 1 D = 1.485 D = 1.485 Ab
4 8 4 4
6
Ec = 10.6 10 psi , (Aluminum 2014-T6)
Lc = 1.5 in.
As Ab
Ab Eb Ab (30 106 )
kb = =
Lb 1.5
Ac Ec (1.485 As )(30 106 )
kc = =
Lc 1.5
1.485 As
Fi = 7000 = 7000 4714 As
1.485

kb
Fb = Fe
kb + k c
Fb1 = 0
kb
Fe = s (4,000) = 2694 As
A
Fb 2 =
kb + k c 1.485

1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 7000 4714 As + 1 (2694 As + 0 ) = 7000 3367 As
2 2
1 1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2694 As 0 ) = 1347 As
2 2

Page 31 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Table 5.2
su = 120 ksi
s y = 88 ksi

## sn = 0.45su = 0.45(120) = 54 ksi = 54,000 psi

F 7000
sm = m = 3367
As As
F
sa = a = 1347
As
K f = 3.3 (hardened, Table AT 12)
Soderberg Equation, N = 1.4
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1 7000 3367 (3.3)(1347 )
= +
1.4 88,000 As 88,000 54,000
As = 0.1187 sq.in.
7
Table At14, we D = in , As = 0.1187 sq.in.
16

7
(a) 5/16-24 UNF will not satisfy the situation. Instead use D= in ,
16
As = 0.1187 sq.in.

## si = 0.85s y = 0.85(88) = 74.8 ksi = 74,800 psi

Fi = si As = (74,800)(0.1187 ) = 8879 lb
1 1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 8879 + (2694 As + 0 ) = 8879 + 1347 As
2 2
1 1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2694 As 0 ) = 1347 As
2 2
Fm 8879
sm = = + 1347
As As
F
sa = a = 1347
As
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn

Page 32 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

8879
+ 1347
1 0.1187
= + (3.3)(1347 )
N 88,000 54,000
N = 1.06 , it decreases
N > 1 , therefore, safe.

Considering variation of si , si tends to exceeds the limiting stress therefore reduces the
factor of safety. While stress relaxation tends to reduce the limiting stress approaching
the si and causing lower design factor.

## (c) Fi = 7000 4714 As = 7000 4714(0.1187 ) = 6440 lb

7
T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (6440 ) = 564 in lb
16

at Fi = 8879 lb
7
T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (8879 ) = 777 in lb
16

CHECK PROBLEMS

249. A 1-in. steel bolt A (normalized AISI 1137, cold-rolled threads) passes
through a yellow brass tube B (B36-8, hard) as shown. The tube length is
30 in., its cross-sectional area is 2 sq. in. and the UNC bolt threads extend a
negligible amount below the nut. The steel washers are in. thick and are
assumed not to bend (clearances are exaggerated). The nut is turned turn.
(a) If an external tensile axial load, varying from 0 to 5 kips, is repeatedly
applied to the bolt, what is the factor of safety of the bolt by the Soderberg
criterion? (b) What is the external load on the bolt at the instant that the load
on the tube becomes zero.

Solution:

## For 1-in. UNC

As = 0.606 sq.in.

Page 33 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Dr = 0.8466 in.
Th in. = 8

1 1
p= = in.
Th in 8
1
=
p 4
1 1 1
= = in.
4 8 32
1
Lb = 30 + 2 = 30.5 in.
4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
1 Fi (30.5)
= =
32 (1)2 30 106
( )
4
Fi = 24,141 lb
kb
Fb = Fe
k +
b ck

AE
(1)2 (30 106 )
kb = b b = 4 = 772,525
Lb 30.5
AE
kc = c c
Lc
Ac = 2 sq.in.
Lc = 30 in.
Ec = 15 10 6 psi (Yellow Brass)
2(15 106 )
kc = = 1,000,000
30

(a) Fb1 = 0
772,525
Fb 2 = (5000) = 2179 lb
772,525 + 1,000,000
1 1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 24,141 + (2179 + 0 ) = 25,230 lb
2 2
1 1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2179 0 ) = 1090 lb
2 2
Fm 25,230
sm = = = 38,227 psi
As 0.606

Page 34 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Fa 1090
sa = = = 1799 psi
As 0.606
For normalized AISI 1137, cold-rolled thread
su = 98 ksi
s y = 58 ksi

## sn = 0.5su = 0.5(98) = 49 ksi = 49,000 psi

K f = 1.4 (Table AT 12)

1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1 38,227 (1.4)(1799)
= +
N 58,000 39,200
N = 1.38

kc
(b) Fi = Fo
kb + k c
1,000,000
24,141 = Fo
772,525 + 1,000,000
Fo = 42,790 lb

passes through a yellow brass tube and two steel washers, as shown. The tube
is 4 in. long, 7/8 in. internal diameter, 1 -in. external diameter. The washers
are each -in. thick. The unthreaded part of the bolt is 3 in. long. Assume that
there is no stretching of the bolt inside the nut in finding its k . The
unlubricated bolt is tightened by a torque of 1800 in-lb. The external load,
varying from 0 to 4 kips, is axially applied to the washers an indefinite
number of times. (a) Compute the factor of safety of the bolt by the Soderberg
criterion. Is there any danger of failure of the bolt? (b) What pull must be
exerted by the washers to remove all load from the brass tube?

Solution:
T = 0.2 DFi
3
1800 = 0.2 Fi
4
Fi = 12,000 lb

Page 35 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

kb
Fb = Fe
kb + kc
1 1 1
= +
kb kb1 kb 2
AE
kb1 = b b
Lb1
Lb1 = 3 in.
2
3
Ab = = 0.4418 sq.in.
4 4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi

kb1 =
(0.4418)(30 106 ) = 4,418,000
3
As Eb
kb 2 =
Lb 2
For -in. UNF (Table AT 14)
As = 0.373 sq.in.
1
Lb 2 = 4 + 2 3 = 1.5 in.
2

kb 2 =
( )
(0.373) 30 106 = 7,460,000
1.5
1 1 1
= +
kb kb1 kb 2
1 1 1
= +
kb 4,418,000 7,460,000
kb = 2,774,733
AE
kc = c c
Lc
1 7
2 2

Ac = 1 = 0.6259 sq.in.
4 4 8
Ec = 15 10 6 psi
Lc = 4 in.

kc =
(0.6259)(15 106 ) = 2,347,125
4
Fb1 = 0
2,774,733
Fb 2 = (4000) = 2167 lb
2,774,733 + 2,347,125

Page 36 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 12,000 + 1 (2167 + 0) = 13,084 lb
2 2
1 1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2167 0 ) = 1084 lb
2 2
F 13,084
sm = m = = 35,078 psi
As 0.373
F 1084
sa = a = = 2906 psi
As 0.373
For AISI 111, cold drawn, rolled threads
sn = 40 ksi
s y = 68 ksi
K f = 1 .4
sn = 0.8(40) = 32 ksi = 32,000 psi , axial loading

1 sm K f sa
(a) = +
N sy sn
1 35,078 (1.4)(2906)
= +
N 68,000 32,000
N = 1.56

kc
(b) Fi = Fo
kb + k c
2,347,125
12,000 = Fo
2,774,733 + 2,347,125
Fo = 26,186 lb

251. A coupling bolt (i5.13, Text) is used to connect two parts made of cast-iron,
class 35. The diameter of the coarse-thread bolt is -in.; its grip is 2 in., which
is also nearly the unthreaded length. The bolt tightened to have an initial
tension of 4000 lb. The parts support an external load Fe that tends to separate
them and it varies from zero to 5000 lb. What is the factor of safety,
(Soderberg)?

Solution:
Fi = 4000 lb
kb
Fb = Fe
kb + kc

Page 37 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Ab Eb
kb =
Lb
2
1
Ab = = 0.19635 sq.in. (unthreaded length)
4 2
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
Lb = 2 in.

kb =
(0.19635)(30 106 ) = 2,945,250
2
Table AT 14, UNC
1
D = in.
2
As = 0.1419 sq.in.
3
A = in.
4
h
De = A +
2
h = 2 in.
3 2 3
De = + = 1 in.
4 2 4
AE
kc = c c
Lc
3 1
2 2

Ac = De2 D2 =1 = 2.209 sq.in.
4 4 4 4 2
Ec = 14.5 10 6 psi , (Cast iron, class 35)
Lc = 2 in.

kc =
(2.209)(14.5 106 ) = 16,015,250
2
Fb1 = 0
2,945,250
Fb 2 = (5000) = 777 lb
2,945,250 + 16,015,250
1 1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 4000 + (777 + 0 ) = 4389 lb
2 2
1 1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (777 0 ) = 389 lb
2 2
Fm 4389
sm = = = 30,930 psi
As 0.1419
F 389
sa = a = = 2741 psi
As 0.1419

Page 38 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1
For ASTM 354 BC (Table 5.2), D = in.
2
su = 125 ksi
s y = 109 ksi
sn = 0.5su
sn = (0.8)(0.5)(125) = 50 ksi = 50,000 psi
K f = 1 .8
Soderberg Line
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1 30,930 (1.8)(2741)
= +
N 109,000 50,000
N = 2 .6

252. The cap on the end of a connecting rod (automotive engine) is held on by two
5/16-in. bolts that are forged integrally with the main connecting rod. These
bolts have UNF threads with a 5/8-in. on an unthreaded length of virtually 5/8
in. The nuts are to be tightened with a torque of 20 ft-lb. and the maximum
external load on one bolt is expected to be 2330 lb. Let the equivalent
diameter of the connected parts be in. (a) Estimate the maximum force on
the bolt. (b) Compute the opening load. Is this satisfactory? (c) If the bolt
material is AISI 4140, OQT 1000 oF, what is the factor of safety based on the
Soderberg criterion?

Solution:
T = 20 ft lb = 240 in lb
T = 0.2 DFi
5
240 = 0.2 Fi
16
Fi = 3840 lb
kb
Fb = Fe
k +
b ck
Ab Eb
kb =
Lb
2
5
Ab = = 0.0767 sq.in. (unthreaded length)
4 16
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
5
Lb = in.
8

Page 39 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

kb =
(0.0767 )(30 106 ) = 3,681,600
5

8
Ac Ec
kc =
Lc
3 5
2 2
2 2
Ac = D
e D = = 0.3651 sq.in.
4 4 4 4 16
Ec = 30 10 6 psi , (Cast iron, class 35)
5
Lc = in.
8
kc =
( )
(0.3651) 30 106 = 17,524,800
5

8
3,681,600
Fb = (2330) = 405 lb
3,681,600 + 17,524,800

## (a) Fmax = Fi + Fb = 3840 + 405 = 4245 lb

kc
(b) Fi = Fo
kb + k c
17,524,800
3840 = Fo
3,681,600 + 17,524,80
Fo = 4647 lb < Fmax

Fb 405
(c) Fm = Fi + = 3840 + = 4042 lb
2 2
F 405
Fa = b = = 202 lb
2 2
For AISI 4140, OQT 1000 oF
su = 170 ksi
s y = 155 ksi
Table AT 12, K f = 2.6
sn = 0.5su
sn = (0.8)(0.5)(170) = 68 ksi = 68,000 psi

Soderberg Line
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn

Page 40 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

## For 5/16-in.-UNF, Table AT 14, As = 0.0580 sq.in.

F 4042
sm = m = = 69,690 psi
As 0.0580
F 202
sa = a = = 3843 psi
As 0.0580
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
1 69,690 (2.6)(3483)
= +
N 155,000 68,000
N = 1.72

SET SCREWS

254. A 6-in. pulley is fastened to a 1 in. shaft by a set screw. If a net tangential
force of 75 lb, is applied to the surface of the pulley, what size screw should

Solution:
6
Tangential force = (75 lb ) = 365 lb
1.25
Assume tangential force = holding force
Table 5.3, use Screw size 8, Holding force = 385 lb.

## 255. An eccentric is to be connected to a 3-in. shaft by a setscrew. The center of the

eccentric is 1 in. from the center of the shaft when a tensile force of 1000
lb. is applied to the eccentric rod perpendicular to the line of centers. What
size set screw should be used for a deign factor of 6?

Solution:
1.25
Tangential force = (1000 lb ) = 833 lb
32
Holding force = (6)(833) = 5000 lb
Table 5.3, use Screw size in.

## 256. A lever 16 in. long is to be fastened to a 2-in. shaft. A load of 40 lb. is to be

applied normal to the lever at its end. What size of set screw should be used
for a design factor of 5?

Solution:
Torque = (16)(40) = 640 in lb
2(640 )
Tangential force = = 640 lb
2

Page 41 of 42
SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

## Holding force = (5)(640) = 3200 lb

Table 5.3, use Screw size 9/16 in.

257. A 12-in. gear is mounted on a 2-in. shaft and is held in place by a 7/16 in.
setscrew. For a design factor of 3, what would be the tangential load that
could be applied to the teeth and what horsepower could be transmitted by the
screw.

Solution:
Table 5.3, 7/16 in.
Holding force = 2500 lb
2500
Tangential force = = 833 lb
3
2
Tangential load on gear = 833 = 139 lb
12
Assume vm = 4500 fpm

Hp transmitted =
(139)(4500) = 19 hp
33,000

- end -

Page 42 of 42
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

## 271. A solenoid brake (Fig. 18.2, Text) is to be actuated by a helical compression

spring. The spring should have a free length of approximately 18 in. and is to
exert a maximum force of 2850 lb. when compressed to a length of 15 in. The
outside diameter must not exceed 7 in. Using oil-tempered wire, design a
spring for this brake, (wire diameter, coil diameter, number of active coils,
pitch, pitch angle, solid stress). General Electric used a spring made of 1 in.
wire, with an outside diameter of 6 in., and 11 free coils for a similar
application.

Solution:
For oil tempered wire, Table AT 17
146
su = 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw
solid stress = 0.6 s u
design stress, (average service)
ssd = 0.324 su
0.324(146 ) 47.304
ssd = = ksi
Dw0.19 Dw0.19
Dw + Dm 7
F = 2850 lb = 2.85 kips

8FDm 47.304
ss = K =
3
Dw Dw0.19
say K = 1.3
8(2.85)(7 Dw ) 47.304
ss = 1.3 =
Dw3 Dw0.19
Dw = 1.062 in > 0.5 in
47.304
use ssd = ksi = 54 ksi
(0.5)0.19
8(2.85)(7 Dw )
ss = 1.3 = 54
Dw3
Dw = 1.015 in
say Dw = 1.0 in
8(2.85)Dm
ss = 1.3 = 54
(1)
3

Dm = 5.72 in

Page 1 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

say Dm = 5.0 in
OD = Dm + Dw = 5.0 + 1.0 = 6 in < 7 in.
D 5 .0
C= m = =5
Dw 1.0
= Free length Compressed length = 18 in 15 in = 3 in.
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
3
G = 10,500 ksi , Dw > in
8
8(2.85)(5) N c
3
=3=
(10,500)(1)
N c = 11.05
say N c = 11.5
8(2.85)(5) (11.5)
3
= = 3.12 in
(10,500)(1)
Free length = 15 + 3.12 = 18.12 in

At 2.85 kips
8FDm
ss = K
3
Dw
C =5
4C 1 0.615 4(5) 1 0.615
K= + = + = 1.3105
4C 4 C 4(5) 4 5
8(2.85)(5)
ss = 1.3105 = 47.55 ksi
(1)
3

## Permissible solid stress

0.6(146 )
sso = 0.6 su = ksi = 99.93 ksi
(0.5)0.19
F
k=
using
or let T = Free length Solid height
47.55 99.93
=
3.12 T
T = 6.56 in
T = Free length Solid height = (P Dw )N c
6.56 = (P 1)(11.5)
P = 1.570 in

Page 2 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

1
use P = 1 in
2
Pitch angle,
P 1.5
= tan 1 = tan 1 o o
= 5.5 < 12 , o.k.
D (5 )

## For actual solid stress

T = (1.5 1)(11.5) = 5.75 in.
47.55 sso
=
3.12 5.75
sso = 87.63 ksi < 99.93 ksi , ok

Dw = wire diameter = 1 in.
Dm = coil diameter = 5 in.
N c = no. of active coils = 11 1/2
P = pitch = 1 in.
= pitch angle = 5.5o
sso = solid stress = 87.63 ksi

272. A coil spring is to be used for the front spring of a automobile. The spring is
to have a rate of 400 lb./in., an inside diameter of 4 3/64 in., and a free length
of 14 1/8 in., with squared-and-ground ends. The material is to be oil-
tempered chrome vanadium steel. Decide upon the diameter of the wire and
the number of free coils for a design load of F = 1500 lb . Be sure solid
stress is all right. How much is the pitch angle?

Solution:
Table AT 17 Cr-V steel
168
su = 0.166 ksi , [0.032 < Dw 0.437]
Dw
average service
ssd = 0.324su
0.324(168) 54.432
ssd = = 0.166 ksi
Dw0.166 Dw
Max solid stress = 0.6su

Page 3 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

3
ID = Dm Dw = 4 in = 4.046875 in
64
Dm = Dw + 4.046875 in

8FDm
ss = K = ssd
3
Dw
Assume K = 1.3
F = 1500 lb = 1.5 kips
54.432 8(1.5)(Dw + 4.046875)
ssd = 0.166
= 1.3
Dw Dw3
Dw = 0.747 in > 0.437 in
use
54.432
ssd = ksi = 62.45 ksi
(0.437 )0.19
8(1.5)(Dw + 4.046875)
ssd = 1.3 = 62.45
Dw3
Dw = 0.724 in
3
use Dw = in
4
3 3 51
Dm = + 4 = 4 in
4 64 64
8FDm
ss = K
3
Dw
4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
51
4
Dm 64
C= = 6.4
Dw 3

4
4(6.4) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.235
4(6.4) 4 6.4
51
8(1.5) 4
ss = 1.235 64 = 53.64 ksi < 62.45 ksi , (o.k.)
3
3

4
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw

Page 4 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

3
G = 10,500 ksi , D w > in
8
F 1500
= = = 3.75 in
k 400
8(1.5)(6.4 ) N c
3
= 3.75 =
(10,500) 3
4
N c = 9.4
Table AT 16, Total coils = N c + 2 = 9.4 + 2 = 11.4 for square and grounded end.

Dw = wire diameter = in.
No. of free coils = 11.4

## To check for solid stress.

0.6(168)
Permissible solid stress = = 115.65 ksi
(0.437 )0.166
Free length = PN c + 2 Dw
3
Solid height = Dw ( N c + 2 ) = (11.4 ) = 8.55 in
4
1
14 8.55
Solid stress = (53.64 ) 8 = 78.74 ksi < 115.65 ksi (safe)
3.75

Pitch:
1
PN c + 2 Dw = 14 in
8
3 1
P(9.4 ) + 2 = 14
4 8
11
P = 1.343 in = 1 in
32
Pitch angle,
11
1
1 P
= tan = tan 32 = 5.1o < 12o , o.k.
1

D 4 51
64

Page 5 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

273. A coiled compression spring is to fit inside a cylinder 5/8 in. in diameter. For
one position of the piston, the spring is to exert a pressure on the piston
equivalent to 5 psi of piston area, and in this position, the overall length of the
spring must not exceed (but may be less than) 2 in. A pressure of 46 psi on the
piston is to compress the spring in. from the position described above.
Design a spring for medium service. Specify the cheapest suitable material,
number of total and active coils for square-and-ground ends, and investigate
the pitch angle, and solid stress.

Solution:
8FDm
ss = K
3
Dw

5 D
OD = Dm + Dw = in w
8 2
5
Dm + 1.5 Dw = in
8
2
5
F1 = (5) = 1.534 lb
4 8
2
5
F2 = (46 + 5) = 15.647 lb
4 8

## Using hard-drawn spring wire, Cost Index = 1

ssd = 0.324su (0.85)
140
su = 0.19 ksi
Dw , [0.028 < Dw < 0.625]
70
Max solid stress = ksi
Dw0.19
140 38.556
ssd = 0.324(0.85) 0.19 =
Dw Dw0.19
8FC 38.556 38,556
ss = K =
2 0.19
ksi = 0.19 psi
Dw Dw Dw
8(15.647 )C
K = 38,556 Dw1.81

K (39.845)C = 38,556 Dw1.81
Dm + 1.5Dw = 0.625
CDw + 1.5Dw = 0.625
0.625
Dw =
C + 1 .5

Page 6 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
1.81
4C 1 0.615 0.625
+ (39.845)C = 38,556
4C 4 C C + 1 .5
4C 1 0.615
(C + 1.5) C = 413.3
1.81
+
4C 4 C
C = 7.035
0.625 0.625
Dw = = = 0.0732 in
C + 1.5 7.035 + 1.5
Table AT 15, Dw = 0.0720 in , W & M 15
Dm = 7.035(0.0720) = 0.5065 in
For N c
8(F2 F1 )C 3 N c
2 1 =
GDw
G = 11.5 106 psi
3 8(15.647 1.534)(7.035) N c
3
2 1 = =
4 (
11.5 106 (0.0720) )
N c = 15.8
Table AT 16,
Total coils = N c + 2 = 15.8 + 2 = 17.8
Solid height = ( N c + 2)Dw = (15.8 + 2)(0.0720) = 1.28 in
Free length = PN c + 2 Dw
Free length = 2 + 1
8(F1 )C 3 N c
1 =
GDw
8(1.534 )(7.035) (15.8)
3
1 = = 0.082 in.
( )
11.5 106 (0.0720)
Free length = 2 + 0.082 = 2.082 in
8(F2 )C 3 N c
2 =
GDw
8(15.647 )(7.035) (15.8)
3
2 = = 0.832 in.
(
11.5 106 (0.0720) )
Solid Height Free Length - 2
Solid Height 2.082 0.832 in
Solid Height 1.25 in
But Solid Height > 1.25 in.

## Therefore change material to Oil-tempered spring wire, Cost Index = 1.5

Page 7 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Table AT 17
146
su = 0.19 ksi , 0.028 < Dw < 0.5
Dw
87.5
Max solid stress = ksi
D w0.19
146 47.304
ssd = 0.324 =
Dw0.19 Dw0.19
8FC 47.304 47,304
ss = K 2
= 0.19
ksi = 0.19
psi

wD Dw D w

K
( )
8 15.647 C
= 47,304 Dw1.81

K (39.845)C = 47,304 Dw1.81
0.625
Dw =
C + 1 .5
4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
1.81
4C 1 0.615 0.625
+ (39.845)C = 47,304
4C 4 C C + 1 .5
4C 1 0.615
(C + 1.5) C = 507.1
1.81
+
4C 4 C
C = 7.684
0.625 0.625
Dw = = = 0.0680 in
C + 1.5 7.684 + 1.5
Table AT 15, Dw = 0.0625 in , W & M 16
Dm = 7.684(0.0625) = 0.48025 in
15
say Dm = = 0.46875 in
32
D 0.46875
C= m = = 7 .5
Dw 0.0625
8FC
ss = K
2
Dw
4C 1 0.615 4(7.5) 1 0.615
K= + = + = 1.1974
4C 4 C 4(7.5) 4 7.5
8(15.647 )(7.5)
ss = 1.1974 2
= 91,600 psi = 91.6 ksi
(0.0625)
For N c

Page 8 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

8(F2 F1 )C 3 N c
2 1 =
GDw
G = 11.5 106 psi
3 8(15.647 1.534)(7.5) N c
3
2 1 = =
4 ( )
11.5 106 (0.0625)
N c = 11.32
Table AT 16, squared and ground ends
Total coils = N c + 2 = 11.32 + 2 = 13.32
Solid height = ( N c + 2)Dw = (11.32 + 2)(0.0625) = 0.8325 in
Free length = PN c + 2 Dw
Free length = 2 + 1
8(F1 )C 3 N c
1 =
GDw
8(1.534 )(7.5) (11.32)
3
1 = = 0.082 in.
( )
11.5 106 (0.0625)
Free length = 2 + 0.082 = 2.082 in = P(11.32) + 2(0.0625)
11
P = 0.1729 in in
64
Pitch angle,
P 0.1729
= tan 1 = tan 1 o o
= 6.7 < 12 , o.k.
D (0.46875 )

Solid stress
2 0.8325
sso = (91.6 ) = 142.6 ksi
0.75
87.5
Permissible solid stress = = 148.8 ksi > 137.5 ksi , safe.
(0.0625)0.19
Suitable material = Oil-Tempered Spring Wire
Total Coils = 13.32
Active Coils, N c = 11.32

274. A helical spring is to fit about a 11/16-in. rod with a free length of 2 in. or
less. A maximum load of 8 lb. is to produce a deflection of 1 in. The spring
is expected to be compressed less than 5000 times during its life, but is
subjected to relatively high temperatures and corrosive atmosphere. Select a
material and determine the necessary wire size, mean coil diameter, and
number of coils. Meet all conditions advised by Text.

Page 9 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Solution:
For 5000 cycles < 104 cycles, use light service
Use stainless steel, type 302 (Cr-Ni), ASTM A313 for relative high temperature and
corrosive atmosphere, Table AT 17.
ssd = 0.32su (i)
170
su = ksi , [0.01 < Dw < 0.13]
Dw0.14
97
su = 0.41 ksi , [0.13 < Dw < 0.375]
Dw
Maximum solid so = 0.47 su
8FDm
ss = K 3

D w

F = 8 lb
11 D
Dm Dw = + w
16 2
Dm 1.5Dw = 0.6875 in
CDw 1.5 Dw = 0.6875
0.6875
Dw =
C 1 .5
4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
170
assume su = 0.14 ksi
Dw
0.32(170 ) 54.4 54,400
ssd = 0.14
= 0.14 ksi = psi
Dw Dw Dw0.14
4C 1 0.615 8(8)C
+ = 54,400 D1w.86
4C 4 C
1.86
4C 1 0.615 64C 0.6875
+ = 54,400
4C 4 C C 1 .5
4C 1 0.615
(C 1.5) C = 1330
1.86
+
4C 4 C
C = 12.919
0.6875
Dw = = 0.0602 in
12.919 1.5
Use Table AT 15, Dw = 0.0625 in , 16 W & M
Dm = 12.919(0.0602) = 0.8074 in
25
say Dm = in = 0.78125 in
32

Page 10 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

11
Dm Dw >
16
0.78125 0.0625 > 0.6875
0.71875 > 0.6875
Dw
0.71875 0.6875 = 0.03125 = , o.k.
2
Dm 0.71875
C= = = 12.5
Dw 0.0625
[0.0625 < 0.13], therefore, su =
170
ksi is o.k.
Dw0.14
8FC
ss = K
2
D
w
4(12.5) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.1144
4(12.5) 4 12.5
8(8)(12.5)
ss = 1.1144 2
= 72,648 psi
(0.0625)
8(F )C 3 N c
=
GDw
G = 10.6 106 psi
8(8)(12.5) N c
3
3
=1 =
( )
4 10.6 106 (0.0625)
N c = 9.3
To check for solid stress and pitch
Minimum solid height = Dw N c = (0.0625)(9.3) = 0.58125 in

(72,648) 2 3 0.58125
Solid stress = 4 = 90,000 psi = 90 ksi
3
1
4
Permissible solid stress =
(0.47 )(170) = 117.8 ksi > 90 ksi , o.k.
(0.0625)0.14
Free length = PN c , minimum
3
P (9.3) = 2
4
P = 0.2957 in
Pitch angle,
P 0.2957
= tan 1 = tan 1 = 7.5o < 12o , o.k.
D (0.71825)
Material, Stainless Steel, Cr-Ni. ASTM A313

Page 11 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Dw = 0.0625 in , 16 W & M
25
Dm = in
32
N c = 9.3

275. In order to isolate vibrations, helical compression springs are used to support a
machine. The static load on each spring is 3500 lb., under which the deflection
should be about 0.5 in. The solid deflection should be about 1 in. and the
outside coil diameter should not exceed 6 in. Recommend a spring for this
application; include scale, wire size, static stress, material, number of coils,
solid stress, and pitch of coils.

Solution:
Use Music wire (The best material)
Table AT 17
190
su = 0.154 ksi , [0.004 < Dw < 0.192]
Dw
Maximum solid sso = 0.5su
Light service, ssd = 0.405su
0.405(190 ) 76.95 76,950
ssd = 0.154
= 0.154 ksi = 0.154 psi
Dw Dw Dw
8FC
ss = K
2
Dw
F = 3500 lb
OD = Dm + Dw = 6 in
(C + 1)Dw = 6
6
Dw =
C +1

4C 1 0.615 8(3500 )C
76,950
ss = + =
4C 4 C 6 6 0.154
C + 1 C + 1

4C 1 0.615

4C 4
+
C
[
C (C + 1) ]
1.846
= 235.9

C = 5.635
6
Dw = = 0.9043 in > 0.192 in
5.635 + 1
76.950
use ss = = 99,216 psi
(0.192)0.154

Page 12 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615 8(3500 )C

ss = + = 99,216
4C 4 C 6
C + 1

4C 1 0.615
C (C + 1) = 400.8
2
+
4C 4 C
C = 6.205
6
Dw = = 0.8328 in
6.205 + 1
13
Say Dw = in = 0.8125 in
16
Dm = (6.205)(0.8125) = 5.042 in
Say Dm = 5 in
D 5
C= m = = 6.154
Dw 0.8125
4(6.154) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.2455
4(6.154) 4 6.154
8FC
ss = K 2

Dw
8(3500)(6.154)
ss = 1.2455 = 103,481 psi > 99,216 psi , not o.k.
(0.8125)
2

Use Dm = 4.5 in
D 4 .5
C= m = = 5.5385
Dw 0.8125
4(5.5385) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.2763
45.5385 4 5.5385
8(3500)(5.5385)
ss = 1.2763 = 95,435 psi > 99,216 psi , o.k.
(0.8125)
2

## To check for solid stress

Permissible solid stress =
(0.5)(190) = 122.488 ksi = 122,488 psi
(0.192 )0.154
1
Solid stress = (95,435) = 190,870 psi > 122,488 psi , not ok
0 .5
Use
0 .5
ssd = 122,488 = 61,244 psi
. 1

Page 13 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615 8(3500 )C

ss = + = 61,244
4C 4 C 6
C + 1

4C 1 0.615
C (C + 1) = 247.4
2
+
4C 4 C
C = 5 .1
6
Dw = = 0.9836 in
5 .1 + 1
Say Dw = 1.0 in
Dm = (5.1)(1.0) = 5.1 in
Say Dm = 5 in
D 5
C = m = =5
Dw 1
8FC
ss = K
2
Dw
4(5) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.3105
4(5) 4 5
8(3500)(5)
ss = 1.3105 2
= 58,400 psi > 61,244 psi o.k.
(1.0 )
Use Dw = 1.0 in , Dm = 5 in
1
Solid stress = (58,400 ) = 116,800 psi < 122,488 psi , o.k.
0 .5
8(F )C 3 N c
=
GDw
(Table AT 17)
G = 12 106 psi
8(3500 )(5) N c
3
= 0.5 =
( )
12 106 (1.0)
N c = 1.7143
say N c = 1.75
Free length Solid length = Solid Deflection
PN c Dw N c = 1 in
P(1.75) (1)(1.75) = 1
9
P = 1.5714 in 1 in
16
Pitch angle,

Page 14 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

9
P 1
= tan 1 = tan 1 16 = 5.68o < 12o , o.k.
D (5)

F 3500
Scale, k = = = 7000 lb in
0 .5
Wire size, Dw = 1.0 in
Material = Music Wire
Solid sress = 116,800 psi
9
Pitch of stress = P = 1 in
16

## CHECK PROBLEMS LIGHT, MEDIUM SERVICE

276. The front spring of an automobile has a total of 9 coils, 7 3/8 active coils
(square-and-ground ends), an inside diameter of 4 3/64 in., and a free length
of 14 in. It is made of SAE 9255 steel wire, OQT 1000oF, with a diameter
of 43/64 in. Compute (a) the rate (scale) of the spring; (b) the solid stress
and compare with a permissible value (is a stop needed to prevent solid
compression?). (c) Can 95 % of the solid stress be repeated 105 times without
danger of failure? Would you advise shot peening of the spring?

Solution:

8FC 3 N c
(a) =
GDw
43 3
Dw = in > in
64 8
6
G = 10.5 10 psi
D
C= m
Dw
Dm Dw = ID
43 3
Dm = 4 in
64 64
23
Dm = 4 in
32
23
4
C = 32 = 7.0233
43
64

Page 15 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

3
Nc = 7
8
(10.5 10 ) 64
6 43

F
GD
k = rate = = 3 w = = 345 lb in
8C N c 3 3
8(7.0233) 7
8

## (b) Solid Stress

43 1
Solid height = N c = (Dw )(Total Coils ) = 9 = 6.3828 in
64 2
Solid deflection = Free length Solid height = 14 - 6.3828 = 7.8672 in.

## Solid Force = Fso = 7.8672(345) = 2714 lb

8F C
Solid Stress = K so2
Dw
4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
4(7.0233) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.212
4(7.0233) 4 7.0233

8(2714)(7.0233)
ss = 1.212 = 130,322 psi
43
2

64
Permissible value, ss = s ys = 0.6 sy , [Dw > 0.5 in]
SAE 9255, OQT 1000 oF
s y = 160 ksi su = 180 ksi
,
s ys = 0.6(160 ) = 96 ksi = 96,000 psi < 130,322 psi
Therefore a stop is needed to prevent solid compression.

## (c) ssd = 0.324su (105 cycles)

ssd = 0.324(180) = 58.32 ksi
0.95sso = 0.95(130,322) = 123,800 psi = 123.8 ksi > 58.32 ksi
There is a danger of failure, shot peening is advisable
s ys = 1.25(96,000 ) = 120,000 psi 0.95sso

277. An oil-tempered steel helical compression spring has a wire size of No. 3 W
& M, a spring index of 4.13, 30 active coils, a pitch of 0.317 in., ground-and-
squared ends; medium service. (a) What maximum load is permitted if the
recommended stress is not exceeded (static approach)? Compute (b) the

Page 16 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

corresponding deflection, (c) solid stress,. (d) pitch angle, (e) scale, (f) the
energy absorbed by the spring from a deflection of 0.25 in. to that of the
working load. (g) Is there any danger of this spring buckling? (h) What
maximum load could be used if the spring were shot peened?

Solution:
Table AT 17, oil-tempered
146
su = 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw
87.5
Maximum solid sso = 0.19 ksi
Dw
ssd = 0.324su (medium service)

## Table AT 15, No. 3 W & M

Dw = 0.2437 in
C = 4.13
Dm = CDw = 4.13(0.2437 ) = 1.0 in

8F C
(a) ss = K s 2
Dw
4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
4(4.13) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.3885
4(4.13) 4 4.13
0.324(146 )
ss = ssd = = 61.858 ksi = 61,858 psi
(0.2437 )0.19
8(F )(4.13)
ss = 61,858 = 1.3885 2
(0.2437 )
F = 252 lb
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
G = 11.5 106 psi
N c = 30
8(252)(4.13) (30)
3
= = 1.52 in
( )
11.5 106 (0.2437 )

## Free length = PN c + 2 Dw = (0.317 )(30) + 2(0.2437 ) = 9.9974 in

Page 17 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

## Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw = (30 + 2)(0.2437 ) = 7.7984 in

Solid deflection = 9.9974 7.7984 = 2.199 in.
2.199
Solid stress = (61,858) = 89,491 psi
1.52

87.5 87.5
Maximum solid sso = ksi = ksi = 114.4 ksi > 89.491 ksi , o.k. safe
0.19
Dw (0.2437 )0.19

P 0.317
(d) = tan 1 = tan 1 = 5.76o < 12o , o.k.
D (1)
F 252
(e) scale = k = = = 166 lb in
1.52
1
(f) U s = k ( 22 12 )
2
k = 166 lb in
1 = 0.25 in
2 = 1.52 in
1
[ ]
U s = (166 ) (1.52 ) (0.25) = 186.6 in lb
2
2 2

## (g) i 6.18 Free length = 9.9974 in

Mean Diameter = Dm = 1.0 in
Free length 9.9974
= = 9.9974 > 4
Mean Diameter 1 .0
There is a danger for spring buckling

## (h) Shot peened, Table AT 17

ssd = (61,858)(1.25) = 77,322 psi
8(F )(4.13)
ss = 77,322 = 1.3885 2
(0.2437 )
F = 314 lb

280. It is desired to isolate a furnace, weighing 47,300 lb., from the surroundings
by mounting it on helical springs. Under the weight, the springs should deflect
approximately 1 in., and at least 2 in. before becoming solid. It has been
decided to use springs having a wire diameter of 1 in., an outside diameter of
5 3/8 in., 4.3 free coils. Determine (a) the number of springs to be used, (b)
the stress caused by the weight, (c) the solid stress. (d) What steel should be
used?

Solution:

Page 18 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Dw = 1 in
3
Dm + Dw = 5 in
8
3
Dm = 4 in
8
3
4
D
C = m = 8 = 4.375
Dw 1

8FC 3 N c
(a) =
GDw
Assume N c = 4.3
3
G = 10.5 106 psi , Dw > in
8
8F (4.375) (4.3)
3
= 1.0 =
(
10.5 106 (1))
F = 3645 lb
W 47,300
No. of springs = = = 13
F 3645

W 47,300
(b) F = = = 3638 lb
13 13
8F C
ss = K s 2
Dw
4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
4(4.375) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.3628
4(4.375) 4 4.375
8(3638)(4.375)
ss = 1.3628 = 55,235 psi
(1.0)2

2
(c) Solid Stress = ss = 55,235 = 110,470 psi
1
(d) s ys 110,470 psi
s ys
110,470
sy = = = 184,117 psi = 184.117 ksi
0.6 0.6
From Table AT 7,
Use AISI 8760, OQT 800 oF, s y = 200 ksi

Page 19 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

## VARYING STRESS APPROACH

DESIGN PROBLEMS

282. A spring, subjected to a load varying from 100 lb. to 250 lb., is to be made of oil-
tempered, cold-wound wire. Determine the diameter of the wire and the mean
diameter of the coil for a design factor of 1.25 based on Wahls line. The spring
index is to be at least 5. Conform to good practice, showing checks for all
significant parameters. Let the free length be between 6 and 8.

Solution:
Fmax = 250 lb
Fmin = 100 lb
1 1
Fm = (Fmax + Fmin ) = (250 + 100 ) = 175 lb = 0.175 kip
2 2
1 1
Fa = (Fmax Fmin ) = (250 100 ) = 75 lb = 0.075 kip
2 2
Wahls line
1 sms sas 2sas
= +
N s ys sno
8 KFa Dm 8 KFa C
sas = =
Dw3 Dw2
8 KFm Dm 8 KFmC
sms = =
K cDw3 K cDw2
C =5
4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
4(5) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.31
4(5) 4 5
Fig. AF 15, C = 5
K c = 1.19
For oil-tempered wire,
87.5
s ys = 0.19
Dw , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
47
sno =
Dw0.1 , [0.041 < Dw < 0.15]
30
sno = 0.34
Dw , [0.15 < Dw < 0.625]
N = 1.25

Page 20 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

8(1.31)(0.075)(5) 1.251
sas = =
Dw2 Dw2
8(1.31)(0.175)(5) 2.453
sms = =
(1.19)Dw2 Dw2
30
say sno = 0.34 ksi
Dw
1 sms sas 2sas
= +
N s ys sno
2.453 1.251 1.251
2
2 2
Dw + Dw
=
1
1.25 87.5 30
0.19 0.34
Dw Dw
1 1 1
= 1.81
+
1.25 72.8 Dw 11.99 Dw1.66
Dw = 0.2857 in > 0.15 in
Table AT 15, use No. 1, W & M
Dw = 0.2830 in

## Dm = CDw = 5(0.2830) = 1.415 in

7
say Dm = 1 in
16
6 in < Free length < 8 in
7
Free length = 4 Dm = 41 = 5.75 in
16
Increase Dm
1
Dm = 1 in
2
1
Free length = 4 Dm = 41 = 6 in , o.k.
2

Dw = 0.2830 in
1
Dm = 1 in
2

283. A carbon-steel spring is to be subjected to a load that varies from 500 to 1200 lb.
The outside diameter should be between 3.5 and 4 in., the spring index between 5
to 10; approximate scale of 500 lb./in. Choose a steel and for a design factor of
1.4 by the Wahl line, find the wire diameter. Also determine the number of active

Page 21 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

coils and the free length for squared-and-ground ends. Conform to the general
conditions specified in the Text.
Solution:
For carbon steel, Table AT 17
91
s ys = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
49
sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
Fmax = 1200 lb
Fmin = 500 lb
1 1
Fm = (Fmax + Fmin ) = (1200 + 500 ) = 850 lb = 0.85 kip
2 2
1 1
Fa = (Fmax Fmin ) = (1200 500 ) = 350 lb = 0.35 kip
2 2
OD = 3.5 ~ 4.0 in
C = 5 ~ 10
Wahls line
1 sms sas 2sas
= +
N s ys sno
Figure AF 15, C = 5 ~ 10
Assume K = 1.2 , K c = 1.125
8 KFa Dm
sas =
Dw3
8 KFm Dm
sms =
K cDw3
OD 3.75 in
Dm = 3.75 Dw
8(1.2 )(0.35)(3.75 Dw ) 1.0695(3.75 Dw )
sas = =
Dw3 Dw3
8(1.2 )(0.85)(3.75 Dw ) 2.3088(3.75 Dw )
sms = =
(1.125)Dw3 Dw3
3.75 Dw
(2.3088 1.0695) 3.75 3 Dw 2(1.0695)
1 Dw + Dw3
=
1.4 91 49
0.1 0.15
Dw Dw
1 3.75 Dw 3.75 Dw
= 2.9
+
1.4 73.4285 Dw 22.9079 Dw2.85
Dw = 0.6171 in > 0.25 in
Use

Page 22 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

91
s ys = = 104.53 ksi
(0.25)0.1
49
sno = = 60.33 ksi
(0.25)0.15
3.75 Dw
(2.3088 1.0695) 3.75 3 Dw 2(1.0695)
1 Dw + Dw3
=
1 .4 104.53 60.33
1 3.75 Dw 3.75 Dw
= +
1.4 84.346 Dw3 28.205 Dw3
1 3.75 Dw
=
1.4 21.137 Dw3
Dw = 0.5935 in
use
19
Dw = in
32
3
Dm + Dw 3 in
4
19 3
Dm + = 3 in
32 4
5
Dm = 3 in
32
5
3
Dm 32
C= = = 5.316
Dw 19

32 . o.k.
19
Wire Diameter Dw = in , Carbon Steel
32
Number of coils:
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
3
G = 10.5 106 psi = 10,500 ksi , Dw > in
8
F GDw
=k = 3
8C N c

(10.5 10 ) 19
6

500 = 32
8(5.316 ) N c
3

N c = 10.4
Table AT 16, square-and-ground ends

Page 23 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Free length = PN c + 2 Dw
Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw
Total Coils = N c + 2

19
Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw = (10.4 + 2 ) = 7.3625 in
32
F 1200
= = = 2.4 in
k 500
Min. Free length = 2.4 + 7.3625 in = 9.7625 in
Use Free length = 10 in

## To check for pitch angle.

Free length = PN c + 2 Dw
19
P(10.4 ) + 2 = 10
32
P = 0.8474 in

P 0.8474
= tan 1 = tan 1 = 4.885o < 12o , o.k.
Dm 3 5
32

Solid stress:
T = solid deflection = 10 7.3625 = 2.6375 in
F = k T = (500)(2.6375) = 1319 lb
4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
4(5.316) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.29
4(5.316) 4 5.316
5
8(1.29)(1319) 3
ss =
8 KFDm
= 32 = 23,033 psi = 23.033 ksi < s (= 104.53 ksi )
3 3 ys
Dw 19

32

## 284. A helical compression spring, made of oil-tempered, cold-wound carbon steel, is

to be subjected to a working load varying from 100 to 300 lb. for an indefinite
time (severe). A mean coil diameter of 2 in. should be satisfactory. (a) Using the
static approach, compute a wire diameter. (b) For this wire size, compute the
factor of safety as given by the Wahl line.

Solution:

Page 24 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Table AT 16,
For carbon steel,
182
su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
91
s ys = 0.1 ksi
91 Dw
Max. solid s ys = 0.1 ksi
Dw
49
sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
Dm = 2 in.
Fmax = 300 lb
Fmin = 100 lb

## (a) F = 300 lb = 0.3 kip

severe service, ssd = 0.263su =
(0.263)(182) = 47.866 ksi
Dw0.1 Dw0.1

8F C
ss = K s 2
Dw
4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
Dm
C=
Dw
D 2
Dw = m =
C C

4C 1 0.615 8(0.3)(2 ) 47.866
ss = + =
4C 4 C 2 3 2 0.1

C C
4C 1 0.615 2.9
4C 4 + C C = 233.84

C = 6.075
2
Dw = = 0.3292 in > 0.25 in
6.075
47.866
Therefore use ssd = = 54.984 ksi
(0.25)0.1

Page 25 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615 8(0.3)(2 )
ss = + = 54.984
4C 4 C 2 3

C
4C 1 0.615 3
4C 4 + C C = 287.9

C = 6.136
2
Dw = = 0.3259 in
6.136
21
say Dw = in
64

91
(b) s ys = = 104.53 ksi
(0.25)0.1
49
sno = = 60.33 ksi
(0.25)0.15
1 1
Fm = (Fmax + Fmin ) = (300 + 100 ) = 200 lb = 0.2 kip
2 2
1 1
Fa = (Fmax Fmin ) = (300 100 ) = 100 lb = 0.1 kip
2 2
Dm 2
C= = = 6.095
Dw 21

64
Figure AF 15
K c = 1.15
K = 1.25
K 8Fm Dm
sms =
K c Dw3

1.25 8(0.2 )(2)
sms = = 31.34 ksi
1.15 21 3

64

8 KFa Dm
sas =
Dw3

Page 26 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

8(0.1)(2)
sas = 1.25 = 18.02 ksi
21 3

64

Wahls line
1 sms sas 2sas
= +
N s ys sno
1 31.34 18.02 2(18.02 )
= +
N 104.53 60.33
N = 1.38

285. A helical spring of hard-drawn wire with a mean diameter of 1 in. and square-
and-ground ends is to be subjected to a maximum load of 325 lb. (a) Compute the
wire diameter for average service. (b) How many total coils are required if the
scale is 800 lb./in.? (c) For a minimum load of 100 lb., what is the factor of safety
according to Wahl line? Would it be safe for an indefinite life?

Solution:

Table AT 17,
Hard-drawn wire,
140
su = 0.19 ksi , [0.028 < Dw < 0.625]
Dw
70
Maximum solid ss = s ys = 0.19 ksi
Dw

sno =
(0.9)(47 ) ksi , [0.041 < D < 0.15]
w
Dw0.1

sno =
(0.9)(30) ksi , [0.15 < D < 0.625]
w
Dw0.34
Average service

0.2754(140 ) 38.556
(a) ssd = 0.85(0.324 )su = 0.2754 su = = ksi
Dw0.19 Dw0.19
F = 325 lb = 0.325 kip
1
Dm = 1 in
2
8 FDm
ss = K 3
Dw

Page 27 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
1 .5
Dw =
C

4C 1 0.615 8(0.325)(1.5) 38.556
ss = + =
4C 4 C 1.5 1.5
3 0.19

C C
4C 1 0.615 2.81
+ C = 97.05
4C 4 C
C = 4.586
1 .5 1 .5
Dw = = = 0.3271 in < 0.625 in
C 4.586
21
Dw = in
64

Dm 1 .5
(b) C = = = 4.57
Dw 21

64
4(4.57 ) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.345
4(4.57 ) 4 4.57
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
F GD
=k = 3 w
8C N c
k = 800 lb in = 0.8 kip in

(11,500) 21
0.8 = 64
3
84.57 N c
N c = 6.2

70
(c) s ys = 0.19
= 86.5 ksi
21

64
sno =
(0.9)(30)
= 39.44 ksi , Dw > 0.15 in
0.19
21

64
1
Fm = (325 + 100 ) = 212.5 lb = 0.2125 kip
2

Page 28 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

1
Fa = (325 100) = 112.5 lb = 0.1125 kip
2
K c = 1.212 , Fig. AF 15
K = 1.345

K 8Fm Dm 1.345 8(0.2125)(1.5)
sms = = = 25.5 ksi
K c Dw3 1.212 21
3

64

8Fm Dm
8(0.1125)(1.5)
sas = K 3
= 1.345 = 16.36 ksi
Dw 21
3

64
1 sms sas 2sas 25.5 16.36 2(16.36)
= + = +
N s ys sno 86.5 39.44
N = 1.07 < 1.15[N min ]
Not safe for indefinite life.

286. A helical spring is to be subjected to a maximum load of 200 lb. (a) Determine
the wire size suitable for medium service if the material is carbon steel ASTM
A230; C = 6 . Determine the factor of safety of this spring according to the Wahl
line (b) If the minimum force is 150 lb., (c) if the minimum force is 100 lb., (d) if
the minimum force is 25 lb.

Solution:

## For carbon steel ASTM A230

Table AT 17
182
su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
91
s ys = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
49
sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
Medium Service
ssd = 0.324su

## 182 58.968 58,968

(a) ssd = 0.324 0.1 = 0.1
ksi = psi
Dw Dw Dw0.1

Page 29 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

8 FDm
ss = K 3
Dw
4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
4(6) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.2525
4(6) 4 6
F = 200 lb
8(200)(6) 58,968
ss = 1.2525 2 =
Dw Dw0.1
Dw = 0.2371 in

## Table At 15, use Dw = 0.2437 in , No. 3 W & M

Dw = 0.2437 in < 0.25 in , o.k.

Factor of safety.
91 91
s ys = 0.1 ksi = ksi = 104.8 ksi
Dw (0.2437 )0.1
49 49
sno = 0.15 ksi = ksi = 60.56 ksi
Dw (0.2437 )
1
(a) Fm = (200 + 150) = 175 lb = 0.175 kip
2
1
Fa = (200 150) = 25 lb = 0.025 kip
2
Figure AF 15, K c = 1.156
K 8FmC 1.2525 8(0.175)(6 )
sms = = = 48.8 ksi
K c Dw2 1.156 (0.2437 )2
8F C 8(0.025)(6 )
sas = K a 2 = 1.2525 2
= 8.1 ksi
Dw (0.2437 )
1 sms sas 2sas
= +
N s ys sno
1 48.8 8.1 2(8.1)
= +
N 104.8 60.56
N = 1.525

1
(b) Fm = (200 + 100) = 150 lb = 0.15 kip
2
1
Fa = (200 100) = 50 lb = 0.05 kip
2

Page 30 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

## Figure AF 15, K c = 1.156

K 8FmC 1.2525 8(0.15)(6 )
sms = 2
= 2
= 41.8 ksi
Kc Dw 1.156 (0.2437 )
8F C 8(0.05)(6)
sas = K a 2 = 1.2525 2
= 16.11 ksi
Dw (0.2437 )
1 sms sas 2sas
= +
N s ys sno
1 41.8 16.11 2(16.11)
= +
N 104.8 60.56
N = 1.287

1
(c) Fm = (200 + 25) = 112.5 lb = 0.1125 kip
2
1
Fa = (200 25) = 87.5 lb = 0.0875 kip
2
Figure AF 15, K c = 1.156
K 8FmC 1.2525 8(0.1125)(6)
sms = = = 31.36 ksi
K c Dw2 1.156 (0.2437 )2
8F C 8(0.0875)(6)
sas = K a 2 = 1.2525 2
= 28.2 ksi

w D (0.2437 )
1 sms sas 2sas
= +
N s ys sno
1 31.36 28.20 2(28.20 )
= +
N 104.8 60.56
N = 1.04

CHECK PROBLEMS

A Diesel valve spring is made of 3/8-in. chrome-vanadium steel wire, shot-peened; inside
diameter is 3 in., 7 active coils, free length is 7 3/8 in., solid length is 4 1/8 in., length
with valve closed, 6 in., length when open, 5 1/8 in. (a) Compute the spring constant
and the factor of safety as defined by the Wahl criterion (see 6.13, Text). (b) Is there
any danger of damage to the spring if it is compressed solid? (c) What is the natural
frequency? If this spring is used on a 4-stroke Diesel engine at 450 rpm, is there any
danger of surge? Compute the change of stored energy between working lengths.

Solution:

## For chrome-vanadium steel wire, shot-peened, Table AT 17

Page 31 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

## (1.25)(168) ksi , [0.032 < D

su = w < 0.437 ]
Dw0.166

s ys =
(1.25)(100 ) ksi , [0.032 < D < 0.437]
w
Dw0.166

sno =
(1.25)(49) ksi , [0.028 < D < 0.5]
w
Dw0.15
3
Dw = in = 0.375 in
8
s ys =
(1.25)(100) ksi = 147.1 ksi
(0.375)0.166
sno =
(1.25)(49) ksi = 70.96 ksi
(0.375)0.15
8FC 3 N c
(a) =
GDw
F GD
=k = 3 w
8C N c
G = 11.5 106 psi
Nc = 7
Dw = 0.375 in
Dm Dw = ID = 3 in
Dm = 3.375 in
D 3.375
C= m = =9
Dw 0.375
k = spring constant

k= 3 =
GDw (
11.5 106 )(0.375)
= 105.64 lb in
8(9 ) (7 )
3
8C N c
3 1
1 = 7 4 = 3.25 in
8 8
F1 = k1 = (105.64)(3.25) = 343.33 lb
3 1
2 = 7 6 = 1.125 in
8 4
F2 = k 2 = (105.64)(1.125) = 118.85 lb
1
Fm = (343.33 + 118.85) = 231.09 lb = 0.231 kip
2
1
Fa = (343.33 118.85) = 112.24 lb = 0.11224 kip
2
K 8FmC
sms =
K c Dw2

Page 32 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
4(9) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.162
4(9 ) 4 9
Figure AF 15, K c = 1.10
K 8FmC 1.162 8(0.231)(9)
sms = 2
= 2
= 39.8 ksi
Kc Dw 1.10 (0.375)
8F C 8(0.11224 )(9)
sas = K a 2 = 1.162 = 21.3 ksi
(0.375)
2
Dw
1 sms sas 2sas
= +
N s ys sno
1 39.8 21.3 2(21.3)
= +
N 147.1 70.96
N = 1.377

## Min. Solid Height = Dw N c = (0.375)(7 ) = 2.625 in

3
Solid deflection = 7 2.625 = 4.75 in.
8
F = k = (105.64)(4.75) = 501.8 lb = 0.5018 kip
8 FC 8(0.5018)(9)
Solid stress = ss = K 2 = 1.162 2
= 95 ksi < 147.1 ksi
Dw (0.375)
There is no danger of damage

## (c) Natural frequency

For steel
14,050 Dw
= cps
N c Dm2
14,050
= cps
N c C 2 Dw
14,050
= cps = 66 cps
(7 )(9)2 (0.375)
2
For 450 rpm, = 450 = 47 cps
60
66
= 1.4 < 12 , there is danger of surging.
47

Page 33 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

(d) U s =
1
2
( ) 1
[ ]
k 12 22 = (105.64 ) (3.25) (1.125) = 491 in lb
2
2 2

289. A helical spring is hot wound from 5/8-in. carbon-steel wire with an outside
diameter of 3 in. A force of 3060 lb. is required to compress the spring 1
in to the solid heigh. In service the spring is compressed so that its
deformation varies form in. to1 1/8 in. (a) What is the factor of safety by
the Wahl criterion? (b) Is the solid stress safe? Compute (c) the pitch angle,
(d) the change of stored energy between the working lengths, (e) the factor of
safety if the spring is peened?

Solution:

## For hot-wound carbon steel wire

5
Dw = in
8
Table AT 17
91
s ys = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
91
s ys = ksi = 104.5 ksi , Dw > 0.25 in.
(0.25)0.1
49
sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
49
sno = ksi = 60.33 ksi , Dw > 0.25 in.
(0.25)0.15
117
Permissible solid stress = ss = ksi , [Dw > 0.375 in.] 6.3
Dw0.31
117
ss = ksi = 35.4 ksi
(0.625)0.31
F 3060
(a) k = = = 1748.6 lb in
1.75
1
F1 = k1 = (1748.6 ) = 874.3 lb
2
1
F2 = k 2 = (1748.6 )1 = 1967.2 lb
8
1
Fm = (1967.2 + 874.3) = 1420.7 lb = 1.4207 kip
2
1
Fa = (1967.2 874.3) = 546.4 lb = 0.5464 kip
2

Page 34 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

5
Dw = in = 0.625 in
8
1
Dm + Dw = 3 in
4
Dm = 2.625 in
D 2.625
C= m = = 4 .2
Dw 0.625
4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
4(4.2) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.3808
4(4.2) 4 4.2
K c = 1.234
K 8FmC 1.3808 8(1.4207 )(4.2)
sms = = = 43.5 ksi
K c Dw2 1.234 (0.625)2
8F C 8(0.5464)(4.2)
sas = K a 2 = 1.3808 = 20.7 ksi
(0.625)
2
Dw
1 sms sas 2sas
= +
N s ys sno
1 43.5 20.7 2(20.7 )
= +
N 104.5 60.33
N = 1.106

## (b) Permissible solid stress = 135.4 ksi

F = 3.060 kip

8 FC 8(3.060)(4.2)
Solid stress, ss = K 2 = 1.3808 2
= 115.7 ksi < 135.4 ksi , safe
Dw (0.625)

3
(c) Solid deflection = 1 in
4
(P Dw )N c = 1.75 in
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
G = 10.5 106 psi , hot-wound
F GD
k= = 3w
8C N c

Page 35 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

1748.6 =
(10.5 10 )(0.625)
6

8(4.2 ) N c
3

N c = 6.332
(P 0.625)(6.332) = 1.75
P = 0.9014 in
Pitch angle
P P
tan = =
Dm CDw
P 0.9014
= tan 1 = tan 1 = 6.24o
CDw (4.2)(0.625)

(d) U s =
1
2
( 1
) [ ]
k 12 22 = (1748.6 )(1.125) (0.5) = 888 in lb
2
2 2

## (e) When peened

s ys = 12.5(104.5) = 130.6 ksi
sno = 1.25(60.33) = 75.4 ksi
1 43.5 20.7 2(20.7 )
= +
N 130.6 75.4
N = 1.38

ENERGY STORAGE

293. A 10-lb. body falls 10 in. and then strikes a helical spring. Design a hard-
drawn carbon steel spring that will absorb this shock occasionally without
permanent damage. Determine appropriate values of wire diameter, coil
diameter, pitch, free length, closed length, and the maximum stress under the
specified conditions, and scale. Let C = 7 .

Solution:

## For hard-drawn carbon steel, Table AT 17

182
su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
91
Max. solid ss = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
36.855
ssd = (0.50 )(0.405)su = ksi
Dw0.1
ss2V
Us =
4 K 2G

Page 36 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
4(7 ) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.213
4(7 ) 4 7
D 2
V w (Dm )N c
4
2 Dw2 Dm N c
V=
4
Dm = CDw
2CDw3 N c
V=
4
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
U s = W (h + )
8 FC
ss = K 2
Dw
s D 2
F= s w
8KC
s D 2 8C 3 N c
= s w
8KC GDw
s sDwC 2 N c
=
KG
2 2 3
ssDwC 2 N c s s CD w N c
U s = W h + =
KG 16 K 2G
Wh
Nc = 2 2 2
ss CDw s sDwC 2W

16 K 2G KG
36.855
when ss = ksi
Dw0.1
Wh
Nc =
(36.855) CDw 36.855D w0.9C 2W
2 2 2.8

16 K 2G KG
Nc =
( 0.010)(10)
(36.855)2 2 (7)Dw2.8 36.855D w0.9 (7 )2 (0.010)
16(1.213) (11,500)
2
(1.213)(11,500)
0.10
Nc =
0.3466 Dw 0.004067 D w0.9
2.8

Page 37 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

combination of Dw and N c
Gage No. W & M Dw Nc Dw N c
12 0.1055 991.2 105
11 0.1205 312.1 37.6
10 0.1350 166.1 22.4
9 0.1483 108.0 16.0
8 0.1620 75.2 12.2
7 0.1770 53.7 9.5
6 0.1920 40.2 7.7
5 0.2070 31 6.4
4 0.2253 23.4 5.3
3 0.2437 18.1 4.4

## Use Dw = 0.2437 in < 0.25 in , N c = 18.1

45
Dm = 7 Dw = 7(0.2437 ) = 1.7059 in = 1 in
64

0.9 2
s sDwC 2 N c 36.855D w C N c 36.855 (0.2437 ) (7 ) (18.1)
0.9 2
= = = = 2.066 in
KG KG (1.213)(11,500)
36.855
ss = = 42.44 ksi
(0.2437 )0.1
91 91
sso = 0.1 = = 104.8 ksi
Dw (0.2437 )0.1
Solid deflection
104.8
= (2.066 ) = 5.1 in
42.44
(P Dw )N c = 5.1
(P 0.2437)(18.1) = 5.1
P = 0.5255 in
17
say P = = 0.53125 in
32
Minimum Solid Height = Dw N c = (0.2437 )(18.1) = 4.41 in
Assume squared and ground end
Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw = (0.2437 )(18.1) + 2(0.2437 ) = 5.0 in
Solid deflection = (0.53125 0.2437 )(18.1) = 5.2 in
Free length = 5.0 in + 5.2 in = 10.2in

Dw = 0.2437 in , No. 3 W & M

Page 38 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

45
Dm = 1 in
64
17
P= in
32
Free length = 10.2 in
Closed length = 5 in
Maximum stress = 42.44 ksi

## 294. A helical spring, of hard-drawn steel wire, is to absorb 75 in-lb of energy

without being stressed beyond the recommended value of average service. Let
C = 6 . Decide upon satisfactory dimensions; Dw , Dm , N c , free length, pitch
angle, solid stress, volume of metal, possibility of spring buckling.

Solution:

## For hard-drawn steel wire, shock load, average service

140
su = 0.19 ksi , [0.028 < Dw < 0.625]
Dw
70
Max. solid ss = 0.19 ksi , [0.028 < Dw < 0.625]
Dw
140 19.278
ssd = (0.50)(0.85)(0.324)su = (0.50)(0.85)(0.324) 0.19 = 0.19 ksi
Dw Dw
s 2V s 2 2 Dw3 CN c
Us = s 2 = s
4K G 16 K 2G
C=6
4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
4(6) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.2525
4(6) 4 6
U s = 75 in lb = 0.075 in kip
19.278 2 Dw3 (6)N c
U s = 0.075 = 0.19
Dw 16(1.2525) (11,500)
2

0.9837 = Dw2.62 N c

Table AT-15
W&M Dw Nc Dw N c

Page 39 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

## 9 0.1483 146 21.65

8 0.1620 116 18.79
7 0.1770 92 16.28
6 0.1920 74 14.21
5 0.207 61 12.63
4 0.2253 49 11.04
3 0.2437 40 9.75
2 0.2625 32.7 8.58
1 0.2830 26.9 7.61
0 0.3065 21.8 6.68
2-0 0.3310 17.8 5.89
3-0 0.3625 14.0 5.075
4-0 0.3938 11.3 4.45
5-0 0.4305 8.95 3.85

## Use Dw = 0.4305 in , 5-0 W & M

Nc 9
9
Dm = 6(0.4305) = 2.583 in 2 in
16
19.278
ss = = 22.63 ksi
(0.4305)0.19
70
Max. Solid Stress = sso = = 82.16 ksi
(0.4305)0.19
s sDwC 2 N c (22.63)( )(0.4305)(6) (9)
2
= = = 0.6885 in
KG (1.2525)(11,500)
82.16
Solid deflection = (0.6885) = 2.5 in
22.63
(P Dw )N c = 2.5
(P 0.4305)(9) = 2.5
P = 0.7083 in
45
say P = = 0.703125 in
64
Solid deflection = (0.703125 0.4305)(9) = 2.453625 in
2.453625
Solid stress = 22.63 = 80.65 ksi
0.6885
7
Minimum Solid Height = Dw N c = (0.4305)(9 ) = 3.8745 in 3 in
8

45 21
Minimum Free Length = PN c = (9 ) = 6.328125 in 6 in
64 64
Pitch Angle

Page 40 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

45
P
= tan 1 = tan 1 64 = 5o < 12o
Dm 2 9
16
Volume
Dw2 (0.4305)2 9
V (Dm )N c = 2 (9 ) = 10.55 in
3

4 4 16
Dw = 0.4305 in , No. 5-0 W & M
9
Dm = 2 in
16
Nc = 9
21
Free length = 6 in
64
Pitch Angle = = 5o
Solid Stress = 80.65 ksi
Volume of metal = 10.55 in3

## Possibility of spring buckling

21
6
64 = 2.47 < 4 , no possibility
9
2
16

## CONCENTRIC HELICAL SPRINGS

297. Two concentric helical springs are to be subjected to a load that varies from a
maximum of 235 lb. to a maximum of 50 lb. They are to fit inside a 1 5/8 in.
cylinder. The maximum deflection is to be in., and the deflection when
compressed solid is to be approximately 1 in. Using the static approach for
severe service (maximum load), determine the wire diameter, mean coil
diameter, number of coils, solid length, and free length of both springs. (Start
with oil-tempered wire and assume a diametral clearance between the outer
D
spring and the cylinder of w , assume a similar clearance between springs.
2
Search for a suitable spring index and wire size.)

Solution:

## For oil-tempered wire

Table AT 17

Page 41 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

146
su = ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw0.19
87.5
Max. solid ss = 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw
Severe service
0.263(146 ) 38.398
ssd = 0.263su = = ksi
Dw0.19 Dw0.19
F = 235 lb = 0.235 kip
o = i
8FoCo3 N co 8Fi Ci3 N i
=
GDwo GDwi
Assume, Co = Ci
3GDwo
Fo =
32C 3 N co
3GDwi
Fi =
32C 3 N ci
8F C
sso = K o2
Dwo
8F C
ssi = K i 2
Dwi
D D
C = mo = mi
Dwo Dwi
4C 1 0.615
K= +
4C 4 C
D
Dmo Dwo wi = Dmi + Dwi
2
Dmo Dmi = Dwo + 1.5Dwi
D
1.625 wo = Dmo + Dwo
2
Dmo + 1.5Dwo = 1.625
CDwo + 1.5Dwo = 1.625
1.625
Dwo =
C + 1 .5
1.625C
Dmo =
C + 1 .5
CDwo CDwi = Dwo + 1.5Dwi

(C 1)Dwo = (C + 1.5)Dwi

Page 42 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

1.625(C 1)
Dwi =
(C + 1.5)2
1.625C (C 1)
Dmi =
(C + 1.5)2
8F C 38.398
sso = K o2 = 0.19 ksi
Dwo Dwo
1.81
15.08Dwo
Fo =
KC
8F C 38.398
ssi = K i 2 = 0.19 ksi
Dwi Dwi
1.81
15.08Dwi
Fi =
KC
Fo + Fi = F = 0.235 kip
1.81 1.81
15.08Dwo 15.08Dwi
+ = 0.235
KC KC
1.81 1.81
15.08 Dwo + 15.08 Dwi = 0.235 KC
1.81 1.81
1.625 1.625(C 1)
15.08 + 15.08 = 0.235 KC
C + 1 .5 C + 1.5
1 (C 1)
1.81
4C 1 0.615
154.52 + 3.62
= 0.235 + C
(C + 1.5) (C + 1.5)
1.81
4C 4 C
C = 5.328
1.625(5.328 1)
Dwi = = 0.1509 in
(5.328 + 1.5)2
1.625
Dwo = = 0.2380 in
5.328 + 1.5
Table AT 15, use Dwi = 0.1620 in , No. 8 W & M and Dwo = 0.2625 in , No. 2 W & M
13
Dmo = CDwo = (5.328)(0.2625) = 1.3986 in 1 in
32
7
Dmi = CDwi = (5.328)(0.1620 ) = 0.8631 in in
8
7

= = 5.401
Dmi 8
Ci =
Dwi 0.1620
13
1
=
Dmo 32
Co = = 5.357
Dwo 0.2625

Page 43 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

1.81
15.08Dwo
Fo =
K o Co
4(5.357 ) 1 0.615
Ko = + = 1.287
4(5.357 ) 1 5.357
15.08(0.2625)
1.81
Fo = = 0.194 kip
(1.287 )(5.357 )
1.81
15.08Dwi
Fi =
K i Ci
4(5.401) 1 0.615
Ki = + = 1.2843
4(5.401) 1 5.401
15.08(0.1620)
Fi = = 0.081 kip
(1.2843)(5.401)
Fo + Fi = 0.194 + 0.071 = 0.275 kip > 0.235 kip , ok
3GDwo
Fo =
32C 3 N co
3(11,500)(0.2625)
0.194 =
32(5.357 ) N co
3

N co = 9.5
3GDwi
Fi =
32C 3 N ci
3(11,500)(0.1620)
0.071 =
32(5.401) N ci
3

N ci = 15.6
87.5
Max. solid stress, sss = 0.19 ksi ,
Dw
87.5
ssso = = 112.82 ksi
(0.2625)0.19
87.5
sssi = = 123.65 ksi
(0.1620)0.19
Stress
38.398
ssi = = 54.26 ksi
(0.1620)0.19
38.398
sso = = 49.51 ksi
(0.2625)0.19
Solid stress
1
sso = 49.51 = 66.01 ksi < 112.82 ksi
0.75

Page 44 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

1
ssi = 54.26 = 72.35 ksi < 123.65 ksi
0.75
Solid length
Dwo N co = (0.2625)(9.5) = 2.5 in
Dwi N ci = (0.1620 )(15.6) = 2.53 in

## assume solid length = 3 in

Dwi ( N ci + xi ) = (0.1620)(15.6 + xi ) = 3 in
xi = 2.92
Total coils = 15.6 + 2.92 = 18.52
Dwo ( N co + xo ) = (0.2625)(9.5 + xo ) = 3 in
xo = 1.93
Total coils = 9.5 + 1.93 = 11.43

Free Length = 3 in + 1 in = 4 in

Outside wire.
Dwo = 0.2625 in , No. 2 W & M
13
Dmo = 1 in
32
N to = 11.43
Solid length = 3 in
Free length = 4 in

Inside wire.
Dwi = 0.1620 in , No. 8 W & M
7
Dmi = in
8
N ti = 18.52
Solid length = 3 in
Free length = 4 in

298. Two concentric, helical compression springs are used on a freight car. The
larger spring has an outside diameter of 7 in., a free length of 7 1/8 in., and is
made of a 1 in. steel bar. The smaller has an outside diameter of 4 1/8 in., a
free length of 6 13/16 in. , and is made of 7/8 in. steel bar. The solid height of
each spring is 5 in. and the forces required to compress them solid are
15,530 lb. and 7,000 lb., respectively. The working load on the two springs is
11,350 lb. Determine (a) the number of free coils in each spring, (b) the stress
in each spring when compressed solid, (c) the stresses induced by the working

Page 45 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

load. Notice that the outer spring deflects 5/16 in. before the inner one takes a
load. (d) What energy is absorbed while changing deflection from that at the
working load to that when the springs are compressed solid?

Solution:
ODo = 7 in
3
Dwo = 1 in
8
1
FLo = 7 in
8
1
ODi = 4 in
8
7
Dwi = in
8
13
FLi = 6 in
16

1
(a) Solid height = Dw N T = 5 in
4
5.25
N To = = 3.82
1.375
5.25
N Ti = =6
0.875

(b) Fo = 15,530 lb
Fi = 7000 lb
8 FC
ss = K 2
Dw
3
Dmo = 7 1 = 5.625 in
8
Dmo 5.625
Co = = = 4.091
Dwo 1.375
4(4.091) 1 0.615
Ko = + = 1.393
4(4.091) 4 4.091
1 7
Dmi = 4 = 3.25 in
8 8
D 3.25
Ci = mi = = 3.714
Dwi 0.875
4(3.714) 1 0.615
Ki = + = 1.442
4(3.714) 4 3.714

Page 46 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Solid stress
8(15,530)(4.091)
sso = 1.393 = 119,203 psi
(1.375 ) 2

8(7000 )(3.714 )
ssi = 1.442 = 124,689 psi
(0.875)
2

## (b) Stresses induced by working load

Fi + Fo = 11,350 lb
15,530
ko = = 8283 lb in
1 1
7 5
8 4
7000
ko = = 4480 lb in
13 1
6 5
16 4
5
o i = = 0.3125 in
16
Fi = ki i = 4480 i
Fo = ko o = 8283(0.3125 + i )
Fi + Fo = ko o = 4480 i + 8283(0.3125 + i ) = 11,350 lb
i = 0.6865 in
o = 0.3125 + 0.6865 = 0.9990 in
Fi = (4480)(0.6865) = 3076 lb
Fo = (8283)(0.9990) = 8275 lb
Stresses
8(8275)(4.091)
sso = 1.393 = 63,516 psi
(1.375)
2

8(3076)(3.714)
ssi = 1.442 = 54,792 psi
(0.875)
2

(d) Energy
1
U so = ko ( o22 o21 )
2
1 1
o 2 = 7 5 = 1.875 in
8 4
o1 = 0.9990 in
1
[ ]
U so = (8283)(1.875) (0.999 ) = 10,427 in lb
2
2 2

Page 47 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

1
U si =
2
( )
ki i22 i21
13 1
i 2 = 6 5 = 1.5625 in
16 4
o1 = 0.6865 in
1
[ ]
U si = (4480 )(1.5625) (0.6865) = 4,413 in lb
2
2 2

TORSION-BAR SPRINGS

299. A torsion-bar similar to that shown is to be used for the front spring of an
automobile. Its rate should be 400 lb./in. of deflection of the end of the arm
which is e = 10 in. long. It is made of AISI 9261,OQT 900 oF, and the
maximum repeated load is 1500 lb. perpendicular to the centerline of the arm.
The support is such that bending of the bar is negligible. (a) Determine its
diameter and length so that no permanent set occurs due to a 30 % overload
(limited by a stop). Use s ys = 0.6 s y , but check with equation (c) 6.3, Text, if
appropriate. (b) Determine the factor of safety according to the Soderberg
criterion if the load varies from 1200 lb. to 1500 lb.; minimum r d = 0.1 ,
D d = 3 . (c) The same as (b) except that the bar is shot-peened all over. What
other steps may be taken to improve the fatigue strength?

## Problem 299, 300

Solution:
e = 10 in
For AISI 9261, OQT 900 oF
s y = 192 ksi
su = 215 ksi
s ys = 0.6 s y = 115.2 ksi = 115,200 psi

Page 48 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

16T
(a) ss =
d3
T = Fe = (1.3)(1500)(10) = 19,500 in lb
16(19,500 )
115,200 =
d3
d = 0.95 in
use d = 1 in
117 117
6.3 ss = 0.3 = 0.3 = 117 ksi s ys
Dw (1)
(b) Soderberg Criterion
1 sms K f sas
= +
N s ys sns
sns = (0.6)(0.5)(215) = 64.5 ksi
Figure AF 12, r d = 0.1 , D d = 3
K t = 1.45
K f K t = 1.45

1
Fm = (1500 + 1200) = 1350 lb
2
Tm = (1350)(10) = 13,500 in lb = 13.5 in kips
16(13.5)
sms = = 68.8 ksi
(1)3

1
Fa = (1500 1200) = 150 lb
2
Ta = (150)(10) = 1500 in lb = 1.5 in kips
16(1.5)
sas = = 7.64 ksi
(1)3
1 68.8 (1.45)(7.64 )
= +
N 115.2 64.5
N = 1.30

(c) Shot-peened
s ys = 1.25(115.2 ) = 144 ksi
sns = 1.25(64.5) = 80.6 ksi
1 68.8 (1.45)(7.64 )
= +
N 144 80.6
N = 1.625

Page 49 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

300. A solid steel torsion bar is loaded through a 10 in. arm as shown. The load F
perpendicular to the center-line of the arm varies from 500 to 1000 lb.,
7
200,000 cycles. The bar is d = in. in diameter and 30 in. long; let D d = 3 ;
8
r d = 0.1 ; (a) Determine the maximum stress in the bar, the angular
deflection, and the scale (lb./in.) where F is applied. The support is such that
bending of the bar is negligible. (b) Select a material and heat treatment for
this bar for a minimum N = 1.2 , Soderberg criterion.

## Problem 299, 300

Solution:
Fig. AF 12, K f = 1.45
1
Fm = (1000 + 500) = 750 lb
2
1
Fa = (1000 500 ) = 250 lb
2
Tm = (750)(10) = 7500 in lb = 7.5 in kips
Ta = (250)(10) = 2500 in lb = 2.5 in kips
(log K f ) 3
K fl =
n
=
(200,000)(log1.45) 3 1.33
Kf 1.45
16T
ss =
d3
16(7.5)
sms = 3
= 57 ksi
7

8
16(2.5)
sas = 3
= 19 ksi
7

8

## (a) smax = sms + K fl sas = 57 + (1.33)(19 ) = 82.27 ksi

Page 50 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

TL 64TL
= =
JG d 4G
64(500 )(10 )(30 )
min = 4
7
(
11.5 10 6
)
8
64(1000 )(10 )(30 )
max = 4
7
(
11.5 10 6
)
8
F 1000
scale = = = 110.3 lb in
e (0.9066)(10)

1 sms K f sas
(c) = +
N s ys sns
0.085
10 6
sns = (0.6 )(0.5)su = 0.344 su
200,000
s ys = 0.6 s y
1
=
57
+
(1.33)(19)
1.2 0.6s y 0.344su
Use AISI 8760, OQT 800 oF
s y = 200 ksi
su = 220 ksi
N = 1.24

## 301. A spring is to be designed of square oil-tempered steel wire and subjected to a

repeated maximum load of 325 lb.; mean coil diameter, 1 in.; deflection,
13/32 in. Determine (a) the wire size for average service, (b) the required
number of active coils, (c) the solid height, free length, and pitch (the ends are
squared and ground, the solid stress must be satisfactory, and the pitch angle
not excessive). (d) What amount of energy is stored when the load is 325 lb.?
Express in in-lb. and Btu.

Solution:

## For oil-tempered wire,

146
su = 0.19 , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw
Max. solid ss = 0.6su

Page 51 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

## (a) average service,

b = Dw , t = b
K FD (3b + 1.8t ) 2.4 FDm
ss= q m 2 2 = Kq
2b t b3
s sd = 0.324su , average service
2.4 FDm 0.324(146 )
Kq =
2b 3 b 0.19
F = 0.325 kip
1
Dm = 1 in
2
K q = 1.25 (assumed)
2.4(0.325)(1.5) 0.324(146 )
1.25
b3 = b 0.19

b = 0.2902 in
Table AT 15, use b = 0.313 in , # 1 wire size
D 1 .5
C= m = = 4 .8
b 0.313
Figure AF 15, K q = 1.275

## 2.45 FDm3 N c 2.45FDm3 N c

(b) = =
Gt 3 (b 0.56t ) 0.44Gb 4
13 2.45(0.325)(1.5) N c
3
=
32 0.44(11,500 )(0.313)4
N c = 7.34

## (c) Solid height = b( N c + 2) = 0.313(7.34 + 2) = 2.92 in

Free length = PN c + 2b
F = 0.325 lb
2.4 FDm 2.4(0.325)(1.5)
ss = Kq = 1.275 = 48.65 ksi
(0.313)
3 3
b
0.6(146 )
solid stress = = = 109.2 ksi
(0.313)0.19
109.2 13
solid deflection = = = 0.91 in
48.65 32
(P b )N c = 0.91
(P 0.313)(7.34) = 0.91
P = 0.437 in

Page 52 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

7
use P = in
16
7 27
Free length = PN c + 2b = (7.34 ) + 2(0.313) = 3.837 in 3 in
16 32

7

=
P 16
tan =
Dm (1.5)
= 5.3o < 10o

1 2 1 1 13
(d) U s = k = F = (0.325) = 0.066 in kip = 66 in lb
2 2 2 32
66
Us = = 0.085 Btu
778

302. A coil spring, of hard-drawn carbon steel, is to deflect 1 in. under a load of
100 lb. The outside coil diameter is to be 1 in. Compute the number of active
coils, (a) if the wire is round, 5/32 in. in diameter, (b) if the wire is square,
5/32 in. on the side, (c) if the wire is rectangular 1/8 x 3/16 in., long
dimension parallel to the axis, (d) If the wire is rectangular 3/16 x 1/8 in.,
short dimension parallel to the axis. (e) What is the maximum stress in each of
the above springs under the 100-lb load? (f) What is the ratio of the
approximate volumes, square- or rectangular-wire to round wire spring?

Solution:

Dm + Dw = 1 in
5
(a) Dw = in
32
5 27
Dm = 1 = in
32 32
27

Dm 32
C= = = 5.4
Dw 5

32
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
8(100 )(5.4 ) N c
3
1=
5
(
11.5 10 6 )
32
N c = 14.3

Page 53 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

5
(b) Square, b = in
32
5 27
Dm = 1 = in
32 32
2.45 FD m3 N c
=
0.44Gb 4
3
27
2.45(100) N c
1= 32
4
6 5
( )
0.44 11.5 10
32
N c = 20.5

3 1
(c) b = in , t = in
16 8
1 7
Dm = 1 t = 1 = in
8 8
3
2.45FD m N c
= 3
Gt (b 0.56t )
3
7
2.45(100 ) N c
1= 8
3
1 3 1
( )
11.5 10 6 0.56
8 16 8
N c = 16.1

1 3
(d) b = in , t = in
8 16
3 13
Dm = 1 t = 1 = in
16 16
3
2.45FD m N c
= 3
Gt (b 0.56t )
3
13
2.45(100 ) N c
1= 16
3
3 1 3
( )
11.5 10 6 0.56
16 8 16
N c = 11.5

## (e) Maximum Stress

Page 54 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

8 FC
For (a) ss = K
Dw3
4(5.4) 1 0.615
K= + = 1.284
4(5.4) 4 5.4

8(100)(5.4)
ss = 1.284 = 72,320 psi
5 3

32

## FD m (3b + 1.8t ) 2.4 FD m

For (b) ss = K q 2 2
= Kq
2b t b3
27

Dm 32
C= = = 5.4
b 5

32
K q = 1.25
27
2.4(100)
ss = 1.25 32 = 66,355 psi
5
3

32
FD m (3b + 1.8t )
For (c) ss = K q
2b 2t 2
7

C = m = =7
D 8
t 1

8
K q = 1 .1
7
(100)
ss = 1.1 8 3 3 + 1.8 1 = 68,992 psi

3 1 2 16
2
8
2
16 8
FD m (3b + 1.8t )
For (d) ss = K q
2b 2t 2
13

Dm 16
C= = = 4.33
t 3

16

Page 55 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

K q = 1 .2
13
(100)
ss = 1.2 16 3 1 + 1.8 3 = 63,232 psi

1 3 2 8
2
16
2
8 16

## For (a) Round wire

Va = Dw2 ( Dm )N c
4
5 2 27
Va = (14.3) = 0.727 in 3
4 32 32
For (b) Square wire
Vb = b 2 ( Dm )N c
2
5 27
Vb = (20.5) = 1.327 in 3
32 32
For (c) rectangular wire
Vc = bt ( Dm )N c
3 1 7
Vc = (16.1) = 1.037 in3
16 8 8
For (d) rectangular wire
Vd = bt ( Dm )N c
1 3 13
Vd = (11.5) = 0.688 in 3
8 16 16

Ratio of volume
Square to round wire
V 1.327
= b = = 1.825
Va 0.727
Rectangular to round wire (long dimension parallel to the axis)
V 1.037
= c = = 1.426
Va 0.727
Rectangular to round wire (short dimension parallel to the axis)
V 0.688
= d = = 0.946
Va 0.727

Page 56 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

TENSION SPRINGS

305. Design two tension springs for a spring balance with a capacity of 200 lb.
Each spring supports a maximum load of 100 lb. The outside diameter must
not exceed 1 in. and the total length including end loops must not exceed 9
in. Select a material and determine the dimension, including wire diameter,
number of coils, and free length.

Solution:
Table AT 17, assume oil tempered wire
146
su = 0.19 ksi
Dw
87.5
s ys = 0.19 ksi
Dw
0.8(87.5) 70
ssd = 0.19
= 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw Dw
F = Fi + k
8 K cFDm
ss =
Dw3
2r D
C= m = m
Dw Dw
8FaC 3 N c
=
G Dw
GD
k = 3w
8C N
G D 8F C N c
3
k = 3 w a = Fa
8C N GDw
Fa = 100 lb = 0.10 kip
Figure AF 15, assume K c = 1.2
8 K cFi Dm 8 K cFa Dm
ss = +
Dw3 Dw3
8 K cFaC
s s = K c si +
Dw2
OD = Dm + Dw = 1.25 in
1.25
Dw =
C +1
6.21, assume si = 18 ksi
ssd = ss

Page 57 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

70 8(1.2 )(0.1)C
0.19
= (1.2 )(18) +
Dw Dw2
70(C + 1) 8(1.2 )(0.1)C (C + 1)
0.19 2
= 21.6 +
(1.25)0.19 (1.25)2
67.1(C + 1) = 21.6 + 0.1956C (C + 1)
0.19 2

## 67.1(C + 1) 0.1956C (C + 1) = 21.6

0.19 2

C = 6 .7
1.25 1.25
Dw = = = 0.1623 in
C + 1 6 .7 + 1
Table AT 15, use Dw = 0.1620 in , 8 W & M
Dm = CDw = (6.7 )(0.1620 ) = 1.085 in
say Dm = 1.0 in
D 1 .0
C= m = = 6.17
Dw 0.1620
si = 17.7 ksi
To check, Fig. AF 15, K c = 1.15
8(1.15)(0.10 )(6.17 )
ss = 1.15(17.7 ) + = 89.20 ksi
(0.1620)2
70
ssd = = 98.92 ksi > 89.20 ksi , o.k.
(0.1620)0.19
Total length = Dw N c + 2(Dm + Dw )
9.5 = (0.162)N c + 2(1.0 + 0.162)
N c = 44.3 coils

## Free length = Dw N c = (0.1620)(44.3) = 7.18 in

Material, oil-tempered wire
Dw = 0.1620 in , 8 W & M
N c = 44.3 coils
Free length = 7.18 in.

306. Two helical tension springs are to be used in scales for weighing milk. The
capacity of the scales is 30 lb., each spring carries 15 lb. with a deflection of 3
9/16 in. The springs are made of No. 14, W & M steel wire, outside diameter,
29/32 in. (a) how many coils should each spring have? (b) What is the
maximum stress in the wire? What material should be used?

Page 58 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Solution:

k = 15 lb
9
= 3 in
16
(a) Table AT 15, No. 14 W &M

Dw = 0.0800 in
29
Dm = OD Dw = 0.0800 = 0.82625 in
32
D 0.82625
C= m = = 10.328
Dw 0.0800
8(k )C 3 N c
=
GDw
9 8(15)(10.328) N c
3
3 =
(
16 11.5 106 (0.080) )
N c = 24.8

(b) F = Fi + k
si Dw3
Fi =
8Dm
6.21, C = 10.328
si = 11,272 psi
(11,272)(0.08)3
Fi = = 2.743 lb
8(0.82625)
F = 2.743 + 15 = 17.743 lb
Figure AF 15, K c = 1.09
8 K c FDm 8(1.09 )(17.743)(0.82625)
ss = = = 79,476 psi
Dw3 (0.080)3
s 79,476
s ys s = = 99,345 psi = 99.345 ksi
0 .8 0 .8
Table AT 17, use Hard drawn wire
70 70
s ys = 0.19 = = 113 ksi > 99.345 ksi
Dw (0.080)0.19
307. A tension spring for a gas-control lever is made of Dw = 0.078 in steel wire;
inside diameter, 0.609 in.; number of coils, 55; free length including end
loops, 5 9/16 in. When the spring is extended to a length of 6 5/16 in., it must
exert a force 5 lb.; it must extend to (a) the initial tension, (b) the stress in
the spring caused by the initial tension (compare with the recommended

Page 59 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

maximum values), (c) the stress caused by the 5 -lb load, (d) the maximum
stress. What material should be used? (e) What energy is absorbed from the
point where the load is the initial tension until the springs length is 6 5/16 in.?
(Data courtesy Worthington Corporation.)

Solution:
Dw = 0.078 in
Dm Dw = 0.609 in
Dm = 0.609 + 0.078 = 0.687 in
D 0.687
C= m = = 8 .8
Dw 0.078
N c = 55
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
1
F = 5 lb
2
5 9
= 6 5 = 0.75 in
16 16
8(k )(8.8) (5)
3
= 0.75 =
( )
11.5 106 (0.078)
k = 2.244 lb

## (a) Fi = F k = 5.5 2.244 = 3.256 lb

8 F C 8(3.256 )(8.8)
(b) si = i 2 = = 12,000 psi
Dw (0.078)2
6.21, C = 8.8
si = 13,300 psi > 12,000 psi , ok

(c) F = 5.5 lb
8 K c FC
ss =
Dw2
C = 8 .8
Figure AF 15
K c = 1.1
8(1.1)(5.5)(8.8)
ss = = 22,284 psi
(0.078)2

## (d) maximum stress

k 2.244
k= = = 2.992 lb in
0.75

Page 60 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

F = k
5 9
= 9 5 = 3.75 in
16 16
F = Fi + k = 3.256 + (2.992)(3.75) = 14.476 lb
8 K c FC 8(1.1)(14.476 )(8.8)
ss = = = 58,651 psi
Dw2 (0.078)2
Table AT 16
s 58,651
s ys s = = 73,300 psi = 73.3 ksi
0 .8 0 .8
Table AT 17, use Hard drawn wire
70 70
s ys = 0.19 = = 113.658 ksi > 73.3 ksi
Dw (0.078)0.19
1 2 1
k = (2.992 )(0.75) = 0.8415 in lb
2
(e) U s =
2 2

TORSION SPRINGS

## 308. A carbon-steel (ASTM A230) torsion spring is to resist a force of 55 lb. at a

radius of 2 in.; the mean diameter is to be 2 in. Compute (a) the diameter of
the wire for average service, (b) the number of coils for a deflection of 180o
under the given torque, (c) the energy the spring has absorbed when the force
is 55 lb.

Solution:
T = M = Fa
F = 55 lb
a = 2 in
T = M = (55)(2) = 110 in lb
Dm = 2.5 in
182
Table AT 17, su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
Average service
182 117.936 117,936
sd = (1.6 )(0.405)su = 0.648 0.1 = 0.1
ksi = psi
Dw Dw Dw0.1

KMc
(a) ss =
I
For round wire, assume K c = K ci = 1.08 , Table AT 18
D
c= w
2

Page 61 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

I Dw3
=
c 32
ss =
(1.08)(110)(32) = 117,936
Dw3 Dw0.1
Dw = 0.2060 in < 0.25 in
Table AT 15, use Dw = 0.2070 in , No. 5 W & M
r D 2
To check: = m = = 9.66 > 9 , ok
c Dw 0.2070
Table AT 18, K = 1.08
ss =
(1.08)(110)(32) = 136,430 psi
(0.2070 )3
117,936
ssd = = 138,054 psi > 136,430 psi
(0.2070)0.1
Therefore, use No. 5 W & M, Dw = 0.2070 in

MDm N c
(b) =
EI
6
E = 30 10 psi
Dw4
I=
64
= 180o =
64 MDm N c
=
EDw4
64(110 )(2 )N c
=
(30 106 )(0.2070)4
N c = 12.29

1 1
(c) U s = T = (110 )( ) = 172.8 in lb
2 2

312. A pivoted roller follower is held in contact with the cam by a torsion spring.
The moment exerted by the spring varies from 20 lb-in to 50 lb-in. as the
follower oscillates through 30o. The spring is made of AISI 6152 steel, OQT
1000 oF. What should be the value of Dw , Dm , and N c if the factor of safety
is 1.75 based on the Soderberg line? Would this be a conservative or risky
approach?

Solution:
AISI 6152, OQT 1000 oF
su = 184 ksi

Page 62 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

s y = 173 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 92 ksi
1
M m = (50 + 20 ) = 35 lb in
2
1
M a = (50 20 ) = 15 lb in
2
assume K = 1.08
32 KM m 32(1.08)(35) 385
sm = = = 3 psi
Dw3 Dw3 Dw
32 KM a 32(1.08)(15) 165
sa = = = 3 psi
Dw3 Dw3 Dw
1 s m sa
= +
N s y sn
1 385 165
= +
1.75 173,000 Dw 92,000 Dw3
3

Dw = 0.1916 in
Table AT 15, use Dw = 0.1920 in , No. 6 W & M
To solve for K
32(35)K
sm = = 50,369 K psi
(0.1920)3
32(15)K
sa = = 21,587 K psi
(0.1920)3
1 50,369 K 20,587 K
= +
1.75 173,000 92,000
K = 1.0868
Table AT 18 K ci = K = 1.0868
r Dm
= = 9.32 > 9 , ok
c Dw
Dm = 9.32(0.1920) = 1.7894 in
7
use Dm = 1 in = 1.875 in
8
MDm N c 64MDm N c
= =
EI EDw4
30 64(50 20 )(1.875)N c
=
180 (30 106 )(0.1920)4
N c = 5.93
Dw = 0.1920 in , No. 6 W & M

Page 63 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

7
Dm = 1 in
8
N c = 5.93 , N > 1.4 , therefore conservative.

## FLAT AND LEAF SPRINGS

315. A cantilever flat spring of uniform strength, Fig. 6.20, Text, is to absorb an
energy impact of 500 ft-lb. Let the thickness of the steel, AISI 1095, OQT 900
o
F, be in. and let the maximum stress be half of the yield strength. (a) Find
the width b of the spring at the widest point in terms of the length L .
Determine values of b for lengths of 36 in., 48 in., 60 in., and 72 in. (b)
Determine the deflection of the spring for each set of values found in (a).

Solution.
Fig. 6/20

6 FL
sB =
bh 2
6 FL3
=
Ebh3
AISI 1095, OQT 900 oF, s y = 104 ksi , Table AT 9
s B = 0.5s y = 0.5(104 ) = 52 ksi = 52,000 psi
1
Us = F
2
s bh 2
F= B
6L
s bh 2 L3 s B L2
= 6 B 3
=
6 L Ebh Eh
1 s bh 2 s B L2 1 s B2 bhL
U s = B =
2 6 L Eh 12 E
U s = 500 ft lb = 6000 in lb

Page 64 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

(52,000)2 b 1 L
6000 =
1 2
12 30 106
bL = 1598 in 2
1598 in 2
b=
L

1598 in 2
L = 36 in , b = = 44.4 in
36 in
1598 in 2
L = 48 in , b = = 33.3 in
48 in
1598 in 2
L = 60 in , b = = 26.6 in
60 in
1598 in 2
L = 72 in , b = = 22.2 in
72 in

s B L2
(b) =
Eh

L = 36 in , =
(52,000 )(36 )
2
= 4.4928 in
1
(
30 10 6
)
2

L = 48 in , =
(52,000 )(48)
2
= 7.9872 in
6 1
(
30 10 )
2

L = 60 in , =
(52,000 )(60 )
2
= 12.48 in
6 1
(
30 10 )
2

L = 72 in , =
( 52,000)(72 )
2
= 17.9712 in
6 1
(
30 10 )
2

317. One of the carbon contacts on a circuit breaker is mounted on the free end of
a phosphor-bronze beam ( = 0.35 ). This beam has the shape of the beam
9 1 1
shown in Fig. 6.24, Text, with b = 1 in. , b = in. , L = 4 in. , and h = in.
16 2 16
When the contacts are closed, the beam deflects in. Compute (a) the force
on the contacts, (b) the maximum stress.

Solution:

Page 65 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Figure 6.24
6 FL 3WL
s= 2 =
bh bh 2
= 1
(
K FL3 1 2 ) (
K WL3 1 2
= 1
)
3EI 6 EI
9

b 16
= = 0.5625
b 1
Figure 6.25, K1 = 1.14

## (a) Force on contacts = F

= 1
(
K FL3 1 2 )
3EI
E = 16 106 psi (phosphor bronze)
bh3
as a beam, I =
12
= 1
(
4 K FL 1 2
3
)
Ebh 3

=
3
[
3 4(1.14 )F (4.5) 1 (0.35)
2
]
3
4
(16 106 )(1) 161

F = 8 lb

6 FL 6(8)(4.5)
(b) s = = 2
= 55,296 psi
bh 2 1
(1)
16

318. A cantilever leaf spring 26 in. long is to support a load of 175 lb. The
construction is similar to that shown in Fig. 6.22 (a), Text. The leaves are to
be 2 in. wide, 3/16 in. thick; SAE 9255 steel, OQT 1000 oF; 107 cycles (
6.26). (a) How many leaves should be used if the surfaces are left as rolled?
(b) The same as (a) except that the leaves are machined and the surfaces are
not decarburized. (c) The same as (b), except that the surface is peened all
over. (d) Which of these springs absorbs the most energy? Compute for each:
(e) What are the load and deflection of the spring in (b) when the maximum
stress is the standard-test yields strength?

Solution:
Figure 6.22 (a)
6 FL
sA = 2
bh

Page 66 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

6 FL3
A =
Ebh3
b = N1b
F = 175 lb
b = 2 in
3
h = in
16
L = 26 in
6.26, SAE 9255, OQT 1000 oF
su = 180 ksi
s y = 160 ksi
3
t= in = 0.1875 in
16
sd = 83.75 ksi

## Surface factor = 0.275

sd = 0.275(83.75) = 23 ksi = 23,000 psi
6 FL
sA = 2
bh
6(175)(26 )
23,000 = 2
3
N 1 (2 )
16
N1 = 16.88
say N1 = 17

## (b) Machined, Figure AF 5

Surface factor = 0.75
sd = 0.75(83.75) = 62.8 ksi = 62,800 psi
6 FL
sA = 2
bh
6(175)(26 )
62,800 = 2
3
N 1 (2 )
16
N1 = 6.2
say N1 = 7

## (c) Peened surface, (b)

Page 67 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

## sd = 1.25(62.8) = 78.5 ksi = 78,500 psi

6 FL
sA = 2
bh
6(175)(26 )
78,500 = 2
3
N 1 (2 )
16
N1 = 4.95
say N1 = 5

1
(d) U s = F
2
F = 175 lb
6 FL3
=
EN1bh 3
For (a) N1 = 17
6(175)(26 )
3
= 3
= 2.745 in
3
( )
30 10 (17 )(2 )
6

16
1
U s = (175)(2.745) = 240 in lb
2
For (b) N1 = 7
6(175)(26 )
3
= 3
= 6.666 in
3
( )
30 10 6 (7 )(2 )
16
1
U s = (175)(6.666 ) = 583 in lb
2
For (c) N1 = 5
6(175)(26 )
3
= 3
= 9.332 in
3
( )
30 10 (5)(2 )
6

16
1
U s = (175)(9.332 ) = 817 in lb
2

## (e) sd = s y = 160 ksi , N1 = 7 (b)

Page 68 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

6 FL 6 FL
sd = 2
=
bh N1bh 2
6 F (26 )
160,000 = 2

(7 )(2) 3
16
6(505)(26 )
3
= 3
= 19.24 in
3
( )
30 10 (7 )(2 )
6

16

319. The rear spring of an automobile has 9 leaves, each with an average thickness
of 0.242 in. and a width of 2 in.; material is SAE 9261, OQT 1000 oF. The
length of the spring is 56 in. and the total weight on the spring is 1300 lb.
Assume the spring to have the form shown in Fig. 6.22 (b), Text. Determine
(a) the rate of the spring, (b) the maximum stress caused by the dead weight.
(c) What approximate repeated maximum force (0 to Fmax ) would cause
impending fatigue in 105 cycles, the number of applications of the maximum
load expected during the ordinary life of a car? (If the leaves are cold rolled
to induce a residual compressive stress on the surfaces, the endurance limit as
su 2 should be conservative.)

Solution:
Figure 6.22 (b)
3FL
sA =
2bh 2
3FL3
A =
8Ebh 3
F = 1300 lb
h = 0.242 in
N1 = 9
b = 2 in
L = 56 in

F 8Ebh3
(a) Rate , k = =
A 3L3

k= =
( )
8 EN1bh 3 8 30 10 6 (9 )(2 )(0.242 )
3
= 116.21lb in
3(56 )
3
3L3

## 3FL 3(1300 )(56 )

(b) s A = = = 103,590 psi
2(9 )(2 )(0.242 )
2 2
2 N1bh

Page 69 of 70
SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

## (c) SAE 9261. OQT 1000 oF

su = 192 ksi
192
sn = = 96 ksi
2
3FL
sA =
2 N1bh 2
3F (56 )
96,000 =
2(9 )(2 )(0.242 )
2

F = 1200 lb

321. The front spring of an automobile is made similar to Fig. 6.23, Text. The
average thickness for each of the 6 leaves, 0.213 in.; material is SAE 9255,
OQT 1000 oF. The load caused by the weight of the car is 775 lb. (a) What
stress is caused by a force of twice the dead weight? (b) What load would
stress the spring to the yield strength?

Solution:
Figure 6.23
6 FL 3WL 3WL
s= 2 = 2
=
bh bh N1bh 2
W = 775 lb , N1 = 6 , b = 2 in , h = 0.213 in
36 in
L= = 18 in
2
(a) W = 2(775) = 1550 lb
3(1550 )(18)
s= = 153,740 psi
(6)(2)(0.213)2
(b) SAE 9255, OQT 1000 oF
s y = 160 ksi
6 FL 3WL 3WL
s= 2
= 2
=
bh bh N1bh 2
3W (18)
160,000 =
(6)(2)(0.213)2
W = 1613 lb

- end -

Page 70 of 70
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

334. A round steel rod made of structural steel, AISI C1020, as rolled, is to be used as
a column, centrally loaded with 10 kips; N = 3 . Determine the diameter for (a)
L = 25 in. , (b) L = 50 in. (c) The same as (a) and (b) except that the material is
AISI 8640, OQT 1000 F. Is there any advantage in using this material rather than
structural steel?

Solution:
For AISI C1020,as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
F = 10 kips
N =3

(a) Le = L = 25 in.
Consider first J.B. Johnson
Le
2

sy
Fc = NF = s y A1 2
k
4 E

2
D
A=
4
D
k=
4
E = 30 103 ksi

2

(48) 25
D

2
(3)(10) = (48) D 1 2 4 3

(
4 4 30 10 )

4
30 = 12D 2 1 2 2
D
48
30 = 12D 2

D = 1.096 in
1
say D = 1 in = 1.0625 in
16

Page 1 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Le 25
= = 94 < 120 o.k.
k 1.0625

4
(b) Le = L = 50 in.
Consider Eulers Equation
2 EA
Fc = NF = 2
Le

k
D 2
(
2 30 103 ) 4

(3)(10 ) =
2

50

D
4
3 4
30 = 0.1875 D
D = 1.507 in
1
say D = 1 in = 1.5 in
2
Le 50
= = 133 > 120 o.k.
k 1 .5

4

## (c) For AISI 8640, OQT 1000 F

s y = 150 ksi
1

Le 2 2 E 2
=
k s y
1
(
Le 2 2 30 103 2
=
)
k 150 = 62.83

For (a) Le = L = 25 in.
Consider first J.B. Johnson
Le
2

sy
Fc = NF = s y A1 2
k
4 E

Page 2 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

2

(150) 25
D

2
(3)(10) = (150) D 1 2 4 3

(
4 4 30 10 )

12.5
30 = 37.5D 2 1 2 2
D
468.75
30 = 37.5D 2

D = 1.23 in
say D = 1.25 in
Le 25
= = 80 > 62.83 use Eulers equation
k 1.25

4
2 EA
Fc = NF = 2
Le

k
D 2
(
2 30 103 ) 4

(3)(10) =
2

25

D
4
3 4
30 = 0.75 D
D = 1.0657 in
1
say D = 1 in = 1.0625 in
16
Le 25
= = 94 > 62.83 ok
k 1.0625

4
For (b) Le = L = 50 in.
Consider Eulers Equation
2 EA
Fc = NF = 2
Le

k

Page 3 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

D 2
2 (30 103 )
(3)(10) = 4
2

50

D
4
3 4
30 = 0.1875 D
D = 1.507 in
1
say D = 1 in = 1.5 in
2
Le 50
= = 133 > 62.83 o.k.
k 1 .5

4

335. A hollow circular column, made of AISI C1020, structural steel, as rolled, is to
support a load of 10,000 lb. Let L = 40 in , Di = 0.75Do , and N = 3 . Determine
Do by (a) using either Eulers or the parabolic equation; (b) using the straight-
line equation. (c) What factor of safety is given by the secant formula for the
dimensions found in (a)?

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi

Le = L = 40 in
F = 10,000 lb = 10 kips
N =3
Di = 0.75Do

I
k=
A
(Do4 Di4 )
I=
64
[ 4
]
= Do4 (0.75Do ) = 0.033556 Do4

A= =
[
(Do2 Di2 ) Do2 (0.75Do )2 ]
= 0.343612 Do2
4 4
0.033556 Do4
k= = 0.3125Do
0.343612 Do2

Page 4 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

## (a) Consider parabolic equation

Le
2

sy
Fc = NF = s y A1 2
k
4 E

2

25
(48)
0.3125Do
(3)(10) = (48)(0.343612)Do2 1 2 4 3

(
4 30 10 )

30 = 16.493376 Do2 10.9519
Do = 1.576 in
9
say Do = 1 in = 1.5625 in
16
Le 40
= = 82 < 120 o.k.
k 0.3125(1.5625)

## (b) Straight-line equation

F L
= 16,000 70
A k
10,000 40
2
= 16,000 70
0.343612 Do 0.3125 Do
10,000 = 5498 Do2 3078 Do
Do = 1.6574 in
5
say Do = 1 in = 1.625 in
8
Le 40
= = 78.8 < 120 o.k.
k 0.3125(1.625)

## (c) Secant formula

NF ec Le NF

sy = 1 + sec
A k 2 2k EA
Do = 1.5625 in
k = 0.3125Do = 0.4883 in
A = 0.343612 Do2 = 0.8389 in 2

Page 5 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

ec
= 0.25 , (i7.8)
k2

N (10) 40 10 N
1 + 0.25 sec
48 =
0.8389 2(0.4883) (30 103 )(0.8389)
[ (
48 = 11.92 N 1 + 0.25 sec 0.81645 N )]
N = 2.289

336. A column is to be built up of -in., AISI C1020, rolled-steel plates, into a square
box-section. It is 6 ft long and centrally loaded to 80,000 lb. (a) Determine the
size of section for N = 2.74 . (b) Compute N from the secant formula for the
size found and compare with 2.74.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, rolled-steel plate
s y = 48 ksi

b 4 (b 1) b 4 (b 1)
4 4
I= =
12 12 12
A = b (b 1)
2 2

b 4 (b 1)
4
I
k= =
A [
12 b 2 (b 1)
2
]
Le = L = 6 ft = 72 in
F = 80,000 lb = 80 kips

(a) N = 2.74
Consider J.B. Johnson
Le
2

sy
NF = s y A1 2
k
4 E

72
2

(48)
(2.74)(80) = (48)A 1 2 k 3

4 (30 10 )

10.085 A
219.2 = 48 A
k2

Page 6 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

try b = 3.23 in

k=
(3.23) (3.23 1)
4 4

2 = 1.1331 in
12[(3.23) (3.23 1) ]
2

## A = b 2 (b 1) = (3.23) (3.23 1) = 5.46 in 2

2 2 2

10.085(5.46 )
219.2 = 48(5.46 ) = 219.2 ok
(1.1331)2
Therefore use b = 3.23 in
Le 72
= = 63.54 < 120 o.k.
k 1.1331
1
b = 3.23 in or b = 3 in
4

NF ec Le NF

(b) s y = 1 + sec
A k 2 2k EA
ec
= 0.25 , (i7.8)
k2

N (80) 72 80 N
1 + 0.25 sec
48 =
5.46 2(1.1331) (30 103 )(5.46)
[ (
48 = 14.652 N 1 + 0.25 sec 0.70214 N )]
N = 2.2 < 2.74

337. A column is to be made of -in structural steel plates (AISI 1020, as rolled),
welded into an I-section as shown in Table AT 1 with G = H . The column, 15 ft
long, is to support a load of 125 kips. (a) Determine the cross-sectional
dimensions from the straight-line equation. (Using either Johnsons or Eulers
equation, compute the equivalent stress and the factor of safety. (c) Compute N
from the secant formula.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi

Le = L = 15 ft = 180 in
F = 125 kips

Page 7 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Table AT 1.

G=H
( )
A = GH gh = H 2 (H 0.5)(H 1) = H 2 H 2 1.5H + 0.5 = 1.5H 0.5 = 0.5(3H 1)
1 GH 3 gh3 1 H 4 (H 0.5)(H 1) H 4 (H 0.5)(H 1)
3 3
k= = =
12 GH gh 12 0.5(3H 1) 6(3H 1)

## (a) Straight-line equation

L
F = 16,000 A1 0.0044
k

125,000 = 16,000 A1 0.0044
(180)
k
0.792
7.8125 = A1
k
use H = 7.37 in

k=
(7.37 )4 (7.37 0.5)(7.37 1)3 = 3.04527 in
6(3(7.37 ) 1)
A = 0.5[3(7.37 ) 1] = 10.555 in
0.792
7.8125 10.5551 = 7.81
3.04527
Therefore use H = 7.37 in
3
Or H = 7 in = 7.375 in
8
L 180
(b) Consider J.B. Johnson, e = = 59 < 120
k 3.04527
s
se = y
N
F 125
se = = = 13.8 ksi
Le
2
180
2

sy (48)

A 1 k
10.555 1 3.04527
4 2 E (
4 2 30 103 )

Page 8 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

sy 48
N= = = 3.48
se 13.8

NF ec Le NF
sy = 1 + sec
A k 2 2k EA
ec
= 0.25 , (i7.8)
k2

## N (125) 180 125 N

1 + 0.25 sec
48 =
10.555 2(3.04527 ) (30 10 )(10.555)
3

[ (
48 = 11.843 N 1 + 0.25 sec 0.5872 N )]
N = 2 .8

338. The link shown is to be designed for N = 2.5 to support an axial compressive
load that varies from 0 to 15 kips; L = 20 in ; Material AISI 1030, as rolled. (a)
Determine the diameter considering buckling only. (b) Determine the diameter
considering varying stresses and using the Soderberg line (perhaps too
conservative). Estimate an appropriate strength-reduction factor (see Fig. AF 6).
(c) Keeping in mind that the stress is always compressive, do you think that the
answer from (a) will do? Discuss.

Problem 338.
Solution:
For AISI C1030, as rolled
s y = 51 ksi
su = 80 ksi

1 1
( )
Le 2 2 E 2 2 2 30 103 2
= =
k s y 51 = 108

L = 20 in
N = 2 .5
(a) F = 15 kips
Consider J.B. Johnson

Page 9 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Le
2

s y
NF = s y A1 2
k
4 E

D
k=
4
D 2
A=
4
Le = L = 20 in
20
2

(51) D
2
(2.5)(15) = (51) D 1 2 4 3
4 4 (30 10 )

2.72
37.5 = 12.75 D 2 1 2 2
D
34.68
37.5 = 12.75 D 2

D = 1.101 in
3
say D = 1 in = 1.1875 in
16
Le 20
= = 68 < 108 o.k.
k 1.1875
4

## (b) Variable stresses

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(80) = 40 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
sn = 0.85(40) = 34 ksi
K f = 2.8 (Figure AF 6)
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy sn
F = 0 to 15 kips
Fm = Fa = 7.5 kips
sem = sea
1 s
= em +
(2.8)sem
2.5 51 34
sem = 3.923 ksi

Page 10 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Le
2

sem
Fm = sem A1 2
k
4 E

20
2

(51) D
2
D
7.5 = (3.923) 1 2 4 3
4 4 (30 10 )

2.72
7.5 = 0.98 D 2 1 2 2
D
2.67
7.5 = 0.98 D 2

D = 1.65 in
5
say D = 1 in = 1.625 in
8
Le 20
= = 49 < 108 o.k.
k 1.625
4

(c) The answer in (a) will not do because it is lower than (b)

339. The connecting link for a machine (see figure) is subjected to a load that varies
fro + 450 (tension) to 250 lb. The cross section is to have the proportions
G = 0.4 H , t = 0.1H , fillet radius r 0.05 H ; L = 10 in ; material, AISI C1020,
as rolled. (a) Considering buckling only, determine the dimensions for a design
factor of 2.5. (b) For the dimension found compute the factor of safety from the
Soderberg criterion.

## Problems 339, 340

Solution:
For AISI C1030, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
su = 65 ksi

Page 11 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Table AT 1

G = 0 .4 H
t = 0.1H
r 0.05 H

A = GH gh
g = G t = 0.4 H 0.1H = 0.3H
h = H 2(0.1H ) = 0.8 H
A = (0.4 H )(H ) (0.3H )(0.8H ) = 0.16 H 2
1 GH 3 gh3 1 (0.4 H )(H ) (0.3H )(0.8 H )
3 3
k= = = 0.35824 H
12 GH gh 12 (
0.16 H 2 )

## (a) Consider J.B. Johnson

Le
2

s y
NF = s y A1 2
k
4 E

F = 350 lb = 0.35 kip
Le = 10 in
10
2

48
2
( 2
(2.5)(0.35) = (48) 0.16 H 1 2
) (0.35824 H )
(
4 30 10 3
)

0.875 = 7.68 H 2 0.2425
H = 0.3815 in
Le 10
= = 73 < 120 ok
k (0.35824)(0.3815)
15
say H = in = 0.46875 in
32
3
G = 0.4 H = 0.1875 in = in
16
3
t = 0.1H = 0.046875 in = in
64

Page 12 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

## (b) with H = 0.46875 in

A = 0.16(0.46875) = 0.0352 in 2
2

k = 0.35824(0.46875) = 0.1679 in
Fmin 350
smin = s e = A = 0.0352 = 11,600 psi = 11.6 ksi
Le
2
10
2

s y 48
1 k 1 0.1679
(
4 2 E 4 2 30 103 )

F + 450
smax = max = = +12,800 psi = +12.8 psi
A 0.0352
1
sm = (12.8 11.6 ) = 0.6 ksi
2
1
sa = (12.8 + 11.6 ) = 12.1 ksi
2
su = 0.5sn = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
su = 0.85(32.5) ksi = 27.62 ksi
Figure AF 9, r = 0.05H = 0.05(0.46875) = 0.023
h = 1.5H = 15.(0.46875) = 0.7031 in
d = H = 0.4688 in
r 0.05 H
= = 0.05
d H
h 1 .5 H
= = 1 .5
d H
K t = 2.65
1 1
q= = = 0.70
0.01 0.01
1+ 1+
r 0.023
K f = 0.70(2.65 1) + 1 = 2.2
1 sm K f sq
= +
N sy sn
1 0.6 (2.2 )(12.1)
= +
N 48 27.62
N = 1.024

CHECK PROBLEMS

AISI C1030, as rolled, it has sectional length of 20 in. Assume a loose fit with the

Page 13 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

pins. What is (a) the critical load for this column, (b) the design factor, (c) the
equivalent stress under a load of 15 kips? What material does the secant formula
indicate as satisfactory for the foregoing load, when (e) ec k 2 = 0.25 , (f)
L
e= e .
400

## Problem 341, 342

Solution:
For AISI C1030, as rolled
s y = 51 ksi

b = 0.75 in
h = 1.75 in
A = bh = (0.75)(1.75) = 1.3125 in 2
For loose fit
bh3
I=
12
I bh 3 h 1.75
k= = = = = 0.5052 in
A 12bh 12 12
Le 20
= = 39.6 < 108 for AISI C1030, as rolled
k 0.5052
use J.B. Johnson equation

Le
2
20
2

sy 51

(a) Fc = s y A 1 k
= (51)(1.3125) 1 0.5052
= 62.42 kips
4 2 E 4 2 (30,000)

(b) Fc = NF
F 62.42
N= c = = 4.16
F 15
s 51
(c) se = y = = 12.26 ksi
N 4.16
F 15
(d) Actual s = = = 11.43 ksi
A 1.3125

Page 14 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Secant Formula
NF ec Le NF
sy = 1 + sec
A k 2 2k EA
ec
(e) 2 = 0.25
k
62.42 20 62.42
sy = 1 + 0.25 sec = 64.4 ksi
1.3125 ( )
2(0.5052) 30 10 (1.3125)
3

## use AISI C1020, cold drawn, s y = 66 ksi

Le 20
(f) e = = = 0.05 in
400 400
h 1.75
c= = = 0.875 in
2 2
ec (0.05)(0.875)
= = 0.1714
k2 (0.5052)2
62.42 20 62.42
sy = 1 + 0.1714 sec = 59.12 ksi
1.3125 2(0.5052 ) ( )
30 10 (1.3125)
3

## use AISI C1045, cold drawn, s y = 59 ksi

343. A schedule-40, 4-in. pipe is used as a column. Some of its properties are:
Do = 4.5 in , Di = 4.026 in , I = 3.174 sq.in. , L = 15 ft ; material equivalent to
AISI C1015, as rolled. The total load to be carried is 200 kips. (a) What
minimum number of these columns should be used if a design factor of 2.5 is
desired and the load evenly distributed among them? For the approximately fixed
ends, use Le = 0.65L as recommended by AISC. (b) What is the equivalent stress
in the column?

Solution:
For AISI C1015, as rolled
s y = 45.5 ksi

1 1
( )
Le 2 2 E 2 2 2 30 103 2
= =
k s y 45.5 = 114

L = 15 ft = 180 in
Le = 0.65L = 0.65(180) = 117 in
Le 117
= = 77.5 < 114
k 1.509

Page 15 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

## Use J.B. Johnson equation

Le
2

sy
s y A k (45.5)(3.174) 45.5(77.5)
2
(a) F = 1 = 1 2 = 44.4 kips
N 4 2 E 2.5 4 (30,000)

No. of columns
200
= = 4.5 say 5 columns
44.4

F
(b) se = A
Le
2

s y
1 k
4 2 E

200
F= = 40 kips
5
40
se = 3.174 = 16.4 ksi
77.5
2

45.5
1 k
4 2 (30,000)

## 344. A generally loaded column is a 10-in. x 49 lb., wide-flange I-beam whose

properties are (see figure); k x = 4.35 in , k y = 2.54 in , area A = 14.4 sq.in. ,
I x = 272.9 in 4 , I y = 93.0 in 4 ; length L = 30 ft , material AISI 1022, as rolled. Let
the ends be a little fixed with Le = 0.8L and determine the critical load (a)
according to the Johndon or the Euler equation; (b) according to the secant
formula if ec k 2 is assumed to be 0.25.

Page 16 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Solution:
For AISI C1022, as rolled
s y = 52 ksi

1 1
Le 2 2 E 2 2 2 (30 103 ) 2
= = = 107
k s y 52
(a) k = 2.54 in
I = 93.0 in 4
Le = 0.8(30)(12) = 288 in
Le 288
= = 113.4 > 107
k 2.54
Use Eulers Equation
2 EA 2 (30,000)(14.4)
Fc = = = 332 kips
Le
2
(113.4)2

k

## (b) Secant formula

NF ec Le NF

sy = 1 + sec
A k 2 2k EA
F 113.4 Fc
52 = c 1 + 0.25 sec
14.4 2 (30 10 )(14.4)
3

F
{ [
52 = c 1 + 0.25 sec 0.0863
14.4
Fc ]}
Fc = 273 kips

348. A 4 x 3 x -in. angle is used as a flat-ended column, 5 ft. long, with the resultant
load passing through the centroid G (see figure); k x = 1.25 in , k y = 0.86 in ,
ku = 1.37 in , kv = 0.64 in , A = 3.25 sq.in. Find the safe load if N = 2.8 and the
material is (a) structural steel, (b) magnesium alloy AZ 91C (i7.12.\, Text), (c)
magnesium alloy AZ 80A, (d) magnesium alloy AZ 80A as before, but use the
Johnson formula and compare.

Page 17 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Solution:
L (5)(12 )
Le = = = 30 in
2 2
k = k min = 0.64 in
Le 30
= = 46.875
k 0.64
(a) Structural steel, s y = 48 ksi
Le
= 46.875 < 120
k
use J.B. Johnson
Le
2

sy
s y A k (48)(3.25) 48(46.875)
2
F= 1 = 1 2 = 50.75 kips
N 4 2 E 2.8 4 (30,000 )

(b) magnesium alloy AZ 91C
NF C
= 2
A Le
C
1+ 6
k
64.4 10
C = 57,000
(2.8)(F ) = 57,000
psi
57,000(46.875)
2
3.25
1+
64.4 106
F = 22,467 lb = 22.467 kips
(c) magnesium alloy AZ 80A
C = 82,900
(2.8)(F ) = 82,900
psi
82,900(46.875)
2
3.25
1+
64.4 106
F = 25,134 lb = 25.134 kips

## For magnesium alloy AZ 80A, s y = 36 ksi

Le
2

y
s y A
s
F= 1 2 =
k (36)(3.25) 1 36(46.875)2 = 39 kips > 25.134 kips

N 4 E 2.8 4 (30,000)
2

- end -

Page 18 of 18
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

471. A short stub shaft, made of SAE 1035, as rolled, receivers 30 hp at 300 rpm via a
12-in. spur gear, the power being delivered to another shaft through a flexible
coupling. The gear is keyed (profile keyway) midway between the bearings. The
pressure angle of the gear teeth = 20 o ; N = 1.5 based on the octahedral shear
stress theory with varying stresses. (a) Neglecting the radial component R of the
tooth load W , determine the shaft diameter. (b) Considering both the tangential
and the radial components, compute the shaft diameters. (c) Is the difference in
the results of the parts (a) and (b) enough to change your choice of the shaft size?

Problem 471.

Solution:
For SAE 1035, as rolled
s y = 55 ksi
su = 85 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(85) = 42.5 ksi

A = W cos
63,000hp 63,000(30 )
T= = = 6300 in lb
n 300
T=
2
A(12 )
6300 =
2
A = 1050 lb
A = W cos
1050 = W cos 20
W = 1118 lb
Shear stress
16T 16(6300 )
ss = =
d3 d3
100,800
ss = sms =
d3
sas = 0

Page 1 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

bending stress

From Table AT 2
FL
M=
4
(a) Negligible R :
AL (1050 )(16 )
M= = = 4200 in lb
4 4
32 M 32(4200 ) 134,400
s= = =
d3 d3 d3
sm = 0
134,400
sa = s =
d3
s K f sa
se = n s m +
sy SF
For profile keyway
K f = 2 .0
K fs = 1.6
SF = 0.85
K s
se = f a =
(2.0)(134,400) = 100,661
SF ( )
(0.85) d 3 d3
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
sns sn 42.5 1
= = =
s ys s y 55 1.294
sns 1 100,800 24,796
ses = sms = 3
=
s ys 1.294 d d3
Octahedral-shear theory
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 100,661 2
2 2
24,796
= +
3
(
1.5 42,500d 0.577 42,500d 3 )
d = 1.569 in

Page 2 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

11
use d = 1 in
16

## (b) Considering both radial and tangential component.

WL (1118)(16 )
M= = = 4472 in lb
4 4
32 M 32(4472 ) 143,104
s= = =
d3 d3 d3
sm = 0
143,104
sa = s =
d3
K s
se = f a =
(2.0)(143,104) = 107,180
SF (0.85)( d 3 ) d3
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 107,180 2
2 2
24,796
= +
3
(
1.5 42,500d 0.577 42,500d 3 )
d = 1.597 in
11
use d = 1 in
16

(c) The difference in the results of the parts (a) and (b) is not enough to change the choice
of the shaft size.

472. A cold-finished shaft, AISI 1141, is to transmit power that varies from 200 to 100
and back to 200 hp in each revolution at a speed of 600 rpm. The power is
received by a 20-in. spur gear A and delivered by a 10-in. spur gear C. The
tangential forces have each been converted into a force ( A and C shown) and a
couple (not shown). The radial component R of the tooth load is to be ignored in
the initial design. Let 2 and, considering varying stresses with the maximum
shear theory, compute the shaft diameter.

## Problems 472 474

Page 3 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Solution:
For AISI 1141, cold-finished
s y = 90 ksi
sn = 50 ksi
sn 1
=
s y 1.8
SF = 0.85
63,000hp
T=
n
63,000(200 )
Tmax = = 21,000 in lb
600
63,000(100 )
Tmin = = 10,500 in lb
600
1 1
Tm = (Tmax + Tmin ) = (21,000 + 10,500 ) = 15,750 in lb
2 2
1 1
Ta = (Tmax Tmin ) = (21,000 10,500 ) = 5,250 in lb
2 2
16T
ss =
d3
16(15,750 ) 252,000
sms = =
d3 d3
16(5250 ) 24,000
sas = =
d3 d3
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
For profile keyway
K f = 2 .0
K fs = 1.6
sns sn 1
= =
s ys s y 1.8
1 252,000 (1.6)(84,000) 94,894
ses = 3
+ =
1.8 d 0.85 d 3 d3
T = 21,000 in lb at 200 hp

For A:
20
A = T
2
A(10 ) = 21,000

Page 4 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

A = 2100 lb at 200 hp
For C:
10
C = T
2
C (5) = 21,000
C = 4200 lb at 200 hp

[ M ]
= 0 A(10 ) + D(25) = C (15)
B

at 200 hp
(2100)(10) + D(25) = (4200)(15)
D = 1680 lb
[ F V =0 ]
A+C = B + D
at 200 hp
2100 + 4200 = B + 1680
B = 4620 lb
At 200 hp: A = 2100 lb , B = 4620 lb , C = 4200 lb , D = 1680 lb
Shear Diagram

Maximum moment at B
M = (2100)(10 ) = 21,000 in lb
32 M 32(21,000 ) 672,000
s= = =
d3 d3 d3
sm = 0
672,000
sa = s =
d3
s
se = n s m +
K f sa
= 0+
(2.0)(672,000) = 503,304
sy SF 0.85 d 3 d3

Page 5 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

94,894
ses =
d3
Maximum Shear Theory
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.5sn

1

1 503,304 2
2 2
94,894
= +
3
(
2 50,000d 0.5 50,000d 3 )
d = 2.78 in
3
use d = 2 in
4

475. A shaft S, of cold-drawn AISI 1137, is to transmit power received from shaft W,
which turns at 2000 rpm, through the 5-in. gear E and 15-in. gear A. The power
is delivered by the 10-in. gear C to gear G, and it varies from 10 hp to 100 hp and
back to 10 hp during each revolution of S. The design is to account for the
varying stresses, with calculations based on the octahedral shear stress theory.
Let N = 1.8 and compute the shaft diameter, using only the tangential driving

## Problem 475 477

Solution.
For AISI 1137, cold drawn
s y = 93 ksi
su = 103 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(103) = 51.5 ksi
sn sns 51.5 1
= = =
s y s ys 93 1.806
63,000hp
T=
n
5 in. E
n= (2000 rpm) = 667 rpm
15 in. A

Page 6 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

63,000(100 )
Tmax = = 9450 in lb
667
63,000(10 )
Tmin = = 945 in lb
667
1 1
Tm = (Tmax + Tmin ) = (9450 + 945) = 5197.5 in lb
2 2
1 1
Ta = (Tmax Tmin ) = (9450 945) = 4252.5 in lb
2 2
16T
ss =
d3
16(5197.5) 83,160
sms = =
d3 d3
16(4252.5) 68,040
sas = =
d3 d3
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
For profile keyway
K f = 2 .0
K fs = 1.6
SF = 0.85
1 83,160 (1.6)(68,040) 55,425
ses = +
3
=
1.806 d 0.85 d 3 d3
Bending stress, using only tangential loads

## For 100 hp:

T = 9450 in lb
15
A = T
2
A(7.5) = 9450
A = 1260 lb
For C:
10
C = T
2

Page 7 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

C (5) = 9450
C = 1890 lb
[ M B ]
= 0 6 A + 20 D = 14C
6(1260) + 20 D = 14(1890)
D = 945 lb
[ F =0
V ]
A+C = B + D
1260 + 1890 = B + 945
B = 2205 lb
Shear diagram

Maximum moment at B
M = (1260)(6) = 7560 in lb
32 M 32(7560 ) 241,920
s= = =
d3 d3 d3
sm = 0
241,920
sa = s =
d3
s K f sa (2.0 )(241,920 ) 181,189
se = n s m + = =
sy SF 0.85 d 3 d3
55,425
ses =
d3
Octahedral Shear Theory
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 181,189 2
2 2
55,425
= +
2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3
3
( )
d = 1.997 in
use d = 2 in

Page 8 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

478. A shaft made of AISI 1137, cold rolled, for a forage harvester is shown.
Power is supplied to the shaft by a vertical flat belt on the pulley A. At B, the
roller chain to the cutter exerts a force vertically upwards, and the V-belt to
the blower at C exerts a force vertically upwards. At maximum operating
conditions, the flat belt supplies 35 hp at 425 rpm, of which 25 hp is delivered
to the cutter and 10 hp to the blower. The two sections of the shaft are joined
by a flexible coupling at D and the various wheels are keyed (sled-runner
keyway) to the shafts. Allowing for the varying stresses on the basis of the
von Mises-Hencky theory of failure, decide upon the diameters of the shafts.
Choose a design factor that would include an allowance for rough loading.

Problem 478.
Solution:
For AISI 1137, cold rolled
s y = 93 ksi
su = 103 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(103) = 51.5 ksi
sn sns 51.5 1
= = =
s y s ys 93 1.806
Pulley,
63,000hp 63,000(35)
TA = = = 5188 in lb
n 425
For flat-belt
2T 4(5188)
FA = F1 + F2 = 2(F2 F1 ) = 2 A = = 692 lb
DA 30
Sprocket,
63,000hp 63,000(25)
TB = = = 3706 in lb
n 425
For chain,
2T 2(3706 )
FB = B = = 741 lb
DB 10
Sheave,
63,000hp 63,000(10 )
TC = = = 1482 in lb
n 425

Page 9 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

For V-belt,
2T 3(1482 )
FC = F1 + F2 = 1.5(F2 F1 ) = 1.5 C = = 445 lb
DC 10
Consider shaft ABD.

35 hp
Shaft ABD

[ M D' =0 ]
(6 + 8 + 4)FA = (8 + 4)A'+4FB
18(692) = 12 A'+4(741)
A' = 791 lb

[ F V =0 ]
FA + D = FB + A
692 + D = 741 + 791
D = 840 lb

Shear Diagram

Maximum M at A.
M = (6)(692) = 4152 in lb.
32 M 32(4152 ) 132,864
s= = =
d3 d3 d3

sm = 0
132,864
sa = s =
d3

Page 10 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

sn K f sa
se = sm +
sy SF
For sled-runner keyway (Table AT 13)
K f = 1 .6
K fs = 1.6
SF = 0.85
s
se = n s m +
K f sa
= 0+
(1.60)(132,864) = 79,610
sy SF 0.85 d 3 d3

at A T = TA = 5188 in lb
16T 16(5188) 83,008
ss = = =
d3 d3 d3
sms = ss
sas = 0
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
1 83,000 14,630
ses = =
3
1.806 d d3
Choose a design factor of 2.0
N = 2 .0
von Mises-Hencky theory of failure (Octahedral shear theory)
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 79,610 2
2 2
14,630
= +
3
(
2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3 )
d = 1.48 in
1
use d = 1 in
2

## Consider shaft D-C

63,000hp 63,000(10 )
TC = = = 1482 in lb
n 425
For V-belt,
2T 3(1482 )
FC = F1 + F2 = 1.5(F2 F1 ) = 1.5 C = = 445 lb
DC 10

Page 11 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

[ M C' =0 ]
8 D = 3FC
8 D = 3(445)
D = 167 lb

[ F V =0 ]
C = D + FC
C = 167 + 445
C = 612 lb
Shear Diagram

## M = (167 )(8) = 1336 in lb

32 M 32(1336 ) 42,752
s= = =
d3 d3 d3
sm = 0 , sa = s
s
se = n s m +
K f sa
= 0+
(1.60)(42,752) = 25,616
sy SF 0.85 d 3 d3
at C, TC = 1482 in lb
16T 16(1482 ) 23,712
ss = = =
d3 d3 d3
sms = ss
sas = 0
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
1 23,712 4180
ses = +0 = 3
3
1.806 d d
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 25,616 2
2 2
4180
= +
3
(
2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3 )

Page 12 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

d = 1.011 in
use d = 1 in

479. A shaft for a punch press is supported by bearings D and E (with L = 24 in.)
and receives 25 hp while rotating at 250 rpm, from a flat-belt drive on a 44-
in. pulley at B, the belt being at 45o with the vertical. An 8-in. gear at A
delivers the power horizontally to the right for punching operation. A 1500-lb
flywheel at C has a radius of gyration of 18 in. During punching, the shaft
slows and energy for punching comes from the loss of kinetic energy of the
flywheel in addition to the 25 hp constantly received via the belt. A
reasonable assumption for design purposes would be that the power to A
doubles during punching, 25 hp from the belt, 25 hp from the flywheel. The
phase relations are such that a particular point in the section where the
maximum moment occurs is subjected to alternating tension and
compression. Sled-runner keyways are used for A, B, and C; material is cold-
drawn AISI 1137, use a design factor of N = 2.5 with the octahedral shear
theory and account for the varying stresses. Determine the shaft diameters.

Problems 479-480
Solution:
Flat-Belt Drive (B)
63,000hp 63,000(25)
TB = = = 6300 in lb
n 250
2T 4(6300)
FB = F1 + F2 = 2(F1 F2 ) = 2 B = = 573 lb
DB 44
Gear A, Doubled hp
63,000hp 63,000(25 + 25)
TA = = = 12,600 in lb
n 250
2T 2(12,600 )
FA = A = = 3150 lb
DA 8

Page 13 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Vertical:

## BV = FB cos 45 = 573 cos 45 = 405 lb

[ M D =0 ]
6(1500) + 8BV = 24 EV
6(1500) + 8(405) = 24 EV
EV = 510 lb
[ F V =0 ]
1500 + EV = DV + BV
1500 + 510 = DV + 405
DV = 1605 lb
Shear Diagram

Page 14 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M DV = (6 )(1500 ) = 9000 in lb
M BV = (16 )(510 ) = 8160 in lb
M AV = (5)(510 ) = 2550 in lb

Horizontal:

## Bh = FB sin 45 = 573 sin 45 = 405 lb

[ M D =0 ]
8 Bh + 24 Eh = 19 FA
8(405) + 24 Eh = 19(3150)
Eh = 2359 lb
[ F h =0 ]
Dh + Bh + Eh = FA
Dh + 405 + 2359 = 3150
Dh = 386 lb

Shear Diagram

Page 15 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M Dh = 0 in lb
M Bh = (8)(386 ) = 3088 in lb
M Ah = (5)(2359 ) = 11,795 in lb

MA = (M ) + (M )
Ah
2
AV
2
= (11,795)2 + (2550)2 = 12,068 in lb

MB = (M ) + (M )
Bh
2
BV
2
= (3088)2 + (8160)2 = 8725 in lb
M D = 9000 in lb
Therefore
M max = 12,068 in lb
32 M 32(12,068) 386,176
s= = =
d3 d3 d3

## Maximum moment subjected to alternating tension and compression

sm = 0
386,176
sa = s =
d3

sn K f sa
se = sm +
sy SF
For AISI 1137, cold-drawn,
s y = 93 ksi
su = 103 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(103) = 51.5 ksi
For sled-runner keyway (Table AT 13)
K f = 1 .6
K fs = 1.6
SF = 0.85
se = 0 +
(1.60)(386,176 ) = 231,386
0.85 d 3 d3

Page 16 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

## At A, 50 hp max. and 25 hp min.

50 hp
63,000hp 63,000(25 + 25)
TA = = = 12,600 in lb
n 250
2T 2(12,600 )
FA = A = = 3150 lb
DA 8
16T 16(12,600 ) 201,600
ss max = = =
d3 d3 d3

25 hp
63,000hp 63,000(25)
TA = = = 6,300 in lb
n 250
2T 2(6,300 )
FA = A = = 1575 lb
DA 8
16T 16(6,300 ) 100,800
ss min = = =
d3 d3 d3
,800 151,200
sms =
1
(ss max + ss min ) = 1 201,600 + 100
3
=
2 2 d d3
,800 50,400
sas =
1
(ss max ss min ) = 1 201,600 100
3
=
2 2 d d3
sns K fs sas
ses = sms +
s ys SF
1 151,200 (1.6)(50,400) 56,848
ses = 3
+ =
1.806 d 0.85 d 3 d3
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 231,386 2
2 2
56,848
= +
3
(
2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3 )
d = 2.14 in
3
say d = 2 in
16

Page 17 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

481. A cold-drawn monel propeller shaft for a launch is to transmit 400 hp at 1500
rpm without being subjected to a significant bending moment; and Le k < 40 .
The efficiency of the propeller is 70 % at 30 knots (1.152 mph/knot). Consider
that the number of repetitions of the maximum power at the given speed is 2x
105. Let N = 2 based on the maximum shear theory with varying stress.
Compute the shaft diameter.

Solution:
For cold-drawn monel shaft, Table AT 10
s y = 75 ksi
sn = 42 ksi at 108
at 2 x 105
0.085
108
sn 42
5
= 71.23 ksi
2 10
sn sns 71.23 1
= = =
s y s ys 75 1.053
63,000hp 63,000(400 )
T= = = 16,800 in lb
n 1500
16T 16(16,800 ) 268,800
ss = = =
D3 D3 D3
s ms = ss
s as = 0
sns K fs sas
ses = sms +
s ys SF
SF = 0.85
assume K f = K fs = 1.0
1 268,800 81,255
ses = 3
+ 0 =
1.053 D D3
Fvm
= hp
33,000
vm = (30 knots )(1.152 mph knot )(5280 ft mi )(1 hr 60 min ) = 3041 fpm
F (3041)
= (0.70)(400)
33,000
F = 3040 lb
4F 4(3040 ) 12,160
s= 2
= =
D D2 D2
sm= s
sa = 0

Page 18 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

sn K f sa
se = sm +
sy SF
1 12,160 3676
se = +0 = 2
2
1.053 D D

## Maximum Shear Theory

1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.5sn

1

1 3676 2
2 2
81,255
= +
2
(
2 71,230 D 0.5 71,230 D 3 )
1

1 2.2815 2
2 2
1
= +
2 19.377 D 2 D 3
By trial and error
11
D = 1.66 in = 1 in
16

482. A shaft receives 300 hp while rotating at 600 rpm, through a pair of bevel gears,
and it delivers this power via a flexible coupling at the other end. The shaft is
designed with the average forces ( at the midpoint of the bevel-gear face); the
tangential driving force is F , G = 580 lb , Q = 926 lb ; which are the rectangular
components of the total reaction between the teeth; Dm = 24 in , L = 36 in ,
a = 10 in . Let the material be AISI C1045, cold drawn; N = 2 . Considering
varying stresses and using the octahedral shear theory, determine the shaft
diameter.

Solution:

## For AISI C1045, cold drawn

s y = 85 ksi
su = 100 ksi

Page 19 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

## sn = 0.5su = 0.5(100) = 50 ksi

SF = 0.85
sn sns 50 1
= = =
s y s ys 85 1.7
63,000hp 63,000(300 )
T= = = 31,500 in lb
600 600
16T 16(31,500 ) 504,000
ss = = =
D3 D3 D3
s ms = ss
s as = 0
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
1 504,000 94,370
ses = 3
+ 0 =
1.7 D D3
D
F m = T
2
24
F = 31,500
2
F = 2625 lb

Vertical:

D 24
Q m = 926 = 11,112 in lb
2 2
G = 580 lb
[ M B =0 ]
QDm
Av (36 ) + G (10 ) = 0
2
QDm
= G (10 ) + Av (36 )
2
11,112 = 580(10) + Av (36)
Av = 148 lb

Page 20 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

[ F =0]
v

Av + Bv = 580 lb
148 + Bv = 580 lb
Bv = 432 lb
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M Cv = 11,112 in lb
M Bv = 5328 in lb

Horizontal:

[ M B =0 ]
Ah (36) = (2625)(10)
Ah = 729 lb
[ F h =0 ]
Bh = Ah + F
Bh = 725 + 2625

Page 21 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Bh = 3354 lb

Shear Diagram

M Ch = 0
M Bh = (36 )(729 ) = 26,244 in lb

Maximum M
M = MB = (M ) + (M )
Bh
2
BV
2
(26,244)2 + (5328)2 = 26,780 in lb
=
32 M 4Q 32(26,780 ) 4(926 ) 856,960 3,704
smax = + = + = +
D D2
3
D3 D2 D3 D2
4Q 32 M 3704 856,960
smin = =
D 2 D3 D 2 D3
1
sm = (smax + smin )
2
1 856,960 3704 3704 856,960 3704
sm = + + =
2 D3 D2 D2 D 3 D 2
1
sa = (smax smin )
2
856,960
sa =
D3
s K f sa
se = n s m +
sy SF
assume K f = 1.0 at B
1 3704 1.0 856,960 964 320,916
se = +
2 3
= 2 +
1.7 D 0.85 D D D3
Octahedral Shear Theory
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

Page 22 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1
694 320,916 2
2
1

1 2
+ 3 94,370
2
1
2
6.42 3.27
2 2

= D D + =
3
+ 3 + 3
0.577(50,000)D
2
2 50,000 72 D D D

By trial and error, use
1
D = 2 in
2

483. The worm shown is to deliver 65.5 hp steadily at 1750 rpm. It will be integral
with the shaft if the shaft size needed permits, and its pitch diameter 3 in. The 12-
in. pulley receives the power from a horizontal belt in which the tight tension
F1 = 2.5F2 . The forces (in kips) on the worm are as shown, with the axial force
taken by bearing B. The strength reduction factor for the thread roots may be
taken as K f = 1.5 , shear or bending. The shaft is machined from AISI 1045, as
rolled. (a) For N = 2.2 (Soderberg criterion) by the octahedral-shear theory,
compute the required minimum diameter at the root of the worm thread (a first
approximation). (b) What should be the diameter of the shaft 2.5 in. to the left of
the centerline of the worm? (c) Select a shaft size D and check it at the pulley A.

Problem 483.
Solution:
For AISI 1045, as rolled
s y = 59 ksi
su = 96 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 48 ksi
sn sns 48 1
= = =
s y s ys 59 1.229
63,000hp 63,000(65.5)
T= = = 2358 in lb
1750 1750
(F1 F2 ) 12 = T
2
(2.5F2 F2 )(6) = 2358
F2 = 262 lb
F1 = 2.5F2 = 655 lb

Page 23 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

## FA = F1 + F2 = 655 + 262 = 917 lb

Horizontal

[ M B =0 ]
(917 )(6) + (1570)(6.5) = 13Eh
Eh = 1208 lb
[ F h =0 ]
917 + Eh = Bh + 1570
917 + 1208 = Bh + 1570
Bh = 555 lb

Shear Diagram

M Ah = 0
M Bh = (917 )(6 ) = 5502 in lb
M Ch = (1208)(6.5) = 7852 in lb

Vertical:

3
M = (2540 ) = 3810 in lb
2
[
M E =0 ]
M + (1170)(6.5) = 13Bv
3810 + (1170)(6.5) = 13Bv
Bv = 878 lb

Page 24 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

[ F =0]
v

Ev + Bv = 1170
Ev + 878 = 1170
Ev = 292 lb

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M Av = 0
M Bv = 0
M Cv = 5707 in lb

M= (M h )2 + (M v )2
MA = (0)2 + (0)2 = 0
MB = (5502)2 + (0)2 = 5502 in lb
MC = (7852)2 + (5707)2 = 9707 in lb
(a) Minimum diameter at the root of the warm thread.
K f = K fs = 1.5
M = M C = 9707 in lb
F = 2540 lb

## 32 M 4F 32(9707 ) 4(2540 ) 310,624 10,160

smax = 3
+ 2
= + = +
Dr Dr Dr3 Dr2 Dr3 Dr2

Page 25 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

310,624 10,160
smin = +
Dr3 Dr2
1
sm = (smax + smin )
2
10,160
sm =
Dr2
1
sa = (smax smin )
2
310,624
sa =
Dr3
s K f sa
se = n s m +
sy SF
1 10,160 1.5 310,624 2632 174,485
se = 2
+ 3 = D2 + D3
1.229 Dr 0.85 Dr r r

## 16T 16(2358) 12,000

ss = = =
Dr3 Dr3 Dr3
sms = ss
sas = 0
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
1 12,000 9764
ses = 3 +0= 3
1.229 Dr Dr
N = 2.2 , Octahedral shear theory
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1
2632 174,485 2 2 1
2 + 3.635 1
2 2 2 2
1 Dr Dr
3
9764 1
= + = + +
2.2 48,000 0.577(48,000)Dr3 2
18.24 Dr Dr3 2.84 Dr3

## By trial and error

Dr = 2.023 in
1
say Dr = 2 in
16
(b) D shaft diameter 2.5 in. to the left of the center line of worm

Page 26 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

3
r= in
16
Figure AF 12
3
r 16
= 0.1
d 3
2.023 2 2
16
D 2.023
= = 1 .2
d 3
2.023 2 2
16
K f = K t = 1.65
K fs = K ts = 1.34
at 2.5 in to the shaft
M h = (917 )(6) + (362)(6.5 2.5) = 6950 in lb
M v = (878)(6.5 2.5) = 3512 in lb
M= (6950)2 + (3512)2 = 7787 in lb
10,160
sm =
D2
32 M 32(7787 ) 249,184
sa = = =
D3 D3 D3
s K f sa
se = n s m +
sy SF
1 10,160 1.65 249,184 2632 153,970
se = +
2 3
= +
1.229 D 0.85 D D2 D3
9764
ses =
D3
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1
2632 153,970 2 2 1

1 2
+ 3 9764
2
1
2
3.21 1
2 2

= D D + =
3
+ 3 +
0.577(48,000)D
2
2.2 48,000
18.24 D D 2.84 D 3

## By trial and error

D = 1.9432 in
15
say D = 1 in
16

Page 27 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

15
(c) Selecting D = 1 in = 1.9375 in
16
At the pulley A, or 3 in. right of centerline
M h = (917 )(3) = 2751 in lb
Mv = 0
M = 2751 in lb
For sled runner keyway
K f = 1 .6
K fs = 1.6
sm = 0
32 M 32(2751)
sa = = = 3853 psi
D 3
(1.9375)3
s K f sa
se = n s m +
sy SF
1 .6
se = 0 + (3853) = 7253 psi
0.85
9764
ses = = 1343 psi
(1.9375)3
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 7253
2 2 2
1343
= +
N 48,000 0.577(48,000)
N = 6.30 > 2.2 , therefore o.k.

484. A propeller shaft as shown is to receive 300 hp at 315 rpm from the right through
a flexible coupling. A 16-in. pulley is used to drive an auxiliary, taking 25 hp.
The belt pull FB is vertically upward. The remainder of the power is delivered to
a propeller that is expected to convert 60% of it into work driving the boat, at
which time the boat speed is 1500 fpm. The thrust is to be taken by the right-hand
bearing. Let N = 2 ; material cold-worked stainless 410. Use the octahedral shear
theory with varying stresses. (a) Determine the shaft size needed assuming no
buckling. (b) Compute the equivalent column stress. Is this different enough to
call for another shaft size? Compute N by the maximum shear stress theory,
from both equations (8.4) and (8.11).

Page 28 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Problem 484.

Solution:
For stainless 410, cold-worked
s y = 85 ksi
sn = 53 ksi
SF = 0.85
Belt drive
63,000hp 63,000(25)
TB = = = 5000 in lb
n 315
2T 4(5000)
FB = F1 + F2 = 2(F1 F2 ) = 2 B = = 1250 lb
DB 16
Propeller
63,000hp 63,000(300 25)
TP = = = 55,000 in lb
n 315
Thrust
Fvm = hp(33,000)
F (1500) = (0.60)(300 25)(33,000)
F = 3630 lb

[ M E =0 ]
(20)(1250) = 60C
C = 417 lb
[ F =0]
v

A + C = FB
A + 417 = 1250

Page 29 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

A = 833 lb

Shear Diagram

M B = (20)(833) = 16,660 in lb
Maximum T at B
T = TB + TP = 60,000 in lb

## (a) Shaft size assuming no buckling

M = 16,660 in lb
F = 3630 lb
4F 4(3630 ) 14,520
sm = 2
= =
D D2 D2
32 M 32(16,660 ) 533,120
sa = = =
D3 D3 D3
For sled-runner keyway
K f = 1 .6
K fs = 1.6
sn sns 53 1
= = =
s y s ys 85 1.604
sn K f sa
se = sm +
sy SF
1 14,520 1.6 533,120 2882 319,430
se = +
2 =
3
+
1.604 D 0.85 D D2 D3
16 16(60,000 ) 960,000
ss = sms = 3
= =
D D3 D3
sas = 0
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
1 960,000 190,510
ses = 2
+ 0 =
1.604 D D3

Page 30 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn sns

N = 2 , Octahedral Shear Theory, sns = 0.577 sn
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1
2882 319,430 2
2
1

1 2
+ 3 190,510
2
1
2
6.027 6.230
2 2

= D D + =
3
+ +
0.577(53,000 )D
2
2 53,000
18.39 D D 3 D 3

By trial and error
D = 2.6 in
5
say D = 2 in = 2.625 in
8

## (b) Equivalent Column Stress

4F
s=
D2
Le = 12 + 60 + 10 = 82 in
1 1
k = D = (2.625) = 0.65625 in
4 4
Le 82
= = 125 > 120
k 0.65625

## Use Eulers equation

2
L
sy e
85(125)
2
= k
= 2 = 4.486
2E (
30 103 )
4F 4(3630 )
s= = (4.486) = 3000 psi
D 2
(2.625)2
Since > 1 , it is different enough to call for another shaft size.

## Solving for N by maximum shear theory.

2882 319,430 2882 319,430
se = + = + = 18,078 psi
D 2
D 3
(2.625) (2.625)3
2

190,510
ses = = 10,533 psi
(2.625)3
Equation (8.4)

Page 31 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1 1
2 s 2 2 18,078 2
2

= ss + = (10,533) +
2
= 13,880 psi
2 2
0.5sn 0.5(53,000)
N= = = 1.91
13,880
Equation (8.11) sns = 0.5sn
1 1

1 s ss 18,078 2 10,533 2 2
2 2 2

= + = +
N sn sns
53,000 0.5(53,000 )

N = 1.91

CHECK PROBLEMS

485. A 3-in. rotating shaft somewhat as shown (482) carries a bevel gear whose mean
diameter is Dm = 10 in and which is keyed (profile) to the left end. Acting on the
gear are a radial force G = 1570.8 lb , a driving force Q = 3141.6 lb . The thrust
force is taken by the right-hand bearing. Let a = 5 in and L = 15 in ; material,
AISI C1040, annealed. Base calculations on the maximum shearing stress theory
with variable stress. Compute the indicated design factor N . With the use of a
sketch, indicate the exact point of which maximum normal stress occurs.

Solution:
For AISI C1040, annealed, Figure AF 1
s y = 48 ksi
su = 80 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 40 ksi
sn sns 40 1
= = =
s y s ys 48 1.2
FDm (6283.2 )(10 )
T= = = 31,416 in lb
2 2
16T 16(31,416 )
ss = = = 5926 psi
D3 (3)3
sms = ss
sas = 0
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
1
ses = (5926 ) + 0 = 4940 psi
1 .2
Vertical

Page 32 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

## QDm (3141.6 )(10 )

= = 15,708 in lb
2 2
[
M E =0 ]
QDm
= 5G + 15 AV
2
15,708 = 5(1570.8) + 15 AV
AV = 523.6 lb
[ F =0]
v

AV + BV = G
523.6 + BV = 1570.8
BV = 1047.2 lb
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M CV = 15,708 in lb
M BV = 7854 in lb

Page 33 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Horizontal

[ M B =0 ]
15 Ah = 5(6283.2)
Ah = 2094.4 lb
[ F h =0 ]
Bh = Ah + F
Bh = 2094.4 + 6283.2
Bh = 8377.6 lb

Shear Diagram

M Ch = 0
M Bh = (15)(2094.4 ) = 31,416 in lb

Maximum Moment
M = M B2h + M Bv
2
= (31,416)2 + (7854)2 = 32,383 in lb
Since thrust force is taken by the right-hand bearing
sms = 0
32 M 32(32,383)
sas = = = 12,217 psi
D3 (3)3
s K f sa
se = n s m +
sy SF
Assume K f = 1.0 at the bearing B
1 .0
se = 0 + (12,217 ) = 14,373 psi
0.85

Page 34 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

## Maximum shear theory sns = 0.5sn

1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.5sn

1

1 14,373 4940
2 2 2

= +
N 40,000 0.5(40,000)
N = 2 .3

## 487. A 2 7/16-in. countershaft in a machine shop transmits 52 hp at 315 rpm. It is

made of AISI 1117, as rolled, and supported upon bearing A and B, 59-in. apart.
Pulley C receives the power via a horizontal belt, and pulley D delivers it
vertically downward, as shown. Calculate N based on the octahedral-shear-
stress theory considering varying stresses.

## Problem 487, 488

Solution:
For AISI 1117, as rolled
s y = 44.3 ksi

Page 35 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

su = 70.6 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 35.3 ksi
sn sns 35.3 1
= = =
s y s ys 44.3 1.255
SF = 0.85
63,000(52 )
T= = 10,400 in lb
315
Pulley C
2T 4(10,400)
FC = F1 + F2 = 2(F2 F1 ) = 2 = = 2311 lb
D
C 18
Pulley D
2T 4(10,400)
FD = F1 + F2 = 2(F2 F1 ) = 2 = = 1664 lb
D
D 25

Horizontal

[ M A =0 ]
15(2311) = 59 Bh
Bh = 588 lb
[ F h =0 ]
Ah + Bh = 2311
Ah + 588 = 2311
Ah = 1723 lb

Shear Diagram

M Ch = (1723)(15) = 25,845 in lb

Page 36 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

## M Dh = (1723)(15) (588)(26 ) = 10,557 in lb

Vertical

[ M B =0 ]
18(1664) = 59 Av
Av = 508 lb
[ F =0]
v

Av + Bv = 1664
508 + Bv = 1664
Bv = 1156 lb

Shear Diagram

M Cv = (508)(15) = 7620 in lb
M Dv = (1156 )(18) = 20,808 in lb

## M D = M D2 h + M D2 v = (10,557 )2 + (20,808)2 = 23,333 in lb

Maximum M at C
M = M C = 26,945 in lb
sm = 0
32 M
sa =
D3
7
D = 2 in = 2.4375 in
16

Page 37 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

32(26,945)
sa = = 18,952 psi
(2.4375)3
assume K f = K fs = 1.0
sn K f sa
se = sm +
sy SF
1 (1.0)(18,952) = 22,300 psi
se = (0 ) +
1.255 0.85
16T 16(10,400 )
ss = = = 3658 psi
D 3 (2.4375)3
sms = s s = 3658 psi
sas = 0
sns K fs sas
ses = sms +
s ys SF
1
ses = (3658) + 0 = 2915 psi
1.255
Octahedral shear theory sns = 0.577 sn
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 22,300
2 2 2
2915
= +
N 35,300 0.577(35,300)
N = 1.544

489. A shaft for a general-purpose gear-reduction unit supports two gears as shown.
The 5.75-in. gear B receives 7 hp at 250 rpm. The 2.25-in. gear A delivers the
power, with the forces on the shaft acting as shown; the gear teeth have a
o
1 A B
pressure angle of = 14 ( tan = h = h ). Both gears are keyed (profile) to
2 Av Bv
the shaft of AISI 1141, cold rolled. (a) If the fillet radius is 1/8 in. at bearing D,
where the diameter is 1 3/8 in., compute N based on the octahedral-shear-stress
theory (Soderberg line). The shaft diameter at A is 1 11/16 in. What is N here?

Page 38 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

## Problem 489, 490

Solution:
For AISI 1141, cold rolled
s y = 90 ksi
sn = 50 ksi
sn sns 50 1
= = =
s y s ys 90 1.8
SF = 0.85
63,000(7 )
T= = 1764 in lb
250
16T
sms =
D 3
sas = 0

Gear B:
5.75
Bv = T = 1764 in lb
2
Bv = 614 lb
Bh = Bv tan = 614 tan 14.5 = 159 lb

Gear A:
2.25
Av = T = 1764 in lb
2
Av = 1568 lb
Ah = Av tan = 1568 tan 14.5 = 406 lb

Vertical

Page 39 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

[ M D =0 ]
8Cv = 4(1568) 3(614)
Cv = 554 lb
[ F =0]
v

Cv + Dv = Av + Bv
554 + Dv = 1568 + 614
Dv = 1628 lb

Shear Diagram

## M Av = (554 )(4 ) = 2216 in lb

M Dv = (614 )(3) = 1842 in lb

Horizontal

[ M C =0 ]
4(406) + 8Dh = 11(159)
Dh = 16 lb
[ F h =0 ]
Ch + Bh = Ah + Dh
Ch + 159 = 406 + 16
Ch = 263 lb

Shear Diagram

Page 40 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M Ah = (263)(4 ) = 1052 in lb
M Dh = (159 )(3) = 477 in lb

## M D = M D2 h + M D2 v = (477 )2 + (1842)2 = 1903 in lb

(a) At bearing D
1
r = in
8
3
d = 1 in
8
r 0.125
= 0.10
d 1.375
D 1.375 + 0.25
= 1 .2
d 1.375
K t K f = 1 .6
K ts K fs = 1.34
M = MD
sm = 0
32 M 32(1903)
sa = = = 7456 psi
d 3 (1.375)3
s K f sa
se = n s m +
sy SF

se = 0 +
(1.6)(7456) = 14,035 psi
0.85
16T 16(1764 )
sms = = = 3456 psi
D (1.375)3
3

sas = 0
sns K fs sas
ses = sms +
s ys SF
1
ses = (3456 ) + 0 = 1920 psi
1 .8
Octahedral shear theory
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

Page 41 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1 14,035
2 2 2
3456
= +
N 50,000 0.577(50,000)
N = 3.28

(b) At A
For profile keyway
K f = 2.0 , K fs = 1.6
11
d =1 in = 1.6875 in
16
M = M A = 2453 in lb
sm = 0
32 M 32(2453)
sa = = = 5200 psi
d 3
(1.6875)3
s K f sa
se = n s m +
sy SF

se = 0 +
(2.0)(5200) = 12,235 psi
0.85
16T 16(1764 )
sms = = = 1870 psi
D (1.6875)3
3

sas = 0
sns K fs sas
ses = sms +
s ys SF
1
ses = (1870 ) + 0 = 1040 psi
1 .8
Octahedral shear theory
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 12,235
2 2 2
1040
= +
N 50,000 0.577(50,000)
N = 4.043

491. The high-speed shaft of a worm-gear speed reducer, made of carburized AISI
8620, SOQT 450 F, is subjected to a torque of 21,400 in-lb. Applied to the right

Page 42 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

end with no bending. The force on the worm has three components: a horizontal
force opposing rotation of W = 6180 lb , a vertical radial force S = 1940 lb , and a
rightward thrust of F = 6580 lb . The shaft has the following dimensions: a = 6 ,
7 9 3 9
b = 4 , c = 10 , d = 4 , e = 2 , f = 13 , g = 11.646 , h = 10.370 ,
8 16 4 16
13
D1 = 3.740 , D2 = 4 , D3 = 4 , D4 = 3.3469 , D5 = 3.253 , r1 = 0.098 ,
16
3 1
r2 = r3 = , r4 = 0.098 , r5 = , all in inches. The pitch diameter of the worm,
4 16
6.923 in., is the effective diameter for the point of application of the forces. The
root diameter, 5.701 in. is used for stress calculations. The left-hand bearing
takes the thrust load. Calculate N based on the octahedral-shear-stress theory
with varying stresses. (Data courtesy of Cleveland Worm and Gear Company.)

Problem 491
Solution:
Table AT 11n For AISI 8620, SOQT 450 F
s y = 120 ksi
su = 167 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 83.5 ksi
sn sns 83.5 1
= = =
s y s ys 120 1.437
SF = 0.85
T = 21,400 in lb

Vertical

Page 43 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

6.923 6.923
M = F = 6580 = 22,777 in lb
2 2
[
M A =0 ]
22,777 + (11.646)(1940) = (11.646 + 10.370)Gv
Gv = 2061 lb
[ F =0]
v

S + Av = Gv
1940 + Av = 2061
Av = 121 lb
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M Av = 0
M Bv = (121)(1.2035) = 146 in lb
M Cv = (121)(1.2035 + 4.875) = 736 in lb
M Dv = (121)(1.2035 + 4.875 + 5.5675) = 1409 in lb at left side
M Dv = 1409 + M = 1409 + 22,777 = 21,368 in lb at right side
M Ev = 21,368 (2061)(4.4325) = 12,233 in lb
M Fv = 12,233 (2061)(4.5625) = 2830 in lb
M Gv = 2830 (2061)(1.375) = 0
Horizontal

Page 44 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

[ M A =0 ]
(11.646)(6180) = (11.646 + 10.370)Gh
Gh = 3269 lb
[ F h =0 ]
Ah + Gv = W
Ah + 3269 = 6180
Ah = 2911 lb
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M Ah = 0
M Bh = (2911)(1.2035) = 3500 in lb
M Ch = (2911)(1.2035 + 4.875) = 17,695 in lb
M Dh = 33,900 in lb
M Eh = 33,900 (3269 )(4.4325) = 19,410 in lb
M Fh = 19,410 (3269 )(4.5625) = 4495 in lb
M Fh = 4495 (3269 )(1.375) = 0

Combined
M = M h2 + M v2
MA = (0)2 + (0)2 = 0 in lb
MB = (3500)2 + (146)2 = 3503 in lb
MC = (17,695)2 + (736)2 = 17,710 in lb
MD = (33,900)2 + (1409)2 = 33,930 in lb (left)
MD = (33,900)2 + (21,368)2 = 40,073 in lb (right)
ME = (19,410)2 + (12,233)2 = 22,944 in lb

Page 45 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

## MF = (2830)2 + (4495)2 = 5312 in lb

MG = (0)2 + (0)2 = 0 in lb
Bending stresses (Maximum)
At A, s A = 0
32 M B 32(3503)
At B, s B = = = 682 psi
D13 (3.740)3
32 M C 32(17,710 )
At C, sC = = = 1618 psi
D23 (4.8125)3
32 M D 32(40,073)
At D, s D = = = 2203 psi
Dr3 (5.701)3
32 M E 32(22,944 )
At E, s E = = = 3652 psi
D33 (4)3
32 M F 32(5312 )
At F, s F = = = 1443 psi
D43
(3.3469 )3
At G, sG = 0

Shear Stresses:
16T 16(21,400 )
ssA = ssB = = = 2083 psi
D13 (3.740)3
16T 16(21,400 )
ssC = = = 978 psi
D23 (4.8125)3
16T 16(21,400 )
ssD = = = 588 psi
Dr3 (5.701)3
16T 16(21,400 )
ssE = = = 1703 psi
D33 (4)3
16T 16(21,400 )
ssF = ssG = = = 2907 psi
D43 (3.3469)3

## Tensile stresses: F = 6580 lb

4F 4(6580 )
sA = sB = = = 599 psi
D1 (3.740)2
2

4F 4(6580 )
sC = = = 362 psi
D2 (4.8125)2
2

4F 4(6580 )
sD = = = 258 psi
Dr (5.701)2
2

4F 4(6580 )
sE = = = 524 psi
D3 2
(4 )2

Page 46 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

4F 4(6580 )
sE = sF = = = 748 psi
D4 (3.3469 )2
2

r1 0.098
At B: = = 0.03
D1 3.740
D2 4.8125
= = 1 .3
D1 3.740
Figure AF 12
K f K t = 2 .3
K fs K ts = 1.7
sn K f sa
se = sm +
sy SF
sm = sB = 599 psi
sa = s B = 682 psi
1 (2.3)(682 ) = 2262 psi
se = (599 ) +
1.437 0.85
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
sms = ssB = 2083 psi
sas = 0
1
ses = (2083) + 0 = 1450 psi
1.437
Octahedral shear theory
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 2262
2 2 2
1450
= +
N 83,500 0.577(83,500)
N = 24.7

r2 0.75
At C: = = 0.16
D2 4.8125
Dr 5.701
= = 1 .2
D2 4.8125
Figure AF 12
K f K t = 1 .5
K fs K ts = 1.2

Page 47 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

sn K f sa
se = sm +
sy SF
sm = 362 psi
sa = 1618 psi
1 (1.5)(1618) = 3107 psi
se = (362 ) +
1.437 0.85
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
sms = ssC = 978 psi
sas = 0
1
ses = (978) + 0 = 681 psi
1.437
Octahedral shear theory
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 3107
2 2 2
681
= +
N 83,500 0.577(83,500)
N = 25.1

At D:

## Assume K f = 1.5 as in Prob. 483

sn K f sa
se = sm +
sy SF
sm = 258 psi
sa = 2203 psi
1 (1.5)(2203) = 4067 psi
se = (258) +
1.437 0.85
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
sms = s sD = 588 psi
sas = 0
1
ses = (588) + 0 = 409 psi
1.437
Octahedral shear theory

Page 48 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 4067
2 2 2
409
= +
N 83,500 0.577(83,500)
N = 20.2

r3 0.75
At E: = = 0.19
D3 4
Dr 5.701
= = 1.43
D3 4
Figure AF 12
K f K t = 1.45
K fs K ts = 1.25
sn K f sa
se = sm +
sy SF
sm = sE = 524 psi
sa = s E = 3652 psi
1 (1.45)(3652) = 6595 psi
se = (524 ) +
1.437 0.85
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
sms = s sE = 1703 psi
sas = 0
1
ses = (1703) + 0 = 1185 psi
1.437
Octahedral shear theory
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 6595
2 2 2
1185
= +
N 83,500 0.577(83,500)
N = 12

r4 0.098
At F: = = 0.03
D4 3.3469

Page 49 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

D3 4
= = 1 .2
D4 3.3469
Figure AF 12
K f K t = 2 .3
K fs K ts = 1.7
sn K f sa
se = sm +
sy SF
sm = sF = 748 psi
sa = s F = 1443 psi
1 (2.3)(1443) = 4425 psi
se = (748) +
1.437 0.85
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
sms = s sF = 2907 psi
sas = 0
1
ses = (2907 ) + 0 = 2023 psi
1.437
Octahedral shear theory
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 4425
2 2 2
2023
= +
N 83,500 0.577(83,500)
N = 14.8

3
Then N = 12 at r3 = in (E)
4

492. The slow-speed shaft of a speed reducer shown, made of AISI 4140, OQT 1200
F, transmits 100 hp at a speed of 388 rpm. It receives power through a 13.6 in.
gear B. The force on this gear has three components: a horizontal tangential
driving force Ft = 2390 lb , a vertical radial force S = 870 lb , and a thrust force
Q = 598 lb taken by the right-hand bearing. The power is delivered to a belt at
F that exerts a downward vertical force of 1620 lb.; sled runner keyways. Use
the octahedral shear theory with the Soderberg line and compute N at sections C
and D. (Data courtesy of Twin Disc Clutch Company.)

Page 50 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

## Problem 492, 493

Solution:
For AISI 4140, OQT 1200 F
s y = 83 ksi
su = 112 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 56 ksi
sn sns 56 1
= = =
s y s ys 83 1.482
SF = 0.85
63,000(100 )
T= = 16,237 in lb
388

Vertical

13.6 13.6
M = Q = (598) = 4066.4 in lb
2 2
[
M A =0 ]

Page 51 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

3 5 3 5 3 7 11 13 3
1 + 1 (870 ) + 1 + 1 + 3 + 1 + 1 + + 2 (1620 ) + 4066.4
16 8 16 8 8 32 32 16 4
3 5 3 7
= 1 + 1 + 3 + 1 Gv
16 8 8 32
Gv = 3573 lb
[ F =0]
v

Av + S + F = Gv
Av + 870 + 1620 = 3573
Av = 1083 lb
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M Av = 0
3
M Pv = (1083)1 = 1286 in lb
16
5
M Bv = 1286 + ( 1083)1 = 3046 in lb at the left
8
M Bv = 3046 + 4066.4 = 1021 in lb at the right
3
M Cv = 1021 (1953) 3 = 5570 in lb
8
7
M Gv = 5570 (1953)1 = 7950 in lb
32

Page 52 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

11
M Dv = 7950 + (1620 )1 = 5773 in lb
32
13
M Ev = 5773 + (1620 ) = 4457 in lb
16
3
M Fv = 4457 + (1620 ) 2 = 0 in lb
4

Horizontal

[ M A =0 ]
13 13 19
2 (2390 ) + 2 + 4 Gh
16 16 32
Gh = 908 lb
[ F h =0 ]
Ah + Gh = Ft
Ah + 908 = 2390
Ah = 1482 lb
Shear Diagram

M Ah = 0
3
M Ph = (1482 )1 = 1760 in lb
16
5
M Bh = 1760 + (1482 )1 = 4168 in lb
8

Page 53 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

3
M Ch = 4168 (908) 3 = 1104 in lb
8
7
M Ch = 1104 (908)1 = 0 in lb
32
M Dh = 0 in lb
M Eh = 0 in lb
M Fh = 0 in lb

Combined
M = M h2 + M v2
M A = 0 in lb
MP = (1760)2 + (1286)2 = 2180 in lb
MB = (4168)2 + (3046)2 = 5163 in lb
MC = (1104)2 + (5570)2 = 5678 in lb
MD = (0)2 + (5773)2 = 5773 in lb
ME = (0)2 + (4457 )2 = 4457 in lb
MF = (0)2 + (0)2 = 0 in lb
1
at C: r = in = 0.125 in
8
d = 2.750 in
D = 2.953 in
r 0.125
= = 0.05
d 2.750
D 2.953
= = 1.10
d 2.750
Figure AF 12
K f 1 K t = 1 .9
K fs1 K ts = 1.3
For sled runner keyway
K f 2 = 1 .6
K fs 2 = 1.6

## K f = 0.8 K f 1 K f 2 = 0.8(1.9 )(1.6 ) = 2.4

K fs = 0.8 K fs1 K fs 2 = 0.8(1.3)(1.6 ) = 1.7

Page 54 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

sn K f sa
se = sm +
sy SF
4Q 4(598)
sm = = = 101 psi
d 2
(2.750)2
32 M C 32(5678)
sa = = = 2781 psi
d3 (2.750)3
1 (2.4)(2781) = 7920 psi
se = (101) +
1.482 0.85
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
16T 16(16,237 )
sms = = = 3976 psi
d 3 (2.750)3
sas = 0
1
ses = (3976 ) + 0 = 2683 psi
1.482
Octahedral shear theory
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 7920
2 2 2
2683
= +
N 56,000 0.577(56,000)
N =6

1
at D: r = in = 0.0625 in
16
d = 2.953 in
3
D = 3 in = 3.375 in
8
r 0.0625
= = 0.02
d 2.953
D 3.375
= = 1.14
d 2.953
Figure AF 12
K f K t = 2 .4
K fs K ts = 1.6
sn K f sa
se = sm +
sy SF

Page 55 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

4Q 4(598)
sm = = = 87.3 psi
d 2
(2.953)2
32 M C 32(5773)
sa = = = 2284 psi
d3 (2.953)3
1 (2.4)(2284) = 6508 psi
se = (87.3) +
1.482 0.85
s K fs sas
ses = ns sms +
s ys SF
16T 16(16,237 )
sms = = = 3211 psi
d 3 (2.953)3
sas = 0
1
ses = (3211) + 0 = 2167 psi
1.482
Octahedral shear theory
1

1 se ses
2 2 2

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1

1 6508
2 2 2
2167
= +
N 56,000 0.577(56,000)
N = 7 .5

TRANSVERSE DEFLECTIONS

494. The forces on the 2-in. steel shaft shown are A = 2 kips , C = 4 kips . Determine
the maximum deflection and the shafts slope at D.

Problems 494-496
Solution:

Page 56 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

[M B = 0]
2(10) + 25D = 4(15)
D = 1.6 kips
[Fv = 0]
A+C = B + D
2 + 4 = B + 1 .6
B = 4.4 kips

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M 64 M
=
EI E D 4

A B C D
M (in kip ) 0 -20 16 0
M 4 4
D 10 0 -135.8 108.6 0
EI

Page 57 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Scale ss = 10 in in

M 200 104
, Scale sM = per in
EI EI D4

## y deflection, Scale s y = 2.0 D 4 in in

Deflection:
0.625
At A: y A = in
D4

Page 58 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

0.375
At C: yC = in
D4
Slope:
0.075
D4
0.0125
D4
0.05625
D4

Maximum deflection:
0.625
y = yA = = 0.04 in
(2 )4
Shafts slope at D
0.05625
(2)4
495. The forces on the steel shaft shown are A = 2 kips , C = 4 kips . Determine the
constant shaft diameter that corresponds to a maximum deflection of 0.006 in. at
section C.

Solution:
(see Problem 494)
0.375
yC = = 0.006
D4
D = 2.812 in
7
say D = 2 in
8
496. The forces on the steel shaft shown are A = 2 kips , C = 4 kips . Determine a
constant shaft diameter that would limit the maximum deflection at section A to
0.003 in.

Solution:
(see Problem 494)
0.625
yA = = 0.003
D4
D = 3.80 in
7
say D = 3 in
8

## 497. A steel shaft is loaded as shown and supported in bearings at R1 and R2 .

Determine (a) the slopes at the bearings and (b) the maximum deflection.

Page 59 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Problem 497
Solution:
[ M R1 = 0 ]
(3000 ) 7 + 1 1 (2100) 7 + 2 1 + 1 = 7 + 2 1 + 2 + 7 R2
8 8 8 4 8 4 8
R2 = 444 lb
[ F = 0]
R1 + R2 + 2100 = 3000
R1 444 + 2100 = 3000
R1 = 1344 lb

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

Page 60 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M A = 0 in lb
7
M B = (1344 ) = 1176 in lb
8
7 1
M C = (1134 ) + 1 = 2688 in lb
8 8
1
M D = 2688 (1656 )1 = 825 in lb
8
M E = 825 (1656)(1) = 831 in lb
M F = 831 + (444)(1) = 387 in lb
7
M G = 387 + (444 ) = 0 in lb
8

A B1 B2 C D1 D2 E F1 F2 G
M (in kips ) 0 1.18 1.18 2.69 0.83 0.83 -0.83 -0.39 -0.39 0
D(in ) 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
(M
EI
)( )
10 4 0 1.58 0.50 1.14 0.35 0.60 -0.60 -0.28 -0.52 0

Scale ss = 2 in in

Page 61 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M 2 104
, Scale sM = per in
EI EI D4

## Slope , Scale s = 4 10 4 D 4 rad in

y deflection, Scale s y = 8 10 4 D 4 in in

## (a) Slopes at the bearings

( )
at R1 , A = 0.375 4 10 4 = 1.5 10 4 rad
at R2 , G = 0 rad

## (b) Maximum deflection

at C, yC = 0.1875(8 10 4 ) = 1.5 10 4 in

Page 62 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

498. (a) Determine the diameter of the steel shaft shown if the maximum deflection is
to be 0.01 in.; C = 1.5 kips , A = 1.58 kips , L = 24 in . (b) What is the slope of the
shaft at bearing D? See 479.

## Problems 498, 505, 506.

Solution:
Vertical

[ M D =0 ]
6(1.5) + 8(0.424) = 24 Ev
Ev = 0.516 kip
[ F v =0 ]
Dv + 0.424 = 1.5 + Ev
Dv + 0.424 = 1.5 + 0.516
Dv = 1.592 kip

Shear Diagram

M C = 0 ; M D = 6(1.5) = 9 in kips
M B = 9 + 8(0.092) = 8.264 in kips

Page 63 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

## M A = 8.264 + 11(0.516) = 2.588 in kips

M E = 2.588 + 5(0.516) = 0

C D B A E
M (in kips ) 0 -9 -8.264 -2.588 0
(
M
EI
)
D 4 10 4 0 -61.1 -56.1 -17.6 0

Scale ss = 8 in in

M 120 10 4
, Scale sM = per in
EI EI D4

## Slope , Scale s = 0.096 D 4 rad in

Page 64 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

## y deflection, Scale s y = 0.768 D 4 in in

Deflections.
0.384
yCv = in
D4
0.288
y Bv = in
D4
0.168
y Av = in
D4
Slope
0.057
D4
Horizontal

[ M D =0 ]
8(0.424 ) + 24 Eh = 19(1.58)
Eh = 1.1095 kip
[ F h =0 ]
Dh + Eh + 0.424 = 1.58
Dh + 1.1095 + 0.424 = 1.58

Page 65 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Dh = 0.0465 kip
Shear Diagram

Moments
MC = 0
MD = 0
M B = 8( 0.0465) = 0.372 in kip
M A = 0.372 + 11( 0.4705) = 5.5475 in kips
M E = 5.5475 + 5(1.1095) = 0

C D B A E
M (in kips ) 0 0 -0.372 -5.5475 0
(
M
EI
)
D 4 10 4 0 0 -2.53 -37.7 0

Scale ss = 8 in in

M 4 104
, Scale sM = per in
EI EI D4

## Slope , Scale s = 0.032 D 4 rad in

Page 66 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

## y deflection, Scale s y = 0.256 D 4 in in

Deflections.
0.064
yC h = in
D4
0.072
y Bh = in
D4
0.096
y Ah = in
D4
Slope
0.012
D4

Resultant deflection:
1
(
y = yh2 + yv2 )
2

yC =
[(0.064) + (0.384) ]
2 2 2
=
0.390
4
D D4
1

yB =
[(0.072) + (0.288) ]
2 2 2
=
0.297
4
D D4
1

yA =
[(0.096) + (0.168) ]
2 2 2
=
0.194
4
D D4
Slope:

Page 67 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1
= ( +
2
h v )
2 2

D =
[(0.012) + (0.057) ]
2 2 2
=
0.05823
4
D D4

(a) Diameter D.
0.390
Maximum deflection = yC = = 0.01 in
D4
D = 2.50 in

## (b) slope of the shaft at bearing D

0.05823 0.05823
D = = = 0.0015 rad
D4 (2.5)4

CRITICAL SPEED

499. A small, high-speed turbine has a single disk, weighing 0.85 lb., mounted at the
midpoint of a 0.178-in. shaft, whose length between bearings is 6 in. What is
the critical speed if the shaft is considered as simply supported?
Solution:

Table AT 2

y=
WL3
=
(0.85)(6.5)
3
= 0.052634 in
6 (0.178 )
4
3EI
(
3 30 10
64
)

1 1 1
30 g o ( Wy ) 2 30 g o 2 30 386 2
nc = = = = 818 rpm
Wy 2 y 0.052634

500. The bearings on a 1 -in. shaft are 30 in. apart. On the shaft are three 300-lb
disks, symmetrically placed 7.5 in. apart. What is the critical speed of the shaft?

Solution:

Page 68 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Table AT 2
Deflection of B.
y B = y B1 + y B2 + y B3

y B1 =
(300)(22.5)(7.5)([ 30)2 (22.5)2 (7.5)2 ] = 0.01273 in
6 (1.5 )
4
6(30 10 )
(30)
64

y B2 =
[ ]
(300)(15)(7.5)(30)2 (15)2 (7.5)2 = 0.01556 in
(1.5)4
(
6 30 106 ) (30)
64

y B3 =
( [
300)(7.5)(7.5)(30) (7.5) (7.5)
2 2 2
]
= 0.00990 in
6 (1.5 )
4
(
6 30 10 )
64
(30)

y B = 0.01273 + 0.00990 + 0.01556 = 0.03819 in

Deflection of C.
yC = yC1 + yC2 + yC3

yC1 =
( [
300)(7.5)(30 15)( 30) (7.5) (30 15) ]
2 2 2
= 0.01556 in
6 (1.5 )
4
6(30 10 ) (30)

64

yC2 =
[ ]
(300)(15)(30 15)(30)2 (15)2 (30 15)2 = 0.02264 in
6 (1.5 )
4
(
6 30 10 ) (30)
64

yC3 =
[ ]
(300)(7.5)(15)(30)2 (7.5)2 (15)2 = 0.01556 in
(1.5)4
(
6 30 106 ) (30)
64
yC = 0.01556 + 0.02264 + 0.01556 = 0.05376 in
Deflection of D.
y D = y D1 + y D2 + y D3

Page 69 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

y D1 =
(300)(7.5)(30 22.5)([ 30)2 (7.5)2 (30 22.5)2 ] = 0.00990 in
6 (1.5 )
4
6(30 10 )
(30)
64

y D2 =
[ ]
(300)(15)(30 22.5)(30)2 (15)2 (30 22.5)2 = 0.01556 in
6 (1.5 )
4
(
6 30 10 )
(30)
64

y D3 =
[ ]
(300)(7.5)(22.5)(30)2 (7.5)2 (22.5)2 = 0.01273 in
(1.5)4
(
6 30 106 ) (30 )
64
y D = 0.00990 + 0.01556 + 0.01273 = 0.03819 in
1 1
30 g o ( Wy ) 30 g o ( y B + yC + y D ) 2
2
nc = =
Wy 2 y B2 + yC2 + y D2
1
30 386(0.03819 + 0.05376 + 0.03819) 2
nc = = 888 rpm
(0.03819)2 + (0.05376)2 + (0.03819)2

501. A fan for an air-conditioning unit has two 50-lb. rotors mounted on a 3-in. steel
shaft, each being 22 in. from an end of the shaft which is 80 in. long and simply
supported at the ends. Determine (a) the deflection curve of the shaft considering
its weight as well as the weight of the rotors, (b) its critical speed.

Solution:

W1 = 50 lb
W3 = 50 lb
2
W2 = (0.284 ) (3) (80 ) = 160 lb weight of shaft
4
160
w2 = = 2 lb in
80
Deflection of B.
y B = y B1 + y B2 + y B3

Page 70 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

y B1 =
(50)(50)(22)([ 80)2 (58)2 (22)2 ] = 0.002844 in
6 (35 )
4
6(30 10 )
(80)
64

y B3 =
[ ]
(50)(22)(22)(80)2 (22)2 (22)2 = 0.002296 in
6 (3)
4
(
6 30 10 ) (80)
64

y B2 =
[ ]
(2)(22)(80)3 2(80)(22)2 (22)3 = 0.006843 in
(3)4
(
6 30 106 )
64
y B = 0.002844 + 0.006843 + 0.002296 = 0.011983 in

Deflection of C.
yC = yC1 + yC2 + yC3

yC1 =
( [
50)(22)(80 40)( 80) (22) (80 40) ]
2 2 2
= 0.003317 in
6 (35)
4
6(30 10 ) (80)
64

yC3 =
( [
50)(22 )(40)(80) (22) (40)
2 2 2
]
= 0.003317 in
6 (3)
4
(
6 30 10 ) (80)
64

yC2 =
[ ]
(2)(40)(80)3 2(80)(40)2 (40)3 = 0.008942 in
6 (3)
4
(
6 30 10 )
64
yC = 0.003317 + 0.008942 + 0.003317 = 0.015576 in

By symmetry
y D = y B = 0.011983 in

## (a) Deflection curve

Page 71 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

## (b) Critical speed

30 g o ( Wy ) 2
nc =
Wy 2
Wy = (50)(0.011983) + (160)(0.015576) + (50)(0.011983) = 3.69046
Wy = (50)(0.011983) + (160)(0.015576) + (50)(0.011983) = 0.053177
2 2 2 2

1
30 386(3.69046) 2
nc = = 1563 rpm
0.053177

ASME CODE

## 502. A cold-rolled transmission shaft, made of annealed AISI C1050, is to transmit a

torque of 27 in-kips with a maximum bending moment of 43 in-kips. What
should be the diameter according to the Code for a mild shock load?

Solution:
For AISI C1050, annealed
s y = 53 ksi
su = 92 ksi
0.3s y = 15.9 ksi
0.18su = 16.56 ksi
use d = 0.3s y = 15.9 ksi
M = 43 in kips
T = 27 in kips
1

16 FD 1 + B 2
( ) 2 2

(K sT ) + K m M +
3 2
D =
(
d 1 B 4 )
8
Reduce to
1

)[ ]
16
3
D = (K sT ) + ( K m M )
2 2 2

(
d 1 B 4
For mild shock load, rotating shafts
K m = 1.75
K s = 1.25
B=0
1
16
3
D =
(15,900)
{
[(1.25)(27,000)] + [(1.75)(43,000)]
2
}
2 2

D = 2.98 in
say D = 3 in

Page 72 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

503. A machinery shaft is to transmit 82 hp at a speed of 1150 rpm with mild shock.
The shaft is subjected to a maximum bending moment of 7500 in-lb. and an axial
thrust load of 15,000 lb. The material is AISI 3150, OQT 1000 F. (a) What
should be the diameter when designed according to the Code? (b) Determine the
corresponding conventional factor of safety (static-approach and maximum-shear
theory).

Solution:

## For AISI 3150, OQT 1000 F

s y = 130 ksi
su = 151 ksi
0.3s y = 39 ksi
0.18su = 27.18 ksi
use d = 0.18su = 27.18 ksi
63000(82 )
T= = 4492 in lb
1150
M = 7500 in lb
F = 15,000 lb

16 (
FD 1 + B 2 ) 2
2
(K sT ) + K m M +
3 2
(a) D =
( )
d 1 B 4
8

K m = 1.75
K s = 1.25
B=0
=1
1

16 (1)(15,000)D 2
2

[(1.25)(4492)] + (1.75)(7500) +
3 2
D =
(27180) 8

1
{
D 3 = 0.1874 31.53 + [13.125 + 1.875D ] }
2 2

D = 1.4668 in
say D = 1.5 in

32 M 4F 32(7500 ) 4(15,000 )
(b) s = + = + = 31,124 psi = 31.124 ksi
3
D D 2
(1.5)3 (1.5)2

Page 73 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

16T 16(4492 )
ss = = = 6778.5 psi = 6.7785 ksi
D 3 (1.5)3
1 s ss
2 2

= +
N s y s ys

Maximum shear theory
s ys = 0.5s y

1 31.124 6.7785
2 2

= +
N 130 0.5(130)
N = 3.83

504. short stub shaft, made of SAE 1035, as rolled, receives 30 hp at 300 rpm via a
12-in. spur gear, the power being delivered to another shaft through a flexible
coupling. The gear is keyed midway between the bearings and its pressure angle
= 20o . See the figure for 471. (a) Neglecting the radial component of the tooth
load, determine the shaft diameter for a mild shock load. (b) Considering both
tangential and radial components, compute the shaft diameter. (c) Is the
difference in the foregoing results enough to change your choice of the shaft
size?

Solution:

## For SAE 1035, as rolled

s y = 55 ksi
su = 85 ksi
0.3s y = 16.5 ksi
0.18su = 15.3 ksi
use d = 0.18su = 15.3 ksi

Page 74 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

## Data are the same as 471.

From Problem 471.

## (a) M = 4200 in lb = 4.2 in kips

T = 6300 in lb = 6.3 in kips
1

16 (
FD 1 + B 2 ) 2
2
D3 = ( K T )2
+ K
m M +
(
d 1 B 4

) s
8
Reduce to
1

)[ ]
16
D3 = ( K T )2
+ ( K M )2 2

(
d 1 B 4
s m

## For mild shock load, rotating shafts

K m = 1.75
K s = 1.25
B=0
1
16
D3 =
(15.3)
{
[(1.25)(6.3)]2 + [(1.75)(4.2)]2 2 }
D = 1.5306 in
9
say D = 1 in
16

## (b) M = 4472 in lb = 4.472 in kips

T = 6300 in lb = 6.3 in kips
1
16
3
D =
(15.3)
{
[(1.25)(6.3)]2 + [(1.75)(4.472)]2 }
2

D = 1.5461 in
9
say D = 1 in
16

## (c) Not enough to change the shaft size.

505. Two bearings D and E, a distance D = 24 in . Apart, support a shaft for a punch
press on which are an 8-in. gear A, a 44-in. pulley B, and a flywheel C, as
indicated (498). Weight of flywheel is 1500 lb.; pulley B receives the power at an
angle of 45o to the right of the vertical; gear A delivers it horizontally to the right.
The maximum power is 25 hp at 250 rpm is delivered, with heavy shock. For
cold-finish AISI 1137, find the diameter by the ASME Code.

Solution:

Page 75 of 76
SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Data and figure is the same as in Problem 479. Also figure is the same as in Problem 498.
For AISI 1137, cold-finished
s y = 93 ksi
su = 103 ksi
0.3s y = 27.9 ksi
0.18su = 18.54 ksi
use d = 0.18s u = 18.54 ksi
From Problem 479
M = M B = 14,343 in lb = 14.343 in kips
T = TA = 12,600 in lb = 12.6 in kips
K m = 2.5
K s = 1.75
B=0
1

16 (
FD 1 + B 2
)
2 2

(K sT ) + K m M +
2
D3 =
( 4
d 1 B

) 8
1

)[ ]
16
D3 = ( K T )2
+ ( K M )2 2

(
d 1 B 4
s m

1
16
D3 =
(18.54)
{
[(1.75)(12.6)]2 + [(2.5)(14.343)]2 }2

D = 2.2613 in
5
say D = 2 in
16

- end -

Page 76 of 76
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

551. (a) A 3 x 3 in. full bearing supports a load of 900 lb., c d D = 0.0015 ,
n = 400 rpm . The temperature of the SAE 40 oil is maintained at 140 oF.
Considering the bearing lightly loaded (Petroff), compute the frictional torque,
fhp, and the coefficient of friction. (b) The same as (a) except that the oil is
SAE 10W.

Solution.

DLvips D
(a) T f =
(cd 2) 2
L = 3 in
D = 3 in
Dn (3)(400)
vips = = = 20 ips
60 60
c d D = 0.0015
SAE 40 oil, 140 oF, Figure A16.
= 7.25 reyns

F= =
( )
DLvips 7.25 10 6 ( )(3)(3)(20 )
= 17.173 lb
(cd 2) (0.0015 2)
D 3
T f = F = (17.173) = 25.76 in lb
2 2
Fvm
fhp =
33,000
Dn (3)(400 )
vm = = = 314.16 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(17.173)(314.16) = 0.1635 hp
33,000 33,000
F 17.173
f = = = 0.0191
W 900

## (b) SAE 10W oil, 140 oF, Figure A16.

= 2.2 reyns = 2.2 10 6 reyn

F= =
( )
DLvips 2.2 10 6 ( )(3)(3)(20 )
= 5.211 lb
(cd 2) (0.0015 2)
D 3
T f = F = (5.211) = 7.817 in lb
2 2
Fvm
fhp =
33,000

Page 1 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Dn (3)(400 )
vm = = = 314.16 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(5.211)(314.16) = 0.0496 hp
33,000 33,000
F 5.211
f = = = 0.00579
W 900

553. The average pressure on a 6-in. full bearing is 50 psi, cd = 0.003 in. , L D = 1 .
While the average oil temperature is maintained at 160 oF with n = 300 rpm ,
the frictional force is found to be 13 lb. Compute the coefficient of friction
and the average viscosity of the oil. To what grade of oil does this
correspond?

Solution:
W
p=
LD
D = 6 in.
L D =1
L = 6 in.
W = pLD = (50)(6)(6 ) = 1800 lb
F = 13 lb
Coefficient of Friction
F 13
f = = = 0.0072
W 1800
DLvips
F=
(cd 2)
Dn (6)(300)
vips = = = 30 ips
60 60
DLvips ( )(6)(6)(30 )
F= = = 13 lb
(cd 2) (0.003 2)
= 1.8 10 6 reyn = 1.8 reyns
Figure AF 16, 160 oF use SAE 10W or SAE 20W

FULL BEARINGS

## 554. The load on a 4-in. full bearing is 2000 lb.,

n = 320 rpm ; L D = 1 ; cd D = 0.0011 ; operating temperature = 150 oF;
ho = 0.00088 in . (a) Select an oil that will closely accord with the started
conditions. For the selected oil determine (b) the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (c)
the hydrodynamic oil flow through the bearing, (d) the amount of end leakage,

Page 2 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

(e) the temperature rise as the oil passes through the bearing, (f) the maximum
pressure.

Solution:

(a) D = 4 in
L D =1
L = 4 in
cd = 0.0011D = 0.0011(4) = 0.0044 in
ho = 0.00088 in
2h 2(0.00088)
= 1 o = 1 = 0 .6
cd 0.0044
Table AT 20
= 0.6 , L D = 1
Sommerfield Number
2
ns D
S=
p cd
320
ns = = 5.333 rps
60
W 2000
p= = = 125 psi
LD (4)(4)
cd D = 0.0011
2
(5.333) 1
0.121 =
125 0.0011
= 3.4 10 6 reyn = 3.4 reyns
Figure AF-16, 150 oF, use SAE 30 or SAE 20 W
Select SAE 30, the nearest
= 3.9 106 reyn

## (b) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , = 0.6

r
f = 3.22
cr
r D 1
= =
cr cd 0.0011
1
f = 3.22
0.0011
f = 0.003542
F = f W = (0.003542)(2000 ) = 7.084 lb

Page 3 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Dn (4)(320)
vm = = = 335.1 fpm
12 12
Frictional loss = Fvm = (7.084 )(335.1)2374 ft lb min
(c) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , = 0.6
q
= 4.33
rcr ns L
D
r = = 2.0 in
2
c 0.0044
cr = d = = 0.0022 in
2 2
ns = 5.333 rps
L = 4 in
q = 4.33rcr ns L = 4.33(2.0 )(0.0022 )(5.333)(4 ) = 0.4064 in 3 sec

## (d) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , = 0.6

qs
= 0.680
q
qs = 0.680q = 0.680(0.4064 ) = 0.2764 in 3 sec

## (e) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , = 0.6

cto
= 14.2
p
c = 112 , p = 125 psi
14.2 p 14.2(125)
to = = = 15.85 o F
c 112

## (f) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , = 0.6

p
= 0.415
pmax
125
pmax = = 301.2 psi
0.415

555. A 4-in., 360o bearing, with L D = 1.1 (use table and chart values for 1), is to
support 5 kips with a minimum film thickness 0.0008 in.; cd = 0.004 in. ,
n = 600 rpm . Determine (a) the needed absolute viscosity of the oil .(b)
Suitable oil if the average film temperature is 160 F, (c) the frictional loss in
hp. (d) Adjusting only ho to the optimum value for minimum friction,
determine the fhp and compare. (e) This load varies. What could be the
magnitude of the maximum impulsive load if the eccentricity ration
becomes 0.8? Ignore squeeze effect.

Page 4 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Solution:
D = 4 in
L = 1.1D = 1.1(4) = 4.4 in
W 5000
p= = = 284 psi
LD (4.4)(4)
ho = 0.0008 in
cd = 0.004 in.
2h 2(0.0008)
= 1 o = 1 = 0 .6
cd 0.004
600
= = 10 rps
60

S = 0.121
2 2
r ns n s D
S = =
cr p p cd
2
(10)
4
0.121 =
284 0.004
= 3.4 106 reyn

## (c) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , = 0.6

r
f = 3.22
cr
D
f = 3.22
cd
4
f = 3.22
0.004
f = 0.00322
F = f W = (0.00322)(5000 lb ) = 16.1 lb
Dn (4)(600)
vm = = = 628.3 fpm
12 12

Page 5 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

fhp =
Fvm
=
(16.1)(628.3) = 0.3065 hp
33,000 33,000

## (d) adjusting ho , cd = 0.004 in.

Table AT 20, L D = 1
ho cr = 0.30 optimum value for minimum friction
r
f = 2.46
cr
D
f = 2.46
cd
4
f = 2.46
0.004
f = 0.00246
F = f W = (0.00246)(5000 lb ) = 12.3 lb
Dn (4)(600)
vm = = = 628.3 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(12.3)(628.3) = 0.234 hp < fhp (c )
33,000 33,000

## (e) = 0.8 , Table AT 20, L D = 1

S = 0.0446
2 2
r ns n s D
S = =
cr p p cd

0.0446 =
(3.2 10 )(10)
6
4

2

p 0.004
p = 717.5 psi
W = pDL = (717.5)(4)(4.4) = 12,628 lb

556. For an 8 x 4 in. full bearing, cr = 0.0075 in. , n = 2700 rpm , average
= 4 10 6 reyn . (a) What load may this bearing safely carry if the minimum

film thickness is not to be less than that given by Norton, i11.14, Text? (b)
Compute the corresponding frictional loss (fhp). (c) Complete calculations for
the other quantities in Table AT 20, , q , qs , to , pmax . Compute the
maximum load for an optimum (load) bearing (d) if cr remains the same, (e)
if ho remains the same.

Page 6 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Solution:
D L = 8 4
L D =1 2
cr = 0.0075 in
r = D 2 = 4 in
= 4 10 6 reyn

## (a) by Norton, ho = 0.00025D = 0.00025(8) = 0.002 in

ho 0.002
= = 0.27
cr 0.0075
h
Table AT 20, L D = 1 2 , o = 0.27
cr
S = 0.172
2
r ns
S =
cr p
2700
ns = = 45 rps
60
2
(
4 4 10 (45)
S = 0.172 =
6
)
0.0075 p
p = 298 psi
W = pDL = (298)(8)(4) = 9536 lb

ho
(b) Table AT 20, L D = 1 2 , = 0.27
cr
= 38.5o
r
f = 4.954
cr
D
f = 4.954
cd
4
f = 4.954
0.004
f = 0.0093
F = f W = (0.0093)(9536 lb ) = 88.7 lb
Dn (8)(2700)
vm = = = 5655 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(88.7 )(5655) = 15.2 hp
33,000 33,000

Page 7 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

ho
(c) Table AT 20, L D = 1 2 , = 0.27
cr
= 38.5o
q
= 5.214
rcr ns L
q = 5.214rcr ns L = 5.214(4 )(0.0075)(45)(4 ) = 28.2 in 3 sec
qs
= 0.824
q
qs = 0.824(28.2 ) = 23.2 in 3 sec
ct
= 20.26
p
20.26(298)
t = = 54 o F
112
p
= 0.3013
pmax
298
pmax = = 989 psi
0.3013
h
To solve for maximum load, Table AT 20, L D = 1 2 , o = 0.43
cr
2
r ns
S = = 0.388
cr p

(d) cr = 0.0075 in
2
(
4 4 10 (45)
S = 0.388 =
6
)
0.0075 p
p = 132 psi
W = pDL = (132)(8)(4) = 4224 lb

(e) ho = 0.002 in
ho
= 0.43
cr
0.002
cr = = 0.00465 in
0.43

S = 0.388 =
4

2 6
(
4 10 (45) )
0.00465 p
p = 343.3 psi
W = pDL = (343.3)(8)(4) = 10,986 lb

Page 8 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

557. A 6 x 6 in full bearing has a frictional loss of fhp = 11 when the load is
68,500 lb. and n = 1600 rpm ; cr r = 0.001 . (a) Compute the minimum film
thickness. Is this in the vicinity of that for an optimum bearing? (b) What is
the viscosity of the oil and a proper grade for an operating temperature of 160
F? (c) For the same ho , but for the maximum-load optimum, determine the

Solution:
L = 6 in
D = 6 in
L D =1
r = D 2 = 3 in
cr r = 0.001
n = 1600 rpm
Dn (3)(1600)
vm = = = 2513 fpm
12 12
Fvm
fhp =
33,000
33,000(11)
F= = 144.45 lb
2513
F 144.45
f = = = 0.00211
W 68,500
r 1
(a) f = (0.00211) = 2.11
cr 0.001
r
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , f = 2.11
cr
Near the vicinity of optimum bearing
cr = 0.001r = 0.001(3) = 0.003 in
ho = 0.254cr = 0.254(0.003) = 0.0008 in

r
(b) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , f = 2.11
cr
S = 0.0652
2
r ns
S = = 0.388
cr p
1600
ns = = 26.67 rps
60
W 68,500
p= = = 1902.8 psi
LD (6)(6)

Page 9 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

2
1 ( )(26.67 )
S = 0.0652 =
0.001 1902.8
= 4.7 10 6 reyn
Figure AF 16, 160 F, use SAE 40.

## (c) Table AT 20, L D = 1

ho
optimum bearing, maximum load, = 0.53
cr
ho 0.0008
ho the same, cr = = = 0.0015 in
0.53 0.53
ho r
= 0.53 , S = 0.214 , f = 4.89
cr cr
2
r ns
S =
cr p
2
(
3 4.7 10 (26.67 )
S = 0.214 =
6
)
0.0015 p
p = 2343 psi
W = pDL = (2343)(6)(6) = 84,348 lb
r
f = 4.89
cr
3
f = 4.89
0.0015
f = 0.00245
F = f W = 0.00245(84,348) = 206.65 lb
vm = 2513 fpm

fhp =
Fvm
=
(206.65)(2513) = 15.74 hp
33,000 33,000

558. The maximum load on a 2.25 x 1.6875 in. main bearing of an automobile is
3140 lb. with wide-open throttle at 1000 rpm. If the oil is SAE 20W at 210 F,
compute the minimum film thickness for a bearing clearance of (a) 0.0008 in.
and (b) 0.0005 in. Which clearance results in the safer operating conditions?
Note: Since a load of this order exists for only 20-25o of rotation, the actual
ho does not reach this computed minimum (squeeze effect).

Solution:
D L = 2.25 1.6875 in
L 1.6875
= = 0.75
D 2.25

Page 10 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

SAE 20 W at 210 oF
= 0.96 10 6 reyn
W = 3140 lb
n = 1000 rpm
W 3140
p= = = 827 psi
DL (2.25)(1.6875)
1000
ns = = 16.67 rps
60
D
r = = 1.125 in
2
2
ns r
S=
p cr
(a) cr = 0.0008 in

S=
(0.96 10 )(16.67 ) 1.125
6
= 0.038
2

827 0.0008
Table AT 20, L D = 3 4 , S = 0.038

L D ho cr S
1 0.2 0.0446
0.2 0.0923

0.2 0.0685

L D ho cr S
1 0.1 0.0188
0.1 0.0313

0.1 0.0251

At L D = 3 4
ho 0.038 0.0251
= (0.2 0.1) + 0.1 = 0.13
cr 0.0685 0.0251
ho = 0.13cr = 0.13(0.0008) = 0.0001 in

(b) cr = 0.0005 in

S=
(0.96 10 )(16.67 ) 1.125
6 2

= 0.098
827 0.0005

## Table AT 20, L D = 3 4 , S = 0.098

Page 11 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

L D ho cr S
1 0.2 0.0446
0.2 0.0923

0.2 0.0685

L D ho cr S
1 0.4 0.121
0.4 0.319

0.4 0.220

At L D = 3 4
ho 0.098 0.0685
= (0.4 0.2) + 0.2 = 0.239
cr 0.220 0.0685
ho = 0.239cr = 0.239(0.0005) = 0.00012 in

## use cr = 0.0005 in , ho = 0.00012 in

561. A 360o bearing supports a load of 2500 lb.; D = 5 in. , L = 2.5 in. ,
cr = 0.003 in. , n = 1800 rpm ; SAE 20 W oil entering at 100 F. (a) Compute
the average temperature t av of the oil through the bearing. (An iteration
procedure. Assume ; compute S and the corresponding to ; then the
average oil temperature t av = ti + to 2 . If this t av and the assumed do not
locate a point in Fig. AF 16 on the line for SAE 20 W oil, try again.) Calculate
(b) the minimum film thickness, (c) the fhp, (d) the amount of oil to be
supplied and the end leakage.

Solution:
D = 5 in
L = 2.5 in
L 2 .5
= = 0 .5
D 5
cr = 0.003 in

(a) Table AT 20
cto
Parameter, , c = 112
p
2
r ns
S =
cr p

Page 12 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

W 2500
p= = = 200 psi
DL (5)(2.5)
1800
ns = = 30 rps
60
D
r = = 2.5 in
2
cr = 0.003 in
Fig. AF 16, SAE 20 W, Table AT 20, L D = 0.5 , ti = 100 o F
cto
Trial ( t o F ), reyns S to o F t av = ti + to 2 o F
p
3.5 x 10-6 (130 F) 0.365 36.56 65 132.5
-6
3.2 x 10 (134 F) 0.333 34.08 61 130.5
-6
3.4 x 10 (132 F) 0.354 35.71 64 132.0

## (b) Table AT 20, L D = 0.5 , S = 0.354

ho
= 0.415
cr
ho = 0.415(0.003) = 0.00125 in

## (c) Table AT 20, L D = 0.5 , S = 0.354

r
f = 8.777
cr
2 .5
f = 8.777
0.003
f = 0.0105
F = f W = 0.0105(2500 ) = 26.25 lb
Dn (5)(1800)
vm = = = 2356 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(26.25)(2356) = 1.874 hp
33,000 33,000

## (d) Table AT 20, L D = 0.5 , S = 0.354

q
= 4.807
rcr ns L
q = 4.807 rcr ns L = 4.807(2.5)(0.003)(30 )(2.5) = 2.704 in 3 sec
qs
= 0.7165
q

Page 13 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

PARTIAL BEARINGS

## 562. A 2 x 2-in. bearing has a clearance cr = 0.001 in , and ho = 0.0004 in. ,

n = 2400 rpm , and for the oil, = 3 106 reyn . Determine the load, frictional
horsepower, the amount of oil to enter, the end leakage of oil, and the
temperature rise of the oil as it passes through for : (a) a full bearing, partial
bearings of (b) 180o, (c) 120o, (d) 90o, (e) 60o.

Solution:
D = L = 2 in
L D =1
cr = 0.001 in
r = D 2 = 1 in
n = 2400 rpm
ns = 40 rps
= 3 106 reyn
ho = 0.004 in.
ho 0.0004
= = 0. 4
cr 0.001
Dn (2)(2400)
vm = = = 1257 fpm
12 12

## Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4

S = 0.121
rf
= 3.22
cr
q
= 4.33
rcr ns L
qs
= 0.680
q
cto
= 14.2
p
p
= 0.415
pmax

Page 14 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

2
r ns
S =
cr p

0.121 =
2
(
1 3 10 (40 )

6
)
0.001 p
p = 992 psi
W = pDL = (992)(2)(2) = 3968 lb
fhp:
F = fW
rf
= 3.22
cr
1
f = 3.22
0.001
f = 0.00322
F = f W = (0.00322)(3968) = 12.78 lb
fhp =
Fvm
=
(12.78)(1257 ) = 0.4868 hp
33,000 33,000
Oil flow, q
q
= 4.33
rcr ns L
q
= 4.33
(0.1)(0.001)(40)(2)
q = 0.3464 in3 sec
End leakage
qs
= 0.680
q
qs = 0.68(0.3464 ) = 0.2356 in3 sec
Temperature rise, to
cto
= 14.2
p
(112)to = 14.2
992
to = 126 o F

## Table AT 21, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4

S = 0.128

Page 15 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

rf
= 2.28
cr
q
= 3.25
rcr ns L
qs
= 0.572
q
cto
= 12.4
p

2
r ns
S =
cr p

0.128 =
2
(
1 3 10 (40 )

6
)
0.001 p
p = 937.5 psi
W = pDL = (937.5)(2)(2) = 3750 lb
fhp:
F = fW
rf
= 2.28
cr
1
f = 2.28
0.001
f = 0.00228
F = f W = (0.00228)(3750) = 8.55 lb
fhp =
Fvm
=
(8.55)(1257) = 0.3257 hp
33,000 33,000
Oil flow, q
q
= 3.25
rcr ns L
q
= 3.25
(0.1)(0.001)(40)(2)
q = 0.26 in3 sec
End leakage
qs
= 0.572
q
qs = 0.572(0.26 ) = 0.1487 in3 sec
Temperature rise, to

Page 16 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

cto
= 12.4
p
(112)to = 12.4
937.5
to = 104 o F

## Table AT 22, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4

S = 0.162
rf
= 2.16
cr
q
= 2.24
rcr ns L
qs
= 0.384
q
cto
= 15
p

2
r ns
S =
cr p

0.162 =
2
(
1 3 10 (40 )

6
)
0.001 p
p = 741 psi
W = pDL = (741)(2 )(2) = 2964 lb
fhp:
F = fW
rf
= 2.16
cr
1
f = 2.16
0.001
f = 0.00216
F = f W = (0.00216)(2964) = 6.4 lb
fhp =
Fvm
=
(6.4)(1257 ) = 0.2438 hp
33,000 33,000
Oil flow, q

Page 17 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

q
= 2.24
rcr ns L
q
= 2.24
(0.1)(0.001)(40)(2)
q = 0.1792 in3 sec
End leakage
qs
= 0.384
q
q s = 0.384(0.1792 ) = 0.0688 in 3 sec
Temperature rise, to
cto
= 15
p
(112)to = 15
741
to = 99 o F

## (d) 60o Bearing

L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4
S = 0.450
rf
= 3.29
cr
q
= 1.56
rcr ns L
qs
= 0.127
q
cto
= 28.2
p

2
r ns
S =
cr p
2
(
1 3 10 (40 )
0.450 =
6
)
0.001 p
p = 267 psi
W = pDL = (267 )(2)(2) = 1068 lb
fhp:
F = fW

Page 18 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

rf
= 3.29
cr
1
f = 3.29
0.001
f = 0.00329
F = f W = (0.00329)(1068) = 3.514 lb
fhp =
Fvm
=
(3.514)(1257) = 0.1339 hp
33,000 33,000
Oil flow, q
q
= 1.56
rcr ns L
q
= 1.56
(0.1)(0.001)(40)(2)
q = 0.1248 in3 sec
End leakage
qs
= 0.127
q
qs = 0.127(0.1248) = 0.0158 in3 sec
Temperature rise, to
cto
= 28.2
p
(112)to = 28.2
267
to = 67 o F

## 563. A 2 x 2 in. bearing sustains a load of W = 5000 lb. ; cr = 0.001 in. ;

n = 2400 rpm ; = 3 106 reyn . Using Figs. AF 17 and AF 18, determine the
minimum film thickness and the frictional loss (ft-lb/min.) for (a) a full
bearing, and for partial bearings of (b) 180o, (c) 120o, (d) 90o, (e) 60o.

Solution:
L = 2 in
D = 2 in
W = 5000 lb
cr = 0.001 in.
n = 2400 rpm
ns = 40 rps
= 3 106 reyn
r = D 2 = 1 in

Page 19 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

W 5000
p= = = 1250 psi
LD (2)(2)
2 2
( )
r ns 1 3 10 6 (40 )
S = = = 0.10
cr p 0.001 1250
Dn (2)(2400)
vm = = = 1257 fpm
12 12
Using Fig. AF 17 and AF 18

## (a) Full Bearing

ho
= 0.346
cr
r
f = 2 .8
cr
ho = 0.346(0.001) = 0.000346 in
1
f = 2 .8
0.001
f = 0.0028
F = f W = (0.0028)(5000) = 14 lb
Fvm = (14)(1257 ) = 17,600 ft lb min

## (b) 180o Bearing

ho
= 0.344
cr
r
f = 2 .0
cr
ho = 0.344(0.001) = 0.000344 in
1
f = 2 .0
0.001
f = 0.0020
F = f W = (0.0020)(5000) = 10 lb
Fvm = (10)(1257 ) = 12,570 ft lb min

## (c) 120o Bearing

ho
= 0.302
cr

Page 20 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

r
f = 1 .7
cr
ho = 0.302(0.001) = 0.000302 in
1
f = 1 .7
0.001
f = 0.0017
F = f W = (0.0017 )(5000) = 8.5 lb
Fvm = (8.5)(1257 ) = 10,685 ft lb min

## (d) 60o Bearing

ho
= 0.20
cr
r
f = 1 .4
cr
ho = 0.20(0.001) = 0.0002 in
1
f = 1 .4
0.001
f = 0.0014
F = f W = (0.0014)(5000) = 7 lb
Fvm = (7 )(1257 ) = 8,800 ft lb min

564. A 120o partial bearing is to support 4500 lb. with ho = 0.002 in. ; L D = 1 ;
D = 4 in. ; cd = 0.010 in. ; n = 3600 rpm . Determine (a) the oils viscosity,(b)
the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (c) the eccentricity angle, (d) the needed oil
flow, (e) the end leakage, (f) the temperature rise of the oil as it passes
through, (g) the maximum pressure. (h) If the clearance given is the average,
what approximate class of fit (Table 3.1) is it? (i) What maximum impulsive
load would be on the bearing if the eccentricity ratio suddenly went to 0.8?
Ignore squeeze effect.

Solution:
W = 4500 lb
ho = 0.002 in
L D =1
D = 4 in
L = 4 in
r = D 2 = 2 in
cd = 0.010 in.
n = 3600 rpm

Page 21 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

3600
ns = = 60 rps
60
Dn (2)(3600)
vm = = = 3770 fpm
12 12
W 4500
p= = = 281.25 psi
LD (4 )(4)
ho 2ho 2(0.002 )
= = = 0 .4
cr cr 0.010
Table AT 22, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4
S = 0.162
= 35.65o
r
f = 2.16
cr
q
= 2.24
rcr ns L
qs
= 0.384
q
cto
= 15.0
p
p
= 0.356
pmax

2
r ns
(a) S =
cr p
2
D ns
S =
cd p
2
4 (60 )
0.162 =
0.010 281.25
= 4.75 106 reyn

r
(b) f = 2.16
cr
D
f = 2.16
cd
4
f = 2.16
0.010
f = 0.0054
F = f W = 0.0054(4500) = 24.30 lb

Page 22 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

## Fvm = (24.30)(3770) = 91,611 ft lb min

(c) = 35.65o

q 4q
(d) = = 2.24
rcr ns L Dcd ns L
4q
= 2.24
(4)(0.010)(60)(4)
q = 5.4 in3 sec

qs
(e) = 0.384
q
qs = 0.384(5.4 ) = 2.07 in3 sec

cto
(f) = 15.0
p
(112)to = 15.0
281.25
to = 38 o F

p
(g) = 0.356
pmax
281.25
pmax = = 790 psi
0.356

(h) cd = 0.010 in , D = 4 in
Table 3.1
RC 8, Hole, average = + 0.0025
Shaft, average = - 0.00875
cd = 0.0025 + 0.00875 = 0.01125 0.010 in
Class of fit = RC 9

(i) = 0.80
Table AT 22, , L D = 1
S = 0.162
2
D ns
S =
cd p
2
(
4 3 10 (60 )
0.0531 =
6
)
0.010 p
p = 542 psi

Page 23 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

## W = pDL = (542)(4)(4) = 8672 lb

565. A 120o partial bearing is to support 4500 lb., D = 3 in. , cd = 0.003 in. ;
n = 3600 rpm ; SAE 20W entering at 110 F. Calculate (a) the average
temperature of the oil as it passes through,(b) the minimum film thickness, (c)
the fhp, (d) the quantity of oil to be supplied. HINT: In (a) assume and
determine the corresponding values of S and to ; then tav = ti + to 2 . If
assumed and tav do not locate a point in Fig. AF 16 that falls on line for
SAE 20W, iterate.

Solution:
W = 4500 lb
D = 3 in
L = 3 in
L D =1
cd = 0.003 in.
2
D ns
S =
cd p
3600
ns = = 60 rps
60
W 4500
p= = = 500 psi
DL (3)(3)
cto
, (SAE 20W)
p

## (a) Using Table AT22, L D = 1 , c = 112 , ti = 110o F

cto
Trial t , oF S to tav = ti + to 2
p
3.5 x 10-6 130 0.42 19.8 88 154
2.0 x 10-6 160 0.24 15.4 68 144
2.6 x 10-6 145 0.312 17.7 79 149.5
2.35 x 10-6 150 0.282 17.2 76 148
2.4 x 10-6 149 0.288 17.3 78 149

## (b) Table AT 22, L D = 1 , S = 0.288

Page 24 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

ho
= 0.513
cr
2ho
= 0.513
cd
2ho = 0.513(0.003)
ho = 0.00077 in

## (c) Table At 22, L D = 1 , S = 0.288

r
f = 2.974
cr
D 3
f = f = 2.974
cr 0.003
f = 0.002974
F = f W = (0.002974)(4500) = 13.383 lb
Fvm
fhp =
33,000
Dn (3)(3600)
vm = = = 2827 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(13.383)(2827 ) = 1.15 hp
33,000 33,000

## (d) Table At 22, L D = 1 , S = 0.288

q
= 2.528
rcr ns L
4q
= 2.528
Dcd ns L
4q
= 2.528
(3)(0.003)(60)(3)
q = 1.024 in3 sec

## 566. The 6000-lb. reaction on an 8 x 4 in., 180o partial bearing is centrally

applied; n = 1000 rpm ; ho = 0.002 in . For an optimum bearing with minimum
friction determine (a) the clearance, (b) the oils viscosity, (c) the frictional
horsepower. (d) Choose a cd D ratio either smaller or larger than that
obtained in (a) and show that the friction loss is greater than that in the
optimum bearing. Other data remain the same.

Solution:
W = 6000 lb

Page 25 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

D = 8 in
L = 4 in
n = 1000 rpm
1000
ns = = 16.67 rps
60
L D =1 2
ho = 0.002 in

ho cr = 0.23
0.002
cr = = 0.0087 in
0.23

S = 0.126
2
r ns
S =
cr p
W 6000
p= = = 187.5 psi
DL (4)(8)
D
r = = 4 in
2
2
4 (16.67 )
S = 0.126 =
0.0087 187.5
= 6.70 106 reyn

## (c) Table AT 21, L D = 1 2 , ho cr = 0.23

r
f = 2.97
cr
4
f = 2.97
0.0087
f = 0.00646
F = f W = (0.00646 )(6000) = 38.76 lb
Dn (8)(1000)
vm = = = 2094 fpm
12 12

Page 26 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

fhp =
Fvm
=
(38.76)(2094) = 2.46 hp
33,000 33,000

cd 2cr 2(0.0087 )
For (a) = = = 0.0022
D D 8
cd
> 0.0022
D
cd
= 0.0030
D
cd = 0.0030(8) = 0.0240 in
cr = 0.0120 in
ho 0.002
= = 0.1667
cr 0.012
Table AT 21, L D = 1 2
r
f = 1.67
cr
4
f = 1.67
0.0016
f = 0.00668
F = f W = (0.00668)(6000 ) = 40.08 lb
Dn (8)(1000)
vm = = = 2094 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(40.08)(2094) = 2.54 hp > 2.46 hp
33,000 33,000

cd
< 0.0022
D
cd
= 0.0020
D
cd = 0.0020(8) = 0.0160 in
cr = 0.0080 in
ho 0.002
= = 0.25
cr 0.008
Table AT 21, L D = 1 2
r
f = 3.26
cr
4
f = 3.26
0.0016
f = 0.00652

Page 27 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

## F = f W = (0.00652 )(6000) = 39.12 lb

Dn (8)(1000)
vm = = = 2094 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(39.12)(2094) = 2.48 hp > 2.46 hp
33,000 33,000

567. A 120o partial bearing supports 3500 lb. when n = 250 rpm ; D = 5 in. ,
L = 5 in. ; = 3 106 reyn . What are the clearance and minimum film
thickness for an optimum bearing (a) for maximum load, (b) for minimum
friction? (c) On the basis of the average clearance in Table 3.1, about what
class fit is involved? Would this fit be on the expensive or inexpensive side?
(d) Find the fhp for each optimum bearing.

Solution:

D = 5 in.
L = 5 in.
L
=1
D
n = 250 rpm
250
ns = = 4.17 rps
60
= 3 106 reyn
W = 3500 lb
W 3500
p= = = 140 psi
DL (5)(5)

L h
(a) Table AT 22, = 1 , max. load o = 0.46
D cr
S = 0.229
2
r ns
S =
cr p
D
r = = 2.5 in
2
2
( )
2.5 3.0 106 (4.17 )
S = 0.229 =
cr 140
cr = 0.00156 in
ho = 0.46cr = 0.46(0.00156) = 0.00072 in

Page 28 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

L h
(b) Table AT 22, = 1 , min. friction o = 0.40
D cr

S = 0.162
2
r ns
S =
cr p
D
r = = 2.5 in
2
2
( )
2.5 3.0 106 (4.17 )
S = 0.162 =
cr 140
cr = 0.00186 in
ho = 0.46cr = 0.40(0.00186) = 0.00074 in

## (c) cd 1 = 2(0.00156) = 0.00312 in

cd 2 = 2(0.00186) = 0.00372 in
Use Class RC4, ave. cd = 0.00320 in , expensive side

L h
(d) Table AT 22, = 1 , max. load o = 0.46
D cr
r
f = 2.592
cr
2 .5
f = 2.592
0.00156
f = 0.00162
F = f W = (0.00162 )(3500 ) = 5.67 lb
Dn (5)(250)
vm = = = 327.25 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(5.67)(327.25) = 0.0562 hp
33,000 33,000

ho
For minimum friction, = 0.40
cr
r
f = 2.16
cr
2 .5
f = 2.16
0.00186
f = 0.00161
F = f W = (0.00161)(3500) = 5.635 lb

Page 29 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Dn (5)(250)
vm = = = 327.25 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(5.635)(327.25) = 0.0559 hp
33,000 33,000

570. A 180o partial bearing is to support 17,000 lb. with p = 200 psi ,
n = 1500 rpm , ho = 0.003 in , L D = 1 . (a) Determine the clearance for an
optimum bearing with minimum friction. (b) Taking this clearance as the
average, choose a fit (Table 3.1) that is approximately suitable. (c) Select an
oil for an average temperature of 150 F. (d) Compute fhp.

Solution:

W = 17,000 lb
p = 200 psi
n = 1500 rpm
1500
ns = = 25 rps
60
L D =1
L=D
W
p=
DL
17,000
200 =
D2
D = L = 9.22 in
D 9.22
r= = = 4.61 in
2 2
(a) For optimum bearing with minimum friction

ho cr = 0.44
0.003
= 0.44
cr
cr = 0.00682 in

## (b) Table 3.1, D = 9.22 in

cd = 2cr = 2(0.00682 ) = 0.01364 in
Use Class RC7, average cd = 0.01065 in
Or use Class RC8, average cd = 0.01575 in
(c) Table AT 21, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.44
S = 0.158

Page 30 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

2
r ns
S =
cr p
2
4.61 (25)
0.158 =
0.00682 200
= 2.8 106 reyn
Fig. AF 16, at 150 F
Use Either SAE 20W or SAE 30.

## (d) Table AT 21, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.44

r
f = 2.546
cr
4.61
f = 2.546
0.00682
f = 0.00377
Dn (9.22)(1500)
vm = = = 3621 fpm
12 12
F = f W = (0.00377 )(17,000) = 64.09 lb
fhp =
Fvm
=
(64.09)(3621) = 7.0 hp
33,000 33,000

571. The reaction on a 120o partial bearing is 2000 lb. The 3-in journal turns at
1140 rpm; cd = 0.003 in. ; the oil is SAE 20W at an average operating
temperature of 150 F. Plot curves for the minimum film thickness and the
frictional loss in the bearing against the ratio L D , using L D = 0.25, 0.5, 1,
and 2. (Note: This problem may be worked as a class problem with each
student being responsible for a particular L D ratio.)

Solution:
W = 2000 lb
D = 3 in.
n = 1140 rpm
1140
ns = = 19 rps
60
cd = 0.003 in
cr = 0.0015 in
For SAE 20W, 150 F
= 2.75 106 reyn

L
(a) = 0.25
D

Page 31 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

## L = 0.25D = 0.25(3) = 0.75 in

W 2000
p= = = 889 psi
DL (3)(0.75)
L
Table AT 22, = 0.25
D
D
r = = 1.5 in
2
2 2
(
r ns 1.5 2.75 10 6 (19 )
S = =
)= 0.0588
c
r p 0 . 0015 889
ho
= 0.083
cr
ho = 0.083(0.0015) = 0.000125 in
r
f = 2.193
cr
1 .5
f = 2.193
0.0015
f = 0.002193
F = f W = (0.002193)(2000) = 4.386 lb
Dn (3)(1140)
vm = = = 895 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(4.386)(895) = 0.119 hp
33,000 33,000
L
(b) = 0 .5
D
L = 0.5 D = 0.5(3) = 1.5 in
W 2000
p= = = 444 psi
DL (3)(1.5)
L
Table AT 22, = 0 .5
D
D
r = = 1.5 in
2
2 2
(
r ns 1.5 2.75 106 (19 )
S = =
)= 0.1177
cr p 0.0015 444
ho
= 0.2159
cr
ho = 0.2159(0.0015) = 0.000324 in
r
f = 2.35
cr

Page 32 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

1 .5
f = 2.35
0.0015
f = 0.00235
F = f W = (0.00235)(2000) = 4.7 lb
Dn (3)(1140)
vm = = = 895 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(4.7 )(895) = 0.1275 hp
33,000 33,000
L
(c) =1
D
L = D = 3 in
W 2000
p= = = 222 psi
DL (3)(3)
L
Table AT 22, =1
D
D
r = = 1.5 in
2
2 2
(
r ns 1.5 2.75 106 (19 )
S = =
)
= 0.2354
cr p 0.0015 222
ho
= 0.4658
cr
ho = 0.4658(0.0015) = 0.000699 in
r
f = 2.634
cr
1 .5
f = 2.634
0.0015
f = 0.002634
F = f W = (0.002634)(2000 ) = 5.268 lb
Dn (3)(1140)
vm = = = 895 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(5.268)(895) = 0.1429 hp
33,000 33,000
L
(d) =2
D
L = 2 D = 2(3) = 6 in
W 2000
p= = = 111 psi
DL (3)(6)
L
Table AT 22, =2
D

Page 33 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

D
r= = 1.5 in
2
2 2
( )
r ns 1.5 2.75 106 (19 )
S = = = 0.47
cr p 0.0015 111
ho
= 0.718
cr
ho = 0.718(0.0015) = 0.00108 in
r
f = 3.8118
cr
1 .5
f = 3.8118
0.0015
f = 0.003812
F = f W = (0.003812)(2000) = 7.624 lb
Dn (3)(1140)
vm = = = 895 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(7.624)(895) = 0.2068 hp
33,000 33,000

L
ho , in fhp
D
0.25 0.000125 0.119
0.5 0.000324 0.128
1.0 0.000699 0.143
2.0 0.001080 0.207

Page 34 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

## 572. A 180o partial bearing is subjected to a load of 12,000 lb.; D L = 8 8 in. ,

cr r = 0.0015 , ho 0.0024 in. , n = 500 rpm . The air speed about the bearing
is expected to be in excess of 1000 fpm (on moving vehicle) and the effective
radiating area is 20 DL . Determine: (a) the eccentricity factor, (b) reyns, (c)
the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (d) the estimated temperature of oil and bearing
( a self-contained oil-bath unit) for steady-state operation, and a suitable
oil.(e) Compute to of the oil passing through the load-carrying area, remark
on its reasonableness, and decide upon whether some redesign is desirable.

Solution:
D = 8 in.
L = 8 in.
L D =1
W = 12,000 lb
D
r = = 4 in
2
cr = 0.0015r = 0.0015(4) = 0.0060 in
ho 0.0024
= = 0. 4
cr 0.0060
n = 500 rpm
500
ns = = 8.33 rps
60
Table AT 21, ho cr = 0.4 , L D = 1
S = 0.128
r
f = 2.28
cr
cto
= 12.4
p
W 12,000
p= = = 187.5 psi
DL (8)(8)

ho
(a) = 1 = 1 0 .4 = 0 .6
cr
2
r ns
(b) S =
cr p
2
4 (8.33)
S = 0.128 =
0.0060 187.5
= 6.5 106 reyn

Page 35 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

r
(c) f = 2.28
cr
4
f = 2.28
0.0060
f = 0.00342
F = f W = (0.00342 )(12,000) = 41.04 lb
Dn (8)(500)
vm = = = 1047 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(41.04)(1047) = 1.302 hp
33,000 33,000
Frictional loss = 43,000 ft-lb/min

## (d) Q = hcr Ab tb ft-lb/min

Q = 43,000 ft lb min
hcr = hc + hr
hr = 0.108 ft lb min sq.in. F
va0.6
hc = 0.017 , va 1000 fpm
D 0.4

hc = 0.017
(1000 )
0.6
= 0.467 ft lb min sq.in. F
(8)0.4
hcr = 0.467 + 0.108 = 0.575 ft lb min sq.in. F
Ab = 20 DL = 20(8)(8) = 1280 sq.in.
Q = hcr Ab tb
43,000 = (0.575)(1280)(tb )
tb = 58.42 F
Oil-bath, 1000 fpm
toa (1.2)(1.3)(tb )
toa = (1.2)(1.3)(58.42) = 91.1 F
assume 100 F ambient temperature
tb = 100 + 58.42 F = 158.42 F
tb = 100 + 91.1 F = 191.1 F

cto
(c) = 12.4
p
(112)to = 12.4
187.5
to = 20.8 F
Solve for to 2

Page 36 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

## to1 + to 2 = 2(191.1) = 382.2 F

to1 = 382.2 to 2
to 2 to1 = 20.8 F
to 2 362.2 + to 2 = 20.8
to 2 = 201.5 F 200 F
not reasonable since the oil oxidizes more rapidly above 200 F, a redesign is
desireable.

573. A 2 x 2-in. full bearing (ring-oiled) has a clearance ratio cd D = 0.001 . The
journal speed is 500 rpm, = 3.4 106 reyn , and ho = 0.0005 in. The ambient
temperature is 100 F; Ab = 25DL , and the transmittance is taken as
hcr = 2 Btu hr sq. ft. F . Calculate (a) the total load for this condition; (b)
the frictional loss, (c) the average temperature of the oil for steady-state
operation. Is this temperature satisfactory? (d) For the temperature found,
what oil do you recommend? For this oil will ho be less or greater than the
specified value? (e) Compute the temperature rise of the oil as it passes
through the bearing. Is this compatible with other temperatures found? (f)
What minimum quantity of oil should the ring deliver to the bearing?

Solution:
L = 2 in.
D = 2 in.
cd D = 0.001
cd = (0.001)(2) = 0.0020 in
= 3.4 106 reyn
ho = 0.0005 in.
cr = 0.0010 in

## Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.5 , Full Bearing

S = 0.1925
r
f = 4.505
cr
q
= 4.16
rcr ns L
cto
= 19.25
p

(a) S = 0.1925

Page 37 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

2
r ns
S =
cr p
D
r = = 1 in
2
500
ns = = 8.33 rps
60
2
(
1 3.4 10 (8.330 )
S = 0.1925 =
6
)
0.0010 p
p = 147 psi
W = pDL = (147 )(2)(2) = 588 lb

r
(b) f = 4.505
cr
1
f = 4.505
0.001
f = 0.004505
F = f W = (0.004505)(588) = 2.649 lb
Dn (2)(500)
vm = = = 261.8 fpm
12 12
U f = Fvm = (2.649 )(261.8) = 693.5 ft lb min

(c) Q = hcr Ab tb
hcr = 2 Btu hr sq. ft. F = 0.18 ft lb min sq.in. F
Ab = 25DL = 25(2)(2) = 100 sq.in.
Q =Uf
(0.18)(100)(tb ) = 693.5
tb = 38.53 F
toa = 2tb = 2(38.53) = 77 F
to = 77 + 100 = 177 F , near 160 F
satisfactory.

## (d) to = 177 F , = 3.4 106 reyn

Figure AF 16
Use SAE 40 oil, = 3.3 106 reyn
2
r ns
S =
cr p

Page 38 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

S =
2
(
1 3.3 10 (8.33)
6
) = 0.187
0.0010 147
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , S = 0.187
ho cr = 0.4923
ho = 0.4923(0.0010) = 0.00049 in < ho (= 0.0005 in )
cto
(e) = 19.25
p
(112)to = 19.25
147
to = 25.3 F
to1 + to 2 = 2(177 ) = 354 F
t o 2 t o1 = 25.3 F
2to 2 = 354 + 25.3
to 2 = 190 F < 200 F
compatible.

q
(f) = 4.16
rcr ns L
q
= 4.16
(1)(0.001)(8.33)(2)
q = 0.0693 in3 sec

574. An 8 x 9-in. full bearing (consider L D = 1 for table and chart use only)
supports 15 kips with n = 1200 rpm ; cr r = 0.0012 ; construction is medium
bearing of 80 fpm may be counted on (nearby) pulley; ambient temperature is
90 F. Decide upon a suitable minimum film thickness. (a) Compute the
for a reasonable temperature? Determine (b) the temperature rise of the oil as
it passes through the load-carrying area and the grade of oil to be used if it
enters the bearing at 130 F, (c) the quantity of oil needed.

Solution:
D = 8 in.
L = 9 in.
W = 15,000 lb.
n = 1200 rpm.
1200
ns = = 20 rps
60
cr r = 0.0012

Page 39 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

r = D 2 = 4 in
cr = 0.0012(4) = 0.0048 in
By Norton: ho = 0.00025 D = 0.00025(8) = 0.002 in
ho 0.002
= = 0 .4
cr 0.0048
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4
S = 0.121
r
f = 3.22
cr
q
= 4.33
rcr ns L
cto
= 14.2
p

r
(a) f = 3.22
cr
4
f = 3.22
0.0048
f = 0.003864
F = f W = (0.003864)(15,000) = 57.96 lb
Dn (8)(1200)
vm = = = 2513 fpm
12 12
U f = Fvm = (57.96 )(2513) = 145,654 ft lb min
Q = hcr Ab tb
hr = 0.108 ft lb min sq.in. F
va0.6
hc = 0.017 ft lb min sq.in. F
D 0.4

hc = 0.017
(80)0.6 = 0.103 ft lb min sq.in. F
(8)0.4
hcr = hc + hr = 0.103 + 0.108 = 0.211 ft lb min sq.in. F
Ab = 18DL = 18(8)(9 ) = 1296 sq.in.
Uf =Q
145,654 = (0.211)(1296)tb
tb = 533 F , very high, additional cooling is necessary.

cto
(b) = 14.2
p

Page 40 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

W 15,000
p= = = 208 psi
DL (8)(9)
(112)to = 14.2
208
to = 26 F
ti = 130 F
to = 156 F
tave = 12 (130 + 156) = 143 F
2
r ns
S =
cr p
2
4 (20 )
S = 0.121 =
0.0048 208
= 1.8 106 reyn
Figure AF 16, = 1.8 reyns , 143 F
Use SAE 10W

q
(c) = 4.33
rcr ns L
q
= 4.33
(4)(0.0048)(20)(9)
q = 14.96 in3 sec

575. A 3.5 x 3.5-in., 360o bearing has cr r = 0.0012 ; n = 300 rpm ; desired
minimum ho 0.0007 in . It is desired that the bearing be self-contained (oil-
ring); air-circulation of 80 fpm is expected; heavy construction, so that
Ab 25DL . For the first look at the bearing, assume = 2.8 106 reyn and
compute (a) the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (b) the average temperature of the
bearing and oil as obtained for steady-state operation, (c) to as the oil passes
through the load-carrying area (noting whether comparative values are
reasonable). (d) Select an oil for the steady-state temperature and decide
whether there will be any overheating troubles.

Solution:
D = 3.5 in.
L = 3.5 in.
cr r = 0.0012
r = D 2 = 1.75 in.
cr = (0.0012)(1.75) = 0.0021 in
ho 0.0007 in

Page 41 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

## ho cr = 0.0007 0.0021 = 0.333

Table AT 20, 360o Bearing, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.333
S = 0.0954
r
f = 2.71
cr
cto
= 12.12
p

2
r ns
(a) S =
cr p
300
ns = = 5 rps
60
= 2.8 106 reyn
2
(
1.75 2.8 10 (5)
S = 0.0954 =
6
)
0.0021 p
p = 102 psi
W = pDL = (102)(3.5)(3.5) = 1250 lb
r
f = 2.71
cr
1.75
f = 2.71
0.0021
f = 0.00325
F = f W = (0.00325)(1250) = 4.0625 lb
Dn (3.5)(300 )
vm = = = 275 fpm
12 12
U f = Fvm = (4.0625)(275) = 1117 ft lb min

(b) Q = hcr Ab tb
hr = 0.108 ft lb min sq.in. F
va0.6
hc = 0.017 ft lb min sq.in. F
D 0.4

hc = 0.017
(80 )
0.6
= 0.143 ft lb min sq.in. F
(3.5)0.4
hcr = hc + hr = 0.143 + 0.108 = 0.251 ft lb min sq.in. F
Ab = 25DL = 25(3.5)(3.5) = 306.25 sq.in.
Uf =Q
1117 = (0.251)(306.25)tb

Page 42 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

tb = 14.5 F
toa = 2tb = 2(14.5) = 29 F
assume ambient temperature of 100 F
tb = 114.5 F
to = 129 F

cto
(c) = 12.12
p
(112)to = 12.12
102
to = 11 F
to1 + to 2 = 2(129) = 258 F
to 2 to1 = 11 F
2to 2 = 269 F
to 2 = 135 F < 140 F
reasonable

## (d) to = 129 F , = 2.8 106 reyn

use SAE 10W
Figure AF 16, to = 126 F
toa = 126 100 = 26 F
toa = 2tb
26
tb = = 13 F
2
Q = hcr Ab tb = (0.251)(306.25)(13) = 999 ft lb min < U f
there is an overheating problem.

576. A 10-in. full journal for a steam-turbine rotor that turns 3600 rpm supports a
20-kip load with p = 200 psi ; cr r = 0.00133 . The oil is to have
= 2.06 106 reyn at an average oil temperature of 130 F. Compute (a) the
minimum film thickness (comment on its adequacy), (b) the fhp, (c) the
altitude angle, the maximum pressure, and the quantity of oil that passes
through the load-carrying area (gpm).(d) At what temperature must the oil be
introduced in order to have 130 F average? (e) Estimate the amount of heat
lost by natural means from the bearing (considered oil bath) with air speed of
300 fpm. If the amount of oil flow computed above is cooled back to the
entering temperature, how much heat is removed? Is this total amount of heat
enough to care for frictional loss? If not, what can be done (i11.21)?

Page 43 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Solution:
D = 10 in.
n = 3600 rpm
3600
ns = = 60 rps
60
W = 20,000 lb
p = 200 psi
W
p=
DL
20,000
200 =
10 L
L = 10 in
L D =1
D
r = = 5 in
2
cr r = 0.00133
cr = 0.00133(5) = 0.00665 in
= 2.06 106 reyn
tave = 130 F
2
r ns
S =
cr p

S =
5

2
( )
2.06 10 (60 )
6
= 0.35
0.00665 200
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , S = 0.35
ho cr = 0.647
= 65.66o
r
f = 7.433
cr
q
= 3.90
rcr ns L
p
= 0.495
pmax
cto
= 30.8
p
qs
= 0.446
q

## (a) ho = 0.647cr = 0.647(0.00665) = 0.00430 in

Page 44 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

## Nortons recommendation = 0.00025D = 0.00025(10) = 0.00250 in < 0.00430 in

r
(b) f = 7.433
cr
5
f = 7.433
0 . 00665
f = 0.0099
F = f W = (0.0099)(20,000) = 198 lb
Dn (10)(3600)
vm = = = 9425 fpm
12 12
fhp =
Fvm
=
(198)(9425) = 56.55 hp
33,000 33,000

(c) = 65.66o
p 200
pmax = = = 404 psi
0.495 0.495
q = 3.90rcr ns L
q = 3.90(5)(0.00665)(60)(10) = 77.805 in3 sec
q = (77.805 in3 sec )(1 gpm 231 in3 )(60 sec min ) = 0.21 gpm

cto
(d) = 30.8
p
(112)to = 30.8
200
to = 55 F
t
tave = ti + o
2
55
130 = ti +
2
ti = 102.5 F
(e) Q = hcr Ab tb
hr = 0.108 ft lb min sq.in. F
va0.6
hc = 0.017 ft lb min sq.in. F
D 0.4

hc = 0.017
( 300 )
0.6
= 0.207 ft lb min sq.in. F
(3.5)0.4
hcr = hc + hr = 0.207 + 0.108 = 0.315 ft lb min sq.in. F
Assume

Page 45 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

## Ab = 25DL = 25(10 )(10) = 2500 sq.in.

toa = 130 100 = 30 F
toa = 1.3tb
30
tb = = 23 F
1 .3
Q = (0.315)(2500)(23) = 18,113 ft lb min
Qr = c(q qs )to in lb sec
Qr = (112 )(1 0.446)(77.805)(55)(1 12)(60) = 1,327,602 ft lb min
QT = Q + Qr = 18,113 + 1,327,602 = 1,345,735 ft lb min
U f = Fvm = (198)(9425) = 1,866,150 ft lb min > QT

not enough to care for frictional loss, use pressure feed (i11.21).

DESIGN PROBLEMS

578. A 3.5-in. full bearing on an air compressor is to be designed for a load of 1500
lb.; n = 300 rpm ; let L D = 1 . Probably a medium running for would be
satisfactory. Design for an average clearance that is decided by considering both
Table 3.1 and 11.1. Choose a reasonable ho , say one that gives ho cr 0.5 .
Compute all parameters that are available via the Text after you have decided on
details. It is desired that the bearing operate at a reasonable steady-state
temperature (perhaps ring-oiled medium construction), without special cooling.
Specify the oil to be used and show all calculations to support your conclusions.
What could be the magnitude of the maximum impulsive load if the eccentricity
ration becomes 0.8, squeeze effect ignored?

Solution:
L D =1
D = 3.5 in
L = 3.5 in
W = 1500 lb
n = 300 rpm
300
ns = = 5 rps
60
W 1500
p= = = 122.45 psi
DL (3.5)(3.5)
Table 3.1, medium running fit,
D = 3.5 in
RC 5 or RC 6
Use RC 6
Average cd = 0.0052 in

Page 46 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

## Table 11.1, air-compressor

General Machine Practice
Average cd = 0.0055 in
Using cd = 0.0055 in
cr = 0.00275 in
ho = 0.5cr = 0.5(0.00275) = 0.001375 in
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.5
= 0.5
S = 0.1925
= 56.84o
r
f = 4.505
cr
q
= 4.16
rcr ns L
cto
= 19.25
p
p
= 0.4995
pmax
Specifying oil:
Q = hcr Ab tb
U f = Fvm
r
f = 4.505
cr
1.75
f = 4.505
0.00275
f = 0.00708
F = f W = (0.00708)(1500) = 10.62 lb
Dn (3.5)(300 )
vm = = = 275 fpm
12 12
U f = Fvm = (10.62 )(275) = 2921 ft lb min
Q = hcr Ab tb
Assume hcr = 0.516 ft lb min sq.in. F
Medium construction
Ab = 15.5DL = 15.5(3.5)(3.5) = 189.875 sq.in.
Oil-ring bearing
toa = 2tb
Q =Uf
(0.516)(189.875)(tb ) = 2921

Page 47 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

tb = 30 F
toa = 2tb = 2(30) = 60 F
assume ambient temperature = 90 F
t o = 150 F
2
r ns
S =
cr p
2
1.75 (5)
S = 0.1925 =
0.00275 122.45
= 11.6 106 reyn
Figure AF 16, 150 F, 11.6 106 reyn
Use SAE 70 oil

## Maximum load, W with = 0.8

Table AT 20, L D = 1
S = 0.0446
2
r ns
S =
cr p
2
(
1.75 11.6 10 (5)
S = 0.0446 =
6
)
0.00275 p
p = 527 psi
W = pDL = (527 )(3.5)(3.5) = 6456

580. A 2500-kva generator, driven by a water wheel, operates at 900 rpm. The weight
of the rotor and shaft is 15,100 lb. The left-hand, 5 in, full bearing supports the
larger load, R = 8920 lb . The bearing should be above medium-heavy
construction (for estimating Ab ). (a) Decide upon an average clearance
considering both Table 3.1 and 11.1, and upon a minimum film thickness
( ho cr 0.5 is on the safer side). (b) Investigate first the possibility of the
bearing being a self-contained unit without need of special cooling. Not much air
movement about the bearing is expected. Then make final decisions concerning
oil-clearance, and film thickness and compute all the parameters given in the text,
being sure that everything is reasonable.

Solution:
n = 900 rpm
900
ns = = 15 rps
60
D = 5 in
W = R = 8920 lb

Page 48 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

## (a) Table 3.1, D = 5 in

RC 5, average cd = 0.0051 in
cr = 0.00255 in
ho = 0.5cr = 0.5(0.00255) = 0.00128 in

(b) Use L D = 1
L = 5 in
D
r = = 2.5 in
2
W 8920
p= = = 356.8 psi
DL (5)(5)
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.5
S = 0.1925
r
f = 4.505
cr
q
= 4.16
rcr ns L
cto
= 19.25
p
2
r ns
S =
cr p
2
2.5 (15)
S = 0.1925 =
0.00255 356.8
= 4.8 106 reyn
r
f = 4.505
cr
2 .5
f = 4.505
0.00255
f = 0.00460
F = f W = (0.00460 )(8920) = 41.032 lb
Dn (5)(900)
vm = = = 1178 fpm
12 12
U f = Fvm = (41.032 )(1178) = 48,336 ft lb min
Q = hcr Ab tb
Medium-Heavy
Ab = 20.25DL = 20.25(5)(5) = 506.25 sq.in.
Assume hcr = 0.516 ft lb min sq.in. F
Q =Uf

Page 49 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

(0.516)(506.25)(tb ) = 48,336
tb = 185 F , very high
Therefore, special cooling is needed.
cto
= 19.25
p
(112)to = 19.25
356.8
to = 61 F
Assume ti = 100 F
61
tave = 100 + 130 F
2
Figure AF 16, = 4.8 reyns , 130 F
Select SAE 30 oil. = 6.0 reyns
2
r ns
S =
cr p

S =
2
(
2.5 6.0 10 (15)
6
)
= 0.242
0.00255 356.8
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , S = 0.242
SAE 30 oil at 130 F
ho
= 0.569
cr
= 61.17o
r
f = 5.395
cr
q
= 4.04
rcr ns L
cto
= 22.75
p
p
= 0.4734
pmax
Oil, SAE 30
cr = 0.00255 in
ho = 0.569(0.00255) = 0.00145 in

PRESSURE FEED

581. An 8 x 8-in. full bearing supports 5 kips at 600 rpm of the journal; cr = 0.006 in. ;
let the average = 2.5 106 reyn . (a) Compute the frictional loss U f . (b) The

Page 50 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

oil is supplied under a 40-psi gage pressure with a longitudinal groove at the
point of entry. Assuming that other factors, including U f , remain the same and
that the heat loss to the surrounding is negligible, determine the average
temperature rise of the circulating oil.

Solution:
L = 5 in
D = 5 in
W = 5000 lb
n = 600 rpm
600
ns = = 10 rps
60
cr = 0.006 in
= 2.5 106 reyn
L D =1
W 5000
p= = = 78.125 psi
DL (8)(8)
2
r ns
S =
cr p

S =
2
4 2.5 10 (10 )
6
(= 0.1422
)
0.006 78.125

## (a) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , S = 0.1422

r
f = 3.6 , = 0.57
cr
4
f = 3 .6
0.006
f = 0.0054
F = f W = (0.0054)(5000) = 27 lb
Dn (8)(600)
vm = = = 1257 fpm
12 12
U f = Fvm = (27 )(1257 ) = 33,940 ft lb min

## (b) Longitudinal Groove.

c3 p 2 r
q = 2.5 r i tan 1
3 L
( 2 3
)
1 + 1.5 in sec

pi = 40 psi

q = 2.5
(0.006) (40) 1 2 (4)
3
tan [1 + 1.5(0.57)2 ]in3 sec
3(2.5 106 ) 8

Page 51 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

## q = 5.41 in3 sec

U f = cqto
(33,940 ft lb min )(12 in ft )(1min 60sec ) = (12)(5.41)to
to = 11.2 F

583. A 4-in. 360o bearing, with L D = 1 , supports 2.5 kips with a minimum film of
ho = 0.0008 in. , cd = 0.01 in. , n = 600 rpm. The average temperature rise of the oil
is to be about 25 F. Compute the pressure at which oil should be pumped into the
bearing if (a) all bearing surfaces are smooth, (b) there is a longitudinal groove at
the oil-hole inlet. (c) same as (a) except that there is a 360o circumferential
groove dividing the bearing into 2-in. lengths.

Solution:
D = 4 in
L = 4 in
r = 2 in
W = 2500 lb
cd = 0.010 in
cr = 0.005 in
n = 600 rpm
600
ns = = 10 rps
60
to = 25 F
W 2500
p= = = 156.25 psi
DL (4)(4)
ho = 0.00080 in
ho 0.0008
= = 0.16
cr 0.005
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.16
r
f = 1.44 , = 0.84
cr
2
f = 1.44
0.005
f = 0.0036
F = f W = (0.0036)(2500) = 9 lb
Dn (4)(600)
vm = = = 628 fpm
12 12
U f = Fvm = (9 )(628) = 5652 ft lb min = 1130 in lb sec
S = 0.0343

Page 52 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

2
r ns
S =
cr p
2
2 (10 )
S = 0.0343 =
0.005 156.25
= 3.35 106 reyn
U f = cqto
1130 = (112)(q )(25)
q = 0.404 in3 sec

(a) Smooth

cr3 pi 1 2 r
q=
3
tan
L
( 2 3
1 + 1.5 in sec )
0.404 =
(0.005)3 ( pi ) tan 1 2 (2) [1 + 1.5(0.84)2 ] in3 sec
3(3.35 106 ) 4
pi = 12.5 psi
(b) Longitudinal groove

2.5cr3 pi 1 2 r
q=
3
tan
L
(
2 3
1 + 1.5 in sec )
2.5(0.005) ( pi ) 1 2 (2)
3
0.404 =
(
3 3.35 10 6

tan
) 4 [
1 + 1.5(0.84) in3 sec
2
]
pi = 5 psi
(c) Circumferential groove

2 rcr3 pi
q=
3L
(
1 + 1.5 2 in3 sec )
2 (2)(0.005) ( pi )
3

) [
1 + 1.5(0.84) in3 sec ]
2
0.404 =
(
3 3.35 10 (4 )
6

pi = 5 psi

BEARING CAPS

584. An 8-in. journal, supported on a 150o partial bearing, is turning at 500 rpm;
bearing length = 10.5 in., c d = 0.0035 in ., ho = 0.00106 in . The average
temperature of the SAE 20 oil is 170 F. Estimate the frictional loss in a 160o cap
for this bearing.

Solution:

Page 53 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

ho = 0.00106 in
c d = 0.0035 in
c r = 0.00175 in
ho
2

hav = cr 1 + 0.741 in
cr
0.00106
2

## hav = (0.00175)1 + 0.741 = 0.00195 in

0.00175
For SAE 20, 170 F
= 1.7 106 reyn
Avips
F=
hav
1
A = DL
2
D = 8 in
L = 10.5 in
160 8
= 160o = =
180 9
1 8
A = (8)(10.5) = 117.3 sq.in.
2 9
500
vips = Dns = (8) = 209.5 ips
60

F=
( )
1.7 106 (117.3)(209.5)
= 21.424 lb
0.00195
Dn (8)(500)
vm = = = 1047 fpm
12 12
U f = Fvm = (21.424 )(1047 ) = 22,430 ft lb min = 1130 in lb sec

## 585. A partial 160o bearing has a 160o cap; D = 2 in .,

L = 2 in ., cd = 0.002 in ., ho = 0.0007 in ., n = 500 rpm , and = 2.5 106 reyn .
For the cap only, what is the frictional loss?

Solution:
c d = 0.002 in
c r = 0.001 in
ho = 0.0007 in
ho 0.0007
= = 0 .7
cr 0.001

Page 54 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

ho
= 1 = 1 0 .7 = 0 .3
cr
( ) [ ]
hav = cr 1 + 0.74 2 = (0.001) 1 + 0.74(0.3) = 0.001067 in
2

Avips
F=
hav
Dn (2)(500)
vm = = = 261.8 fpm
12 12
12
vips = (261.8) = 52.36 ips
60
1 160 1 160
A= DL = ( )(2 )(2 ) = 5.585 sq.in.
2 180 2 180

F=
(2.5 106 )(5.585)(52.36) = 0.685 lb
0.001067
U f = Fvm = (0.685)(261.8) = 179.3 ft lb min

## 586. The central reaction on a 120o partial bearing is 10 kips; D = 8 in .,

L D = 1 ., cr r = 0.001 . Let n = 400 rpm and = 3.4 106 reyn . The bearing has
a 150o cap. (a) For the bearing and the cap, compute the total frictional loss by
adding the loss in the cap to that in the bearing. (b) If the bearing were 360o,
instead of partial, calculate the frictional loss and compare.

Solution:
2
r ns
S =
cr p
400
ns = = 6.67 rps
60
W 10,000
p= = = 156.25 psi
DL (8)(8)

S =
2
(
1 3.4 10 (6.67 )
6
)= 0.145
0.001 156.25
(a) Table AT 22, L D = 1 , S = 0.145
r
f = 2.021
cr
= 0.6367
r
f = 2.021
cr
1
f = 2.021
0.001
f = 0.002021

Page 55 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

F = f W = (0.002021)(10,000) = 20.21 lb
Dn (8)(400)
vm = = = 838 fpm
12 12
U f 1 = Fvm = (20.21)(838) = 16,936 ft lb min
CAP:
hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 )
cr = 0.001r
D
r = = 4 in
2
cr = 0.001(4) = 0.004 in
( ) [ ]
hav = cr 1 + 0.74 2 = (0.004) 1 + 0.74(0.6367 ) = 0.0052 in
2

Avips
F=
hav
12
vips = (838) = 167.6 ips
60
1 150 1 150
A= DL = ( )(8)(8) = 83.78 sq.in.
2 180 2 180

F=
( )
3.4 106 (83.78)(167.6)
= 9.18 lb
0.0052
U f 2 = Fvm = (9.18)(838) = 7693 ft lb min
Total Frictional Loss
= U f 1 + U f 2 = 16,936 + 7693 = 24,629 ft lb min
(b) 360o Bearing, L D = 1 , S = 0.145
r
f = 3.65
cr
= 0.5664
BEARING:
1
f = 3.65
0.001
f = 0.00365
F = f W = (0.00365)(10,000) = 36.5 lb
Dn (8)(400)
vm = = = 838 fpm
12 12
U f 1 = Fvm = (36.5)(838) = 30,587 ft lb min
CAP:
hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 )
[ ]
hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 ) = (0.004) 1 + 0.74(0.5664) = 0.00495 in
2

Page 56 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Avips
F=
hav

F=
(3.4 10 )(83.78)(167.6) = 9.645 lb
6

0.00495
U f 2 = Fvm = (9.645)(838) = 8083 ft lb min
Total Frictional Loss
= U f 1 + U f 2 = 30,587 + 8083 = 38,670 ft lb min

## 587. The central reaction on a 120o partial bearing is a 10 kips; D = 8 in. , L D = 1 ,

cr r = 0.001 ; n = 1200 rpm . Let = 2.5 106 reyn . The bearing has a 160o cap.
(a) Compute ho and fhp for the bearing and for the cap to get the total fhp. (b)
Calculate the fhp for a full bearing of the same dimensions and compare.
Determine (c) the needed rate of flow into the bearing, (d) the side leakage qs .

(e) the temperature rise of the oil in the bearing both by equation (o), i11.13,
Text, and by Table AT 22. (f) What is the heat loss from the bearing if the oil
temperature is 180 F? Is the natural heat loss enough to cool the bearing? (g) It is
desired to pump oil through the bearing with a temperature rise of 12 F. How
much oil is required? (h) For the oil temperature in (f), what is a suitable oil to
use?

Solution:
2
r ns
S =
cr p
1200
ns = = 20 rps
60
W 10,000
p= = = 156.25 psi
DL (8)(8)
1 (2.5 10 )(20 )
2 6
S = = 0.32
0.001 156.25
(a) Table AT 22, L D = 1 , S = 0.32
= 0.5417
ho
= 0.4583
cr
r
f = 3.18
cr
q
= 2.60
rcr ns L

Page 57 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

qs
= 0.305
q
cto
= 17.834
p
p
= 0.38434
pmax
ho = 0.4583cr = 0.4583(0.001)(4) = 0.00183 in
BEARING:
r
f = 3.18
cr
1
f = 3.18
0.001
f = 0.00318
F = f W = (0.00318)(10,000) = 31.8 lb
Dn (8)(1200)
vm = = = 2513 fpm
12 12
U f 1 = Fvm = (31.8)(2513) = 79,913 ft lb min , 2.42 hp
CAP:
hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 )
cr = 0.001r
D
r = = 4 in
2
cr = 0.001(4) = 0.004 in
[ ]
hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 ) = (0.004) 1 + 0.74(0.5417 ) = 0.00487 in
2

Avips
F=
hav
12
vips = (2513) = 503 ips
60
1 160 1 160
A= DL = ( )(8)(8) = 89.36 sq.in.
2 180 2 180

F=
( )
2.5 106 (89.36)(5036)
= 23.1 lb
0.00487
U f 2 = Fvm = (23.1)(2513) = 58,050 ft lb min , 1.76 hp
Total Frictional Loss
= U f 1 + U f 2 = 79,913 + 58,050 = 137,963 ft lb min
Uf 137,963
fhp = = = 4.18 hp
33,000 33,000
(b) Full Bearing, L D = 1 , S = 0.32

Page 58 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Table AT 20
ho
= 0.6305
cr
r
f = 6.86
cr
= 0.3695
ho = 0.6305(0.004 ) = 0.002522 in
BEARING:
r
f = 6.86
cr
1
f = 6.86
0.001
f = 0.00686
F = f W = (0.00686)(10,000) = 68.6 lb
U f 1 = Fvm = (68.6 )(2513) = 172,392 ft lb min , 5.224 hp
CAP:
hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 )
[ ]
hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 ) = (0.004) 1 + 0.74(0.3695) = 0.00440 in
2

Avips
F=
hav

F=
(2.5 10 )(89.36)(503) = 25.54 lb
6

0.00440
U f 2 = Fvm = (25.54 )(2513) = 64,182 ft lb min , 1.946 hp
Total Frictional Loss
= U f 1 + U f 2 = 172,392 + 64,182 = 236,574 ft lb min
Uf 236,574
fhp = = = 7.17 hp
33,000 33,000

## (c) 120o Bearing

q
= 2.60
rcr ns L
q
= 2.60
(4)(0.004)(20)(8)
q = 6.656 in3 sec
q
(d) s = 0.305
q
qs
= 0.305
6.656

Page 59 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

qs = 2.03 in 3 sec

(e) Equation(o)
U f 1 = cqto
12
U f 1 = 79,913 ft lb min = 79,913 in lb sec = 15,983 in lb sec
60
U f 1 = 15,983 = (112 )(6.656 )to
to = 21.4 F
Table 22.
cto
= 17.834
p
112to
= 17.834
156.25
to = 24.9 F

(f) Q = hcr Ab tb
assume hcr = 0.516 ft lb min sq.in. F
Ab = 25DL = 25(8)(8) = 1600 sq.in.
t
tb = oa
2
assume ambient = 100 F
180 100
tb = = 40 F
2
Q = (0.516 )(1600 )(40 ) = 33,024 ft lb min < U f 1
Therefore not enough to cool the bearing.

(g) Qr + Q = U f 1 + U f 2
Qr + 33,024 = 137,963
Qr = 104,939 ft lb min
Qr = 20,988 in lb sec
Qr = cqto
20,988 = (112)q(12)
q = 15.62 in3 sec

## use SAE 30 oil

Page 60 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

IMPERFECT LUBRICATION:

588. A 0.5 x 0.75-in. journal turns at 1140 rpm. What maximum load may be
supported and what is the frictional loss if the bearing is (a) SAE Type I, bronze
base, sintered bearing, (b) nylon (Zytel) water lubricated, (c) Teflon, with
intermittent use, (d) one with carbon graphite inserts.

Solution:
(a) f = 0.12
Dn (0.5)(1140)
vm = = = 149.23 fpm
12 12
pvm = 50,000
p(149.23) = 50,000
p = 335 psi
W = pDL = (335)(0.5)(0.75) = 126 lb
F = f W = (0.12)(126) = 15.12 lb
U f = Fvm = (15.12 )(149.23) = 2256 ft lb min

## (b) f = 0.14 ~ 0.18 , use f = 0.16

pvm = 2500 , water
p(149.23) = 2500
p = 16.75 psi
W = pDL = (16.75)(0.5)(0.75) = 6.28 lb
F = f W = (0.16)(6.28) = 1.005 lb
U f = Fvm = (1.005)(149.23) = 150 ft lb min

## (c) vm > 100 fpm

f = 0.25
pvm = 20,000 , intermittent
p(149.23) = 20,000
p = 134 psi
W = pDL = (134)(0.5)(0.75) = 50.25 lb
F = f W = (0.25)(50.25) = 12.5625 lb
U f = Fvm = (12.5625)(149.23) = 1875 ft lb min

## (d) pvm = 15,000

p(149.23) = 15,000
p = 100.5 psi
W = pDL = (100.5)(0.5)(0.75) = 37.69 lb
assume f = 0.20

Page 61 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

F = f W = (0.20)(37.69) = 7.54 lb
U f = Fvm = (7.54 )(149.23) = 1125 ft lb min

590. A bearing to support a load of 150 lb at 800 rpm is needed; D = 1 in. ; semi-
lubricated. Decide upon a material and length of bearing, considering sintered
metals, Zytel, Teflon, and graphite inserts.

Solution:
Dn (1)(800)
vm = = = 209.44 fpm
12 12
assume, L = D = 1 in
W 150
p= = = 150 psi
DL (1)(1)
pvm = (150)(209.44) = 31,416
Use sintered metal, limit pvm = 50,000

THRUST BEARINGS

592. A 4-in. shaft has on it an axial load of 8000 lb., taken by a collar thrust
bearing made up of five collars, each with an outside diameter of 6 in. The
shaft turns 150 rpm. Compute (a) the average bearing pressure, (b) the
approximate work of friction.

Solution:

4W 4(8000 )
(a) p = = = 283 psi
Do2 (6)2

## (b) assume f = 0.065 , average

F = f W = (0.065)(8000) = 520 lb
Dn (3)(150)
vm = = = 117.81 fpm
12 12
U f = nFvm = (5)(520 )(117.81) = 306,306 ft lb min

593. A 4-in. shaft, turning at 175 rpm, is supported on a step bearing. The bearing
area is annular, with a 4-in. outside diameter and a 3/4 in. inside diameter.
Take the allowable average bearing pressure as 180 psi. (a) What axial load
may be supported? (b) What is the approximate work of friction?

Solution:
Dn
vm =
12

Page 62 of 63
SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

1
D= (4 + 0.75) = 2.375 in
2
Dn (2.375)(175)
vm = = = 108.81 fpm
12 12
assume f = 0.065 , average

4W
(a) p =
(
Do2 Di2 )
2 3
2

## W = (4) (180) = 2182 lb

4 4
(b) U f = f Wvm = (0.065)(2182 )(108.81) = 15,433 ft lb min

- end -

Page 63 of 63
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

601. The radial reaction on a bearing is 1500 lb.; it also carries a thrust of 1000 lb.;
shaft rotates 1500 rpm; outer ring stationary; smooth load, 8-hr./day service, say
15,000 hr. (a) Select a deep-groove ball bearing. (b) What is the rated 90 % life
of the selected bearing? (c) For b = 1.34 , compute the probability of the selected
bearing surviving 15,000 hr.

Solution:
Fx = 1500 lb
Fy = 1000 lb
( )
B10 = (15,000 )(60 )(1500 ) 106 = 1350 mr
F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz
Cr = 1 , outer ring stationary
assume Ct = 1.8
F e= 0.56(1)(1500) + (1.8)(1000) = 2640 lb
1
B 3 1
Fr = 10 Fe = (1350)3 (2640) = 29,178 lb
Br
(a) Table 12.3
use 320, Fr = 29,900 lb
Fs = 29,900 lb
To check:
Fz 1000
= = 0.0340
Fs 29,400
Table 12.2, Ct = 1.93 , Q = 0.2286
Fz 1000
= = 0.667 > Q
Cr Fx (1.0 )(1500 )
F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz
F e= 0.56(1)(1500) + (1.93)(1000) = 2770 lb
1
B 3 1
Fr = 10 Fe = (1350)3 (2770) = 30,614 lb
Br
2.4 % higher than 29,900 lb. Safe.
Therefore use Bearing 320, Deep-Groove Ball Bearing.

(b) Fr = 29,900 lb
F e= 2770 lb
1
B 3
29,900 = 10 (2770 ) = 30,614 lb
1 mr
B10 = 1258 mr

Page 1 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

( )
B10 = (HR )(60 )(1500 ) 106 = 1258
HR 14,000 hr

1
1 b
ln
B P
(c) =
B10 1
ln
P10
1 1
ln = ln
P10 0.9
B10 = 1258 mr
B = 1350 mr
1
1 1.34
ln
1350 P
=
1258 1
0.9
ln

P = 0.891

602. A certain bearing is to carry a radial load of 500 lb. and a thrust of 300 lb. The
load imposes light shock; the desired 90 % life is 10 hr./day for 5 years at
n = 3000 rpm . (a) Select a deep-groove ball bearing. What is its bore? Consider
all bearings that may serve. (b) What is the computed rated 90 % life of the
selected bearing? (c) What is the computed probability of the bearing surviving
the specified life? (d) If the loads were changed to 400 and 240 lb., respectively,
determine the probability of the bearing surviving the specified life, and the 90 %

Solution:
Fx = 500 lb
Fz = 300 lb
Assume Cr = 1
Fz 300
= = 0 .6
Cr Fx (1.0 )(500 )
Fz
Table 12.2, >Q
Cr Fx
(a) F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz
Cr = 1
Assume Ct = 1.8
F e= 0.56(1)(500) + (1.93)(300 ) = 820 lb

Page 2 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

## For light shock, service factor ~ 1.1

F e= (1.1)(820) = 902 lb
1
B 3 1
Fr = 10 Fe = (1350)3 (2770) = 30,614 lb
Br
B10 = (5)(365)(10 )(60 )(3000 )(106 ) = 3285 mr
1
B 3 1
Fr = 10 Fe = (3285)3 (902) = 13,409 lb
Br
Table 12.3,
Bearing No. Fr , lb Fs , lb Bore
217 14,400 12,000 85 mm
312 14,100 10,900 60 mm

Fr = 14,100 lb
Fs = 10,900 lb

## (b) Table 12.2

Fz 300
= = 0.0285
Fs 10,900
Ct = 1.99
Q = 0.22
F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz
F e= 0.56(1)(500) + (1.99)(300) = 877 lb
F e= (1.1)(877 ) = 965 lb
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1
B 3
14,100 = 10 (965)
1
B10 = 3119 mr
( )
B10 = (YR)(365)(10 )(60 )(3000 ) 10 6 = 3119
YR = 4.75 years

1
1 b
ln
B P
(c) =
B10 1
ln
P10

Page 3 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

use b = 1.125
B10 = 3119 mr
B = 3285 mr
1
1 1.125
ln
3285 P
=
3119 1
0.9
ln

P = 0.8943

(d) Fx = 400 lb
Fz = 240 lb
Cr = 1
Fz 240
= = 0 .6
Cr Fx (1.0 )(400 )
Table 12.2
Ct = 2.15
Q = 0.21 < 0.6
F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz
F e= 0.56(1)(400) + (2.15)(240) = 740 lb
F e= (1.1)(740) = 814 lb
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1
B 3
14,100 = 10 (814)
1
B10 = 5197 mr
1
1 b
ln
=
B P
B10 1
ln
P10
1
1 1.125
ln
3285 P
=
5197 1
0.9
ln

P = 0.939
Life:
B10 = (YR)(365)(10 )(60 )(3000 )(10 6 ) = 5197

Page 4 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

YR = 8 years

603. The smooth loading on a bearing is 500-lb radial, 100 lb. thrust; n = 300 rpm . An
electric motor drives through gears; 8 hr./day, fully utilized. (a) Considering
deep-groove ball bearings that may serve, choose one end specify its bore. For
the bearing chosen, determine (b) the rated 90 % life and (c) the probability of
survival for the design lufe.

Solution:
Fx = 500 lb
Fz = 100 lb
Table 12.1, 8 hr./day fully utilized, assume 25,000 hr
B10 = (25,000 )(60 )(300 )(106 ) = 450 mr
(a) assume Cr = 1
Fz 100
= = 0 .2
Cr Fx (1.0 )(500 )
F
consider Q > z
Cr Fx
Fe = Cr Fx = (1.0)(500) = 500 lb
1
B 3 1
Fr = 10 Fe = (450)3 (500) = 3832 lb
Br
Table 12.3
Bearing No. Fr , lb Fs , lb
207 4440 3070
306 4850 3340
305 3660 2390
Select 305, Fr = 3660 lb , Fs = 2390 lb
Bore (Table 12.4) = 25 mm

Fz 100
(a) = = 0.0418
Fs 2390
Table 12.2, 0.22 < Q0.26
F
Q> z
Cr Fx
Fe = Cr Fx = (1.0)(500) = 500 lb
1
B 3
3660 = 10 (500)
1
B10 = 392 mr
Rated Life:

Page 5 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

( )
B10 = (HR )(60 )(300 ) 106 = 392
HR 22,000 hr

1
1 b
ln
=
B P
(c)
B10 1
ln
P10
b = 1.125
1
1 1.125
ln
450 P
=
392 1
0.9
ln

P = 0.884

605. A No. 311, single-row, deep-groove ball bearing is used to carry a radial load of
1500 lb. at a speed of 500 rpm. (a) What is the 90 % life of the bearing in hours?
What is the approximate median life? What is the probability of survival if the
actual life is desired to be (b) 105 hr., (c) 104 hr.?

Solution:
Table 12.3, No. 311
Fs = 9400 lb
Fr = 12400 lb

Fx = 1500 lb
assume Cr = 1
Fe = Cr Fx = (1)(1500 ) = 1500 lb
1
B 3
(a) Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1
B 3
12400 = 10 (1500)
1
B10 = 565 mr
( )
B10 = (HR )(60 )(500 ) 106 = 565
HR 18,800 hr

## For median life = 5( 90 % life) = 5(18,800) = 94,000 hr

Page 6 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

( ) ( )
(b) B = 105 (60)(500) 106 = 3000 mr
1
1 b

ln
=
B P
B10 1
ln
P10
b = 1.125
1
1 1.125
ln
3000 P
=
565 1
0.9
ln

P = 0.502

(c) 104 hr

( ) ( )
B = 104 (60)(500) 106 = 300 mr
1
1 b

ln
=
B P
B10 1
ln
P10
b = 1.125
1
1 1.125
ln
300 P
=
565 1
0.9
ln

P = 0.950

606. The load on an electric-motor bearing is 350 lb., radial; 24 hr. service,
n = 1200 rpm ; compressor drive; outer race stationary. (a) Decide upon a deep-
groove ball bearing, giving its significant dimensions. Then compute the selected
bearings 90 % life, and the probable percentage of failures that would occur
during the design life. What is the approximate median life of this bearing? (b)
The same as (a), except that a 200 series roller bearing is to be selected.

Solution:
Fx = 350 lb
Fe = Cr Fx
outer race stationary, Cr = 1
Fe = (1)(350) = 350 lb

Page 7 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Table 12.1
90 % Life, hrs = 50,000 hrs
( )
B = (50,000)(60)(1200) 106 = 3600 mr
1
B 3 1
(a) Fr = 10 Fe = (3600)3 (350 ) = 5364 lb
Br
Table AT 12.3
earing No. Fr , lb Fs , lb
208 5040 3520
209 5660 4010
306 4850 3340
307 5750 4020
Use No. 209 Fr = 5660 lb
Table 12.4, Dimension
Bore = 45 mm
O.D. = 85 mm
Width of Races = 19 mm
Max. Fillet r = 0.039 mm

90 % Life:
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1
B 3
5660 = 10 (350)
1
B10 = 4229 mr
( )
B10 = (HR )(60 )(1200 ) 106 = 4229
HR 58,740 hr
Probability.
1
1 b

ln
=
B P
B10 1
ln
P10
b = 1.125
1
1 1.125
ln
3600 P
=
4229 1
0.9
ln

P = 0.916
% failures = 1 0.916 = 0.084 = 8.4 %

Page 8 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

## (b) Table 12.3, Fr = 5364 lb

use No. 207, Fr = 5900 lb
Bore = 35 mm
O.D. = 72 mm
Width of Races = 17 mm

90 % life:
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1
B 3
5900 = 10 (350)
1
B10 = 4790 mr
( )
B10 = (HR )(60 )(1200 ) 106 = 4790
HR 66,530 hr
Probability.
1
1 b
ln
=
B P
B10 1
ln
P10
b = 1.125
1
1 1.125
ln
3600 P
=
4790 1
0.9
ln

P = 0.926
% failures = 1 0.926 = 0.074 = 7.4 %
Median Life = 5(66,530) = 332,650 hrs

608. A deep-groove ball bearing on a missile, supporting a radial load of 200 lb., is to
have a design life of 20 hr.; with only a 0.5 % probability of failure while
n = 4000 rpm . Using a service factor of 1.2 , choose a bearing. ( A 5- or 6- place
log table is desirable.)

## Solution: No need to use log table.

Fx = 200 lb
assume Cr = 1

Page 9 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Fe = Cr Fx = (1.0)(200) = 200 lb
Fe = (1.2)(200) = 240 lb
( )
B10 = (20 )(60 )(4000 ) 106 = 4.8 mr
P = 1 0.005 = 0.995
1
1 b
ln
=
B P
B10 1
ln
P10
b = 1.125
1
1 1.125
ln
4.8 0.995
=
B10 1
0.9
ln

B10 = 72 mr
1
B 3 1
Fr = 10 Fe = (72)3 (240) = 998.4 lb
Br
Table 12.3
Select No. 201, Fr = 1180 lb

610. A certain bearing is to carry a radial load of 10 kip at a speed of 10 rpm for 20 %
of the time, a load of 8 kips at a speed of 50 rpm for 50 % of the time, and a load
of 5 kips at 100 rpm during 30 % of the time, with a desired life of 3000 hr.; no
thrust. (a) What is the cubic mean load? (b) What ball bearings may be used?
What roller bearings?

Solution:

1
F 3n + F23n2 + F33n3 + L 3
(a) Fm = 1 1
n
n = n1 + n2 + n3
For 1 min.
n1= (0.2)(10) = 2 rev
n 2 = (0.5)(50) = 25 rev
n3 = (0.3)(100) = 30 rev
n = 2 + 25 + 30 = 57 rev
F1 = 10 kips

Page 10 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

F2 = 8 kips
F3 = 5 kips
1
(10 )3 (2 ) + (8)3 (25) + (5)3 (30 ) 3
Fm = = 6.88 kips
57

## (b) Fx = 6.88 kips = 6880 lb

assume Cr = 1
Fe = (1.0)(6880) = 6880 lb
1 min = 57 rev
B10 = (3000 )(60 )(57 )(106 ) = 10.26 mr
1
B 3 1
Fr = 10 Fe = (10.26)3 (6880) = 14,950 lb
Br
Table 12.3, Ball Bearing
Use Bearing No. 217, Fr = 14,400 lb

## (c) Table 12.3 (Roller Bearing)

Use Bearing No. 213, Fr = 14,900 lb

612. A deep-groove ball bearing No. 215 is to operate 30 % of the time at 500 rpm
with Fx = 1200 lb and Fz = 600 lb , 55 % of the time at 800 rpm with
Fx = 1000 lb and Fz = 500 lb , and 15 % of the time at 1200 rpm with
Fx = 800 lb and Fz = 400 lb . Determine (a) the cubic mean load; (b) the 90 % life
of this bearing in hours, (c) the average life in hours.

Solution:
Bearing No. 215, Fr = 11,400 lb , Fs = 9,250 lb
Table 12.2, Fz Fs
At 30 % of the time, 500 rpm
Fz 600
= = 0.065
Fs 9250
Ct = 1.66
Q = 0.266
Fz 600
= = 0 .5 > Q
Cr Fx (1)(1200 )
Fe1 = 0.56Cr Fc + Ct Fz = 0.56(1)(1200) + (1.66)(600) = 1668 lb
At 55 % of the time, 800 rpm
Fz 500
= = 0.054
Fs 9250

Page 11 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Ct = 1.73
Q = 0.257
Fz 500
= = 0 .5 > Q
Cr Fx (1)(1000 )
Fe 2 = 0.56Cr Fc + Ct Fz = 0.56(1)(1000) + (1.73)(500) = 1425 lb
At 15 % of the time, 1200 rpm
Fz 400
= = 0.043
Fs 9250
Ct = 1.84
Q = 0.242
Fz 400
= = 0 .5 > Q
Cr Fx (1)(800 )
Fe1 = 0.56Cr Fc + Ct Fz = 0.56(1)(800) + (1.84)(400) = 1184 lb

1
F 3n + F23n2 + F33n3 + L 3
(a) Fm = 1 1
n
n = n1 + n2 + n3
F1 = 1668 lb
F2 = 1425 lb
F3 = 1184 lb
For 1 min.
n1= (0.3)(500 ) = 150 rev
n 2 = (0.55)(800) = 440 rev
n3 = (0.15)(1200 ) = 180 rev
n = 150 + 440 + 180 = 770 rev
1
(1668) (150 ) + (1425) (440 ) + (1184 ) (180 )
3 3 3 3
Fm = = 1434 kips
770

(b) Fe = Fm = 1434 lb
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1
B 3
11,400 = 10 (1434 )
1
B10 = 503 mr
For 1 min = 770 rev

Page 12 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

HR 11,000 hr

## MANUFACTURERS CATALOG NEEDED

614. A shaft for the general-purpose gear-reduction unit described in 489 has radial
bearing reactions of RC = 613 lb and RD = 1629 lb ; n = 250 rpm . Assume that
the unit will be fully utilized for at least 8 hr./day, with the likelihood of the same
uses involving minor shock. (a) Select ball bearings for this shaft. (b) Select
roller bearings. (c) What is the probability of both bearings C and D surviving for
the design life?

Solution:
3
Problem 489, D = 1 in = 1.375 in
8
Ref: Design of Machine Members, Doughtie and Vallance
Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr
at C. Fr = RC = 613 lb
K t = 1.0
K p = 1 .0
K o = 1.0
Kr Na
Ks = 3
Nc
N a = 250 rpm
N c = 500 rpm
K r = 1.5

Ks = 3
(1.5)(250) = 0.90856
500
K a = 1.0
Ha
Kl = 3
H c K rel
Table 12.1, 8 hr/day, fully utilized, Text
H a = 25,000 hr
H c = 10,000 hr
assume K rel = 1.0 for 90 % reliability
25,000
Kl = 3 = 1.3572
10,000

Page 13 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr
Fc = (1.0)(1.3572)(1.0)(1.0 )(0.90856)(1.0)(613) = 756 lb
Table 9-7, Doughtie and Vallance,
Two-row spherical Type, No. 207
Bore = 1.3780 in, Fc = 880 lb

At D. Fr = RD = 1629 lb
Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr
Fc = (1.0)(1.3572)(1.0)(1.0 )(0.90856)(1.0)(1629) = 2009 lb
Table 9-7, Doughtie and Vallance,
Two-row spherical Type, No. 407
Bore = 1.3780 in, Fc = 2290 lb

(b) at C, Fc = 756 lb
Table 9.8, Doughtie and Vallance
Use No. 207, Bore = 1.3780 in, Fc = 1540 lb

at C, Fc = 2009 lb
Table 9.8, Doughtie and Vallance
Use No. 307, Bore = 1.3780 in, Fc = 2660 lb

## (c.1) at C, Bearing No. 207, Two-row spherical bearing, Fc = 880 lb

Fc = 880 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0.90856)(1)(613)
K l = 1.58
Ha
Kl = 3
H c K rel
25,000
1.58 = 3
10,000 K rel
K rel = 0.634
Table 9-3, Reference
Probability = 95.8 %

## at D, Bearing No. 407, Deep-groove bearing, Fc = 2290 lb

Fc = 2290 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0.90856 )(1)(1627 )
K l = 1.547
Ha
Kl = 3
H c K rel

Page 14 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

25,000
1.547 = 3
10,000 K rel
K rel = 0.675
Table 9-3, Reference
Probability = 93.3 %

## (c.2) at C, Roller Bearing No. 207, Fc = 1540 lb

Fc = 1540 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0.90856)(1)(613)
K l = 2.765
Ha
Kl = 3
H c K rel
25,000
2.765 = 3
10,000 K rel
K rel = 0.118
Table 9-3, Reference
Probability = 98.8 %

## at D, Roller Bearing No. 407, Fc = 2660 lb

Fc = 2660 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0.90856)(1)(1627 )
K l = 1.80
Ha
Kl = 3
H c K rel
25,000
1.80 = 3
10,000 K rel
K rel = 0.43
Table 9-3, Reference
Probability = 95.7 %

615. A shaft similar to that in 478 has the following radial loads on the bearings, left
to right: 803 lb, 988 lb, 84 lb, and 307 lb; no thrust. The minimum shaft diameter
at the bearings are 1.250 in, 1.125 in, 1.000 in, and 1.0625 in. Assume that the
service will not be particularly gentle; intermittently used, with n = 425 rpm . (a)
Select ball bearing for this shaft. (b) Select roller bearings.

Solution:

## Ref: Design of Machine Members by Doughtie and Vallance

Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr
K a = 1.0

Page 15 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Ha
Kl = 3
H c K rel
H c = 10,000 hr
Table 12.1, Text, H a = 10,000 hr (intermittent)
90 % reliability, K rel = 1.0
10,000
Kl = 3 = 1 .0
10,000
K o = 1.0
K p = 1 .0
K r = 1.5 assumed
Kr Na
Ks = 3
Nc
N a = 425 rpm
N c = 500 rpm

Ks = 3
(1.5)(425) = 1.0844
500
K t = 1.0

## (a.1) 803 lb, D = 1.250 in

Fc = (1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0844)(1.0)(803) = 870 lb
Table 9-7, Ref.
Two-row spherical type, 207
Fc = 880 lb
Bore = 1.3780 in

## Fc = (1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0 )(1.0844)(1.0)(988) = 1071 lb

Table 9-7, Ref.
Two-row spherical type, 306
Fc = 1050 lb
Bore = 1.1811 in

## (a.3) 84 lb, D = 1.000 in

Fc = (1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0844)(1.0)(84) = 91 lb

Page 16 of 17
SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

## Table 9-7, Ref.

Deep-groove type, 106
Fc = 544 lb
Bore = 1.1811 in

## (a.4) 307 lb, D = 1.0625 in

Fc = (1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0844)(1.0)(307 ) = 333 lb
Table 9-7, Ref.
Deep-groove type, 106
Fc = 544 lb
Bore = 1.1811 in

## (b.1) 803 lb, D = 1.250 in

Fc = 870 lb , Bore = 1.3780 in
use No. 207, Fc = 1540 lb

## (b.2) 988 lb, D = 1.125 in

Fc = 1071 lb , Bore = 1.1811 in
use No. 206, Fc = 1320 lb

## (b.3) 84 lb, D = 1.000 in

Fc = 91 lb , Bore = 1.1811 in
use No. 206, Fc = 1320 lb

## (b.4) 307 lb, D = 1.0625 in

Fc = 333 lb , Bore = 1.1811 in
use No. 206, Fc = 1320 lb

- end -

Page 17 of 17
SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

701. For continuous duty in a speed reducer, two helical gears are to be rated at 7.4 hp
at a pinion speed of 1750 rpm; m w 2.75 ; the helix angle 15o ; 20o F.D. teeth in
the normal plane; let N p = 21 teeth, and keep b < 2 D p . Determine the pitch, face,
N g , and the material and heat treatment. Use through-hardened teeth with a
maximum of 250 BHM (teeth may be cut after heat treatment).

Solution:
= 15o
n = 20o
D p n p
vm =
12
N p 21
Dp = =
Pd Pd
n p = 1750 rpm
21
(1750)
Pd 9621
vm = =
12 Pd
33,000hp (33,000 )(7.4 )
Ft = = = 25.38 Pd
vm 9621

P
d
b 2 Dp
21 42
b = 2 =
Pd Pd
0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos
Fd = Ft + 1
lb
0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos )
2 2

Table AT 25
Assume C = 1660
= 15o
9621 42
0.05 25.38Pd + 1660 cos 2 15 cos15
Pd Pd
Fd = 25.38Pd + 1
lb
9621 42 2
0.05 + 25.38Pd + 1660 cos 2 15
Pd Pd

Page 1 of 14
SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

465 65050
25.38 Pd +
Pd Pd
Fd = 25.38 Pd + 1
lb
481 65050 2
+ 25.38 Pd +
Pd Pd
For continuous service: Fw Fd
bD pQK g
Fw =
cos 2
2mg 2(2.75)
Q= = = 1.467
mg + 1 2.75 + 1
Table At 26, Bhn = 250
Sum of BHN = 500, n = 20o
K g = 131
42 21 (1.467 )(131) 181,670
Fw = 2
=
Pd Pd cos 15 Pd2
Fw Fd
By trial and error method

Pd Fd Fw
7 3967 3708
6 4758 5046

use Pd = 6
21 21
Dp = = = 3.5 in
Pd 6
42 42
b= = = 7 in
Pd 6
9621 9621
vm = = = 1604 fpm
Pd 6
Fig. AF 19, permissible error = 0.0018 in
Fig. AF 20
Use carefully cut gears, Pd = 6
Error = 0.001 in is o.k.

For material
Strength
sbY cos
Fs =
K f Pd

Page 2 of 14
SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

Np 21
N ep = = = 23
cos cos3 15
3

## Table AT 24, Load near middle

N ep = 23 , n = 20o FD
Y = 0.565
assume K f = 2.0
Fs = N sf Fd
assume N sf = 2.0
s (7 )(0.565) cos15
= (4758)(2)
(2 )(6)
s = 29,892 psi
s
use sn = u
3
su = 3(29,892) = 89,676 psi
Use C1050, OQT 1100 F,
su = 122 ksi , BHN = 248 < 250

Ans.
Pd = 6
b = 7 in
N g = mw N p = (2.75)(21) = 58
Material. C1050, OQT 1100 F

## 703. A pair of helical gears, subjected to heavy shock loading, is to transmit 50 hp at

3
1750 rpm of the pinion.; mg = 4.25 ; = 15o ; minimum D p = 4 in. ; continuous
4
o
service, 24 hr/day; 20 F.D. teeth in the normal plane, carefully cut; through-
hardened to a maximum BHN = 350. Decide upon the pitch, face width, material
and its treatment.

Solution:
(4.75)(1750)
vm = = 2176 fpm
12
33,000hp (33,000 )(50 )
Ft = = = 758 lb
vm (2176)
Fd = Ft +
( )
0.05vm Ft + Cb cos 2 cos
lb
1
( 2
0.05vm + Ft + Cb cos 2 )
Fig. AF 19, vm = 2176 fpm
Permissible error = 0.0014 in

Page 3 of 14
SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

## Use carefully cut gears, e = 0.001 in , Pd = 5 as standard

Table AT 25,
Steel and steel, 20o FD
C = 1660

Fd = 758 +
( )
0.05(2176) 758 + 1660b cos 2 15 cos15
lb
1
(
0.05(2176) + 758 + 1660b cos 152
)
2

105.1(758 + 1548.8b )
Fd = 758 + 1 lb
108.8 + (758 + 1548.8b )2
bD pQK g
Fw =
cos 2
2mg 2(4.25)
Q= = = 1.619
mg + 1 4.25 + 1
Table At 26, 20o FD,
Sum of BHN =2(350)=700
K g = 270
b(4.75)(1.619 )(270 )
Fw = = 2225b
cos 2 15
2
Fw Fd , bmin = 2 Pa = = 4.69 in.
Pd tan
By trial and error method

b Fd Fw
5 5203 11125
6 5811 13350

use b = 5 in

Material:
Strength:
sbY sbY cos
Fs = =
K f Pdn K f Pd
Np
N ep =
cos3
N p = Pd D p = (5)(4.375) = 22
22
N ep = = 25
cos3 15
Table AT 24, Load near middle

Page 4 of 14
SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

N ep = 25 , n = 20o FD
Y = 0.580
assume K f = 1.7
s (5)(0.580) cos15
Fs = = 0.32955s
(1.7 )(5)
Fs = N sf Fd
N sf = 1.75
0.32955s = (1.75)(5203)
s = 27,629 psi
s
use sn = u
3
su = 3(27,629) = 82,887 psi
Table AT 9
Use 4150, OQT 1200 F,
su = 159ksi , BHN = 331 < 350
Ans.
Pd = 5
b = 5 in
Material. 4150, OQT 1200 F

705. Design the teeth for two herringbone gears for a single-reduction speed reducer
with mw = 3.80 . The capacity is 36 hp at 3000 rpm of the pinion; = 30o ; F.D.
teeth with n = 20o . Since space is at a premium, the initial design is for N p = 15
teeth and carburized teeth of AISI 8620; preferably b < 2 D p .

Solution:
N 15
Dp = p =
Pd Pd
b 2Dp
30
b = 2 Dp =
Pd
D p n p
vm =
12
15
(3000)
P
vm = d
11,781
=
12 Pd

Page 5 of 14
SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

## 33,000hp (33,000 )(36 )

Ft = = = 101Pd
vm 11,781

Pd
Fd = Ft +
( )
0.05vm Ft + Cb cos 2 cos
lb
1
( 2
0.05vm + Ft + Cb cos 2 )
o
n = 20
= 30 o
Assume C = 1660 , Table AT 25, 20o FD
11,781 30
0.05 101Pd + 1660 cos 2 30 cos 30
Pd Pd
Fd = 101Pd + 1
lb
11,781 30 2
0.05 + 101Pd + 1660 cos 2 30
Pd Pd
510 37,350
101Pd +
Pd Pd
Fd = 101Pd + 1
lb
589 37,350 2
+ 101Pd +
Pd Pd
bD pQK g
Fw =
cos 2
2 mg 2(3.80)
Q= = = 1.583
mg + 1 3.80 + 1
For AISI 8620, carburized, 20o FD
K g = 750 for 1010 cycles
30 15 (1.583)(750) 712,350
Fw = 2
=
Pd Pd cos 30 Pd2
By trial and error, Fw Fd
Pd Fd Fw
5 4433 28,494
4 5454 44,522
6 3817 19,788
8 3173 11,130
9 3008 8794

## For carefully cut gears, e = 0.001

vmax = 1400 fpm (Fig. AF 9)

Page 6 of 14
SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

11,781
Pd vm =
Pd
5 2356.2
4 1963.5
6 1683
8 1473
9 1309 fpm

use Pd = 9
Fd = 3008 lb
Fw = 5794 lb > Fd
30 30
b= = = 3.3 in
Pd 9
use b = 3.0 in

## To check for strength

sbY sbY cos
Fs = =
K f Pdn K f Pd
Np
N ep =
cos3
N p = 15
15
N ep = = 23
cos3 30
Table AT 24, Load near middle
N ep = 23 , n = 20o FD
Y = 0.565
assume K f = 1.7
8620, SOQT 450, su = 167 ksi
s
sn = u
3
su 167
sn = = = 83.5
2 2
Fs =
(83,500)(3.0)(0.565)cos 30 = 8011 lb > F (= 3008 lb )
(1.7)(9) d

Designed Data:
Pd = 9
b = 3.0 in
N p = 15
N g = mw N p = (3.8)(15) = 57

Page 7 of 14
SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

N p 15
Dp = = = 1.67 in
Pd 9
N 57
Dg = g = = 6.33 in
Pd 9

CHECK PROBLEMS

707. The data for a pair of carefully cut gears are: Pdn = 5 , n = 20o , = 12o ,
b = 3.5 in. , N p = 18 , N g = 108 teeth; pinion turns 1750 rpm. Materials: pinion,
SAE 4150, OQT to BHN = 350; gear, SAE 3150, OQT to BHN = 300. Operation
is with moderate shock for 8 to 10 hr./day. What horsepower may be transmitted
continuously?

Solution:
N
Dp = p
Pd
Pd = Pdn cos = (5)cos15 = 4.89
18
Dp = = 3.681 in
4.89

bD pQK g
Fw =
cos 2
b = 3.5 in.
2Ng 2(108)
Q= = = 1.7143
N p + N g 18 + 108
Table AT 26, n = 20o
Sum of BHN = 350 + 300 = 650
K g = 233

Fw =
(3.5)(3.681)(1.7143)(233) = 5379 lb
cos 2 12
Strength of gear
sbY
Fs = lb
K f Pdn
For gear: SAE 3150, OQT to BHN = 300
su = 151 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(151) = 75.5 ksi
Ng 108
N eg = = = 116
cos cos3 12
3

Page 8 of 14
SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

## Table AT 24, Load near middle, n = 20o

Y = 0.763
snY = (75.5)(0.763) = 57.6
For pinion: SAE 4150, OQT to BHN = 350
su = 0.5BHN = 0.5(350) = 175 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(175) = 87.5 ksi
Np 18
N ep = = = 19
cos cos3 12
3

## Table AT 24, Load near middle, n = 20o

Y = 0.534
snY = (87.5)(0.534) = 46.7

## Therefore use pinion as weak

Assume K f = 1.7

Fs =
(87,500)(3.5)(0.534) = 19,240 lb
(1.7 )(5)
For moderate shock, 8 to 10 hr./day
Use N sf = 1.5
Fs N sf Fd
19,240 = 1.5Fd
Fd 12,827 lb
Therefore use Fd = Fw = 5379 lb
0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos
Fd = Ft + 1
lb
0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos 2 )2
Fig. AF 20, carefully cut gears, Pdn = 5 , e = 0.001 in
Table AT 25, steel and steel, 20o FD
C = 1660
D p n p (3.681)(1750)
vm = = = 1686 fpm
12 12
Fd = Ft +
[ ]
0.05(1686) Ft + 1660(3.5) cos 2 12 cos12
lb
1
[ ]
0.05(1686) + Ft + 1660(3.5) cos 12 2
2

82.46[Ft + 5559]
Fd = Ft + 1
= 5379 lb
84.3 + [Ft + 5559]2
Trial and error
Ft = 1800 lb
Fv
hp = t m =
(1800)(1686) = 92 hp
33,000 33,000

Page 9 of 14
SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

708. Two helical gears are used in a single reduction speed reducer rated at 27.4 hp at
a motor speed of 1750 rpm; continuous duty. The rating allows an occasional 100
% momentary overload. The pinion has 33 teeth. Pdn = 10 , b = 2 in. , n = 20o ,
= 20o , mw = 2.82 . For both gears, the teeth are carefully cut from SAE 1045
with BHN = 180. Compute (a) the dynamic load, (b) the endurance strength;
estimate K f = 1.7 . Also decide whether or not the 100 % overload is damaging.
(c) Are these teeth suitable for continuous service? If they are not suitable
suggest a cure. (The gears are already cut.)

Solution:
N
Dp = p
Pd
Pd = Pdn cos = (10) cos15 = 9.66
33
Dp = = 3.42 in
9.66
D p n p (3.42)(1750)
vm = = = 1567 fpm
12 12
33,000hp 33,000(27.4 )
Ft = = = 577 lb
vm 1567
0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos
Fd = Ft + 1
lb
0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos 2 )2
Fig. AF 20, carefully cut gears, Pdn = 10 , e = 0.001 in
Table AT 25, steel and steel, 20o FD
C = 1660
b = 2 in

Fd = 577 +
[ ]
0.05(1567 ) 577 + 1660(2)cos 2 15 cos15
= 2578 lb
1
[
0.05(1567 ) + 577 + 1660(2)cos 15
2
]2

## (b) Endurance strength

sbY
Fs = lb
K f Pdn
For SAE 1045, BHN = 180
su = 0.5BHN = 0.5(180) = 90 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(90) = 45 ksi
Np 33
N ep = = = 37
cos cos3 15
3

## Table AT 24, Load near middle, n = 20o

Page 10 of 14
SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

Y = 0.645

K f = 1 .7

Fs =
sbY
=
(45,000)(2)(0.645) = 3415 lb
K f Pdn (1.7 )(10)
Ft = 2(577 ) = 1154 lb
0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos
Fd = Ft + 1
lb
0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos )
2 2

Fd = 1154 +
[ ]
0.05(1567 ) 1154 + 1660(2)cos 2 15 cos15
= 3475 lb
1
[
0.05(1567 ) + 1154 + 1660(2) cos 15 2
]
2

## Since Fs Fd , 100 % overload is not damaging

bD pQK g
(c) Fw =
cos 2
b = 2 in.
2mw 2(2.82 )
Q= = = 1.476
mw + 1 2.82 + 1
Table AT 26, n = 20o
Sum of BHN = 2(180) = 360
K g = 62.5

Fw =
(2)(3.42)(1.476)(62.5) = 676 lb < F (= 2578 lb )
d
cos 2 15
Therefore not suitable for continuous service.
Cure: Through hardened teeth
For Bhn
2578
Kg = (62.5) = 238
676
min Bhn = 0.5(650) = 325

709. Two helical gears are used in a speed reducer whose input is 100 hp at 1200 rpm,
from an internal combustion engine. Both gears are made of SAE 4140, with the
pinion heat treated to a BHN 363 415, and the gear to 321 363; let the teeth
be F.D.; 20o pressure angle in the normal plane; carefully cut; helix angle
= 15o ; N p = 22 , N g = 68 teeth; Pd = 5 , b = 4 in . Calculate the dynamic load,
the endurance strength load, and the limiting wear load for the teeth. Should these
gears have long life if they operate continuously? (Data courtesy of the Twin
Disc Clutch Co.)

Solution:

Page 11 of 14
SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

N p 22
Dp = = = 4.4 in
Pd 5
D p n p (4.4)(1200)
vm = = = 1382 fpm
12 12
33,000hp 33,000(100 )
Ft = = = 2388 lb
vm 1382
0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos
Fd = Ft + 1
lb
0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos )2
2

## Fig. AF 20, carefully cut gears, Pdn = 5 , e = 0.001 in

Table AT 25, steel and steel, 20o FD
C = 1660
b = 4 in

Fd = 2388 +
[ ]
0.05(1382) 2388 + 1660(4) cos 2 15 cos15
= 5930 lb
1
[
0.05(1382 ) + 2388 + 1660(4)cos 152
]
2

sbY cos
Fs = lb
K f Pd
Assume K f = 1.7
Pinion
sn = 0.25BHN = 0.25(363) = 90.75 ksi
Np 22
N ep = = = 25
cos cos3 15
3

## Table AT 24, Load near middle, n = 20o

Y = 0.580
sbY cos (90,750)(4 )(0.580) cos15
Fs = = = 23,925 lb
K f Pd (1.7 )(5)
Gear
sn = 0.25BHN = 0.25(321) = 80.25 ksi
Np 68
N ep = = = 75
cos cos3 15
3

## Table AT 24, Load near middle, n = 20o

Y = 0.735
sbY cos (80,250 )(4)(0.735)cos15
Fs = = = 26,811 lb
K f Pd (1.7 )(5)
use Fs = 23,925 lb

Page 12 of 14
SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

bD pQK g
Fw =
cos 2
Table AT 26, n = 20o
Sum of BHN = 684 to 778 use 700
K g = 270
2Ng 2(68)
Q= = = 1.511
N p + N g 22 + 68

Fw =
(4)(4.4)(1.511)(270) = 7696 lb
cos 2 15
Since Fw (= 7696 lb ) > Fd (= 5930 lb ) these gears have long life if they operate
continuously.

CROSSED HELICAL

710. Helical gears are to connect two shafts that are at right angles
( N1 = 20 , N 2 = 40 , Pdn = 10 , 1 = 2 = 45o ). Determine the center distance.

Solution:
D cos 1
N1 = 1 = Pdn D1 cos 1
Pcn
20 = (10)(D1 )cos 45
D1 = 2.83 in
N 2 = Pdn D2 cos 2
40 = (10)(D2 )cos 45
D2 = 5.66 in
C = 12 (D1 + D2 ) = 12 (2.83 + 5.66) = 4.25 in

712. Two shafts that are at right angles are to be connected by helical gears. A
tentative design is to use N1 = 20 , N 2 = 60 , Pdn = 10 , and a center distance of 6
in. What must be the helix angles?

Solution:
= 1 + 2 = 90o
N1
D1 =
Pdn cos 1
N2
D2 =
Pdn cos 2
C = 2 (D1 + D2 )
1

Page 13 of 14
SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

N1 N2
2C = +
Pdn cos 1 Pdn cos 2
20 60
2(6 ) = +
10 cos 1 10 cos 2
2 6
12 = +
cos 1 cos 2
1 3
6= +
cos 1 cos 2
By trial and error method
1 3
6= +
cos 1 sin 1
1 = 39.5o
2 = 50.5o

- end -

Page 14 of 14
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

751. Decide upon the pitch, face, N g , material, and heat treatment of a pair of straight
bevel gears to transmit continuously and indefinitely a uniform loading of 5 hp at
900 rpm of the pinion, reasonable operating temperature, high reliability;
mg 1.75 ; D p 3.333 in . Pinion overhangs, gear is straddle mounted.

Solution:
1
(
L = rp2 + rg2 )2

1 1
tan p = =
mg 1.75
p = 29.75o
L sin p = rp
3.333
L sin 29.75 =
2
L = 3.358 in
33,000hp
Ft = lb
vm
D p n p (3.333)(900)
vm = = = 785.4 fpm
12 12
33,000(5)
Ft = = 210 lb
785.4
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
50 + vm2 50 + (785.4 ) 2
1 1

VF = = = 1.56
50 50
K m = 1.2
Table 15.2, uniform
N sf = 1.0
Fd = (1.56)(1.0)(1.2 )(210) = 393 lb
2
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
D p = 3.333 in
b = 0.3L = 0.3(3.358) = 1.0 in
Temperature factor
K t = 1.0 , reasonable operating temperature
Life factor for wear

Page 1 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

## Cl = 1.0 for indefinite life

Reliability factor for wear
Cr = 1.25 high reliability
Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.7
Assume I = 0.080
Elastic coefficient (Table 15.4)
Steel on steel , Ce = 2800
Fw = Fd
2

## (3.333)(1.0)(0.08) (scd ) 2 1.0

2
= 393
(2800) (1.0)(1.25)
scd = 134,370 psi
Table 15.3, use Steel, (300)
scd = 135 ksi
Strength of bevel gears
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
Size factor, assume K s = 0.71
Life factor for strength
K l = 1 for indefinite life
Temperature factor,
K t = 1 good operating condition
Reliability factor
K r = 1.5 high reliability
Geometry factor for strength (Fig. 15.5)
Assume J = 0.240

b = 1.0 in
sd = design flexural stress
Min. BHN = 300
sd = 19 ksi
Fs = F d
(19,000)(1.0)(0.240) 1
(0.71)(1)(1.5) = 393
Pd
Pd = 11
say Pd = 10
10 10
so that b = = = 1.0 in
Pd 10

Dg = D p mg = (3.333)(1.75) = 5.833 in

Page 2 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

## N g = Pd Dg = (10 )(5.833) = 58.33

say N g = 58
Use Pd = 10 , b = 1.0 in , N g = 58
Material = steel, min. Bhn = 300

752. A pair of steel Zerol bevel gears to transmit 25 hp at 600 rpm of the pinion;
mg = 3 ; let N p 20 teeth; highest reliability; the pinion is overhung, the gear
straddle mounted. An electric motor drives a multi-cylinder pump. (a) Decide
upon the pitch, face width, diameters, and steel (with treatment) for intermittent
service. (b) The same as (a) except that indefinite life is desired.

Solution:
N 20
Dp = p =
Pd Pd
20
(600)
D p n p Pd 1000
vm = = = fpm
12 12 Pd
10
Let b =
Pd
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
33,000hp
Ft = lb
vm
33,000(25)
Ft = = 262.6 Pd
1000

Pd
1
1000
2

50 +
Pd
1
50 + vm 2
1.121 1.121
VF = = = 1 + 12 = 1 +
50 50 Pd Pd
Table 15.2, electric motor drives a multi-cylinder pump
Service factor, N sf = 1.25
One gear straddle, one not, K m = 1.2
1.121
Fd = 1 + (1.25)(1.2 )(262.6 )Pd = 394 Pd 1 + 1.121
Pd Pd

(a) Strength of Bevel Gears
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
Size factor, assume K s = 0.71

Page 3 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

## Life factor for strength

Intermittent service, use K l = 4.6
Temperature factor, say K t = 1.0
Reliability factor, highest reliability
K r = 3.0
Geometry factor for strength
N
mg = g
Np
N p = 20
N p = 3(20 ) = 60
Fig. 15.5, J = 0.205
10
b=
Pd
Design flexural stress, steel
Assume sd = 15 ksi
Fs = Fd

(15,000) 10 (0.205)(4.6) 1.121
Pd = 394 Pd 1 +
Pd (0.71)(1.0 )(3) P
d

66,408 1.121
= 394 P
d 1 +

Pd2 P
d

Pd = 4.814
say Pd = 5
10 10
b= = = 2.0 in
Pd 5

2
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
N p 20
Dp = = = 4 in
Pd 5
K t = 1.0

## Life factor for wear, intermittent service

Cl = 1.5
Reliability factor for wear, highest reliability
Cr = 1.25
Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.7

Page 4 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

N p = 20 , N g = 60
I = 0.083
Elastic coefficient, steel on steel (Table 15.4)
Ce = 2800
Pd = 5

Fw = Fd
2

## (4)(2)(0.083) scd 2 1.5 = 394(5)1 + 1.121

2

(2800) (1.0)(1.25) 5
scd = 155,730 psi
Table 15.3
Use steel, min. BHN = 360, scd = 160 ksi
Pd = 5
b = 2 in
D p = 4 in
Dg = mg D p = (3)(4 ) = 12 in
steel, min. BHN = 360

## (b) For indefinite life,

K l = 1.0 , life factor for strength
Cl = 1.0 , life factor for wear

Strength:
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
Fs = Fd

(15,000) 10 (0.205)(1.0) 1.121
Pd = 394 Pd 1 +
Pd (0.71)(1.0)(3) P
d

14,437 1.121
= 394 Pd 1 +
Pd 2 P
d

Pd = 2.799
say Pd = 3
10 10
b= = = 3.33 in
Pd 3

Page 5 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

2
scd2 Cl
Fw = D pbI 2
C e K t Cr
N p 20
Dp = = = 6.67 in
Pd 3
Fw = Fd
2

## (6.67 )(3.33)(0.083) scd 2 1.0 = 394(3)1 + 1.121

2

(2800) (1.0)(1.25) 3
scd = 113,744 psi
Table 15.3
Use steel, min. BHN = 240, scd = 115 ksi
Pd = 3
b = 3.33 in
D p = 6.67 in
Dg = mg D p = (3)(6.67 ) = 20 in
steel, min. BHN = 240

753. Decide upon the pitch, face, and number of teeth for two spiral-bevel gears for a
speed reducer. The input to the pinion is 20 hp at 1750 rpm; mg 1.9 ; pinion
overhung, gear-straddle mounted. It is hoped not to exceed a maximum D p of 4
3/8-in.; steel gears with minimum 245 BHN on pinion and 210 BHN on gear.
The gear is motor-driven, subject to miscellaneous drives involving moderate
shock; indefinite life against breakage and wear with high reliability. If the gears
designed for the foregoing data are to be subjected to intermittent service only,
how much power could they be expected to transmit?

Solution:
D p n p (4.375)(1750)
(a) vm = = = 2000 fpm
12 12
33,000hp 33,000(20 )
Ft = = = 330 lb
vm 2000
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
K m = 1.2
Table 15.2
Motor-driven, moderate shock

Page 6 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

N sf = 1.25
1
70 + vm2 2
1

VF = , spiral
70
1
70 + (2000) 2
1 2

VF = = 1.254
70
Fd = (1.254)(1.25)(1.2)(330) = 621 lb

2
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
D p = 4.375 in
Temperature Factor, K t = 1.0
Design contact stresses,
BHN = 245 , pinion
scd = 116 ksi
Life factor for wear
Cl = 1.0 , indefinite life
Reliability factor for wear
Cr = 1.25 , high reliability
Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.8
Assume I = 0.12
Elastic coefficient, steel on steel (Table 15.4)
Ce = 2800
2

Fw = (4.375)(b )(0.12)
(116,000)2 1.0 = 721b
(2800)2 (1.0)(1.25)
Fw = Fd
721b = 621
b = 0.8613 in
7
say b = in = 0.875 in
8

Strength of gear
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
sd = design flexural stress
min. BHN = 210
sd = 15.4 ksi
Size factor, assume K s = 0.71

Page 7 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

## Life factor for strength

K l = 1 for indefinite life
Temperature factor,
Kt = 1
Reliability factor
K r = 1.5 high reliability
Geometry factor Fig. 15.6
Assume J = 0.28
Fs =
(15,400)(0.875)(0.28) 1 3543
= P
Pd (0.71)(1)(1.5) d

Fs = Fd
3543
= 621
Pd
Pd = 5.7
say Pd = 6
7
Then, Pd = 6 , b = in , N p = D p Pd = (4.375)(6 ) = 26
8
N g = mw N p = (1.9 )(26 ) = 50

## (b) Intermittent service only

Strength
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
sd = 15,400 psi (Gear)
For Pd = 6 , K s = 0.64
For indefinite service, K l = 4.6
K t = 1.0 , K r = 1.5
Geometry factor, Fig. 15.6, N p = 26 , N g = 50
J = 0.292

Fs =
(15,400)(0.875)(0.292) 4.6 = 3142 lb
(0.71)(1)(1.5)
6
2
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
D p = 4.375 in
K t = 1.0
scd = 116 ksi
Ce = 2800

Page 8 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

## Cl = 1.5 intermittent service

Cr = 1.25
Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.8
N p = 26 , N g = 50
I = 0.116
2

Fw = (4.375)(0.875)(0.116 )
(116,000)2 1.5 = 1098 lb
(2800)2 (1.0)(1.25)
use Fw = Fd
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
1098 = (1.254)(125)(1.2)Ft
Ft = 584 lb
Fv
hp = t m =
(584)(2000) = 35 hp
33,000 33,000

CHECK PROBLEMS

755. A pair of straight-bevel gears are to transmit a smooth load of 45 hp at 500 rpm
3
of the pinion; mg = 3 . A proposed design is Dg = 15 in. , b = 2 in. , Pd = 4 .
8
Teeth are carburized AISI 8620, SOQT 450 F. The pinion overhangs, the gear is
straddle-mounted. Would these gears be expected to perform with high reliability
in continuous service? If not would you expect more than 1 failure in 100?

Solution:
D 15
D p = g = = 5 in
mg 3
D p n p (5)(500)
vm = = = 655 fpm
12 12
33,000hp 33,000(45)
Ft = = = 2267 lb
vm 655
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
50 + vm2 50 + (655) 2
1 1

VF = = = 1.512
50 50
K m = 1.2
Smooth load, N sf = 1.0
Fd = (1.512)(1.0)(1.2 )(2267 ) = 4113 lb

Page 9 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

## Strength of bevel gears

s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
Size factor, for Pd = 4 ,
K s = 0.71
Life factor for strength
Kl = 1
Temperature factor,
Kt = 1
Geometry factor for strength (Fig. 15.5)
N p = Pd D p = (4 )(5) = 20
N g = Pd Dg = (4 )(15) = 60
J = 0.205

## sd = 30 ksi (55 63 Rc) for carburized teeth

Fs =
(30,000)(2.375)(0.205) 1 5143
4 (0.71)(1)(K ) = K
r r

Fs = Fd
5143
= 4113
Kr
K r = 1.25 < 1.5 will not perform high reliability.

2
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
D p = 5 in
b = 2.375 in
Table 15.3, scd = 225 ksi
Table 15.4, Ce = 2800
Geometry factor for wear, Figure 15.7
N p = 20 , N g = 60
I = 0.083
Kt = 1
life factor for wear Cl = 1
2

Fw = (5)(2.375)(0.083)
(225,000)2 1 =
6364
(2800)2 (1)(Cr ) Cr2
Fw = Fd

Page 10 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

6364
= 4113
Cr2
Cr = 1.244 1.25 , high reliability

Since K r < 1.5 ,this will not perform high reliability but 1 in 100, K r 1.12 < 1.25

756. A gear catalog rates a pair of cast-iron, straight-bevel gears at 15.26 hp at 800
rpm of the 16-tooth pinion; mg = 3.5 , b = 3 in. , Pd = 3 ; pinion overhangs,
straddle-mounted gear. Assume the cast iron to be class 30. If the load is smooth
is this rating satisfactory, judging by the design approach of the Text for good
reliability (a) when strength alone is considered, (b) when long continuous
service is desired?

Solution:
N 16
Dp = p = = 5.333 in
Pd 3
D p n p (5.333)(800)
vm = = = 1117 fpm
12 12
33,000hp 33,000(15.26 )
Ft = = = 451 lb
vm 1117
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
50 + vm2 50 + (1117 ) 2
1 1

VF = = = 1.668
50 50
K m = 1.2
Smooth load, N sf = 1.0
Fd = (1.668)(1.0)(1.2)(451) = 903 lb

(a) Strength
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
Pd = 3 ,
K s = 0.76
Kl = 1
Kt = 1
K r = 1.5
sd = 4.6 ksi , cast-iron class 30
N p = 16

Page 11 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

N g = mw N p = (3.5)(16 ) = 56
J = 0.184
(4,600)(3)(0.184) 1
Fs = = 742 lb < 903 lb(= Fd )
3 (0.76)(1)(1.5)
with
K l = 1.4 for 106 cycles
Fs = (1.4)(742) = 1040 lb > 903 lb(= Fd )
Therefore satisfactory for 106 cycles.

## (b) Continuous service

2
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
D p = 5.333 in
b = 3 in
Table 15.3, scd = 50 ksi , cast-iron class 30
Table 15.4, cast-iron and cast-iron Ce = 2250
Cl = 1
Kt = 1
Cr = 1.25
Geometry factor for wear, Figure 15.7
N p = 16 , N g = 56
I = 0.077
2

Fw = (5.333)(3)(0.077 )
(50,000)2 1 = 389 lb < Fd (= 903 lb )
(2250)2 (1)(1.25)
Therefore, not satisfactory for long continuous service.

757. An 870-rpm motor drives a belt conveyor through bevel gears having 18 and 72
3
teeth; Pd = 6 , b = 1 in . Both gears are straddle-mounted. What horsepower may
4
these gears transmit for an indefinite life with high reliability if both gears are (a)
cast-iron, class 40; (b) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F; (c) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F,
flame hardened (d) AISI 8620, SOQT 450 F?

Solution:
N 18
D p = p = = 3 in
Pd 6
D p n p (3)(870)
vm = = = 683 fpm
12 12

Page 12 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
K m = 1.0
Table 15.2, N sf = 1.0
50 + vm2 50 + (683) 2
1 1

VF = = = 1.523
50 50
Fd = (1.523)(1.0)(1.0)Ft = 1.523Ft

## (a) Cast-iron, class 40

Strength
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
sd = 7 ksi , cast-iron class 40
3
b = 1 in
4
K l = 1 , indefinite life
Pd = 6
K s = 0.64
Kt = 1
K r = 1.5 , high reliability
Figure 15.5, N p = 18 , N g = 72
J = 0.204

Fs =
(7000)(1.75)(0.204) 1
= 434 lb
6 (0.64)(1)(1.5)
Wear:
2
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
D p = 3 in
3
b = 1 in
4
Table 15.3, scd = 65 ksi , cast-iron class 40
Table 15.4, cast-iron and cast-iron Ce = 2250
Cl = 1 , indefinite life
Kt = 1
Cr = 1.25 , high reliability
Geometry factor for wear, Figure 15.7
N p = 18 , N g = 72
I = 0.082

Page 13 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

Fw = (3)(1.75)(0.082 )
(65,000) 1
2
= 230 lb
(2250)2 (1)(1.25)
Fd = Fw
1.523Ft = 230
Ft = 151 lb
Fv
hp = t m =
(151)(683) = 3 hp
33,000 33,000

## (b) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F, BHN = 300

Strength
sd = 19,000 psi

Fs =
(19,000)(1.75)(0.204) 1
(0.64)(1)(1.5) = 1178 lb
6
Wear:
2
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
Table 15.3, scd = 135 ksi
Table 15.4, steel and steel, Ce = 2800
2

Fw = (3)(1.75)(0.082)
(135,000) 1
2
= 640 lb
(2800)2 (1)(1.25)
Fd = Fw
1.523Ft = 640
Ft = 420 lb
Fv
hp = t m =
(420)(683) = 8.7 hp
33,000 33,000

## (c) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F, Flame Hardened

Strength
sd = 13.5 ksi

Fs =
(13,500)(1.75)(0.204) 1
(0.64 )(1)(1.5) = 837 lb
6
Wear:
2
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
Table 15.3, scd = 190 ksi
Table 15.4, steel and steel, Ce = 2800

Page 14 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

Fw = (3)(1.75)(0.082)
(190,000) 1
2
= 1269 lb
(2800)2 (1)(1.25)
Fd = Fs
1.523Ft = 837
Ft = 550 lb
Fv
hp = t m =
(550)(683) = 11.4 hp
33,000 33,000

## (d) AISI 86200, SOQT 450 F, carburized

Strength
sd = 30 ksi (55 63 Rc)

Fs =
(30,000)(1.75)(0.204) 1
(0.64)(1)(1.5) = 1859 lb
6
Wear:
2
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
Table 15.3, scd = 225 ksi
Table 15.4, steel and steel, Ce = 2800
2

Fw = (3)(1.75)(0.082)
(225,000) 1
2
= 1779 lb
(2800)2 (1)(1.25)
Fd = Fw
1.523Ft = 1779
Ft = 1168 lb
Fv
hp = t m =
(1168)(683) = 24.2 hp
33,000 33,000

## 758. A pair of straight-bevel gears transmits 15 hp at a pinion speed of 800 rpm;

Pd = 5 , N p = 20 , N p = 60 , b = 2 in . Both gears are made of AISI 4140 steel,
OQT 800 F. What reliability factor is indicated for these gears for strength and
for wear (a) for smooth loads, (b) for light shock load from the power source and
heavy shock on the driven machine?

Solution:
N 20
Dp = p = = 4 in
Pd 5
D p n p (4)(800)
vm = = = 838 fpm
12 12

Page 15 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

33,000hp 33,000(15)
Ft = = = 591 lb
vm 838
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
50 + vm2 50 + (838) 2
1 1

VF = = = 1.579
50 50
assume K m = 1.0
Fd = (1.579 )(N sf )(1.0 )(591) = 933 N sf
Strength of bevel gear
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
For AISI 4140, OQT 800 F, BHN = 429
sd = 24 ksi
assume K l = 1
Kt = 1
Pd = 5
K s = 0.675
Figure 15.5, N p = 20 , N g = 60
J = 0.205

Fs =
(24,000)(2)(0.205) 1 2916
= K
5 (0.675)(1)(K r ) r

Fs = Fd
2916
= 933 N sf
Kr
3.1254
Kr =
N sf
2
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
BHN = 429
Table 15.3, scd = 190 ksi
Table 15.4, steel and steel, Ce = 2800
D p = 4 in
b = 2 in
Assume Cl = 1.0 , K t = 1.0
Fig. 15.7, N p = 20 , N g = 60
I = 0.083

Page 16 of 17
SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

2
(190,000 ) 1
2
3058
( )( )(
Fw = 4 2 0.083 ) =
(2800 )2 (1)(Cr ) Cr2
Fd = Fw
3058
933 N sf =
Cr2
1.810
Cr =
N sf

N sf = 1.0
3.1254 3.1254
For strength, K r = = = 3.1254
N sf 1
1.810 1.810
For wear, Cr = = = 1.810
N sf 1

## (b) Table 15.2, light shock source, heavy shock driven

N sf = 2.0
3.1254 3.1254
For strength, K r = = = 1.5627
N sf 2
1.810 1.810
For wear, Cr = = = 1.2799
N sf 2

- end -

Page 17 of 17
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

791. (a) Determine a standard circular pitch and face width for a worm gear drive with
an input of 2 hp at 1200 rpm of the triple-threaded worm; the 1.58-in. ( Dw ) is
steel with a minimum BHN = 250; gear is manganese bronze (Table AT 3);
mw = 12 . Consider wear and strength only. Use a n to match the lead angle .

## (See i16.13, Text.) (b) compute the efficiency.

Solution:

1200 + vmg
a) Fd = Ft lb
1200
33,000hp
Ft =
vmg
Dg ng
vmg =
12
n 1200
ng = w = = 100 rpm
mw 12
Dg = mw Dw tan
N t Pc
tan =
Dw
N P N m P (3)(12)Pc
Dg = mw Dw t c = t w c = = 11.46 Pc
Dw
(11.45Pc )(100)
vmg = = 300 Pc
12
33,000(2 ) 220
Ft = =
300 Pc Pc
1200 + 300 Pc 220 55(4 + Pc )
Fd = = lb
1200 Pc Pc
Fw = Dg bK w
say b = 2 Pc ,
Dg = 11.46 Pc

Fw = Fd

## (11.46 Pc )(2 Pc )(K w ) = 55(4 + Pc )

Pc
55(4 + Pc )
22.92 Pc2 K w =
Pc

Page 1 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

Dg 11.46 Pc
tan = = = 0.60443Pc
mw Dw (12)(1.58)

## By trial and error and using Table AT 27 ( n )

Kw Pc Pc (std) max i16.11 n
36 0.678 24.4 16 14
50 0.605 5/8 20.7 25 20

5
Use n = 20o , = 20.7o , Pc = in
8
Fw = Fd

## (11.46 Pc )(b )(K w ) = 55(4 + Pc )

Pc
5
55 4 +
(11.46) 5 (b)(50) = 5 8
8
8
b = 1.1365 in
5
say b = 1 in
32
To check for strength.
sYbPcn sYbPc cos
Fs = =

For manganese bronze,
s = 30,000 psi

n = 20o
Y = 0.392
= 20.7o
5
Pc = in
8
5
b = 1 in
32
(30,000)(0.392)1 5 5
cos 20.7
Fs = 32 8 = 2530 lb > Fd

5
use Pc = in
8
5
b =1 in
32

Page 2 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

cos n f tan
(b) e = tan
cos n tan + f
n = 20o
= 20.7o
Dwnw (1.58)(1200 )
vr = = = 531 fpm > 70 fpm
12 cos 12 cos 20.7
0.32 0.32
f = = = 0.0334
0.36
vr (531)0.36
cos 20 0.0334 tan 20.7
e = tan 20.7 = 0.902 = 90.2%
cos 20 tan 20.7 + 0.0334

## 792. A high-efficiency worm-gear speed reducer is desired, to accept 20 hp from a

1750-rpm motor. The diameter Dw of the integral worm has been estimated to be
7
1 in. ; the next computations are to be for a steel worm with a minimum BHN =
8
250; phosphor-bronze gear (Table AT 3); mw = 11 . Probably, the worm should
not have less than 4 threads. (a) Considering wear and strength only (i16.13),

decide upon a pitch and face width that satisfies these requirements (i16.11,
Text); specifying the pressure angle, diameters, and center distance. How does
Dw used compare with that from equation (m), i16.11, Text? What addendum
and dedendum are recommended by Dudley? Compute a face length for the
worm. (b) Compute the efficiency. What do you recommend as the next trial for
a better reducer?

Solution:
33,000hp
Ft =
vmg
Dg ng
vmg =
12
n 1750
ng = w = = 159.1 rpm
mw 11
PN Pm N P (11)(4 )
Dg = c g = c w t = c = 14 Pc

(14 Pc )(159.1)
vmg = = 583Pc
12
33,000(20 ) 1132
Ft = =
583Pc Pc

Page 3 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

1200 + vmg
Fd = Ft lb
1200
1200 + 583Pc 1132 1132(1 + 0.4858 Pc )
Fd = = lb
1200 Pc Pc

(a) Wear
Fw = Dg bK w
b = 2 Pc ,
Dg = 14 Pc

Fw = Fd

## (14 Pc )(2 Pc )(K w ) = 1132(1 + 0.4858Pc )

Pc
1132(1 + 0.4858 Pc )
28 Pc2 K w =
Pc
Table AT 27, steel, min. BHN = 250, and bronze
And by trial and error ethod
NP 4(Pc )
tan = t c = = 0.6791Pc
Dw ( )(1.875)

## By trial and error and using Table AT 27

Kw Pc Pc (std) max i16.11 n
36 1.213 1 40.33 16 14
50 1.071 1 40.33 25 20
60 1.000 1.0 34.18 35 25

Fw = Fd

Pc

1
b = 2 in

## To check for strength

sYbPcn sYbPc cos
Fs = =

For phosphor-bronze,
s = sn = 31,000 psi

Page 4 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

## For n = 25o , Y = 0.470

Fs =
(31,000)(0.470 )(2.0)(1.0)cos 34.18 = 7674 lb > F , ok
d

use Pc = 1.0 in
b = 2.0 in
n = 25o
7
Dw = 1 in
8
7
Dg = mw Dw tan = (11)1 tan 34.18 = 14.0 in
8
1 1 7
C = (Dw + Dg ) = 1 + 14 = 7.9375 in
2 2 8
Equation (m)

Dw =
C 0.875
in =
(7.9375)0.875 = 2.785 in > 1.875 in , ok
2 .2 2 .2

## Addendum = a = 0.3183Pcn = 0.3183Pc cos = 0.3183(1.0) cos 34.18 = 0.2633 in

Whole depth = 0.7 Pcn = 0.7 Pc cos = 0.7(1.0)cos 34.18 = 0.5791 in
Dedendum = whole depth addendum = 0.5791 in 0.2633 in = 0.3158 in

N
Face length = Pc 4.5 + g
50
N g = mw N p = (11)(4 ) = 44
44
Face length = 1.0 4.5 + = 5.38 in
50
Or
[
Face length = 2 2a(Dg 2a ) ]
1
2

Dg = 14 in
a = 0.2633 in
1
Face length = 2{2(0.2633)[14 2(0.2633)]} 2 = 5.33 in
Use Face length = 5.38 in

cos n f tan
(b) e = tan
cos n tan + f
Dwnw (1.875)(1750 )
vr = = = 1038 fpm > 70 fpm
12 cos 12 cos 34.18

Page 5 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

0.32 0.32
f = = = 0.0263 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )
0.36
vr (1038)0.36
n = 25o , = 34.18o ,
cos 25 0.0263 tan 34.18
e = tan 34.18 = 0.94 = 94%
cos 25 tan 34.18 + 0.0263
recommendation for next trial
n = 30o
max = 45o

793. The input to a worm-gear set is to be 25 hp at 600 rpm of the worm with
m w = 20 . The hardened-steel worm is to be the shell type with a diameter
approximately as given in i16.11, Text, and a minimum of 4 threads; the gear is
to be chilled phosphor bronze (Table AT 3). (a) Considering wear and strength
only determine suitable values of the pitch and face width. Let n be appropriate
to the value of . (b) Compute the efficiency. (c) Estimate the radiating area of
the case and compute the temperature rise of lubricant. Is special cooling needed?

Solution:
33,000hp
Ft =
vmg
Dg ng
vmg =
12
n 600
ng = w = = 30 rpm
mw 20
PN Pm N P (20 )(4 ) 80 Pc
Dg = c g = c w t = c =

80 Pc
(30)
vmg =
= 200 Pc
12
33,000(25) 4125
Ft = =
200 Pc Pc
1200 + vmg
Fd = Ft lb
1200
1200 + 200 Pc 4125 687.5(6 + Pc )
Fd = = lb
1200 Pc Pc
shell type: Dw = 2.4 Pc + 1.1 in
NP
tan = t c =
(4)Pc =
4 Pc
Dw ( )(2.4 Pc + 1.1) (2.4 Pc + 1.1)

Page 6 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

Fw = Dg bK w
b = 2 Pc ,
80 Pc
Dg =

Fw = Fd
80 Pc 687.5(6 + Pc )
(2 Pc )(K w ) =
Pc
687.5(6 + Pc )
50.93Pc2 K w =
Pc
Table AT 27, Hardened steel and chilled bronze
By trial and error method

## By trial and error and using Table AT 27 ( n )

Kw Pc Pc (std) max i16.11 n
90 1.017 1.0 20 16 14
125 0.907 1.0 20 25 20

## Use n = 20o , = 20o , Pc = 1 in

Fw = Fd
80 1687.5(6 + 1)
(b )(125) =
1
b = 1.512 in
5
say b = 1 in
8
cos n f tan
(b) e = tan
cos n tan + f
n = 20o
= 20o
Dw = 2.4 Pc + 1.1 = 2.4 + 1.1 = 3.5 in
Dwnw (3.5)(600 )
vr = = = 585 fpm
12 cos 12 cos 20
0.32 0.32
f = 0.36 = = 0.0323 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )
vr (585)0.36
cos 20 0.0323 tan 20
e = tan 20 = 0.9023 = 90.23%
cos 20 tan 20 + 0.0323

Page 7 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

## (c) Radiating area Amin = 43.2C 1.7 sq. in.

1
C=
2
(Dw + Dg )
Dw = 3.5 in
80 Pc 80(1)
Dg = = = 25.5 in

1
C = (3.5 + 25.5) = 14.5 in
2
Amin = 43.2(14.5) = 4072 sq.in.
1.7

Temperature rise = t
Qc = hcr At ft lb min

## Q = (1 e )(hpi ) = (1 0.9023)(25) = 2.4425 hp(33,000 ft lb min hp ) = 80,600 ft lb min

Figure AF 21, A = 4072 sq.in. = 28.3 sq. ft.
hcr = 0.42 ft lb min sq.in. F
Q = Qc
80,600 = (0.42)(4072)(t )
t = 47 F
with t1 = 100 F
t2 = 147 F < 150 F
Therefore, no special cooling needed.

794. A 50-hp motor turning at 1750 rpm is to deliver its power to a worm-gear
reducer, whose velocity ratio is to be 20. The shell-type worm is to be made of
high-test cast iron; since a reasonably good efficiency is desired, use at least 4
threads; manganese bronze gear (Table AT 3). (a) Decide upon Dw and n , and
determine suitable values of the pitch and face width. Compute (b) the efficiency,
(c) the temperature rise of the lubricant. Estimate the radiating area of the case. Is
special cooling needed?

Solution:
33,000hp
Ft =
vmg
Dg ng
vmg =
12
n 1750
ng = w = = 87.5 rpm
mw 20
PN Pm N P (20 )(4 ) 80 Pc
Dg = c g = c w t = c =

Page 8 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

80 Pc
(87.5)
vmg =
= 583Pc
12
33,000(50 ) 2830
Ft = =
583Pc Pc

1200 + vmg
(a) Fd = Ft lb
1200
1200 + 583Pc 2830 1375(2.06 + Pc )
Fd = = lb
1200 Pc Pc
Fw = Dg bK w
b = 2 Pc ,
80 Pc
Dg =

Fw = Fd
80 Pc 1375(2.06 + Pc )
(2 Pc )(K w ) =
Pc
1375(2.06 + Pc )
50.93Pc2 K w =
Pc
NP
tan = t c
Dw
Shell-type
Dw = 2.4 Pc + 1.1 in
4 Pc
tan =
(2.4 Pc + 1.1)
Table AT 27, high-test cast-iron and manganese bronze
By trial and error and using Table AT 27 ( n )
Kw Pc Pc (std) max i16.11 n
80 1.012 1.0 20 16 14
115 0.885 7/8 19.2 25 20

7
Use = 19.2o , n = 20o , Pc = in
8
7
Dw = 2.4 Pc + 1.1 = 2.4 + 1.1 = 3.2 in
8
Fw = Fd

Page 9 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

7
1375 2.06 +
80 7 8
(b )(115) =
8 7
8
b = 1.80 in
7
say b = 1 in
8

cos n f tan
(b) e = tan
cos n tan + f
= 19.2o
n = 20o
Dwnw
vr =
12 cos
nw = 1750 rpm
Dw = 3.2 in
Dwnw (3.2 )(1750 )
vr = = = 1552 fpm
12 cos 12 cos19.2
0.32 0.32
f = 0.36 = = 0.0227 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )
vr (1552)0.36
cos 20 0.0227 tan 19.2
e = tan 19.2 = 0.9273 = 92.73%
cos 20 tan 19.2 + 0.0227

## (c) Q = (1 e )(hpi ) = (1 0.9273)(50 ) = 3.635 hp = 119,955 ft lb min

Qc = hcr At ft lb min
A = Amin = 43.2C1.7 sq.in.
1
C = (Dw + Dg )
2
Dw = 3.2 in
7
80
= = 22.3 in
80 Pc 8
Dg =

1
C = (3.2 + 22.35) = 12.75 in
2
A = 43.2(12.75) = 3272 sq.in.
1.7

Figure AF 1
3272
A= = 22.7 ft 2
144
hcr = 0.43 ft lb min sq.in. F

Page 10 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

Q = Qc
119,955 = (0.43)(3272)(t )
t = 85 F
with t1 = 100 F
t2 = 185 F > 150 F
Therefore, special cooling is needed.

CHECK PROBLEMS

## 795. A worm-gear speed reducer has a hardened-steel worm and a manganese-bronze

gear (Table AT 3); triple-threaded worm with Pc = 1.15278 in. , Dw = 3.136 in. ,
1
n = 25o , b = 2 in. , mw = 12 , nw = 580 rpm . The output is 16 hp. Compute (a)
4
the dynamic load, (b) the endurance strength of the teeth and the indicated
service factor on strength, (c) the limiting wear load (is it good for indefinitely
continuous service?), (d) the efficiency and input hp, (e) the temperature rise of
the oil (estimate case area as Amin , i16.6). (f) Determine the tangential and radial
components of the tooth load. (g) Is this drive self-locking?

Solution:
33,000hp
Ft =
vmg
Dg ng
vmg =
12
nw 580
ng = = = 48.3 rpm
mw 20
PN P m N (1.15278)(12 )(3)
Dg = c g = c w t = = 13.21 in

(13.21)(48.3)
vmg = = 167 fpm
12

1200 + vmg
(a) Fd = Ft
1200
1200 + 167
Fd = Ft
1200
33,000(16 )
Ft = = 3162 lb
167
1200 + 167
Fd = (3162 ) = 3602 lb
1200

Page 11 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

## sYbPcn sYbPc cos

(b) Fs = =

N P (3)(1.15278)
tan = t c =
Dw (3.136 )
= 19.34o
For manganese-bronze, s = sn = 30,000 psi
For n = 25o , Y = 0.470

(30,000)(0.470) 2 1 (1.15278)cos19.34
Fs = 4 = 10,984 lb

Service factor
F 10,984
N sf = s = = 3.05
Fd 3602
(c) Fw = Dg bK w
Dg = 13.21 in
b = 2.25 in
Table AT 27, hardened-steel worn and manganese bronze gear
n = 25o
K w = 100
Fw = (13.21)(2.25)(100) = 2972 lb < Fd (= 3602 lb )
Therefore, not good for indefinitely continuous service

cos n f tan
(d) e = tan
cos n tan + f
Dwnw (1.15278)(580 )
vr = = = 185.5 fpm
12 cos 12 cos19.34
0.32 0.32
f = 0.36 = = 0.0488 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )
vr (185.5)0.36
cos 25 0.0488 tan 19.34
e = tan 19.34 = 0.85 = 85%
cos 25 tan 19.34 + 0.0488
hp 16 hp
hpi = o = = 18.82 hp
e 0.85

## Q = (1 e )(hpi ) = (1 0.85)(18.82)(33,000 ) = 93,159 ft lb min

Qc = hcr At ft lb min
A = Amin = 43.2C1.7 sq.in.

Page 12 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

1
C=
2
(Dw + Dg )
1
C = (1.15278 + 13.21) = 7.18 in
2
A = 43.2(7.18) = 1233 sq.in.
1.7

Figure AF 1
1233
A= = 8.6 ft 2
144
hcr = 0.47 ft lb min sq.in. F
Q = Qc
93,159 = (0.47 )(1233)(t )
t = 161 F

## (f) Tangential components on the worm

cos n sin + f cos
= 3162
cos 25 sin 19.34 + 0.0488 cos19.34
Wt = Ft = 1305 lb
cos n cos f sin cos 25 cos19.34 0.0488 sin 19.34

on the gear
Ft = 3162 lb

Ft sin n 3162 sin 25
S= = = 1593 lb
cos n cos f sin cos 25 cos19.34 0.0488 sin 19.34

## 797. A worm-gear speed reducer has a hardened-steel worm and a phosphor-bronze

gear. The lead angle of the 5-threaded worm = 28o57' , Pc = 1.2812 in. ,
1
n = 25o , b = 2 in. , mw = 8 ; worm speed = 1750 rpm. The gear case is 35 3/8
2
in. high, 22 in. wide, 14 in. deep. Compute (a) the efficiency, (b) the limiting
wear load, the strength load, and the corresponding safe input and output
horsepowers. (c) The manufacturer rates this reducer at 53-hp input. Is this rating
conservative or risky? (d) What is the calculated temperature rise of the oil with
no special cooling? (e) The manufacturer specifies that for continuous service
power should not exceed 36.5 hp if there is to be no artificial cooling and if t is
to be less than 90 F. Make calculations and decide whether the vendor is on the
safe side. (Data courtesy of the Cleveland Worm Gear Co.)

Solution:

Page 13 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

cos n f tan
(a) e = tan
cos n tan + f
= 28o57' = 28.95o
n = 25o
Dwnw
vr =
12 cos
nw = 1750 rpm
N P
Dg = g c

N g = mw N t = (8)(5) = 40

Dg =
(40)(1.2812) = 16.31 in

NP
tan = t c
Dw
tan 28.95 =
(5)(1.2812)
Dw
Dw = 3.686 in
(3.686 )(150 )
vr = = 1923 fpm
12 cos 28o57'
0.32 0.32
f = 0.36 = = 0.0210 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )
vr (1923)0.36
cos 25 0.0210 tan 28.95
e = tan 28.95 = 0.9475 = 94.75%
cos 25 tan 28.95 + 0.0210

(b) Fw = Dg bK w
Dg = 16.31 in
b = 2.5 in
Table AT 27, hardened-steel worn and phosphor bronze gear
n = 25o
K w = 100
Fw = (16.31)(2.5)(100) = 4078 lb

## sYbPcn sYbPc cos

Fs = =

For phosphor-bronze, s = sn = 31,000 psi
For n = 25o , Y = 0.470

Fs =
(31,000)(0.470 )(2.5)(1.2812 )cos 28.95 = 13,000 lb

Page 14 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

## For safe input and output

1200 + vmg
Fd = Ft
1200
Dg ng
vmg =
12
n 1750
ng = w = = 218.75 rpm
mw 8
(16.31)(218.75)
vmg = = 934 fpm
12
Fw = Fd
1200 + 934
4078 = Ft
1200
Ft = 2293 lb
Fv
safe output = hpo = t mg =
(2293)(934) = 64.9 hp
33,000 33,000
hp 64.9
safe input = hpi = o = = 68.5 hp
e 0.9475

## (d) Q = (1 e )(hpi ) = (1 0.9475)(68.5)(33,000) = 118,676 ft lb min

Qc = hcr At ft lb min
A = 2[(22)(14) + (22)(35.375)] = 2172.5 sq.in.
Figure AF 1
2172.5
A= = 15 ft 2
144
hcr = 0.45 ft lb min sq.in. F
Q = Qc
118,676 = (0.45)(2172.5)(t )
t = 121.4 F

(e) t = 90 F
hpi t
=
hpi t
hpi 90
=
68.5 124
hpi = 50.8 hp
Since 36.5 hp < 50.8 hp, therefore on the safe side.

Page 15 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

HEATING

799. The input to a worm-gear reducer is 50.5 hp at 580 rpm of the 4-threaded worm.
The gear case is 22 x 31 x 45 in. in size; n = 25o , Pc = 1.5 in , Dw = 4.432 in ,
f = 0.035 , room temperature = 80 F. Compute the steady-state temperature for
average cooling.

Solution:
NP 4(1.5)
tan = t c =
Dw (4.432 )
= 23.3o
cos n f tan
e = tan
cos n tan + f
cos 25 0.035 tan 23.3
e = tan 23.3 = 0.9025
cos 25 tan 23.3 + 0.035
Q = (1 e )(hpi ) = (1 0.9025)(50.5)(33,000) = 162,484 ft lb min
Qc = hcr At ft lb min
A = 2[(22)(31) + (31)(45)] = 4154 sq.in.
Figure AF 1
4154
A= = 28.85 ft 2
144
hcr = 0.42 ft lb min sq.in. F
Q = Qc
162,484 = (0.42)(4154 )(t )
t = 93 F
t1 = 80 F
t2 = 173 F

## 801. A hardened-steel, 4-threaded worm drives a bronze gear; Dw = 1.875 in ,

Dg 14 in , Pc = 1.0 in , n = 25o , area of case 1500 sq.in. , vr 1037 fpm ;
input = 20 hp at 1750 rpm of the worm; room temperature = 80 F. Compute the
steady-state temperature of the lubricant for average ventilation.

Solution:
NP 4(1.0 )
tan = t c =
Dw (1.875)
= 34.2o
0.32 0.32
f = = = 0.0263 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )
0.36
vr (1037 )0.36

Page 16 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

cos n f tan
e = tan
cos n tan + f
cos 25 0.0263 tan 34.2
e = tan 34.2 = 0.94
cos 25 tan 34.2 + 0.0263
Q = (1 e )(hpi ) = (1 0.94)(20)(33,000) = 39,600 ft lb min
Qc = hcr At ft lb min
A = 1500 sq.in.
Figure AF 1
1500
A= = 10.4 ft 2
144
hcr = 0.46 ft lb min sq.in. F
Q = Qc
39,600 = (0.46 )(1500)(t )
t = 57 F
t1 = 80 F
t2 = 137 F

## 802. The input to a 4-threaded worm is measured to be 20.8 hp; Pc = 1.0 in , Dw = 2 in ,

n = 25o . The area of the case is closely 1800 sq. in.; ambient temperature = 100
F; oil temperature = 180 F. Operation is at a steady thermal state. Compute the
indicated coefficient of friction.

Solution:
Qc = hcr At ft lb min
Figure AF 1
1800
A= = 12.5 ft 2
144
hcr = 0.46 ft lb min sq.in. F
A = 1800 sq.in.
t = 180 100 = 80 F
Qc = hcr At = (0.46)(1800)(80) = 66,240 ft lb min
Q = (1 e )(hpi )(33,000) ft lb min
Q = Qc
(1 e)(hpi )(33,000) = 66,240
e = 0.9035
cos n f tan
e = tan
cos n tan + f

Page 17 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

N t Pc 4(1.0 )
tan = =
Dw (2 )
= 32.5o
cos 25 f tan 32.5
0.9035 = tan 32.5
cos 25 tan 32.5 + f
0.5217 + 0.9035 f = 0.5774 0.4059 f
f = 0.0425

FORCE ANALYSIS

1
804. The input to a 4-threaded worm is 21 hp at 1750 rpm; e = 90% , Dw = 2 in ,
4
o
Dg = 14 in , N g = 44 , n = 25 . (a) From the horsepowers in and out, compute
the tangential forces on the worm Wt and the gear Ft . (b) Using this value of Ft ,
compute Wt from equation (k), i16.8, Text. (Check?) (c) Compute the separating
force. (d) What is the end thrust on the worm shaft? On the gear shaft?

Solution:
hpi = 21 hp
hpo = (hpi )(e ) = (21)(0.90) = 18.9 hp
N Dg
mw = g =
N t Dw tan
44 14
=
4 1
2 tan
4
= 29.5o
cos n f tan
e = tan
cos n tan + f
cos 25 f tan 29.5
0.90 = tan 29.5
cos 25 tan 29.5 + f
0.4615 + 0.90 f = 0.5128 0.32 f
f = 0.0420
Dg ng
vmg =
12
ng N t
=
nw N g

Page 18 of 19
SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

ng 4
=
1750 44
ng = 159 rpm
(14)(159)
vmg = = 583 fpm
12

33,000hpo 33,000(18.9)
(a) Ft = = = 1070 lb
vmg 583
33,000hpi
Wt =
vw
D n (2.25)(1750)
vw = w w = = 1031 fpm
12 12
33,000(21)
Wt = = 672 lb
1031

## cos n sin + f cos

= 1070
cos 25 sin 29.5 + 0.0420 cos 29.5
(b) Wt = Ft = 672 lb
cos n cos f sin cos 25 cos 29.5 0.0420 sin 29.5
Ft sin n 1070 sin 25
(c) S = = = 589 lb
cos n cos f sin cos 25 cos 29.5 0.0420 sin 29.5
(d) End thrust
Worm shaft = Ft = 1070 lb
Gear shaft = Wt = 672 lb

- end -

Page 19 of 19
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

LEATHER BELTS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

## 841. A belt drive is to be designed for F1 F2 = 3 , while transmitting 60 hp at 2700

rpm of the driver D1 ; mw 1.85 ; use a medium double belt, cemented joint, a
squirrel-cage, compensator-motor drive with mildly jerking loads; center distance
is expected to be about twice the diameter of larger pulley. (a) Choose suitable
iron-pulley sizes and determine the belt width for a maximum permissible
s = 300 psi . (b) How does this width compare with that obtained by the ALBA
procedure? (c) Compute the maximum stress in the straight port of the ALBA
belt. (d) If the belt in (a) stretches until the tight tension F1 = 525 lb ., what is
F1 F2 ?

Solution:

## (a) Table 17.1, Medium Double Ply,

Select D1 = 7 in . min.
20
t= in
64
D n (7 )(2700)
vm = 1 1 = = 4948 fpm
12 12
4000 fpm < 4948 fpm < 6000 fpm

hp = 1
(F F2 )vm
33,000
60 = 1
(F F2 )(4948)
33,000
F1 F2 = 400 lb
F1 = 3F2
3F2 F2 = 400 lb
F2 = 200 lb
F1 = 3F2 = 3(200) = 600 lb
F1 = sbt
sd = 300
For cemented joint, = 1.0
sd = 300 psi
20
F1 = 600 = (300 )(b )
64
b = 6.4 in
say b = 6.5 in

Page 1 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

## (b) ALBA Procedure

hp = (hp in., Table 17.1)(bCmC p )(C f1 C f 2 L)
Table 17.1, vm = 4948 fpm
Medium Double Ply
hp in = 12.448
Table 17.2
Squirrel cage, compensator, starting
Cm = 0.67
Pulley Size, D1 = 7 in
C p = 0 .6
Jerky loads, C f = 0.83
hp = 60 = (12.448)(b )(0.67 )(0.6)(0.83)
b = 14.5 in
say b = 15 in

F1 600
(c) s = = = 128 psi
bt 20
(1)(15)
64

1 1 1 1 1
(d) 2 Fo2 = F12 + F22 = (600)2 + (200)2
Fo = 373.2 lb
F1 = 525 lb
1 1 1
2(373.2) = (525) + F
2 2
2
2

F2 = 247 lb
F1 525
= = 2.1255
F2 247

842. A 20-hp, 1750 rpm, slip-ring motor is to drive a ventilating fan at 330 rpm. The
horizontal center distance must be about 8 to 9 ft. for clearance, and operation is
continuous, 24 hr./day. (a) What driving-pulley size is needed for a speed
recommended as about optimum in the Text? (b) Decide upon a pulley size (iron
or steel) and belt thickness, and determine the belt width by the ALBA tables. (c)
Compute the stress from the general belt equation assuming that the applicable
coefficient of friction is that suggested by the Text. (d) Suppose the belt is
installed with an initial tension Fo = 70 lb in . (17.10), compute F1 F2 and the
stress on the tight side if the approximate relationship of the operating tensions
1 1 1
and the initial tensions is F1 + F = 2 F .
2
2
2
o
2

Page 2 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Solution:
vm = 4000 to 4500 fpm
assume vm = 4250 fpm
D n
vm = 1 1
12
D (1750 )
4250 = 1
12
D1 = 9.26 in
say D1 = 10 in

23
(b) Using Heavy Double Ply Belt, t = in
64
Minimum pulley diameter for vm 4250 fpm , D1 = 10 in
Use D1 = 10 in
D n (10 )(1750)
vm = 1 1 = = 4581 fpm
12 12
ALBA Tables
(
hp = (hp in., Table 17.1)(bCmC p ) C f1 C f 2 L )
hp in = 13.8
Slip ring motor, Cm = 0.4
Pulley Size, D1 = 10 in
C p = 0 .7
Table 17.7, 24 hr/day, continuous
N sf = 1.8
Assume C f = 0.74
hp = (1.8)(20) = (13.8)(b )(0.4)(0.7 )(0.74 )
b = 12.59 in
use b = 13 in

## (c) General belt equation

12 vs2 e f 1
F1 F2 = bt s
32.2 e f
4581
vs = = 76.35 fps
60
= 0.035 lb cu. in. for leather
23
t= in
64
b = 13 in

Page 3 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

33,000(1.8)(20 )
F1 F2 = = 260 lb
4581
f = 0.3 on iron or steel
D D1
2
C
C = 8 ~ 9 ft use 8.5 ft
1750
D2 = (10 ) = 53 in
330
53 10
8.5(12 )
f = (0.3)(2.72) = 0.816
e f 1 e 0.816 1
= 0.816 = 0.5578
e f e
23 12(0.035)(76.35)
2
F1 F2 = 260 = (13) s (0.5578)
64 32.2
s = 176 psi

1 1 1
(d) F1 2 + F22 = 2 Fo2
Fo = (70 lb in )(13 in ) = 910 lb
F1 F2 = 260 lb
F2 = F1 260 lb
1 1 1
F1 + (F1 260)2 = 2(910)2 = 60.33
2

F1 = 1045 lb
F2 = 1045 260 = 785 lb

F11045
s= = = 224 psi
bt 23
(13)
64
F1 1045
= = 1.331
F2 785

## 843. A 100-hp squirrel-cage, line-starting electric motor is used to drive a Freon

reciprocating compressor and turns at 1140 rpm; for the cast-iron motor pulley,
D1 = 16 in ; D2 = 53 in , a flywheel; cemented joints;l C = 8 ft . (a) Choose an
appropriate belt thickness and determine the belt width by the ALBA tables. (b)
Using the design stress of 17.6, compute the coefficient of friction that would be
needed. Is this value satisfactory? (c) Suppose that in the beginning, the initial
tension was set so that the operating F1 F2 = 2 . Compute the maximum stress in
a straight part. (d) The approximate relation of the operating tensions and the

Page 4 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

1 1 1
initial tension Fo is F1 + F = 2 F . For the condition in (c), compute Fo . Is it
2
2
2
o
2

## reasonable compared to Taylors recommendation?

Solution:
(a) Table 17.1
D n (16)(1140 )
vm = 1 1 = = 4775 fpm
12 12
Use heavy double-ply belt
23
t= in
64
hp in = 14.1
(
hp = (hp in., Table 17.1)(bCmC p ) C f1 C f 2 L)
line starting electric motor , Cm = 0.5
Table 17.7, squirrel-cage, electric motor, line starting, reciprocating compressor
N sf = 1.4
D1 = 16 in , C p = 0.8
assume, C f = 0.74
hp = (1.4)(100) = 140 hp
hp = 140 = (14.1)(b )(0.5)(0.8)(0.74)
b = 33.5 in
use b = 34 in

## (b) 17.6, sd = 400

= 1.00 for cemented joint.
sd = 400 psi
12 vs2 e f 1
F1 F2 = bt s
32.2 e f
4775
vs = = 79.6 fps
60
= 0.035 lb cu. in. for leather
23
t= in
64
b = 34 in
33,000(1.4 )(100 )
F1 F2 = = 968 lb
4775
23 12(0.035)(79.6 ) e f 1
2
F1 F2 = 968 = (34 ) 400 f
64 32.2 e

Page 5 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

e f 1
= 0.2496
e f
f = 0.28715
D D1
2
C
C = 8 ft
53 16
8(12)
f (2.7562) = 0.28715
f = 0.1042 < 0.3
Therefore satisfactory.

(c) F1 F2 = 968 lb
F1 = 2F2
2 F2 F2 = 968 lb
F1 = 2 F2 = 2(968) = 1936 lb
F 1936
s= 1 = = 159 psi
bt 23
(34)
64

## (d) F1 = 1936 lb , F2 = 968 lb

1 1 1
2 Fo2 = F12 + F22
1 1 1
2 F = (1936)2 + (968)2
o
2

Fo = 1411 lb

1411
Fo = = 41.5 lb in of width is less than Taylors recommendation and is reasonable.
34

## 844. A 50-hp compensator-started motor running at 585 rpm drives a reciprocating

compressor for a 40-ton refrigerating plant, flat leather belt, cemented joints. The
diameter of the fiber driving pulley is 13 in., D2 = 70 in ., a cast-iron flywheel;
C = 6 ft.11 in. Because of space limitations, the belt is nearly vertical; the
surroundings are quite moist. (a) Choose a belt thickness and determine the width
by the ALBA tables. (b) Using recommendations in the Text, compute s from
the general belt equation. (c) With this value of s , compute F1 and F1 F2 . (d)
1 1 1
Approximately, F1 2 + F22 = 2 Fo2 , where Fo is the initial tension. For the
condition in (c), what should be the initial tension? Compare with Taylor, 17.10.
(e) Compute the belt length. (f) The data are from an actual drive. Do you have
any recommendations for redesign on a more economical basis?

Page 6 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Solution:
D1n1 (13)(865)
(a) vm = = = 2944 fpm
12 12
Table 17.1, use Heavy Double Ply,
Dmin = 9 in for vm = 2944 fpm
belts less than 8 in wide
23
t= in
64

( )
hp = (hp in., Table 17.1)(bCmC p ) C f1 C f 2 L
hp in = 9.86
Table 17.2
Cm = 0.67
C p = 0 .8
C f = (0.74 )(0.80 ) = 0.592
Table 17.7, electric motor, compensator-started (squirrel cage) and reciprocating
compressor
N sf = 1.4
hp = (1.4)(50) = 70 hp
hp = 70 = (9.86)(b )(0.67 )(0.8)(0.592 )
b = 22.4 in
use b = 25 in

## (b) General Belt Equation

12 vs2 e f 1
F1 F2 = bt s
32.2 e f
b = 25 in
23
t= in
64
= 0.035 lb cu. in. for leather
2944
vs = = 49.1 fps
60
Leather on iron, f = 0.3
D D1
= 2
C
70 13
6(12)
f = (0.3)(2.35) = 0.705

Page 7 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

e f 1 e 0.705 1
= 0.705 = 0.5059
e f e
33,000(1.4 )(50 )
F1 F2 = = 785 lb
2944
23 12(0.035)(49.1)
2
F1 F2 = 785 = (25) s (0.5059 )
64 32.2
s = 204 psi
Cemented joint, = 1.0
s = 204 psi

23
(c) F1 = sbt = (204 )(25) = 1833 lb
64
F2 = 1833 785 = 1048 lb
F1 1833
= = 1.749
F2 1048

1 1 1
(d) 2 Fo2 = F12 + F22
1 1 1
2 F = (1833)2 + (1048)2
o
2

Fo = 1413 lb

1413
Fo = = 56.5 lb in
25
Approximately less than Taylors recommendation ( = 70 lb/in.)

(e) L 2C + 1.57(D2 + D1 ) +
(D2 D1 )2
4C

## L = 2(6 )(12) + 1.57(70 + 13) +

(70 13)
2
= 286 in
4(6)(12)
(f) More economical basis
D n
vm = 1 1
12
D (865)
4500 = 1
12
D1 = 19.87 in
use D1 = 20 in

Page 8 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

CHECK PROBLEMS

846. An exhaust fan in a wood shop is driven by a belt from a squirrel-cage motor that
runs at 880 rpm, compensator started. A medium double leather belt, 10 in. wide
is used; C = 54 in .; D1 = 14 in . (motor), D2 = 54 in ., both iron. (a) What
horsepower, by ALBA tables, may this belt transmit? (b) For this power,
compute the stress from the general belt equation. (c) For this stress, what is
F1 F2 ? (d) If the belt has stretched until s = 200 psi on the tight side, what is
F1 F2 ? (e) Compute the belt length.

Solution:

## (a) For medium double leather belt

20
t= in
64
hp = (hp in )(b )CmC pC f
Table 17.1 and 17.2
Cm = 0.67
C p = 0 .8
C f = 0.74
b = 10 in
D n (14)(880)
vm = 1 1 = = 3225 fpm
12 12
hp in = 6.6625
hp = (6.6625)(10)(0.67 )(0.8)(0.74) = 26.43 hp

12 vs2 e f 1
(b) F1 F2 = bt s
32.2 e f
b = 10 in
20
t= in
64
= 0.035 lb cu. in.
3225
vs = = 53.75 fps
60
D D1
= 2
C
54 14
54
Leather on iron f = 0.3
f = (0.3)(2.4) = 0.72

Page 9 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

e f 1 e 0.72 1
= 0.72 = 0.51325
e f e
33,000(26.43)
F1 F2 = = 270 lb
3225
20 12(0.035)(53.75)
2
F1 F2 = 270 = (10 ) s (0.51325)
64 32.2
s = 206 psi

20
(c) F1 = sbt = (206 )(10 ) = 644 lb
64
F2 = 644 270 = 374 lb
F1 644
= = 1.72
F2 374

## (d) s = 200 psi

20
F1 = sbt = (200 )(10 ) = 625 lb
64
F2 = 625 270 = 355 lb
F1 625
= = 1.76
F2 355

(e) L 2C + 1.57(D2 + D1 ) +
( D2 D1 )
2

4C

## L = 2(54) + 1.57(54 + 14) +

(54 14)2 = 222 in
4(54)

## 847. A motor is driving a centrifugal compressor through a 6-in. heavy, single-ply

leather belt in a dusty location. The 8-in motor pulley turns 1750 rpm;
D2 = 12 in . (compressor shaft); C = 5 ft . The belt has been designed for a net
belt pull of F1 F2 = 40 lb in of width and F1 F2 = 3 . Compute (a) the
horsepower, (b) the stress in tight side. (c) For this stress, what needed value of
f is indicated by the general belt equation? (d) Considering the original
data,what horsepower is obtained from the ALBA tables? Any remarks?

Solution:
D1n1 (8)(1750)
(a) vm = = = 3665 fpm
12 12
b = 6 in
F1 F2 = (40)(6) = 240 lb

Page 10 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

hp =
(F1 F2 )vm = (240)(3665) = 26.65 hp
33,000 33,000

(b) F1 = 3F2
3F2 F2 = 240 lb
F2 = 120 lb
F1 = 360 lb
F
s= 1
bt
For heavy single-ply leather belt
13
t= in
64
360
s= = 295 psi
13
(6)
64

12 vs2 e f 1
(c) F1 F2 = bt s
32.2 e f
= 0.035 lb cu. in.
3665
vs = = 61.1 fps
60
F1 F2 = 240 lb
13 12(0.035)(61.1) e f 1
2
F1 F2 = 240 = (6 ) 295 f
64 32.2 e
e f 1
= 0.7995
e f
D D1
= 2
C
12 8
5(12)
e f = 4.9875
f = 1.607
f (3.075) = 1.607
f = 0.5226

## (d) ALBA Tables (Table 17.1 and 17.2)

hp = (hp in )(b )CmC pC f
vm = 3665 fpm
hp in = 6.965

Page 11 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

b = 10 in
Cm = 1.0 (assumed)
C p = 0 .6
C f = 0.74

## hp = (6.965)(6)(1.0 )(0.6)(0.74) = 18.6 hp < 26.65 hp

848. A 10-in. medium double leather belt, cemented joints, transmits 60 hp from a 9-
in. paper pulley to a 15-in. pulley on a mine fab; dusty conditions. The
compensator-started motor turns 1750 rpm; C = 42 in . This is an actual
installation. (a) Determine the horsepower from the ALBA tables. (b) Using the
general equation, determine the horsepower for this belt. (c) Estimate the service
factor from Table 17.7 and apply it to the answer in (b). Does this result in better
or worse agreement of (a) and (b)? What is your opinion as to the life of the belt?

Solution:
D n (9 )(1750)
vm = 1 1 = = 4123 fpm
12 12
(a) hp = (hp in )(b )CmC pC f
Table 17.1 and 17.2
Medium double leather belt
20
t= in
64
vm = 4123 fpm
hp in = 11.15
Cm = 0.67
C p = 0 .7
C f = 0.74
b = 10 in
hp = (11.15)(10)(0.67 )(0.7 )(0.74) = 38.7 hp

12 vs2 e f 1
(b) F1 F2 = bt s f
32.2 e
b = 10 in
= 0.035 lb cu. in.
s = 400
= 1.0 cemented joint
s = 400 psi
D D1
= 2
C

Page 12 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

15 9
42
Leather on paper pulleys, f = 0.5
f = (0.5)(2.9987 ) = 1.5
e f 1
= 0.77687
e f
4123
vs = = 68.72 fps
60
20 12(0.035)(68.72 )
2
F1 F2 = (10 ) 400 (0.77687 ) = 822 lb
64 32.2
hp =
( F1 F2 )vm (822)(4123)
= = 102.7 hp
33,000 33,000

## (c) Table 17.7

N sf = 1.6
102.7
hp = = 64.2 hp < 102.7 hp
1 .6
Therefore, better agreement

## Life of belt, not continuous, 60 hp > 38.7 hp .

MISCELLANEOUS

849. Let the coefficient of friction be constant. Find the speed at which a leather belt
may transmit maximum power if the stress in the belt is (a) 400 psi, (b) 320 psi.
(c) How do these speeds compare with those mentioned in 17.9, Text? (d)
Would the corresponding speeds for a rubber belt be larger or smaller? (HINT:
Try the first derivative of the power with respect to velocity.)

Solution:
12 vs2 e f 1
F1 F2 = bt s
32.2 e f

hp = 1
(F F2 )vm
33,000
60(F1 F2 )vs
hp =
33,000
60vs bt 12 vs2 e f 1
hp = s
33,000 32.2 e f
60bt e f 1 12 vs2
hp = s v s
33,000 e f 32.2

Page 13 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

## d (hp ) 60bt e f 1 12 vs2 24 vs2

= s =0
d (vs ) 33,000 e f 32.2 32.2
36 vs2
s=
32.2
= 0.035 lb cu. in.

36(0.035)vs2
400 =
32.2
vs = 101.105 fps
vm = 6066 fpm

36(0.035)vs2
320 =
32.2
vs = 90.431 fps
vm = 5426 fpm

## (a) s = 400 psi

36(0.045)vs2
400 =
32.2
vs = 89.166 fps
vm = 5350 fpm < 6066 fpm

## Therefore, speeds for a rubber belt is smaller.

850. A 40-in. pulley transmits power to a 20-in. pulley by means of a medium double
leather belt, 20 in. wide; C = 14 ft , let f = 0.3 . (a) What is the speed of the 40-in
pulley in order to stress the belt to 300 psi at zero power? (b) What maximum
horsepower can be transmitted if the indicated stress in the belt is 300 psi? What
is the speed of the belt when this power is transmitted? (See HINT in 849).

Solution:
12 vs2 e f 1
F1 F2 = bt s f
32.2 e

Page 14 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

60(F1 F2 )vs
hp =
33,000
60bt e f 1 12 vs2
hp = s v s
33,000 e f 32.2
d (hp ) 60bt e f 1 12 vs2 24 vs2
= s =0
d (vs ) 33,000 e f 32.2 32.2
36 vs2
s= for maximum power
32.2
(a) At zero power:

12 vs2
s=
32.2
s = 300 psi
= 0.035 lb cu. in.
12(0.035)vs2
300 =
32.2
vs = 151.6575 fps
vm = 9100 fpm

12vm 12(9100 )
Speed, 40 in pulley, n2 = = = 869 rpm
D2 (40)
(b) Maximum power
36 vs2
s=
32.2
36(0.035)vs2
300 =
32.2
vs = 87.5595 fps
vm = 5254 fpm
60bt e f 1 12 vs2
hp = s v s
33,000 e f 32.2
20
t= in
64
b = 20 in
D D1
= 2
C
40 20
14(12)
f = 0 .3

Page 15 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

f = (0.3)(3.0225) = 0.90675
e f 1
= 0.5962
e f
20
60(20)
64 (0.5962)300 12(0.035)(87.5595) (87.5595) = 118.64
2
hp =
33,000 32.2
vm = 5254 fpm

## 851. An ammonia compressor is driven by a 100-hp synchronous motor that turns

1200 rpm; 12-in. paper motor pulley; 78-in. compressor pulley, cast-iron;
C = 84 in . A tension pulley is placed so that the angle of contact on the motor
pulley is 193o and on the compressor pulley, 240o. A 12-in. medium double
leather belt with a cemented joint is used. (a) What will be the tension in the
tight side of the belt if the stress is 375 psi? (b) What will be the tension in the
slack side? (c) What coefficient of friction is required on each pulley as indicated
by the general equation? (d) What force must be exerted on the tension pulley to
hold the belt tight, and what size do you recommend?

Solution:
(a) F1 = sbt
b = 12 in
20
t= in
64
20
F1 = (375)(12 )
64

33,000hp
(b) F1 F2 =
vm
D n (12)(1200 )
vm = 1 1 = = 3770 fpm
12 12
Table 17.7, N sf = 1.2
33,000(1.2 )(100 )
F1 F2 = = 1050 lb
3770
F2 = F1 1050 = 1406 1050 = 356 lb

12 vs2 e f 1
(c) F1 F2 = bt s f
32.2 e
3770
vs = = 62.83 fps
60

Page 16 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

## = 0.035 lb cu. in.

20 12(0.035)(62.83) e f 1
1050 = (12) 375 e f
64 32.2
e f 1
= 0.8655
e f
f = 2.006
Motor pulley

= 193o = 193 = 3.3685 rad
180
f (3.3685) = 2.006
f = 0.5955

Compressor Pulley

= 2403o = 240 = 4.1888 rad
180
f (4.1888) = 2.006
f = 0.4789

(d) Force:

## Without tension pulley

D D1 78 12
1 = 2 = = 2.356 rad
C 84
D D1 78 12
2 = + 2 = + = 3.9273 rad
C 84

Page 17 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

1 2.356
1 = 1 1 = 3.3685 2.356 = 0.6197 rad = 35.5o
2 2

2 3.9273
2 = + 2 2 = + 4.1888 3.9273 = 0.6544 rad = 37.5o
2 2
Q = F1 (sin 1 + sin 2 ) = 1406(sin 35.5 + sin 37.5) = 1672 lb of force exerted
Size of pulley; For medium double leather belt,
vm = 3770 fpm , width = 12 in > 8 in
D = 6 + 2 = 8 in

Page 18 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

852. A 40-hp motor, weighing 1915 lb., runs at 685 rpm and is mounted on a pivoted
3
base. In Fig. 17.11, Text, e = 10 in ., h = 19 in . The center of the 11 -in.
16
motor pulley is 11 in. lower than the center of the 60-in. driven pulley;
C = 48 in . (a) With the aid of a graphical layout, find the tensions in the belt for
maximum output of the motor if it is compensator started. What should be the
width of the medium double leather belt if s = 300 psi ? (c) What coefficient of
friction is indicated by the general belt equation? (Data courtesy of Rockwood
Mfg. Co.)

Solution:
(a)

R = 1915 lb
Graphically
b 26 in
a 9 in

[ M B =0 ]
eR = F1a + F2b
(10)(1915) = (F1 )(9) + (F2 )(26)
9 F1 + 26 F2 = 19,150
For compensator started
hp = 1.4(rated hp ) = 1.4(40 ) = 56 hp
33,000hp
F1 F2 =
vm

Page 19 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

D1n1 (11.5)(685)
vm = = = 2062 fpm
12 12
33,000(56 )
F1 F2 = = 896 lb
2062
F2 = F1 896
Substituting
9 F1 + 26(F1 896) = 19,150
F1 = 1213 lb
F2 = 1213 896 = 317 lb

20
For medium leather belt, t = in
64
F1 = sbt
20
1213 = (300 )(b )
64
b = 13 in

12 vs2 e f 1
(c) F1 F2 = bt s
32.2 e f
2062
vs = = 34.37 fps
60
= 0.035 lb cu. in.
20 12(0.035)(34.37 ) e f 1
896 = (13) 300 e f
64 32.2
e f 1
= 0.775
e f
f = 1.492
D D1 60 11.5
= 2 = = 2.1312 rad
C 48
f (2.1312 ) = 1.492
f = 0.70

853. A 50-hp motor, weighing 1900 lb., is mounted on a pivoted base, turns 1140 rpm,
3
and drives a reciprocating compressor; in Fig. 17.11, Text, e = 8 in .,
4
5
h = 17 in . The center of the 12-in. motor pulley is on the same level as the
16
center of the 54-in. compressor pulley; C = 40 in . (a) With the aid of a graphical
layout, find the tensions in the belt for maximum output of the motor if it is
compensator started. (b) What will be the stress in the belt if it is a heavy double

Page 20 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

leather belt, 11 in. wide? (c) What coefficient of friction is indicated by the
general belt equation? (Data courtesy of Rockwood Mfg. Co.)

Solution:
(a) For compensator-started
hp = 1.4(50) = 70 hp
33,000hp
F1 F2 =
vm
D n (12 )(1140)
vm = 1 1 = = 3581 fpm
12 12
33,000(70 )
F1 F2 = = 645 lb
2062

b 25 in
a 5 in
R = 1900 lb
eR = F 1a + F2b
(8.75)(1900) = F 1 (5) + F2 (25)
F 1+5F2 = 3325 lb
645 + F 2+5F2 = 3325 lb
F2 = 447 lb
F1 = 645 + F2 = 645 + 447 = 1092 lb

## (b) For heavy double leather belt

23
t= in
64
b = 11 in

Page 21 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

F1 1092
s= = = 276 psi
bt 20
(11)
64
12 vs2 e f 1
(c) F1 F2 = bt s
32.2 e f
3581
vs = = 59.68 fps
60
= 0.035 lb cu. in.
23 12(0.035)(59.68) e f 1
645 = (11) 276 e f
64 32.2
f = 1.241
D D1 54 12
= 2 = = 2.092 rad
C 40
f (2.092 ) = 1.492
f = 0.60

RUBBER BELTS

854. A 5-ply rubber belt transmits 20 horsepower to drive a mine fan. An 8-in., motor
pulley turns 1150 rpm; D2 = 36 in ., fan pulley; C = 23 ft . (a) Design a rubber
belt to suit these conditions, using a net belt pull as recommended in 17.15,
Text. (b) Actually, a 9-in., 5-ply Goodrich high-flex rubber belt was used. What
are the indications for a good life?

Solution:
D2 D1 36 8
(a) = = = 3.040 rad = 174o
C 23(12 )
K = 0.976
bv N K
hp = m p
2400
K = 0.976
D n (8)(1150)
vm = 1 1 = = 2409 fpm
12 12
Np = 5
b(2409 )(5)(0.976 )
hp = 20 =
2400
b = 4.1 in
min. b = 5 in

Page 22 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

## (b) With b = 9 in is safe for good life.

855. A 20-in., 10-ply rubber belt transmits power from a 300-hp motor, running at 650
rpm, to an ore crusher. The center distance between the 33-in. motor pulley and
the 108-in. driven pulley is 18 ft. The motor and crusher are so located that the
belt must operate at an angle 75o with the horizontal. What is the overload
capacity of this belt if the rated capacity is as defined in 17.15, Text?

Solution:
bv N
hp = m p
2400
b = 20 in
D n (33)(650)
vm = 1 1 = = 5616 fpm
12 12
N p = 10

hp =
(20)(5616)(10 ) = 468 hp
2400
468 300
Overlaod Capacity = (100% ) = 56%
300

V-BELTS

NOTE: If manufacturers catalogs are available, solve these problems from catalogs as
well as from data in the Text.

856. A centrifugal pump, running at 340 rpm, consuming 105 hp in 24-hr service, is to
be driven by a 125-hp, 1180-rpm, compensator-started motor; C = 43 to 49 in .
Determine the details of a multiple V-belt drive for this installation. The B.F.
Goodrich Company recommended six C195 V-belts with 14.4-in. and 50-in.
sheaves; C 45.2 in .

Solution:
Table 17.7
N sf = 1.2 + 0.2 = 1.4 (24 hr/day)
Design hp = N sf (transmitted hp) = (1.4)(125) = 175 hp
Fig. 17.4, 175 hp, 1180 rpm
Dmin = 13 in , D-section
D2 1180 50
= =
D1 340 14.4
use D1 = 14.4 in > 13 in
D2 = 50 in

Page 23 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

D1n1 (14.4)(1180 )
vm = = = 4449 fpm
12 12
103 0.09 c vm2 vm
Rated hp = a
K D e 106 103
vm d 1
Table 17.3, D-section
a = 18.788 , c = 137.7 , e = 0.0848
D
Table 17.4, 2 = 3.47
D1
K d = 1.14
103
0.09
137.7 (4449) 4449
2

Rated hp = 18.788 (1.14)(14.4) (0.0848) 106 103 = 28.294 hp

4449

## Back to Fig. 17.14, C-section must be used.

a = 8.792 , c = 38.819 , e = 0.0416
103 0.09 c v2 v
Rated hp = a e m6 m3
vm K d D1 10 10

103
0 .09
38.819 (4449) 4449
2
Rated hp = 8.792 (0.0416) = 20.0 hp
4449 (1.14)(14.4) 106 103

## Adjusted rated hp = K K L (rated hp )

Table 17.5,
D2 D1 50 14.4
= = 0.77
C 46
K = 0.88
Table 17.6
(D D1 )2
L 2C + 1.57(D2 + D1 ) + 2
4C

## L = 2(46) + 1.57(50 + 14.4) +

(50 14.4)
2
= 200 in
4(46)
use C195, L = 197.9 in
K L = 1.07
Adjusted rated hp = (0.88)(1.07 )(20) = 18.83 hp
Design hp 175
No. of belts = = = 9.3 belts use 9 belts

## Use 9 , C195 V-belts with 14.4 in and 50 in sheaves

Page 24 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

B + B 2 32(D2 D1 )
2

C=
16
B = 4 L 6.28(D2 + D1 ) = 4(197.9) 6.28(50 + 14.4) = 387.2 in
387.2 + (387.2)2 32(50 14.4)2
C= = 44.9 in
16

## 857. A 50-hp, 1160-rpm, AC split-phase motor is to be used to drive a reciprocating

pump at a speed of 330 rpm. The pump is for 12-hr. service and normally
requires 44 hp, but it is subjected to peak loads of 175 % of full load; C 50 in .
Determine the details of a multiple V-belt drive for this application. The Dodge
Manufacturing Corporation recommended a Dyna-V Drive consisting of six
5V1800 belts with 10.9-in. and 37.5-in. sheaves; C 50.2 in .

Solution:
Table 17.7, (12 hr/day)
N sf = 1.4 0.2 = 1.2
Design hp = (1.2)(1.75)(50) = 105 hp
Fig. 17.4, 105 hp, 1160 rpm
Dmin = 13 in , D-section
D2 1160 46.4
=
D1 330 13.2
use D1 = 13.2 in > 13 in
D2 = 46.4 in
D n (13.2)(1160 )
vm = 1 1 = = 4009 fpm
12 12
103 0.09 c vm2 vm
Rated hp = a
K D e 106 103
vm d 1
Table 17.3, D-section
a = 18.788 , c = 137.7 , e = 0.0848
D 46.4
Table 17.4, 2 = = 3 .5
D1 13.2
K d = 1.14
103
0.09
137.7 (4009) 4009
2
Rated hp = 18.788 (0.0848) = 24.32 hp
4009 (1.14)(13.2) 106 103

## Back to Fig. 17.14, C-section must be used.

a = 8.792 , c = 38.819 , e = 0.0416

Dmin = 9 in

Page 25 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

D2 1160 32
=
D1 330 9.1
use D1 = 9.1 in
D n (9.1)(1160 )
vm = 1 1 = = 2764 fpm
12 12
103
0.09
38.819 (2764)2 2764 = 10.96 hp
Rated hp = 8.792 (0.0416)
2764 (1.14)(9.1) 106 103

## Adjusted rated hp = K K L (rated hp )

Table 17.5,
D2 D1 32 9.1
= = 0.458
C 50
K = 0.935
Table 17.6

L 2C + 1.57(D2 + D1 ) +
( D2 D1 )
2

4C

## L = 2(50) + 1.57(32 + 9.1) +

(32 9.1)2 = 167 in
4(50)
use C158, L = 160.9 in
K L = 1.02
Adjusted rated hp = (0.935)(1.02)(10.96) = 10.45 hp
Design hp 105
No. of belts = = = 10 belts

B + B 2 32(D2 D1 )
2

C=
16
B = 4 L 6.28(D2 + D1 ) = 4(160.9) 6.28(32 + 9.1) = 385.5 in
385.5 + (385.5)2 32(32 9.1)2
C= = 46.8 in
16
Use 10-C158 belts, D1 = 9.1 in
D2 = 32 in , C = 46.8 in

858. A 200-hp, 600-rpm induction motor is to drive a jaw crusher at 125 rpm; starting
load is heavy; operating with shock; intermittent service; C = 113 to 123 in .
Recommend a multiple V-flat drive for this installation. The B.F. Goodrich
Company recommended eight D480 V-belts with a 26-in. sheave and a 120.175-
in. pulley; C 116.3 in .

Solution:

Page 26 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Table 17.7
N sf = 1.6 0.2 = 1.4
hp = (1.4)(200) = 280 hp
Fig. 17.14, 280 hp, 600 rpm
Use Section E
But in Table 17.3, section E is not available, use section D
Dmin = 13
D2 600
= = 4 .8
D1 125
For D1max :
D + D2
min C = 1 + D1
2
D + 4.8 D1
113 = 1 + D1
2
D1 = 28 in
min C = D2
D2 = 113 in
113
D1 = = 23.5 in
4 .8
1
use D1 (13 + 23.5) = 18 in
2
D2 = (4.8)(18) = 86.4 in

L 2C + 1.57(D2 + D1 ) +
(D2 D1 )2
4C

## L = 2(118) + 1.57(86.4 + 18) +

(86.4 18)
2
= 410 in
4(118)
using D1 = 19 in , D2 = 91.2 in , C = 118 in

## L = 2(118) + 1.57(91.2 + 19) +

(91.2 19)
2
= 420 in
4(118)
Therefore use D420 sections
D1 = 19 in , D2 = 91.2 in
D n (19)(600)
vm = 1 1 = = 2985 fpm
12 12
103 0.09 c v2 v
Rated hp = a e m6 m3
vm K d D1 10 10

Table 17.3, D-section
a = 18.788 , c = 137.7 , e = 0.0848
D
Table 17.4, 2 = 4.8
D1

Page 27 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

K d = 1.14
103
0.09
137.7 (2985)2 2985 = 29.6 hp
Rated hp = 18.788 (0.0848)
2985 (1.14)(19) 106 103

Therefore, Fig. 17.14, section D is used.
Adjusted rated hp = K K L (rated hp )
Table 17.5,
D2 D1 91.2 19
= = 0.612
C 118
K = 0.83 (V-flat)
Table 17.6, D420
L = 420.8 in
K L = 1.12
Adjusted rated hp = (0.83)(1.12)(29.6) = 27.52 hp
Design hp 280
No. of belts = = = 10 belts

## Use10 , D420, D1 = 19 in , D2 = 91.2 in , C = 118 in

859. A 150-hp, 700-rpm, slip-ring induction motor is to drive a ball mill at 195 rpm;
heavy starting load; intermittent seasonal service; outdoors. Determine all details
for a V-flat drive. The B.F. Goodrich Company recommended eight D270 V-
belts, 17.24-in sheave, 61-in. pully, C 69.7 in .

Solution:
Table 17.7,
N sf = 1.6 0.2 = 1.4
Design hp = (1.4)(150) = 210 hp
Fig. 17.4, 210 hp, 700 rpm
Dmin = 13 in , D-section
103 0.09 c v2 v
Rated hp = a e m6 m3
vm K d D1 10 10

d (hp )
For Max. Rated hp, =0
vm
d 3
10
0.91 3
v c vm vm
Rated hp = a m3 e
10 K d D1 103 103
v
Let X = m3
10

Page 28 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

c
hp = aX 0.91 X eX 3
K d D1
v D1n1 D1 (700)
X = m3 = =
10 12 103 12 103
12 103 X
D1 =
700
700c
hp = aX 0.91 3
eX 3
12 10 K d
d (hp )
= 0.91aX 0.09 3eX 2 = 0
d (X )
0.91a
X 2.09 =
3e
Table 17.3, D-section
a = 18.788 , c = 137.7 , e = 0.0848
2.09
v 0.91(18.788)
X 2.09 = m3 =
10 3(0.0848)
vm = 7488 fpm
D n
vm = 1 1 = 7488
12
D (700)
vm = 1 = 7488
12
D1 = 40.86 in
max D1 = 40.86 in
1
ave. D1 = (13 + 40.86 ) = 26.93 in
2
use D1 = 22 in
D2 700 79
=
D1 195 22
D1 = 22 in , D2 = 79 in
D + D2 22 + 79
Min. C = 1 + D1 = + 22 = 72.5 in
2 2
Or Min. C = D2 = 79 in

L 2C + 1.57(D2 + D1 ) +
(D2 D1 )2
4C

## L = 2(79) + 1.57(79 + 22) +

(79 22)2 = 327 in
4(79)
use D330, L = 330.8 in
B + B 2 32(D2 D1 )
2

C=
16

Page 29 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

## B = 4 L 6.28(D2 + D1 ) = 4(330.8) 6.28(79 + 22) = 689 in

689 + (689)2 32(79 22)2
C= = 81.12 in
16
D n (22)(700)
vm = 1 1 = = 4032 fpm
12 12
K d = 1.14
103
0.09
137.7 (4032) 4032
2

Rated hp = 18.788 ( )
(1.14)(22 ) 0.0848 106 103 = 39.124 hp
4032
Adjusted rated hp = K K L (rated hp )
Table 17.5,
D2 D1 79 22
= = 0.70
C 81.12
K = 0.84 (V-flat)
Table 17.6
D330
K L = 1.07
Adjusted rated hp = (0.84)(1.07 )(39.124 ) = 35.165 hp
Design hp 210
No. of belts = = = 5.97 belts use 6 belts

## Use 6 , D330 V-belts , D1 = 22 in , D2 = 79 in , C 81.1 in

860. A 30-hp, 1160-rpm, squirrel-cage motor is to be used to drive a fan. During the
summer, the load is 29.3 hp at a fan speed of 280 rpm; during the winter, it is 24
hp at 238 rpm; 44 < C < 50 in .; 20 hr./day operation with no overload. Decide
upon the size and number of V-belts, sheave sizes, and belt length. (Data
courtesy of The Worthington Corporation.)

Solution:
Table 17.7
N sf = 1.6 + 0.2 = 1.8
Design hp = (1.8)(30) = 54 hp
Speed of fan at 30 hp
30 24
n2 = (280 238) + 238 = 286 rpm
29.3 24
at 54 hp, 1160 rpm. Fig. 17.4
use either section C or section D
Minimum center distance:
C = D2

Page 30 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

D1 + D2
or C = + D1
2
D2 1160
= = 4.056
D1 286
use C = 4.056 D1
44 in < C < 50 in , use C = 47 in
47
D1max = = 11.6 in
4.056
use C-section, Dmin = 9 in
Let D1 = 10 in , D1 = 41 in

L 2C + 1.57(D2 + D1 ) +
( D2 D1 )
2

4C

## L = 2(47 ) + 1.57(41 + 10.1) +

(41 10.1)2 = 179.3 in
4(47 )
use C137, L = 175.9 in
B + B 2 32(D2 D1 )
2

C=
16
B = 4 L 6.28(D2 + D1 ) = 4(175.9) 6.28(41 + 10.1) = 328.7 in
382.7 + (382.7 )2 32(41 10.1)2
C= = 45.2 in 44 in
16
C173, satisfies 44 in < C < 50 in
0.91 3
v c vm vm
Rated hp = a m3 e
10 K d D1 103 103
D n (10.1)(1160)
vm = 1 1 = = 3067 fpm
12 12
Table 17.4
D2
= 4.056 , K d = 1.14
D1
Table 17.3, D-section
a = 8.792 , c = 38.819 , e = 0.0416
103
0.09
38.819 (3067 )2 3067 = 12.838 hp
Rated hp = 8.792 (0.0416)
3067 (1.14)(10.1) 106 103

Adjusted rated hp = K K L (rated hp )
Table 17.5,
D2 D1 41 10.1
= = 0.68
C 45.2
K = 0.90

Page 31 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Table 17.6
L = 175.9 , C173
K L = 1.04
Adjusted rated hp = (0.90)(1.04)(12.838) = 12.02 hp
Design hp 54
No. of belts = = = 4.5 belts use 5 belts

## Use 5 , C173 V-belts , D1 = 10.1 in , D2 = 41 in

POWER CHAINS

NOTE: If manufacturers catalogs are available, solve these problems from catalogs as
well as from data in the Text.

## 861. A roller chain is to be used on a paving machine to transmit 30 hp from the 4-

cylinder Diesel engine to a counter-shaft; engine speed 1000 rpm, counter-shaft
speed 500 rpm. The center distance is fixed at 24 in. The cain will be subjected to
intermittent overloads of 100 %. (a) Determine the pitch and the number of
chains required to transmit this power. (b) What is the length of the chain
required? How much slack must be allowed in order to have a whole number of
pitches? A chain drive with significant slack and subjected to impulsive loading
should have an idler sprocket against the slack strand. If it were possible to
change the speed ratio slightly, it might be possible to have a chain with no
appreciable slack. (c) How much is the bearing pressure between the roller and
pin?

Solution:

## (a) design hp = 2(30) = 60 hp intermittent

D2 n1 1000
= =2
D1 n2 500
D2 = 2D1
D
C = D2 + 1 = 24 in
2
D
2 D1 + 1 = 24
2
D1 = 9.6 in
D2 = 2 D1 = 2(9.6 ) = 19.2 in

## D1n1 (9.6 )(1000)

vm = = = 2513 fpm
12 12
Table 17.8, use Chain No. 35,
Limiting Speed = 2800 fpm

Page 32 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

## Minimum number of teeth

Assume N1 = 21
N 2 = 2 N1 = 42
[Roller-Bushing Impact]
1.5
100 N ts 0.8
hp = K r P
n
Chain No. 35
3
P = in
8
N ts = 21
n = 1000 rpm
K r = 29
1.5 0.8
100(21) 3
hp = 29 = 40.3 hp
1000 8

hp = 0.004 N ts1.08 n 0.9 P 30.07 P
3
3 0.07
3 8
hp = 0.004(21) (1000)
1.08 0.9
= 2.91 hp
8
design hp 60
No. of strands = = = 21
rated hp 2.91
3
Use Chain No. 35, P = in , 21 strands
8

N + N 2 ( N 2 N1 )
2
(b) L 2C + 1 + pitches
2 40C
24
C= = 64
3

8
N1 = 21
N 2 = 42
21 + 42 (42 21)
2
L = 2(64) + + = 159.67 pitches 160 pitches
2 40(64 )
Amount of slack
1
(
h = 0.433 S 2 L2 )
2

L = C = 24 in

Page 33 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

(160159.67) 3 in
S = 24 in + 8 = 24.062 in
2
1
[
h = 0.433 (24.062) (24)
2
]
2 2
= 0.75 in =
3
4
in

## (c) pb = bearing pressure

Table 17.8, Chain No. 25
C = 0.141 in
3
E = in
16
J = 0.05 in
3
A = C (E + 2 J ) = 0.141 + 2(0.05) = 0.04054 in 2
16
FV
= 60 hp
33,000
F (2513)
= 60 hp
33,000
F = 787.9 lb
787.9
F= = 37.5 lb strand
21
37.5
pb = = 925 psi
0.04054

## 862. A conveyor is driven by a 2-hp high-starting-torque electric motor through a

flexible coupling to a worm-gear speed reducer, whose mw 35 , and then via a
roller chain to the conveyor shaft that is to turn about 12 rpm; motor rpm is 1750.
Operation is smooth, 8 hr./day. (a) Decide upon suitable sprocket sizes, center
distance, and chain pitch. Compute (b) the length of chain, (c) the bearing
pressure between the roller and pin. The Morse Chain Company recommended
15- and 60-tooth sprockets, 1-in. pitch, C = 24 in ., L = 88 pitches .

Solution:
Table 17.7
N sf = 1.2 0.2 = 1.0 (8 hr/day)
design hp = 1.0(2) = 2.0 hp
1750
n1 = = 50 rpm
35
n2 = 12 rpm
Minimum number of teeth = 12

Page 34 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Use N1 = 12
hp = 0.004 N ts1.08 n 0.9 P 30.07 P
hp 2 .0
P 3 0.07 P P 3 = = = 1 .0
0.004(12 ) (50 )
1.08 0.9 1.08 0.9
0.004 N ts n
Use Chain No. 80, P = 1.0 in
To check for roller-bushing fatigue
1.5
100 N ts 0.8
hp = K r P
n
K r = 29
1.5
100(12 )
hp = 17 (1)0.8 = 2747 hp > 2 hp
1000

(a) N1 = 12
n 50
N 2 = 1 N1 = (12) = 50 teeth
n2 12
D
C = D2 + 1
2
PN1 (1.0 )(12 )
D1 = = 3.82 in

D2
PN1
=
(1.0)(50) = 15.92 in

3.82
C 15.92 + = 17.83 in
2
use C = 18 in
C = 18 pitches
chain pitch = 1.0 in, Chain No. 80

N1 + N 2 ( N 2 N1 )
2
(b) L 2C + +
2 40C
12 + 59 (50 12)
2
L 2(18) + + = 69 pitches
2 40(18)
use L = 70 pitches

## (c) pb = bearing pressure

Table 17.8, Chain No. 80
C = 0.312 in
5
E = in
8

Page 35 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

J = 0.125 in
PN ts n1 (1)(12 )(50 )
vm = = = 50 fpm
12 12
3
A = C (E + 2 J ) = 0.141 + 2(0.05) = 0.04054 in 2
16
FV
= 60 hp
33,000
33,000(2 )
F= = 1320 lb
50
F 1320
pb = = = 4835 psi
C (E + 2 J ) 5
0.312 + 2(0.125)
8

## 863. A roller chain is to transmit 5 hp from a gearmotor to a wood-working machine,

with moderate shock. The 1-in output shaft of the gearmotor turns n = 500 rpm .
The 1 -in. driven shaft turns 250 rpm; C 16 in . (a) Determine the size of
sprockets and pitch of chain that may be used. If a catalog is available, be sure
maximum bore of sprocket is sufficient to fit the shafts. (b) Compute the center
distance and length of chain. (c) What method should be used to supply oil to the
chain? (d) If a catalog is available, design also for an inverted tooth chain.

Solution:
Table 17.7
N sf = 1.2
design hp = 1.2(5) = 6 hp
D2 500
= =2
D1 250
D
C = D2 + 1
2
D
16 = 2 D1 + 1
2
D1 = 6.4 in
D2 = 2 D1 = 2(6.4) = 12.8 in
D n (6.4)(500)
vm = 1 1 = = 838 fpm
12 12

hp = 0.004 N ts1.08 n 0.9 P 30.07 P
D (6.4 ) 20.11
N ts = N1 1 = =
P P P

Page 36 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

1.08
20.11
(500 ) P
0.9 3 0.07 P
hp = 0.004
P
6 = 27.47 P1.920.07 P
P = 0.45 in
1
use P = in , Chain No. 40
2
D1 (6.4)
N1 = = 40
P 1

2
N 2 = 2 N1 = 80
1
Size of sprocket, N1 = 40 , N 2 = 80 , P = in .
2
(b) C = 16 in
16 in
C= = 32 pitches
1
in
2
N1 + N 2 ( N 2 N1 )
2
L 2C + +
2 40C
40 + 80 (80 40)
2
L 2(32) + + = 125.25 pitches
2 40(32)
use L = 126 pitches

## (c) Method: vm = 838 fpm .

Use Type II Lubrication ( vmax = 1300 fpm ) oil is supplied from a drip lubricator to link
plate edges.

864. A roller chain is to transmit 20 hp from a split-phase motor, turning 570 rpm, to a
reciprocating pump, turning at 200 rpm; 24 hr./day service. (a) Decide upon the
tooth numbers for the sprockets, the pitch and width of chain, and center
distance. Consider both single and multiple strands. Compute (b) the chain
length, (c) the bearing pressure between the roller and pin, (d) the factor of safety
against fatigue failure (Table 17.8), with the chain pull as the force on the chain.
(e) If a catalog is available, design also an inverted-tooth chain drive.

Solution:
Table 17.7
N sf = 1.4 + 0.2 (24 hr/day)
design hp = 1.6(20) = 32 hp
n 570
(a) 1 = = 2.85
n2 200

Page 37 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

D2 n1
= 2.85
D1 n2
Considering single strand
hp = 0.004 N ts1.08 n 0.9 P 30.07 P
min N ts = 17
hp = 32 = 0.004(17 ) (570)0.9 P 30.07 P
1.08

P 3 0.07 P = 1.24
P = 1.07 in
use P = 1.0 in
3 0.07 (1)
hp = 32 = 0.004( N1 ) (570 ) (1)
1.08 0.9

N1 = 21
570
N2 = (21) = 60
200
5
Roller width = in
8
D
C = D2 + 1
2
PN1 (1)(21)
D1 = = 6.685 in

D2
PN 2
=
(1)(60) = 19.10 in

6.685
C = 19.10 + = 22.44 in
2
Use C = 23 in
23
C= pitches
1
Considering multiple strands
1
Assume, P = in
2
1.08 0.9 3 0.07 P
hp = 0.004 N ts n P
hp = 0.004(21)
1.08
(570)0.9 (0.5)30.07 (0.5) = 4.148 hp
32 hp
No. of strands = = 7 .7
4.148 hp
Use 8 strands

## (b) Chain Length

N1 + N 2 ( N 2 N1 )
2
L 2C + +
2 40C

Page 38 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

21 + 60 (60 21)
2
L 2(23) + + = 88.15 pitches
2 40(23)
use L = 88 pitches

## (c) pb = bearing pressure

Table 17.8, P = 1 in
5
E = in
8
J = 0.125 in
C = 0.312 in
33,000hp
F=
vm
D n (6.685)(570)
vm = 1 1 = = 998 fpm
12 12
33,000(32 )
F= = 1058 lb
998
F 1058
pb = = = 3876 psi
C (E + 2 J ) 5
0.312 + 2(0.125)
8

Fu
(d) Factor of Safety = , based on fatigue
4F

## Fu = 14,500 lb , Table 17.8

F 14,500
Factor of Safety = u = = 3.43
4 F 4(1058)

865. A 5/8-in. roller chain is used on a hoist to lift a 500-lb. load through 14 ft. in 24
sec. at constant velocity. If the load on the chain is doubled during the speed-up
period, compute the factor of safety (a) based on the chains ultimate strength, (b)
based on its fatigue strength. (c) At the given speed, what is the chains rated
capacity ( N s = 20 teeth ) in hp? Compare with the power needed at the constant
speed. Does it look as though the drive will have a long life?

Solution:
Table 17.8
5
P = in
8
Fu = 6100 lb

Page 39 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Fu
(a) Factor of Safety =
F
F = (500)(2 ) = 1000 lb
6100
Factor of Safety = = 6 .1
1000
F
(b) Factor of Safety = u (fatigue)
4F
6100
Factor of Safety = = 1.5
4(1000)

14 ft 60 sec
(c) vm = = 35 fpm
24 sec 1 min
N s = 20
5
P = in
8
Rated hp = 0.004 N ts1.08 n 0.9 P 30.07 P [Link Plate Fatigue]
5
(20)n
PN s n 8
vm = = = 35 fpm
12 12
n = 33.6 rpm
5
3 0.07
0.9 5 8
Rated hp = 0.004(20) (33.6 )
1.08
= 0.6 hp
8
Hp needed at constant speed
hp =
Fvm
=
(500)(35) = 0.53 hp < 0.6 hp
33,000 33,000
Therefore safe for long life.

WIRE ROPES

866. In a coal-mine hoist, the weight of the cage and load is 20 kips; the shaft is 400
ft. deep. The cage is accelerated from rest to 1600 fpm in 6 sec. A single 6 x 19,
IPS, 1 -in. rope is used, wound on an 8-ft. drum. (a) Include the inertia force
but take the static view and compute the factor of safety with and without
allowances for the bending load. (b) If N = 1.35 , based on fatigue, what is the
expected life? (c) Let the cage be at the bottom of the shaft and ignore the effect
of the ropes weight. A load of 14 kips is gradually applied on the 6-kip cage.
How much is the deflection of the cable due to the load and the additional energy
absorbed? (d) For educational purposes and for a load of 0.2 Fu , compute the
energy that this 400-ft rope can absorb and compare it with that for a 400-ft., 1
-in., as-rolled-1045 steel rod. Omit the weights of the rope and rod. What is the
energy per pound of material in each case?

Page 40 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

Solution:
(a)

1 min
(1600 fpm )
v2 v1 60 sec = 4.445 fps 2
a= =
t 6 sec
Wh = 20 kips
For 6 x 19 IPS,
w 1.6 Dr2 lb ft
400
wL = 1.6 Dr2 2
kips = 0.64 Dr kips
1000
Ft wL Wh = ma
20 + 0.64 Dr2
m=
32.2
20 + 0.64 Dr2
Ft 0.64 Dr2 20 = (4.445)
32.2
2
Ft = 22.76 + 0.73Dr
3
Dr = 1 in
4
2
3
Ft = 22.76 + 0.731 = 25 kips
4
F Fb
N= u
Ft
Table AT 28, IPS
Fu 42 Dr2 tons
Fu = 42(1.75) = 129 tons = 258 kips
2

Fb = sb Am
EDw
sb =
Ds

Page 41 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

EAm Dw
Fb =
Ds
Table At 28, 6 x 19 Wire Rope
Dw = 0.067 Dr = 0.067(1.75) = 0.11725 in
Ds = 8 ft = 96 in
E = 30,000 ksi
Am 0.4 Dr2
Am = 0.4(1.75) = 1.225 sq in
2

Fb =
(30,000)(1.225)(0.11725) = 45 kips
(96)
F Fb 258 45
N= u = = 8.52
Ft 25
F 258
N= u = = 10.32
Ft 25

## (b) N = 1.35 on fatigue

IPS, su 260 ksi
2 NFt
Dr Ds =
( p su )su
(1.75)(96) = 2(1.35)(25)
( p su )(260)
p su = 0.0015
Fig. 17.30, 6 x 19 IPS
Number of bends to failure = 7 x 105

FL
(c) =
Am Er
Am = 1.225 sq in
Er 12,000 ksi (6 x 19 IPS)
F = 14 kips
L = 400 ft = 4800 in

=
(14)(4800) = 4.57 in
(1.225)(12,000)
1 1
U = F = (14 )(4.57 ) = 32 in kips
2 2

## (d) F = 0.2 Fu = 0.2(258) = 51.6 kips

Page 42 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

FL
=
Am Er

=
(51.6)(4800) = 16.85 in
(1.225)(12,000)
1 1
U = F = (51.6 )(16.85) = 434 in kips
2 2
For 1 in, as-rolled 1045 steel rod
su = 96 ksi

Fu = su A = (96 ) (1.75) = 230.9 kips
2

4
F = 0.2 Fu = 0.2(230.9) = 46.2 kips
FL
=
AE
=
(46.2)(4800 ) = 3.073 in

(1.75) (30,000 )
2

4
1 1
U = F = (46.2 )(3.073) = 71 in kips < U of wire rope.
2 2

868. A hoist in a copper mine lifts ore a maximum of 2000 ft. The weight of car, cage,
and ore per trip is 10 kips, accelerated in 6 sec. to 2000 fpm; drum diameter is 6
ft. Use a 6 x 19 plow-steel rope. Determine the size (a) for a life of 200,000
cycles and N = 1.3 on the basis of fatigue, (b) for N = 5 by equation (v), 17.25,
Text. (c) What is the expected life of the rope found in (b) for N = 1.3 on the
basis of fatigue? (d) If a loaded car weighing 7 kips can be moved gradually onto
the freely hanging cage, how much would the rope stretch? (e) What total energy
is stored in the rope with full load at the bottom of te shaft? Neglect the ropes
weight for this calculation. (f) Compute the pressure of the rope on the cast-iron
drum. Is it reasonable?

Solution:

1 min
(2000 fpm )
a=
v2 v1
= 60 sec = 5.56 fps 2
t 6 sec

Page 43 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

For 6 x 19 IPS,
w 1.6 Dr2 lb ft
2000
wL = 1.6 Dr2 2
kips = 3.2 Dr kips
1000
Wh = 10 kips
wL + Wh
Ft wL Wh = a
32.2
a 5.56
Ft = + 1(wL + Wh ) = ( ) (
+ 1 3.2 Dr2 + 10 = 1.17267 3.2 Dr2 + 10 )
32 . 2 32 . 2
2 NFt
(a) Dr Ds =
( p su )su
Fig. 17.30, 200,000 cycles, 6 x 19
p su = 0.0028
PS: su 225 ksi
Ds = 6 ft = 72 in
N = 1 .3

Dr (72) =
(
2(1.3)(1.17267 ) 3.2 Dr2 + 10 )
(0.0028)(225)
45.36 Dr = 9.7566 Dr2 + 30.49
Dr2 4.64916 Dr + 3.1251 = 0
Dr = 0.815 in
7
say Dr = in
8

## (b) by N = 5 , Equation (v)

F Fb
N= u
Ft
EDw
sb =
Ds
Dw = 0.067 Dr

sb =
(30,000)(0.067 Dr ) = 27.92 D
r
72
Fb = sb Am
Am = 0.4 Dr2
Fb = (27.92 Dr )(0.4 Dr2 ) = 11.17 Dr3
Fu = 36 Dr2 tons for PS
Fu = 72 Dr2 kips
Fu Fb = NFt

Page 44 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

## 72 Dr2 11.17 Dr3 = (5)(1.17267 )(3.2 Dr2 + 10)

72 Dr2 11.17 Dr3 = (5.8634)(3.2 Dr2 + 10)
Dr = 1.216 in
1
use Dr = 1 in
4
2 NFt
(c) Dr Ds =
( p su )su
(1.25)(72) = 2(1.3)(1.17267 )[3.2(1.25) ]
2
+ 10
( p su )(225)
p su = 0.00226
Fig. 17.20
Expected Life = 3 x 105 cycles

(d) F = 7 kips
Er = 12,000 ksi
L = 2000 ft = 24,000 in
7
For (a) Dr = in
8
FL
=
Am Er
2
7
Am 0.4 Dr3 = 0.4 = 0.30625 sq in
8
=
(7 )(24,000) = 45.7 in
(0.30625)(12,000)
1
For (b) Dr = 1 in
4
FL
=
Am Er
2
3 1
Am 0.4 D = 0.41 = 0.625 sq in
r
4
=
(7 )(24,000) = 22.4 in
(0.625)(12,000)
1 1
(e) For (a) U = F = (7 )(45.7 ) = 160 in kips
2 2
1 1
For (b) U = F = (7 )(22.4 ) = 78.4 in kips
2 2
(f) Limiting pressure, cast-iron sheaves, 6 x19, p = 500 psi .

Page 45 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

## For (a) p su = 0.0028

p = 0.0028(225) = 0.630 kips = 630 psi > 500 psi , not reasonable.
For (b) p su = 0.00226
p = 0.00226(225) = 0.5085 kips = 508.5 psi 500 psi , reasonable.

869. For a mine hoist, the cage weighs 5900 lb., the cars 2100 lb., and the load of coal
in the car 2800 lb.; one car loaded loaded at a time on the hoist. The drum
diameter is 5 ft., the maximum depth is 1500 ft. It takes 6 sec. to accelerate the
loaded cage to 3285 fpm. Decide on a grade of wire and the kind and size of rope
on the basis of (a) a life of 2 105 cycles and N = 1.3 against fatigue failure, (b)
static consideration (but not omitting inertia effect) and N = 5 . (c) Make a final
recommendation. (d) If the loaded car can be moved gradually onto the freely
hanging cage, how much would the rope stretch? (e) What total energy has the
rope absorbed, fully loaded at the bottom of the shaft? Neglect the ropes weight
for this calculation. (f) Compute the pressure of the rope on the cast-iron drum. Is
it all right?

Solution:

## (3285 fpm) 1 min

a=
v2 v1
= 60 sec = 9.125 fps 2
t 6 sec
wL + Wh
Ft wL Wh = a
32.2
Assume 6 x 19 IPS,
w 1.6 Dr2 lb ft
1500
wL = 1.6 Dr2 2
kips = 2.4 Dr kips
1000
a 9.125
Ft = + 1(wL + Wh ) = + 1(2.4 Dr2 + 10 ) = 3.08 Dr2 + 13.86
32.2 32.2
5
(a) Fig. 17.30, 2 x 10 cycles
p su = 0.0028

Page 46 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

2 NFt
Dr Ds =
( p su )su
Ds = 5 ft = 60 in
Ds 45 Dr
60
Dr max = = 1.33 in
45
1
use Dr = 1 in
4
2
1
Ft = 3.081 + 13.86 = 18.67 kips
4
2(1.3)(18.67 )
su = = 231 ksi
1
(0.0028)1 (60 )
4
1
Use Plow Steel, 6 x 19 Wire Rope, Dr = 1 in .
4

Fu Fb
(b) N =
Ft
EDw
sb =
Ds
1
Dw = 0.067 Dr = 0.0671 = 0.08375 in
4
Ds = 60 in
E = 30,000 ksi

sb =
(30,000)(0.08375) = 41.875 ksi
60
2
1
Am = 0.4 D = 0.41 = 0.625 in 2
2
r
4
Fb = sb Am = (41.875)(0.625) = 26.17 kips
N =5
Fu = NFt + Fb = (5)(18.67 ) + 26.17 = 119.52 kips = 59.76 tons
Fu 59.76
= = 38.25
Dr 1 2
2

1
4
Table AT 28,

Fu
Use IPS, 6 x 19, = 42 > 38.25
Dr2

Page 47 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

(c) Recommendation:
1
6 x 19, improved plow steel, Dr = 1 in
4
FL
(d) =
Am Er
F = 2100 + 2800 = 4900 lb
Er 12 106 psi
L = 1500 ft = 18,000 in

=
(4900)(18,000) = 11.76 in
(0.625)(12 106 )
1 1
(e) U = F = (4900 )(11.76 ) = 28,800 in lb
2 2
(f) p su = 0.0028
su = 231 ksi
p = 0.0028(231,000) = 646.8 psi
For cast-iron sheave, limiting pressure is 500 psi
p = 646.8 psi > 500 psi , not al right.

870. The wire rope of a hoist with a short lift handles a total maximum load of 14 kips
each trip. It is estimated that the maximum number of trips per week will be
1000. The rope is 6 x 37, IPS, 1 3/8 in. in diameter, with steel core. (a) On the
basis of N = 1 for fatigue, what size drum should be used for a 6-yr. life? (n)
Because of space limitations, the actual size used was a 2.5-ft. drum. What is the
factor of safety on a static basis? What life can be expected ( N = 1 )?

Solution:

(a)
365 days 1 wk 1000 trips
No. of cycles = (6 yr ) = 312,857 cycles 3 105 cycles
1 yr 7 days 1 wk
Figure 17.30, 6 x 37, IPS
p su = 0.00225
2 NFt
Dr Ds =
( p su )su
For IPS, su 260 ksi
Ft = 14 kips
N = 1 .0
Dr = 1.375 in
2 NFt
Dr Ds =
( p su )su

Page 48 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

2(1.0)(14)
(1.375)Ds =
(0.00225)(260)
Ds = 34.8 in

(b) Ds = 2 ft = 30 in

Static Basis
F Fb
N= u
Ft
Table AT 28, 6 x 37
Dw 0.048Dr = 0.048(1.375) = 0.066 in
Am 0.4 Dr2 = 0.4(1.375) = 0.75625 in 2
2

## Fu = su Am = (260)(0.75625) = 196.6 kips

EDw Am (30,000 )(0.066 )(0.75625)
Fb = sb Am = = = 49.9 kips
Ds 30
F Fb 196.6 49.9
N= u = = 10.5
Ft 10.5
Life: N = 1.0 (fatigue)
2 NFt
Dr Ds =
( p su )su
(1.375)(30) = 2(1.0)(14)
( p su )(260)
p su = 0.0026
Figure 17.30, Life 2.5 105 cycles , 6 x 37.

871. A wire rope passes about a driving sheave making an angle of contact of 540o, as
shown. A counterweight of 3220 lb. is suspended from one side and the
acceleration is 4 fps2. (a) If f = 0.1 , what load may be noised without slipping on
the rope? (b) If the sheave is rubber lined and the rope is dry, what load may be
raised without slipping? (c) Neglecting the stress caused by bending about the
sheave, find the size of 6 x 19 MPS rope required for N = 6 and for the load
found in (a). (d) Compute the diameter of the sheave for indefinite life with say
N = 1.1 on fatigue. What changes could be made in the solution to allow the use
of a smaller sheave?

Page 49 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

## Problems 871 874.

Solution:
4 fps 2
F2 = (3220 lb )1 = 2820 lb
2
32.2 fps
(a) F1 = F2 e f
= 540o = 3
f = 0.10
F1 = (2820)e (0.10 )(3 ) = 7237 lb

## (b) For rubber lined, dry rope

f = 0.495
F1 = (2820)e (0.495 )(3 ) = 249,466 lb

(c) Ft = F1 = 7237 lb
F (Fb 0 ) Fu
N= u =
Ft Ft
Fu 32 Dr2 tons for MPS
Fu 64 Dr2 kips
Fu = 64,000 Dr2 lb
Fu = NFt
64,000 Dr2 = (6)(7237 )
Dr = 0.824 in
use Dr = 0.875 in

Page 50 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

2 NFt
(d) Dr Ds =
( p su )su
Indefinite life, p su = 0.0015
MPS: su 195 ksi = 195,000 psi

(0.875)Ds = 2(1.1)(7237 )
(0.0015)(195,000)
Ds = 62.2 in
To reduce the size of sheave, increase the size of rope.

872. A traction elevator with a total weight of 8 kips has an acceleration of 3 fps2; the
6 cables pass over the upper sheave twice, the lower one once, as shown..
Compute the minimum weight of counterweight to prevent slipping on the
driving sheave if it is (a) iron with a greasy rope, (b) iron with a dry rope, (c)
rubber lined with a greasy rope. (d) Using MPS and the combination in (a),
decide upon a rope and sheave size that will have indefinite life ( N = 1 will do).
(e) Compute the factor of safety defined in the Text. (f) If it were decided that
5 105 bending cycles would be enough life, would there be a significant
difference in the results?

Solution:
3 fps 2
F1 = (8 kips )1 + = 8.745 kips
2
32.2 fps
= 3(180o ) = 3
F
F2 = f1
e
Wc = weight of counterweight
F2
Wc = = 1.10274 F2
3
1
32.2
1.10274 F1
Wc =
e f
(a) Iron sheave, greasy rope, f = 0.07
1.10274(8.745)
Wc = = 4.986 kips
e (0.07 )(3 )
(b) Iron sheave, dry rope, f = 0.12
1.10274(8.745)
Wc = = 3.112 kips
e (0.12 )(3 )
(c) Rubber lined with a greasy rope, f = 0.205
1.10274(8.745)
Wc = = 1.397 kips
e (0.205 )(3 )

Page 51 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

2 NFt
(d) Dr Ds =
( p su )su
Indefinite life, p su = 0.0015
Ft = F1 = 8.745 kips total
8.745
Ft = = 1.458 kips each rope
6
Ft = 1458 lbs
N =1
Table AT 28, 6 x 19
Ds 45 Dr
2(1)(1458)
Dr (45Dr ) =
(0.0015)(195,000)
Dr = 0.47 in
1
Use Dr = in = 0.5 in
2

Fu Fb
(e) N =
Ft
Table AT 28, MPS
Fu = 32 Dr2 tons = 64,000 Dr2 lb = 64,000(0.5) lb = 16,000 lb
2

EDw Am
Fb =
Ds
E = 30 106 psi
6 x 19, Dw = 0.067 Dr
Ds 45 Dr
Am = 0.4 Dr2 = 0.4(0.5) = 0.1 sq. in.
2

Fb =
(30 10 )(0.067 )(0.1) = 4467 lb
6

45
16,000 4467
N= = 7.91
1458

## (f) 5 x 105 cycles

Fig. 17.30, 6 x 19.
p su = 0.0017
2 NFt
Dr Ds =
( p su )su

Page 52 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

2(1)(1458)
Dr (45Dr ) =
(0.0017)(195,000)
Dr = 0.44 in
since Dr = 0.44 in 0.47 in as in (d), therefore, no significant difference will result.

873. A 5000-lb. elevator with a traction drive is supported by a 6 wire ropes, each
passing over the driving sheave twice, the idler once, as shown. Maximum values
are 4500-lb load, 4 fps2 acceleration during stopping. The brake is applied to a
drum on the motor shaft, so that the entire decelerating force comes on the
cables, whose maximum length will be 120 ft. (a) Using the desirable Ds in
terms of Dr , decide on the diameter and type of wire rope. (b) For this rope and
N = 1.05 , compute the sheave diameter that would be needed for indefinite life.
(c) Compute the factor of safety defined in the Text for the result in (b). (d)
Determine the minimum counterweight to prevent slipping with a dry rope on an
iron sheave. (e) Compute the probable life of the rope on the sheave found in (a)
and recommend a final choice.

Solution:
(a)

Ft = 4500 lb
Wh = 5000 lb
W + wL
Wh + wL Ft = h a
32.2
assume 6 x 19
w = 1.6 Dr2 lb ft
wL = (1.6 Dr2 )(120) = 192 Dr2 per rope
wL = 6(192 Dr2 ) = 1152 Dr2
5000 + 1152 Dr2
5000 + 1152 D 4500 =
2
r
(4)
32 .2
2 2
1152 Dr + 500 = 621.12 + 143.11Dr
Dr = 0.3465 in
3
say Dr = 0.375 in = in
8

Page 53 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

3 7
Ds 45 Dr = 45 = 16 in
8 8
3
Six 6 x 19 rope, Dr = in
8

3
(a) Dr = 0.375 in = in
8
4500
Ft = = 750 lb
6
N = 1.05
2 NFt
Dr Ds =
( p su )su
assume IPS, su = 260 ksi = 260,000 psi
Indefinite life, p su = 0.0015

(0.375)Ds = 2(1.05)(750)
(0.0015)(260,000)
Ds = 10.77 in

Fu Fb
(c) N =
Ft
Ft = 750 lb
IPS
2
2 2 3
Fu 42 D tons = 84,000 D lb = 84,000 lb = 11,813 lb
r r
8

EDw Am
Fb =
Ds

6 x 19,
Ds = 10.77 in as in (b)
3
Dw = 0.067 Dr = 0.067 = 0.025 in
8
2
23
Am = 0.4 D = 0.4 = 0.05625 sq. in.
r
8
6
E = 30 10 psi

Fb =
(30 10 )(0.025)(0.05625) = 3917 lb
6

10.77

Page 54 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

11,813 3917
N= = 10.53
750

(c) F1 = Ft = 4500 lb
F1 = F2 e f
For iron sheave, dry rope, f = 0.12
= 540o = 3

F1 4500
F2 = f
= (0.12 )(3 ) = 1452 lb
e e

a
CW 1 + = F2
32.2
4
CW 1 + = 1452
32.2
CW = 1291 lb

874. A traction elevator has a maximum deceleration of 5 fps2 when being braked on
the downward motion with a total load of 10 kips. There are 5 cables that pass
twice over the driving sheave. The counterweight weighs 8 kips. (a) Compute the
minimum coefficient of friction needed between ropes and sheaves for no
slipping. Is a special sheave surface needed? (b) What size 6 x 19 mild-plow-
steel rope should be used for N = 4 , including the bending effect? (Static
approach.) (c) What is the estimated life of these ropes ( N = 1 )?

Solution:

a = 8.05 fps 2

(a) F1 = 10 kips
8.05
F2 = (8 kips )1 = 6 kips
32.2
= 3
F1
= e f
F2

Page 55 of 56
SECTION 15 FLEXIBLE POWER-TRANSMITTING ELEMENTS

10
= e f (3 )
6
f = 0.0542

F Fb
(b) N = u
Ft
10
Ft = = 2 kips
5
EDw Am
Fb =
Ds

## Table AT 28, 6 x 19, MPS

Dw = 0.067 Dr
Ds 45 Dr
Am 0.4 Dr2
E = 30 106 psi

Fb =
(30 10 )(0.067 D )(0.4 D ) = 17.87 D
6
r
2
r 2
kips
r
45Dr
Fu 32 Dr2 tons = 64 Dr2 kips
64 Dr2 17.87 Dr2
N =4=
2
Dr = 0.4164 in
7
use Dr = in
16
7
(c) Ds 45 Dr = 45 = 20 in
16
2 NFt
Dr Ds =
( p su )su
Ft = 2 kips each rope
MPS, su = 195 ksi
N = 1 .0
7 2(1.0)(2)
(20) =
16 ( p su )(195)
p su = 0.0023
Expected life, Figure 17.30, 3 x 105 bending cycles.
- end -

Page 56 of 56
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

ENERGY TO BRAKES

881. A motor operates a hoist through a pair of spur gears, with a velocity ratio of 4.
The drum on which the cable wraps is on the same shaft as the gear, and the
torque cause by the weight of the load and hoist is 12,000 ft-lb. The pinion is on
the motor shaft. Consider first on which shaft to mount the brake drum; in the
process make trial calculations, and try to think of pros and cons. Make a
decision and determine the size of a drum that will not have a temperature rise
greater than t = 150o F when a 4000-lb. load moves down 200 ft. at a constant
speed. Include a calculation for the frp/sq. in. of the drums surface.

Solution:
Consider that brake drum is mounted on motor shaft that has lesser torque.
12,000 ft lb
T f= = 3000 ft lb = 36,000 in lb
4
From Table AT 29,
Assume f = 0.35 , p = 75 psi , max. vm = 5000 fpm

FD
Tf =
2
2T f
F = fN =
D
2T f
N=
fD
N
p=
A
A = Db
N 2T f 2(36,000 )
p= = = = 75
Db D bf D 2b(0.35)
2

D 2b = 873
use D 2b = 873
873
b= 2
D
Then,
U ft lb
t o F = f
Wm c
Assume a cast-iron,
= 0.253 lb in3
c = 101
Wm = V

Page 1 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

D2
V = Dbt + D 2t = t Db +
4 4
U f = (4000 )(200 ) = 800,000 ft lb
t = 150o F
Uf
Wm = V =
ct
800,000
0.253V =
(150)(101)
V = 208.7 in 3
But
D2
V = t Db +
4
873
b= 2
D
873 D 2
V = t +
D 4
For minimum V :
dV 873 D
= t 2 + = 0
dD D 2
D = 2(873)
3

D = 12 in
For t :
873 (12 )2
V = 208.7 = t +
12 4
t = 0.611 in
5
say t = in
8

873 1
b= = 6.0625 in = 6 in
(12 )2
16
5 1
Therefore use D = 12 in , t = in , b = 6 in
8 16

fhp
For fhp sq. in. =
A
Fvm
fhp =
33,000

Page 2 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

2T f 2(36,000)
F= = = 6000 lb
D 12
vm = 5000 fpm (max.)

fhp =
(6000)(5000) = 909 hp
33,000
1
A = Db = (12 ) 6 in 2
16
fhp 909
fhp sq. in. = = = 3.98 (peak value)
A 228.55

## 882. A 3500-lb. automobile moving on level ground at 60 mph, is to be stopped in a

distance of 260 ft. Tire diameter is 30 in.; all frictional energy except for the
brake is to be neglected. (a) What total averaging braking torque must be
applied? (b) What must be the minimum coefficient of friction between the tires
and the road in order for the wheels not to skid if it is assumed that weight is
equally distributed among the four wheels (not true)? (c) If the frictional energy
is momentarily stored in 50 lb. of cast iron brake drums, what is the average
temperature rise of the drums?

Solution:
(a) Solving for the total braking torque.
W 2
U f = KE =
2g 1
(
vs vs22 )
W = 3500 lb
vs1 = 60 mph = 88 fps
vs2 = 0 mph = 0 fps
g = 32.2 fps 2
3500
Uf =
2(32.2)
(882 02 ) = 421,000 ft lb
fhp = f
(T ft lb )m = (T f in lb )n
33,000 63,000
2 2
vs vs1 0 (88) 2
a= 2 = = 14.892 fps 2
2s 2(260)
vs vs1 0 88
t= 2 = = 5.91 sec
a 14.892
KE U 421,000
fhp = = f = = 130 hp
(t )(550) 550t 550(5.91)

Page 3 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

1
vm
(88 fps )(60 sec min )
n= = 2 = 336 rpm
D 30
ft
12
T n
fhp = f
63,000
63,000(130 )
Tf = = 24,375 in lb
336

F
(b) f =
N
3500
for each wheel, N = = 875 lb
4
24,375
Tf = = 6094 in lb
4
2T 2(6094)
F= f = = 406 in lb
D 30
F 406
f = = = 0.464
N 875

Uf
(c) t =
Wm c
U f = 421,000 ft lb
Wm = 50 lb
c = 101 ft lb lb F for cast-iron
421,000
t = = 83.4o F
(50)(101)

884. An overhead traveling crane weighs 160,000 lb. with its load and runs 253 fpm.
It is driven by a 25-hp motor operating at 1750 rpm.The speed reduction from the
motor to the 18-in. wheels is 32 to 1. Frictional energy other than at the brake is
negligible. (a) How much energy must be absorbed by the brake to stop this crane
in a distance of 18 ft.? (b) Determine the constant average braking torque that
must be exerted on the motor shaft. (c) If all the energy is absorbed by the rim of
the cast-iron brake drum, which is 8 in. in diameter, 1 in. thick, with a 3 -in.
face, what will be its temperature rise? (d) Compute the average rate at which the
energy is absorbed during the first second (fhp). Is it reasonable?

Solution:

Page 4 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

W 2
U f = KE =
2g
(vs1 vs22 )

W = 160,000 lb
g = 32.2 fps 2
vs1 = 253 fpm = 4.22 fps
vs2 = 0 fps

Uf =
160,000
2(32.2)
[ ]
(4.22)2 02 = 44,245 ft lb

fhp (63,000 )
(b) T f =
n
2 2
vs vs1 0 (4.22)2
a= 2 = = 0.495 fps 2
2s 2(18)
vs vs1 0 4.22
t= 2 = = 8.53 sec
a 0.495
U 44,245
fhp = f = = 9.43 hp
550t 550(8.53)
fhp (63,000 ) (9.43)(63,000 )
Tf = = = 68 in lb on the motor shaft.
n 1
(1750)
2

Uf
(c) t =
Wm c
V = Dbt (rim only) on the motor shaft
D = 8 in
b = 3.25 in
t = 0.5 in
V = (8)(3.25)(0.5) = 40.84 in 3
Wm = V
= 0.253 lb in3 for cast iron
c = 101 ft lb lb F for cast-iron
Wm = (0.253)(40.84) = 10.33 lb
44,245
t = = 42.4o F
(10.33)(101)

## (d) First second:

Page 5 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

a = 0.495 fps 2

## vs2 = vs1 + at = 4.22 0.495(1) = 3.73 fps

U f = KE =
160,000
2(32.2)
[ ]
(4.22)2 (3.73)2 = 9680 ft lb
Uf 9680
fhp = = = 17.6 hp < 25 hp , therefore reasonable.
550t 550(1)

885. The diagrammatic hoist shown with its load weighs 6000 lb. The drum weighs
8000 lb., has a radius of gyration k = 1.8 ft ; D = 4 ft . A brake on the drum shaft
brings the hoist to rest in 10 ft. from vs = 8 fps (down). Only the brake frictional
energy is significant, and it can be reasonably assumed that the acceleration is
constant. (a) From the frictional energy, compute the average braking torque. (b)
If the average fhp/sq. in. is limited to 0.15 during the first second, what brake
contact area is needed?

## Problems 885, 886

Solution:
63,000 fhp
Tf =
n
I1 2 W
U f = KE1 KE2 =
2
( (
1 22 ) + 2 vs21 vs21
2g
)
vs1 = 8 fps , vs2 = 0 fps
2vs1 2(8)
1 = = = 4 rad s , 2 = 0 rad s
D 4
W k2
I1 = 1
g
W1 = 8000 lb
k = 1.8 ft
W2 = 6000 lb

Page 6 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

g = 32.2 fps 2
80000(1.8)
2
Uf =
I1 2
( W
( )
1 22 ) + 2 vs21 vs21 = (4)2 + 60000 (8)2 = 12,400 ft lb
2 2g 2(32.2) 2(32.2)
2 2
vs2 vs1
a=
2s
s = 10 ft
0 2 82
a= = 3.2 fps 2
2(10 )
vs vs1 0 8
t= 2 = = 2.5 sec
a 3.2
U 12,400
fhp = f = = 9 hp
550t 550(2.5)
60
n= rpm
2
1
2
60(2 )
n= = 19.1 rpm
2
63,000 fhp 63,000(9 )
Tf = = = 29,700 in lb
n 19.1

## (b) fhp sq. in. = 0.15 (first second)

vs2 = vs1 + at = 8 3.2(1) = 4.8 fps
2vs22(4.8)
2 = = = 2.4 rad sec
D 4
80000(1.8)
2
Uf =
2(32.2 )
[ ] [ ]
(4)2 (2.4)2 + 60000 (8)2 (4.8)2 = 6106 ft lb
2(32.2)
U 6106
fhp = f = = 11.10 hp
550t 550(1)
fhp 11.10
A= = = 74 in 2
fhp sq.in. 0.15

887. The same as 885, except that a traction drive, arranged as shown, is used; the
counterweight weighs 4000 lb. The ropes pass twice about the driving sheave; the
brake drum is on this same shaft.

Page 7 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

Problem 887.

Solution:

WT 2
(a) U f = KE = (
2g 1
)
vs vs22

## WT = 4000 lb + 6000 lb = 10,000 lb

KE of pulley is negligible
vs1 = 8 fps , vs2 = 0 fps
10,000 2
Uf = (8) = 9,940 ft lb
2(32.2)
vs22 vs21 0 2 82
a= = = 3.2 fps 2
2s 2(10)
vs vs1 0 8
t= 2 = = 2.5 sec
a 3.2
U 9940
fhp = f = = 7.23 hp
550t 550(2.5)
D = 4 ft
2v 2(8)
1 = s1 = = 4 rad sec
D 4
2v 2(0)
2 = s2 = = 0 rad sec
D 4
1 1
= (1 + 2 ) = (4 + 0) = 2 rad sec
2 2
60 60(2 )
n= = 19.1 rpm
2 2

Page 8 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

## 63,000 fhp 63,000(7.23)

Braking torque, T f = = = 23,850 in lb
n 19.1

## (b) fhp sq. in. = 0.15 (first second)

vs1 = 8 fps
vs2 vs1 = at
vs2 8 = 3.2(1)
vs2 = 4.8 fps

Uf =
10,000
2(32.2)
[ ]
(8)2 (4.8)2 = 6360 ft lb
U 6360
fhp = f = = 11.56 hp
550t 550(1)
fhp 11.56
Contact area = A = = = 77.1 in 2
fhp sq.in. 0.15

SINGLE-SHOE BRAKES

888. For the single-shoe, short-block brake shown (solid lines) derive the expressions
for brake torque for (a) clockwise rotation, (b) counterclockwise rotation. (c) In
which direction of rotation does the brake have self-actuating properties? If
f = 0.25 , for what proportions of e and c would the brake be self-actuating?

Solution:

## (a) Clockwise rotation (as shown)

Page 9 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

FD
Tf =
2
F = fN
[ M H =0 ]
fN e + Wa = N c
N c fN e = Wa
Wa
N=
c fe
fWa
F=
c fe
Tf =
2(c fe )

## (b) Counter Clockwise Rotation

FD
Tf =
2
F = fN
[ M H =0 ]

Page 10 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

Wa = fN e + N c
Wa
N=
c + fe
fWa
F=
c + fe
Tf =
2(c + fe )

## (c) Clockwise rotation is self-actuating

c > fe
with f = 0.25
c > 0.25e

889. The same as 888, except that the wheel and brake shoe are grooved, 2 degrees
between the sides of the grooves (as in a sheave, Fig. 17.38, Text).

Solution:

[ F V =0 ]
2 N1 sin = N
F = 2 f N1

Page 11 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

N fN
F =2f =
2 sin sin

Wa
N=
c fe
fWa
F=
(c fe )sin
Tf =
2(c fe )sin

Wa
N=
c + fe
fWa
F=
(c + fe)sin
Tf =
2(c + fe ) sin

## (c) Clockwise rotation is self-actuating

c > fe
with f = 0.25
c > 0.25e

890. Consider the single-shoe, short-block brake shown (solid lines) with the drum
rotating clockwise; let e be positive measured downward and D = 1.6c . (a) Plot
the mechanical advantage MA (ordinate) against f values of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4,
0.5 (abscissa) when e c has values 2, 0.5, 0, -0.5, -1. (b) If f may vary from 0.3
to 0.4, which proportions give the more nearly constant brake response? Are
proportions good? (c) What proportions are best if braking is needed for both
directions of rotation?

Solution:

Page 12 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

Tf
(a) MA = , Clockwise rotation
Wa
fD
MA =
2(c fe )
D = 1 .6 c
1.6 fc
MA =
2(c fe )
0 .8 f
MA =
fe
1
c

Tabulation:

Values of MA
ec
f 2 0.5 0 -0.5 -1
0.1 0.100 0.084 0.08 0.076 0.073
0.2 0.267 0.178 0.16 0.145 0.133
0.3 0.600 0.284 0.24 0.209 0.185
0.4 1.600 0.400 0.32 0.267 0.229
0.5 0.533 0.40 0.320 0.267

Page 13 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

Plot:

## (b) f = 0.3 to 0.4 , e c = 1 , with MA constant .

fe
They are good because 1 > except e c = 2 .
c

(c) e c = 0 is the best if braking is needed for both directions of rotation with MA the
same.

## 891. A single-block brake has the dimensions: cast-iron wheel of D = 15 in .,

1 3 11
a = 32 in ., c = 9 in ., e = 4 in ., width of contact surface = 2 in. The brake
2 8 16
block lined with molded asbestos, subtends 80o, symmetrical about the center
line; it is permitted to absorb energy at the rate of 0.4 hp/in.2; n = 200 rpm .
Assume that p is constant, that F and N act at K , and compute (a) pvm and
the approximate braking torque, (b) the force W to produce this torque, (c) the
mechanical advantage, (d) the temperature rise of the 3/8-in.-thick rim, if it
absorbs all the energy with operation as specified, in 1 min. (e) How long could
this brake be so applied for t = 400 o F ? See 893.

Solution:

Page 14 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

D = 15 in
a = 32.5 in
c = 9.375 in
e = 4.6875 in
b = 2 in

## (a) Solving for pvm

Fvm = fpAvm ft lb min
Fvm
= 0.4 hp in 2
A
Fvm (0.4 hp )(33,000 ft lb hp min ) 13,200 ft lb min
= =
A in 2 in 2
Fvm
= fpvm
A
f = 0.35 from Table AT 29, molded asbestos on cast iron
Fvm
= 13,200 = 0.35 pvm
A
pvm = 37,700 ft lb sq in min

## Solving for braking torque

Fvm
= 13,200 ft lb sq. in. min
A
15
vm = Dn = (200 ) = 785 fpm
12
Db
A=
2

180

Page 15 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

Db (1.3963)(15)(2)
A= = = 21 sq. in.
2 2

F (785)
= 13,200
21
F = 353 lb
FD (353)(15)
Tf = = = 2650 in lb
2 2

## (b) Solving for W

f Wa
F=
c fe
F = 353 lb
f = 0.35
a = 32.5 in
e = 4.6875 in
c = 9.375 in
F (c fe ) (353)[9.375 (0.35)(4.6875)]
W= = = 240 lb
fa (0.35)(32.5)
(c) Solving for MA

MA =
fD
=
(0.35)(15) = 0.34
2(c fe ) 2[9.375 (0.35)(4.6875)]

## (d) Solving for t

U f , ft lb
t o F =
Wm c
Wm = Dbt
D = 15 in
b = 2 in
3
t = in = 0.375 in
8
= 0.253 lb in3 for cast iron

## c = 101 ft lb lb F for cast iron

Page 16 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

U f = 550t ( fhp )
t = 1 min = 60 sec
U f = 550(60 )( fhp ) = 33,000 fhp

fhp =
Tf n
=
(2650)(200) = 8.4127 hp
63,000 63,000
U f = 33,000(8.4127 ) = 277,619 ft lb
Uf 277,619
t = = = 310o F
Wm c (8.942)(101)

## (e) Solving for t , (time) with t = 400o F

U f = Wm ct
U f = (8.942 )(101)(400 ) = 361,260 ft lb

## 550( fhp )(t ) = U f

550(8.4127 )(t ) = 361,260
t = 78 sec = 1.3 min
1
892. For a single-block brake, as shown, a = 26 in ., c = 7 in ., e = 3.75 in .,
2
1
D = 15 in ., drum contact width b = 3 in . The molded asbestos lining subtends
2
o
= 60 , symmetrical about the vertical axis; force W = 300 lb .; n = 600 rpm .
Assume that p is constant, that F and N act at K , and compute (a) pvm and
the braking torque, (b) the energy rate in fhp/in.2 of contact surface. (c) the
mechanical advantage, (d) the temperature of the 3/8-in.-thick rim, if it absorbs
all the energy with the operation as specified in 1 min. (e) How long could this
brake be so applied for t rim = 400o F ? See 894.

Page 17 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

## Problems 892, 894.

Solution:
For greater braking torque, T f , use counterclockwise rotation

[ M A =0]
aW + efN = cN
Wa
N=
c ef
f Wa
F=
c ef
From Table AT 29, f = 0.35 for molded asbestos
W = 300 lb
a = 26 in
c = 7.5 in
e = 3.75
F=
(0.35)(300)(26) = 442 lb
7.5 (3.75)(0.35)

## (a) Solving for pvm

Fvm = fpAvm
Dn (15)(600)
vm = = = 2536 fpm
12 12
Db
A=
2

180
A=
(1.047 )(15)(3.5) = 27.5 in 2
2
Fvm = (442)(2536) = (0.35)(27.5) pvm
pvm = 116,500 ft lb sq. in. min

Page 18 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

## Solving for the braking torque,

FD (442 )(15)
Tf = = = 3315 in lb
2 2

## (b) Energy rate, fhp.in2.

fhp =
Tf n
=
(3315)(600) = 31.6 hp
63,000 63,000
2
A = 27.5 in
31.6 hp
fhp in 2 = = 1.15 hp in 2
27.5 in 2
T 3315
(c) MA = f = = 0.425
Wa (300)(26)
U , ft lb
(d) t o F = f
Wm c
Wm = Dbt
3
t = in = 0.375 in
8
D = 15 in
b = 3.5 in
= 0.253 lb in3 for cast iron
c = 101 ft lb lb F for cast iron

For 1 min

## U f = 33,000(1)( fhp ) = 33,000(1)(31.6 ) = 1,042,800 ft lb

1,042,800
t = = 660o F
(15.648)(101)
(e) t rim = 400o F
U f = (400 )(15.648)(101) = 632,179 ft lb
Uf 632,179
=
t min = = 0.61 min
33,000 fhp 33,000(31.6)

Page 19 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

LONG-SHOE BRAKES

FIXED SHOES

893. The brake is as described in 891 and is to absorb energy at the same rate but the
pressure varies as p = P sin . Derive the equations needed and compute (a) the
maximum pressure, (b) the moment M F H of F about H , (c) the moment M N H
of N about H , (d) the force W , (e) the braking torque, (f) the x and y
components of the force at H .

Solution:

p = P sin = P sin
D
r=
2
dN = pbrd
dF = fpbrd

Page 20 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

T f = rdF
T f = fpbr 2 d
T f = fbr 2 P sin d
T f = fbr 2 P(cos 1 cos 2 )

## (a) Solving for P

Tf
P=
fbr (cos 1 cos 2 )
2

D
r=
2
c
tan =
r e
c = 9.375 in
15
r = = 7.5 in
2
e = 4.6875 in
9.375
tan =
7.5 4.6875
= 73.3o
= 80o
80
1 = = 73.3 = 33.3o
2 2
80
2 = + = 73.3 + = 113.3o
2 2
f = 0.35
b = 2 in
r = 7.5 in
Tf
P=
fbr 2 (cos 1 cos 2 )
Tf Tf
P= = psi
(0.35)(2)(7.5)2 (cos 33.3 cos113.3) 48.5
63,000 fhp
Tf =
n
( )
fhp = fhp in 2 ( A)
Db
A=
2

180

Page 21 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

A=
(1.396)(15)(2) = 21 in 2
2
fhp in 2 = 0.4
fhp = (0.4)(21) = 8.4 hp
n = 200 rpm
63,000(8.4 )
Tf = = 2646 in lb
200
T 2646
P= f = = 55 psi = max .P (2 > 90o )
48.5 48.5

## (b) M F H = (r R cos )dF

2
MF H = (r R cos ) fbrP sin d
1
2
M F H = fbrP (r sin R sin cos )d
1
2
R
MF H = fbrP r cos sin 2
2 1
R
(
M F H = fbrP r (cos 1 cos 2 ) sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )
2
R = c 2 + (r e ) = (9.375)2 + (7.5 4.6875)2
2
= 9.788 in
9.788
M F H = (0.35)(2 )(7.5)(55)7.5(cos 33.3 cos113.3) ( )
sin 2 113.3 sin 2 33.3
2
M F H = 1900 in lb

(c) M N H = R sin dN
2
MN H = RP sin 2 brd
1
2
MN H = brRP sin 2 d
1

brRP 2
MN H =
2 1
(
1 cos 2 d )

brRP 1
2

MN = sin 2
2
H
2 1
brRP
MN H = [2(2 1 ) (sin 22 sin 21 )]
4
2 1 = = 1.396 rad
22 = 2(113.3) = 226.6o
21 = 2(33.3) = 66.6o

Page 22 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

MN =
(2)(7.5)(9.788)(55) [2(1.396) (sin 226.6 sin 66.6)]
H
4
MN H = 8956 in lb

(d) M H =0
Wa + M F H M N H =0
a = 32.5 in
W (32.5) + 1900 8956 = 0
W = 217 lb

(e) T f = 2646 in lb

(f) F x =0
H x W cos + dN sin + dF cos = 0
2 2
H x = W cos Pbr sin 2 d fPbr sin cos d
1 1

brP
H x = W cos [2(2 1 ) (sin 22 sin 21 )] fbrP sin 2 2 sin 2 1
( )
4 2
H x = 217 cos 73.3
(2 )(7.5)(55)
[2(1.396) (sin 226.6 sin 66.6)]
4

## (0.35)(2)(7.5)(55) sin 2 113.3 sin 2 113.3

( )
2
H x = 931 lb
H x = 931 lb

F y =0
H y + W sin dN cos + dF sin = 0
2 2
H y = brP sin cos d fbrP sin 2 d W sin
1 1

brP fbrP
Hy =
2
(
sin 2 2 sin 2 1
4
) [2(2 1 ) (sin 22 sin 21 )] W sin
Hy =
(2)(7.5)(55) sin 2 113.3 sin 2 33.3
( )
2

## (0.35)(2)(7.5)(55) [2(1.396) (sin 226.6 sin 66.6)] 217 sin 73.3

4
H y = 305 lb
H y = 305 lb

Page 23 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

894. The brake is as described in 892, but the pressure varies as p = P sin . Assume
the direction of rotation for which a given W produces the greater T f , derive the
equations needed, and compute (a) the maximum pressure, (b) the moment of F
about A , (c) The moment of N about A , (d) the braking torque, (e) the x and y
components of the force at A .

Solution:

p = P sin
dN = pbrd
dN = Pbr sin d
dF = fdN = fPbr sin d

## Solving for 1 and 2

Page 24 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

c
tan =
r+e
D
r= = 7.5 in
2
7 .5
tan =
7.5 + 3.75
= 33.69o
60
1 = = 3.69o
= 33.69
2 2
60
1 = + = 33.69 + = 63.69o
2 2
M F A = (R cos r )dF
2
MF A = (R cos r ) fPbr sin d
1
2
M F A = fPbr (R sin cos r sin )d
1

R
( )
M F A = fPbr sin 2 2 sin 2 1 + r (cos 2 cos 1 )
2
R = c 2 + (e + r ) = (7.5)2 + (3.75 + 7.5)2
2
= 13.52 in
13.52
M F A = (0.35)P(3.5)(7.5) (sin 63.69 sin 3.69) + 7.5(cos 63.69 cos 3.69)
2 2

2
M F A = 11.43P
MN A = R sin dN
2
MN A = RPbr sin 2 d
1

brPR 2
MN A =
2 1
(
1 cos 2 d )
brPR
MN A = [2(2 1 ) (sin 22 sin 21 )]
4
2 1 = = 1.047 rad
22 = 2(63.69) = 127.38o
21 = 2(3.69) = 7.38o
MN A =
(3.5)(7.5)P(13.52) [2(1.047 ) (sin 127.38 sin 7.38)]
4
M N A = 126.68 P

(a) M A =0
Wa + M F A M N A =0
W = 300 lb

Page 25 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

a = 26 in
(300)(26) + 11.43P 126.68P = 0
P = 67.68 psi

## (b) M F A = 11.43(67.68) = 774 in lb

(c) M N A = 126.68(67.68) = 8575 in lb
(d) T f = rdF
2
T f = fPbr 2 sin d
1

## T f = fPbr 2 (cos 1 cos 2 )

T f = (0.35)(60.68)(3.5)(7.5) (cos 3.69 cos 63.69)
2

T f = 2587 in lb

(e) [ F x =0 ]
H x W cos + dN sin dF cos = 0
2 2
H x = W cos Pbr sin 2 d + fPbr sin cos d
1 1

Pbr
H x = W cos [2(2 1 ) (sin 22 sin 21 )] + fPbr sin 2 2 sin 2 1
( )
4 2
H x = 300 cos 33.69
(67.68)(3.5)(7.5) [2(1.047 ) (sin 127.38 sin 7.38)]
4
+
(0.35)(67.68)(3.5)(7.5) sin 2 63.69 sin 2 3.69
( )
2
H x = 136 lb
H x = 136 lb

[ F y =0 ]
H y + W sin dN cos dF sin = 0
2 2
H y = Pbr sin cos d + fPbr sin 2 d W sin
1 1

Pbr fPbr
Hy =
2
(
sin 2 2 sin 2 1 +
4
)
[2(2 1 ) (sin 22 sin 21 )] W sin
Hy =
(67.68)(3.5)(7.5) sin 2 63.69 sin 2 3.69
( )
2
+
(0.35)(67.68)(3.5)(7.5)
[2(1.047) (sin 127.38 sin 7.38)] 300 sin 33.69
4

Page 26 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

H y = 766 lb

895. (a) For the brake shown, assume p = P cos and the direction of rotation for
which a given force W results in the greater braking torque, and derive equations
for T f in terms of W , f , and the dimensions of the brake. (b) Under what
circumstances will the brake be self-acting? (c) Determine the magnitude and
location of the resultant forces N and F .

Solution:

## (a) Clockwise rotation has greatest braking torque.

p = P cos
dN = pbrd = Pbr cos d
dF = fdN = fpbrd = fPbr cos d
2
MF H = (r + c sin )dF
1
2
MF H = (r + c sin ) fPbr cos d
1

Page 27 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

2
MF H = fPbr (r cos + c sin cos )d
1

2
1
M F H = fPbr r sin + c sin 2
2 1
1
[
M F H = fPbr r [sin ( 2 ) sin ( 1 )] + c sin 2 ( 2 ) sin 2 ( 1 ) ]
2
1
(
M F H = fPbr r (sin 2 + sin 1 ) + c sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )
2
2
MN H = cos dN
1
2
MN H = cPbr cos 2 d
1

cPbr 2
2 1
MN H = (1 + cos 2 )d
cPbr
MN H = [2 + sin 2 ]21
4
cPbr
MN H = [2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )]
4
[
MH = 0 ]
Wa + M F H M N H =0
1 cPbr
(
Wa + fPbr r (sin 2 + sin 1 ) + c sin 2 2 sin 2 1 = )
[2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )]
2 4
Wa
P=
cbr
[2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )] fbr 2r (sin 2 + sin 1 ) + c sin 2 2 sin 2 1
[ ( )]
4 2
4Wa
P=
{ [ (
br c[2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )] 2 f 2r (sin 2 + sin 1 ) + c sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )]}
T f = rdF
2
Tf = fPbr 2 cos d
1

## T f = fPbr 2 (sin 2 + sin 1 )

4 fWabr 2 (sin 2 + sin 1 )
Tf =
[ ]
br {c[2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )] 2 f 2r (sin 2 + sin 1 ) + c(sin 2 2 sin 2 1 ) }
4 fWar (sin 2 + sin 1 )
Tf =
[ ]
c[2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )] 2 f 2r (sin 2 + sin 1 ) + c (sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )
D
where r = e =
2

Page 28 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

[ ]
(b) c[2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )] > 2 f 2r (sin 2 + sin 1 ) + c (sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )
4 fr (sin 2 + sin 1 )
c>
2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 ) 2 f (sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )

(c) N = dN
2
N = Pbr cos d
1

## N = Pbr (sin 2 + sin 1 )

F = fN
F = fPbr (sin 2 + sin 1 )

## Solving for the location of F and N .

Let A = vertical distance from O .
2
M F Loc . =
1
( A r cos )dF
2
M F Loc . (
= P A cos r cos 2 fbrd
1
)
2
M F Loc . = Pfbr
1
(A cos r cos )d
2

2 1
M F Loc . = Pfbr A cos r (1 + cos 2 ) d
1
2
2
1 1
M F Loc . = Pfbr A sin r + sin 2
2 2 1
1 1
M = Pfbr [ A(sin 2 + sin 1 )] r ( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )
F Loc .
2 2
Then M F Loc . = 0

## [A(sin 2 + sin 1 )] 1 r ( 2 + 1 ) + 1 (sin 2 2 + sin 21 ) = 0

2 2
1 1
A(sin 2 + sin 1 ) = r ( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )
2 2
1 1
r ( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )
2 2
A=
(sin 2 + sin 1 )
r [2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )]
A=
4(sin 2 + sin 1 )

Page 29 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

896. For the brake shown with 1 2 , assume that the direction of rotation is such
that a given W results in the greater braking torque and that p = P sin . (a)
Derive equations in terms of 1 and 2 for the braking torque, for the moment
M F H and for M N H . (b) Reduce the foregoing equations for the condition
1 = 2 . (c) Now suppose that , taken as = 1 + 2 , is small enough that

sin , cos 1 , 1 = 2 = . What are the resulting equations?
2

Solution:

## (a) Use clockwise rotation

p = P sin
dN = Pbr sin d
dF = fdN = fPbr sin d
1 = 90 1
2 = 90 + 2
T f = rdF

Page 30 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

2
T f = fPbr 2 sin d
1

2

## T f = fPbr 2 [cos(90 1 ) cos(90 + 2 )]

T f = fPbr 2 (sin 1 + sin 2 )

M F H = (r c cos )dF
2
M F H = fbPr (r c cos )sin d
1
2
M F H = fPbr (r sin c sin cos )d
1

2
1
MF H = fPbr r cos c sin 2
2 1
1
(
M F H = fPbr r (cos 1 cos 2 ) c sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )
2
1
[ ]
M F H = fPbr r [cos(90 1 ) cos(90 + 2 )] c sin 2 (90 + 2 ) sin 2 (90 1 )
2
1
(
M F H = fPbr r (sin 1 + sin 2 ) c cos 2 2 cos 2 1 )
2
1
[( ) (
M F H = fPbr r (sin 1 + sin 2 ) c 1 sin 2 2 1 sin 2 1 )]
2
1
(
M F H = fPbr r (sin 1 + sin 2 ) + c sin 2 2 sin 2 1 )
2

MN H = r sindN
2
MN H = bPr 2 sin 2 d
1
2
Pbr 2
2 1
MN H = (1 cos 2 )d
Pbr 2
MN H = [2 sin 2 ]12
4
Pbr 2
MN H = [2(2 1 ) (sin 22 sin 21 )]
4
Pbr 2
MN H = {2[(90 + 2 ) (90 1 )] [sin 2(90 + 2 ) sin 2(90 1 )]}
4
Pbr 2
MN H = [2( 2 + 1 ) ( sin 2 2 sin 21 )]
4

Page 31 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

Pbr 2
MN H = [2( 2 + 1 ) + (sin 2 2 + sin 21 )]
4

(b) 1 = 2

## T f = fbPr 2 (sin 1 + sin 2 )

T f = 2 fbPr 2 sin 1
1
( )
M F H = fPbr r (sin 1 + sin 2 ) + c sin 2 2 sin 2 1
2
2
M F H = 2 fPbr sin 1
Pbr 2
MN H = [2( 2 + 1 ) ( sin 2 2 sin 21 )]
4
bPr 2
MN H = (41 + 2 sin 21 )
4
bPr 2
MN H = (41 + 4 sin 1 cos 1 )
4
MN H = bPr 2 (1 + sin 1 cos 1 )

(c) = 1 + 2
sin
cos 1

1 = 2 =
2

T f = 2 fbPr 2 sin 1

T f = 2 fbPr 2 sin = 2 fbPr 2 = fbPr 2
2 2

MF H = 2 fPbr 2 sin 1

M F H = 2 fbPr 2 sin = 2 fbPr 2 = fbPr 2
2 2

## MN H = bPr 2 (1 + sin 1 cos 1 )

MN H = bPr 2 + (1) = bPr 2
2 2

Page 32 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

897. The brake shown is lined with woven asbestos; the cast-iron wheel is turning at
60 rpm CC; width of contact surface is 4 in. A force W = 1300 lb . is applied via
linkage systemnot shown; = 90o . Let p = P sin . (a) With the brake lever as a
free body, take moments about the pivot J and determine the maximum pressure
and compare with permissible values. Compute (b) the braking torque, (c) the
frictional energy in fhp. (d) Compute the normal force N , the average pressure
on the projected area, and decide if the brake application can safely be
continuous.

Solution:
(a)

dF = fdN
p = P sin
dN = pbrd = Pbr sin d
dF = fPbr sin d
M F J = (R cos r )dF
2
M F J = fPbr (R cos r )sin d
1

Page 33 of 97
SECTION 16 BRAKES AND CLUTCHES

2
M F J = fPbr (R sin cos r sin )d
1

1
2

## M F J = fPbr R sin 2 + r cos

2 1
1
( )
M F J = fPbr R sin 2 2 sin 2 1 + r (cos 2 cos 1 )
2
12.5
tan =
10
= 51.34o

1 =
2
o
= 90
90
1 = 51.34 = 6.34o
2
90
1 = + = 51.34 + = 96.34o
2 2
b = 4 in
r = 10 in
for woven asbestos f = 0.4 (Table At 29)
R= (12.5)2 + (10)2 = 16 in
1
( )
M F J = fPbr R sin 2 2 sin 2 1 + r (cos 2 cos 1 )
2
16
( )
M F J