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TWO POPULATION

Two POPULATION

T TEST (INDEPENDENT)
T TEST (INDEPENDENT)
1. 1.1) A new drug is proposed to lower total cholesterol. A randomized controlled trial is designed to evaluate the efficacy of
the medication in lowering cholesterol. Thirty participants are enrolled in the trial and are randomly assigned to receive
either the new drug or a placebo. The participants do not know which treatment they are assigned. Each participant is
asked to take the assigned treatment for 6 weeks. At the end of 6 weeks, each patient's total cholesterol level is measured
and the sample statistics are as follows.

Treatment Sample Size Mean Standard Deviation

New Drug 15 195.9 28.7

Placebo 15 227.4 30.3

Is there statistical evidence of a reduction in mean total cholesterol in patients taking the new drug for 6 weeks as compared to
participants taking placebo.

1.2) Hypothesis testing

a) Ho: 1 = 2
Ha: 1 < 2

b) Let a=0.05
Critical Value: Z 0.05 = 1.645
Critical Region:

Decision Rule:
This is a lower-tailed test, using a t statistic and a 5% level of significance. The appropriate critical value can be
found in the t Table (in More Resources to the right). In order to determine the critical value of t we need degrees of
freedom, df, defined as df=n1+n2-2 = 15+15-2=28. The critical value for a lower tailed test with df=28 and =0.05 is -
1.701 and the decision rule is: Reject H0 if t < -1.701.

c) Computation:

d) Decision:
We reject H0 because -2.92 < -1.701. We have statistically significant evidence at =0.05 to show that the
mean total cholesterol level is lower in patients taking the new drug for 6 weeks as compared to patients taking
placebo, p < 0.005.

e) Conclusion:
The clinical trial in this example finds a statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol, whereas in the
previous example where we had a historical control (as opposed to a parallel control group) we did not demonstrate
efficacy of the new drug. The historical control value may not have been the most appropriate comparator as
cholesterol levels have been increasing over time. In the next section, we present another design that can be used to
assess the efficacy of the new drug.

Reference: Hypothesis Testing. (2017) Tests Means Proportion. Retrieved from http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/mph-
modules/bs/bs704_hypothesistest-means-proportions/BS704_HypothesisTest-Means-Proportions6.html

2.

2.1) An investigator theorizes that people who participate in a regular program of exercise will have levels of systolic

blood pressure that are significantly different from that of people who do not participate in a regular program of
exercise.

To test this idea the investigator randomly assigns 21 subjects to an exercise program for 10 weeks and 21 subjects to a
non-exercise comparison group. After ten weeks the mean systolic blood pressure of subjects in the exercise group is
137 and the standard deviation of blood pressure values in the exercise group is 10. After ten weeks, the mean systolic
blood pressure of subjects in the non-exercise group is 127 and the standard deviation on subjects in the non-exercise
group is 9.0. Please test the investigator's theory using an alpha level of .05.
2.2) Hypothesis testing:

a) Ho: People who participate in a regular program of exercise do not have levels of systolic blood pressure
that are significantly different from those of people who do not exercise.
Ha: People who participate in a regular program of exercise have levels of systolic blood
pressure that are significantly different from those of people who do not exercise.

b) Let a = =0.05; 0.05/2 = 0.02


Critical value: t(0.02,40) = 2.021
Df = 21 + 21 2 = 40
Critical region:

Decision rule: Reject Ho if tc t(0.02,40) = -2.021 or tc t(0.02,40) = 2.021

c) Computation
Sp2 = (21-1) 102 + (21-1)(9)2 = 3620 = 90.5
21+21-2 40

T = 137 127
90.5 (1/21 + 1/21)

tc = = 3.406

d) Decision
Since tc = 3.406 > t(0.02,40) = 2.021, the null hypothesis is rejected.

e) Conclusion
People who participate in a regular program of exercise have levels of systolic blood pressure that are
significantly different from those of people who do not exercise.

Reference:

(2017). Retrieved 3 August 2017, from


http://www.radford.edu/~tpierce/610%20files/SPSS%20Lab/Practice%20Problems/610%20independe
nt%20samples%20ttest.pdf
http://www.radford.edu/tpierce/610%20files/SPSS%20Lab/Practice%20Problems/Answers%20to%20z
%20and%20t-test%20practice%20problems.pdf
3.

3.1) A biologist suspected that females age 20 - 24 have a lower mean systolic blood pressure than males in the same
age group. Independent random sample produced the following results for systolic pressure.

Sample mean Sample standard deviation Sample size

Female (x1) 114 12.5 14

Male (x2) 122 13.9 21

Is there sufficient evidence to justify the claim at a 1% level of significance?

3.2) Hypothesis Testing:

a) Ho: Female and male systolic blood pressure are the same

Ha: Female has a lower systolic blood pressure than men

b) Let a = 0.05

Critical Value: t (0.05, 13) = -1.771

Df = smaller from (14-1) or (21-1)

Df = 13

Critical region:

Decision Rule: Reject Ho if tc t (0.05, 13) = -1.771

c) Computation:

Tc = -1.7729

d) Decision:

Since tc = -1.7729 < t (0.05, 13) = -1.771, the null hypothesis is rejected.
f) Conclusion:
Therefore, we conclude that female systolic pressure are lower than males same age (20-24)
Reference: Comparing two population means - small independent samples. (2017). Pindling.org. Retrieved 3
August 2017, from
http://www.pindling.org/Math/Statistics/Textbook/Chapter8_two_population_inference/mean_independe
nt_nsmall.htm

4.

4.1) Lung destructive index

We wish to know if we may conclude, at the 95% confidence level, that smokers, in general, have greater lung damage
than do non-smokers.

Sample Mean Sample size Sample standard deviation

Smokers: 17.5 16 4.4752

Non-Smokers: 12.4 9 4.8492

alpha = .05

4.2) Hypothesis Testing:

a) Ho: Smokers have a lesser lung damage than non smokers

Ha: Smoker have a greater lung damage than non smokers

b) Let a = 0.05

Critical Value: t(0.05, 23) = 1.714

Df = 16 + 9 2 = 23

Critical Region:

Decision Rule: Reject Ho if tc t(0.05, 23) = 1.714


c) Computation:

tc = 2.656

d) Decision :

Since tc = 2.656 > t(0.05, 23) = 1.714, the null hypothesis is rejected.

e) Conclusion:

On the basis of these data, we conclude that smokers have a greater lung damage than non
smoker.

Reference: Hypothesis Testing of the Difference Between Two Population Means. (2017). Kean.edu.
Retrieved 3 August 2017, from http://www.kean.edu/~fosborne/bstat/07b2means.html

5.

5.1) To find out whether a new serum will arrest leukemia, 9 mice, all with an advanced stage of the disease,
are selected. Five mice receive the treatment and 4 do not. Survival times, in years, from the time the
experiment commenced are as follows:

Treatment 2.1 5.3 1.4 4.6 0.9


No Treatment 1.9 0.5 2.8 3.1

At the 0.05 level of significance, can the serum be

said to be effective? Assume the two populations to

be normally distributed with equal variances.

5.2) Hypothesis Testing:

a) Ho: 1-2=0

Ha: 1-2<0

b) Let a = 0.05

Critical Value: t(0.05,7) = 1.895

Df = 5 + 4 2 = 7

Critical Region:

Decision Rule: Reject Ho if tc t(0.05,7) = -1.895 or tc t(0.05,7) = 1.895

c) Computation:

Sp2 = (40)(3.883000001) + (3) 1.3625 7

= 2.802785715

T = 2.86 2.075/ 2.802785715 (1/5 + 1/4 )

Tc = 0.69

d) Decision:

Since tc = 0.69 < t(0.05,7) = 1.895 , the null hypothesis is accepted.


e) Conclusion:

The null hypothesis is accepted, which mean there is sufficient evidence that the new serum
is effective and will arrest the leukemia.

Reference:
http://www.akademik.adu.edu.tr/fakulte/muhendislik/F001%5CD0004%5CP00005%5CCours
es%5CMAT254/1432643660/EN/stunentttest.pdf