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Gas-phase

Decomposition
Diffusion to Surface
Physical Absorption
Diffusion along
1) CVD process: (6)
Surface
Decomposition
Desorption of
Reaction By-
products
2) Are introduced into a reaction chamber and are decomposed and
Reactant Gases
reacted at a heated surface to form the thin film
Atmospheric
Pressure CVD
3) Classification of CVD by operating pressure: (3) Low-pressure CVD
Ultrahigh Vacuum
CVD
4) CVD at atmospheric pressure and can deposit functional thin films
Atmospheric Pressure CVD
at low process temperatures onto nearly all materials
5) CVD at sub-atmospheric pressures Low-pressure CVD
6) CVD at very low pressure, typically below 10-6 Pa (~10-8 torr) Ultrahigh Vacuum CVD
Aerosol Assisted
CVD
7) Classification of CVD by physical characteristics of vapor: (2)
Direct Liquid
Injection CVD
8) CVD in which the precursors are transported to the substrate by
means of a liquid/gas aerosol, which can be generated Aerosol Assisted CVD
ultrasonically
9) CVD in which precursors are in liquid form Direct Liquid Injection CVD
Hot Wall CVD
10) Classification of CVD by the type of substrate heating: (2)
Cold Wall CVD
11) CVD in which the chamber is heated by an external power source
and the substrate is heated by radiation from the heated chamber Hot Wall CVD
walls
12) CVD in which only the substrate is directly heated either by
induction or by passing current through the substrate itself or a Cold Wall CVD
heater in contact with the substrate
13) The plasma is generally created by radio frequency discharge
Plasma-enhanced Chemical
between two electrodes, the space between which is filled with
Vapor Deposition
the reacting gases
Reinberg Type
Reactor (Direct)
14) PECVD reactor types: (2)
Downstream
Reactor (Indirect)
15) Reactants, by-products, substrates and plasma are in the same
Reinberg Type Reactor
space
16) Plasma is generated in a separate chamber and is pumped into
Downstream Reactor
the deposition chamber
17) Similar to PECVD except that the wafer substrate is not directly in Remote Plasma-enhanced
the plasma discharge region CVD
18) A synthesis method where the substrate is exposed to one or
more volatile precursors, in the presence of a plasma, which react Plasma-assisted CVD
or decompose on the surface to produce a deposit
19) A chemical process by which thin film coatings are deposited onto Combustion Chemical
substrates by the use of the flame in an open atmosphere Vapor Deposition
20) A chemical vapor deposition process that uses a hot filament to
Hot Filament CVD
chemically decompose the source gases
21) Has assumed a great deal of technological importance in the
Metal Organic Chemical
fabrication of a number of opto-electronic and high speed
Vapor Deposition
electronic devices
22) Can be defined as a film deposition technique that is based on the Atomic Layer Chemical
sequential use of self-terminating reactions Vapor Deposition
23) Came from the Greek words epi meaning above and taxis
meaning an ordered manner and can be translated as Epitaxy
arranging upon
24) It means the growth of a single crystal film on top of a crystalline
Epitaxy
substrate, substrate acting as a seed for the growth
Homoepitaxy
Heteroepitaxy
25) Types of epitaxy: (4)
Heterotopotaxy
Pendeo-epitaxy
26) Is a kind of epitaxy performed with only one material, in which a
crystalline film is grown on a substrate or film of the same Homoepitaxy
material
27) Is a kind of epitaxy performed with materials that are different
Heteroepitaxy
from each other
28) Is a process similar to heteroepitaxy except that thin film growth
Heterotopotaxy
is not limited to two-dimensional growth
29) Is a process in which the heteroepitaxial film is growing vertically
Pendeo-epitaxy
and laterally at the same time
Lattice-matched
Strained
30) Lattice strains: (3)
Relaxed Hetero-
epitaxial Structures
Vapor Phase
Epitaxy
Liquid Phase
31) Forms of epitaxy: (4) Epitaxy
Solid Phase Epitaxy
Molecular Beam
Epitaxy
32) A technique widely used in the microelectronics industry for the
Vapor Phase Epitaxy
growth of thin films on silicon substrate
33) A method to grow semiconductor crystal layers from the melt on
Liquid Phase Epitaxy
solid substrates
34) It is a transition between the amorphous and crystalline phases of
Solid Phase Epitaxy
a material
35) A source material is heated to produce an evaporated beam of
Molecular Beam Epitaxy
particles
36) Was invented in 1805 by an Italian chemist, Luigi Brugnatelli and
it means electrolytic deposition and often also called Electrodeposition
electroplating
37) Is a process that uses electrical current to reduce cations of a
desired material from a solution and coat that material as a thin
Electrodeposition
film onto a conductive substrate surface to modify its surface
properties
38) The overall process in electrodeposition Electrolysis
39) Rearrangement of ions near the electrode surface results in an
Helmholtz Double Layer
electrical double layer called ____
40) Helmholtz double layer is followed by the formation of a diffusion
Gouy-Chapman Layer
layer referred as _____
41) The hydrated metal ions in the solution migrate towards the
cathode under the influence of impressed current as well as by Migration
diffusion and convection
42) At the cathode surface, a hydrated metal ion enters the diffused
double layer where the water molecules of the hydrated ion are Electron Transfer
aligned
Decoration
Protection
43) Applications of electrodeposition: (4)
Electroforming
Enhancement
44) Coating a more expensive metal onto a base metal surface in
Decoration
order to improve the appearance
45) Corrosion resistant coatings Protection
46) Manufactures of sieves, screens, etc. Electroforming
47) Coatings with improved electrical and thermal conductivity Enhancement
48) Is away to produce a thin layer of oxide on the surface of a wafer Thermal Oxidation
Dry Oxidation
49) Two methods of oxidation: (2)
Wet Oxidation
50) When the wafer is exposed to an oxygen at ~1000oC, high quality
Dry Oxidation
oxide for MOS gate insulation is produced in this manner
51) When mixture of high purity oxygen and hydrogen at ~1000oC is
higher growth rate, although wet oxide features not so good Wet Oxidation
quality and may be used only as a masking layer for instance
52) An optical technique, which enables measurements of thickness
Ellipsometry
and optical properties of thin films
53) Is a silicon wafer manufacturing method, where liquid silicon is Ribbon-Growth-on-
poured in a casting frame under which a colder substrate is Substrate Wafer Casting
moving Technology
2)54) A photographic process
by which a photoresist is exposed and developed to form 3d Photolithography
patterns in the substrate or film
3)55) It uses light to transfer
a geometric pattern from a photomask to a light-sensitive Photolithography
chemical photoresist on the substrate
4)56) Other term for Optical Lithography or UV
photolithography Lithography
5)57) Is the transfer of
Lithography
geometric shapes on a mask to a smooth surface
6)58) Is a printing technique
that gives multiple reproductions of an image drawn with ink or Lithography
crayon on a certain type of limestone
7)59) Invented the process of
printing from a flat surface treated so as to repel the ink except Aloys Senefelder
where it is required fro printing
8)60) Senefelder first tries to
1796
engrave on stones
9)61) Senefelder discovers
1799
chemical lithography
10)62) Founding of the
1806
Senefelder, Gleissher and Co. printing establishment
11)63) Lithography is
1817
introduced to Belgium by Ambroise Jobard
12)64) Color lithography using
1832
several plates invented by Hildebrand in Berlin
13)65) P. & A. Dupont
invented transfer technique for printing ancient texts 1839
(lithographic way)
14)66) The earliest surviving Window at Le Gras (1826 or
photograph of a real-world scene, made using a camera obscura 1827)
15)67) Science of creating
durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic Photography
radiation, either electronically or chemically
16)68) He discovered the
Albert Magnus
silver nitrate (light sensitive compound)
17)69) The first permanent
Nicphore Nipce (1826)
photograph was an image produced by _____
18)70) Year when Boulevard
1838
du Temple was taken by Daguerre in Paris
19)71) Le Cardinal
Isaac Briot (1633)
dAmbroise, original etching
20)72) Le Cardinal
Nicphore Nipce (1826)
dAmbroise, first metal heliographic plate
21)73) Le Cardinal
Nicphore Nipce (1826)
dAmbroise, print from metal heliographic plate
22)74) Types of lithography: Soft Lithography
(2) Photolithography
23)75) This refers to a family
of techniques for fabricating or replicating structures using Soft Lithography
elastomeric stamps, molds, and conformable photo masks
Microprinting
Molding
24)76) Soft lithography
PDMS
techniques: (3)
(Polydimethyl
Siloxane)
25)77) This process involves
rolling a stamp over a substrate similar to early printing Microprinting
techniques
26)78) This process involves
pouring PDMS into a master mold and allowing it to cure creating Molding
a negative of the master mold
27)79) It is used because of its
PDMS (Polydimethyl
low surface free energy; this means that it is able to conform to
Siloxane)
very small features patterns on a substrate
MIMIC (Micro
molding in
capillaries)
Micro Contact
Printing
Soft UV-NIL (Soft
UV-Nanoimprint
Lithography)
28)80) Soft lithography
Lift-Off
methods: (6)
Soft Embossing or
Replica Molding
(REM)
PDMS
(Polydimethyl
Siloxane) Surface
Contamination or
Patterning
29)81) Is good to use when MIMIC (Micro molding in
you want really high and sharp structures capillaries)
30)82) Has been proven to be Micro Contact Printing (Put-
a versatile way to produce high definition patterns down Prcedure)
Applying the film
on the stamp
31)83) Three Steps in Micro
Applying the stamp
Contact Printing:
Removing the
stamp
32)84) Another soft- Soft UV-Nanoimprint
lithographic process for nanopatterning on wafer scale Lithography
33)85) Opposite compare to
CP, the film is applied on the substrate instead of on the stamp
Lift-Off
and the pattern is formed by removing unwanted parts rather
than adding them
34)86) Can be used to
produce almost any kind of pattern. Really deep and narrow Soft Embossing or Replica
structures can be hard to achieve since the material has to fill the Molding (REM)
whole master stamp
PDMS (Polydimethyl
35)87) In this case a bare
Siloxane) Surface
stamp is used to create a hydrophobic pattern, remember that
Contamination or
PDMS is hydrophobic, on a hydrophilic substrate, like glass
Patterning
36)88) It transfers shapes
Photolithography
from template onto a surface using light
37)89) It is an optical means
Photolithography
for transferring patterns onto a wafer
38)90) Invented Alphonse Louis Poitevin
photolithography (1855)
39)91) Light sensitive chemical Photoresist (Resist)
Photoresist Coating
40)92) The major steps Alignment and
involved in the photolithographic process are: (3) Exposure
Development
Wafer Cleaning
Wafer Rinsing and
Drying
41)93) Wafer Preparation: (3)
Wafer Priming /
Primer Vapor
Coating
Photoresist
42)94) Photoresist coating: (2) Application
Softbake
43)95) Alignment and Alignment
exposure: (2) Exposure
Development
Inspection
44)96) Development: (5) Hardbake
Pattern Inspection
PR Removal
45)97) Is intended to improve
Substrate Preparation
the adhesion of the photoresist material to the substrate
Wafer cleaning to
remove
46)98) Substrate preparation
contamination
is accomplished by one or more of the following processes: (3)
Dehydration bake
to remove water
Addition of an
adhesion promoter
Dust from scribing
or cleaving
Atmospheric dust
Abrasive particles
47)99) Typical contaminants
Lint from wipers
that must be removed prior to photoresist coating: (6)
Photoresist residue
from previous
photolithography
Bacteria
48)100) Is a standard set of
wafer cleaning steps which need to be performed before high-
RCA Clean
temperature processing steps of silicon wafers in semiconductor
manufacturing
49)101) He developed the
procedure while working for RC, the Radio Corporation of Werner Kern (1965)
America
First Step (Standard
Clean-1): Organic
Clean + Particle
Clean
Second Step
50)102) RCA clean involves the (Optional): Oxide
ff. chemical processes performed in sequence: (4) Strip
Third Step
(Standard Clean-2):
Ionic Clean
Fourth Step: Rinsing
and Drying
51)103) Removal of the organic
contaminants
52)104) This base-peroxide
First Step (Standard Clean-
mixture removes organic residues. This treatment results in the
1): Organic Clean + Particle
formation of a thin silicon dioxide layer (about 10 Angstrom) on
Clean
the silicon surface, along with a certain degree of metallic
contamination (notably iron) that will be removed in subsequent
steps
53)105) Removal of thin oxide
layer
Second Step (Optional):
54)106) The optional second
Oxide Strip
step for bare Silicon wafers is performed in order to remove the
thin oxide layer and some fraction of ionic contaminants
55)107) Removal of ionic
contamination Third Step (Standard Clean-
56)108) This treatment 2): Ionic Clean
effectively removes the remaining traces of metallic (ionic)
contaminants, some of which were introduced in the SC-1
cleaning step. It also leaves a thin passivizing layer on the wafer
surface, which protects the surface from subsequent
contamination (bare exposed silicon is contaminated
immediately)
57)109) Provided the RCA clean
is performed with high-purity chemicals and clean glassware, it
results in a very clean wafer surface while the wafer is still
Fourth Step: Rinsing and
submersed in water. The rinsing and drying steps must be
Drying
performed correctly (e.g., with flowing water) since the surface
can be easily decontaminated by organics and particulates
floating on the surface of water
Cascade Overflow
Rinsing
58)110) Wafer rinsing: (3)
Spray Rinsing
Quick Dump Rinsing
59)111) Wafers and parts are
completely immersed into rinse tank and continuous overflow of Cascade Overflow Rinsing
fresh DI water inlet from the bottom and overflow at the surface
60)112) An operator uses a
spray want to spray DI or ultrapure water or spray manifold at the Spray Rinsing
top and sides of tank spray parts
61)113) Utilizes both spray and
overflow rinsing for wet bench process equipment which water is
Quick Dump Rinsing
quickly evacuated from the tank flushing particulate and
contaminants away from wafer parts
Nitrogen Blow-off
62)114) Wafer drying: (2) Spin Rinse Dryers
(SRDs)
63)115) Remove residue water
Nitrogen Blow-off
droplets
64)116) Complete drying is
Spin Rinse Dryers (SRDs)
accomplished in a centrifuge like equipment
65)117) A liquid or gaseous
Wafer Priming or Prime
adhesion promoter, hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), is applied to
Vapor Coating
promote adhesion of the photoresist to the wafer
66)118) Chill plate to cool down
Wafer Cooling
before PR coating
67)119) Is a light-sensitive
material used in several processes, such as photolithography and
Photoresist
photoengraving, to form a patterned coating on a surface, which
is crucial in the whole electronic industry
68)120) Developed the first
Louis Minsk (1935)
negative photoresist
69)121) Developed the first
Otto Suess (1940)
positive photoresist
Prof. Ito
70)122) Invented the first
Prof. Willson
chemically amplified resist used in the semiconductor industry
Prof. Frechet (1982)
Solvent
71)123) Components of Resin
conventional photoresist: (4) Sensitizers
Additives
72)124) Gives the resist its flow
Solvent
characteristics
73)125) Mix of polymers that
hold the resist together; gives the resist its mechanical and Resin
chemical properties
74)126) Sensitive to light; these
Sensitizers
will react when exposed to light
75)127) Chemicals that control
Additives
other aspects of the resist material
76)128) Is a type of photoresist
in which the portion of the photoresist that is exposed to light
becomes soluble to the photoresist developer Positive Photoresist
77)129) The unexposed portion
of the photoresist remains insoluble to the photoresist developer
78)130) Is a type of photoresist
in which the portion of the photoresist that is exposed to light
becomes insoluble to the photoresist developer Negative Photoresist
79)131) The unexposed portion
of the photoresist is dissolved by the photoresist developer
Photopolymeric
Photoresist
80)132) Types of photoresist: Photodecomposabl
(3) e Photoresist
Photocrosslinking
Photoresist
81)133) A type of photoresist
which could generate free radical when exposed to light, then
Photopolymeric Photoresist
initiates the photopolymerization of monomer to produce a
polymer
82)134) Is any atom or
Free Radical
molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell
83)135) A type of photoresist Photodecomposable
that generates hydrophilic products under light Photoresist
84)136) A type of photoresist,
Photocrosslinking
which could crosslink chain by chain when exposed to light, to
Photoresist
generate an insoluble network
Resolution
85)137) Parameters for Contrast
photoresist: (7) Sensitivity
Viscosity
Adherence
Anti-etching
Surface Tension
86)138) Is defined as the ability
Resolution
to differ the neighboring features on the substrate
87)139) Is a main measure of
Critical Dimension
resolution
88)140) Is defined as the
Contrast
gradience from exposure portion to unexposure portion
89)141) Is defined as the
minimum energy that is required to generate a well-defined Sensitivity
feature in the photoresist on the substrate
90)142) Is defined as a quantity
Viscosity
of the photoresist, expressing the magnitude of internal friction
91)143) Is a measure of
Specific Gravity
viscosity of a photoresist
92)144) Is defined as the
Adherence
adhesive strength between photoresist and substrate
93)145) Is defined as the ability
of a photoresist to resist the high temperature, different pH
Anti-etching
environment or the ion bombardment in the process of post-
modification
94)146) Is defined as the
tension that induced by a liquid tended to minimize its surface
Surface Tension
area, which is caused by the attraction of the particles in the
surface layer
Spin Coating
95)147) Three major
Spray Coating
photoresist coating techniques3)
Electrodeposition
96)148) The standard coating
method for flat wafers in IC technology
Spin Coating
97)149) A procedure used to
deposit uniform thin films to flat substrates
98)150) It is the apparent force
that draws the rotating body away from the center of rotation Centrifugal Force
cause by the inertia of the body
Stage 1: Equilibrium
Stage
Stage 2: Wave
Formation Stage
99)151) Photoresist application:
Stage 3: Corona
(4)
Stage
Stage 4: Substrate
Spinning at
Constant Rate
100)152) Residual ridge in resist
Edge Bead
at edge of wafer
101)153) Are solvents that are
spun on after resist coating and which partially dissolve away the Edge Bead Removers
edge bead
102)154) PR spread to the edges
Edge Bead Removal (EBR)
and backside
Bubbles
Swirling Patterns
103)155) Spin Coating Defects: Chuck Mark
(5) Uncoated Area
Substrate
Pinhole Defect
104)156) Dispense tip is cut
Bubbles
unevenly or has burn or defects
105)157) Spin bowl exhaust rate
Swirling Patterns
is too high
106)158) If the circle is the same
Chuck Mark
size as the spin chuck, switch to a Delrin spin chuck
107)159) Insufficient dispense
Uncoated Area Substrate
volume
108)160) Particles exist on
Pinhole Defect
substrate surface prior to dispense
109)161) Usually requires big
equipment and a certain number of passing of the nozzle over the
substrate makes possible to have a homogeneous
Spray Coating
110)162) Denotes the formation
of a resist film via millions of m-sized resist droplets moving
towards the substrate
111)163) The process used in
electroplating
112)164) The process uses
Electrodeposition
electrical current to reduce cations of a desire material from a
solution and coat a conductive object with a thin layer of the
material
113)165) Involves drying the
Softbake or Pre-bake
photoresist after spin coat by removing this excess solvent
Oven Bake
114)166) Methods of softbake:
Hot Plate Bake /
(2)
Proximity Bake
115)167) This is the most
obvious method used. Convection oven baking of conventional
Oven Bake
photoresists at 90C for 30 minutes was typical during the 1970s
and early 1980s
116)168) It is currently the most
popular bake method is the hot plate. The wafer is brought either Hot Plate Bake / Proximity
into intimate vacuum contact with or close proximity to a hot, Bake
high-mass metal plate
117)169) Baking tools: (3) Hot Plate
Convection Oven
Microwave Oven
118)170) Is an image-
transferring tool
119)171) Is comprised of a solid, Photomask
transparent substrate, such as glass or fused silica, which has an
opaque coating
Bright/Clear Field
120)172) Mask types: (2) Mask
Dark Field Mask
121)173) Opaque features define
by chrome, background is transparent
Bright/Clear Field Mask
122)174) Refers to the pattern
area where the coating is kept
123)175) Transparent features
defined, background is opaque
Dark Field Mask
124)176) It means that the
outside of the pattern area is covered with the coating materials
125)177) Is the unused part of
Field
the plate that surrounds different patterns
Reticle
126)178) Types of photomask: Working Mask
(4) Master Mask
Copy Mask
127)179) Is a specific type of
photomask, containing one or many image that will make up the Reticle
final device
128)180) Allows much smaller
Reduction
features to be achieved on the wafer than on the original reticle
129)181) Is the same as master
mask but to be used directly with an aligner without making copy
masks
Working Mask
130)182) It is often used
exposure device like mirror projection aligners which operates
exposure without the photomasks touching wafers.
131)183) Is a photomask to
make copy masks
132)184) These photomasks Master Mask
contain the full image or array of the final wafer and are
exposed in a single exposure or scan
133)185) Is a photomask
duplicated from the master mask (reversal)
Copy Mask
134)186) It is used to transfer
the circuit pattern on wafers by an aligner
Chrome Mask
135)187) Types of photomask
Emulsion Glass
(material): (2)
Mask
136)188) Has two main types of
base materials: soda lime glass which is comparatively
Chrome Mask
inexpensive and synthetic quartz which has low thermal
expansion and high optical transmittance
137)189) Is a mixture of calcium Soda Lime Glass (Soda-
oxide & sodium hydroxide Lime-Silica Glass)
138)190) A single crystal grown
Synthetic Quartz Crystal
using the hydrothermal synthesis method
139)191) Is a soda lime glass
covered with a film mainly composed of gelatin and silver halide Emulsion Glass Mask
as photoreceptors
Film
140)192) The term pellicle is
Thin Film
used to mean: (3)
Membrane
141)193) A thin film stretched on
a metal frame and was used as a beam splitter for optical Pellicle
instruments
Binary Mask
142)194) Categories of
Phase Shift Mask
photomask: (3)
EUV Mask
143)195) Consists of a
transparent plate, covered with a patterned film that is opaque to
Binary Mask
UV wavelengths. The transmission characteristic is a binary one,
i.e., "1" for transparent and "0" for opaque
144)196) Has achieved improved
wafer printability with higher resolution and increased DOF
Phase Shift Mask
(Depth of Focus), by controlling the phase shift and the
transmission rate
Halftone Mask
145)197) Most well-known PSM: (Attenuated PSM)
(2) Levenson Mask
(Alternating PSM)
146)198) Includes chrome layer
and semi-transparent layer that shift the phase angle of an Half-tone Mask
incoming light by 180 degree
147)199) A number one
candidate of next generation lithography technique
148)200) It uses EUV light EUV Mask
(13.45nm), shorter wave length than existing DUV (ArF: 193nm),
in which enabling us to fabricate smaller patterns
Die
Scribe Lines
(Scribes)
149)201) Parts of photomask
Array
pattern: (7)
1X Master Mask
Wafer-Stepper
Reticles
Fiducials
Reference Marks
for Auto-inspection
150)202) Is a single complete
Die
device image
151)203) Contains the device Primary Die (Primary
design that is used to make the circuit Pattern)
152)204) Is used for process
control and monitoring during wafer fabrication and sometimes Test Die
to test new design ideas
153)205) Are the lines forming a
border around each die separating the dice from one another and Scribe Lines (Scribes)
used as a guide for separating the individual die by sawing
154)206) Is the are made up of
the rows and columns of dice on 1X masters, 5X reticles and other Array
reduction reticles
155)207) Has many repetition of
1X Master Mask
the primary pattern
156)208) The patterns are
stepped onto the substrate many times placing the patterns next Wafer-Stepper Reticles
to one another
157)209) Assumed as a fixed
basis of comparison
Fiducials
158)210) Are patterns on reticles
used for alignment on wafer steppers
Reference Marks
159)211) Are internal marks
(Reference Marks for Auto-
placed in the corners of the mask
inspection)
Hard Defects
160)212) Typical photomask
Soft Defect
defects: (3)
Cosmetic Defects
161)213) Is any flaw affecting
Hard Defects
the photomask, other than the contamination
Clear Break
Coating Extension
162)214) Types of hard defects: Bridging
(6) Pin Holes
Clear Extension
Spot
163)215) This includes dust,
Soft Defect
particulates and residual photoresist
164)216) Are imperfections in
the photomask, the presence of which does not necessarily effect
Cosmetic Defects
the functionality of the circuit, but which the designer/end user
may determine are unacceptable
165)217) Resolution Optical Proximity
enhancements techniques: (3) Corrections
Optical Phase
Shifting
Off-axis
Illumination
Technique
166)218) Can be used to
Optical Proximity
compensate somewhat for diffraction effects sharp features are
Correction
lost because higher special frequencies are lost due to diffraction
167)219) Uses phase shifting to
Optical Phase Shifting
sharpen printed images
168)220) When the angle of
illumination and the angle of diffraction are well matched, the Off-axis Illumination
amount of light diffracted can be enhanced and the contrast of Technique
the image is improved
169)221) One of the most
important steps in the photolithography process
170)222) The mask is aligned Mask Alignment
with the wafer, so that the pattern can be transferred onto the
wafer surface
171)223) Is a square glass plate
Mask (Photomask)
with a patterned emulsion of metal film on one side
172)224) Transfers the mask
Exposure
pattern to the photoresist-coated wafer
Contact Printing
173)225) Exposure methods: (3) Proximity Printing
Projection Printing
174)226) The resist-coated
silicon wafer is brought into physical contact with the glass Contact Printing
photomask
175)227) Is similar to contact
printing except that a small gap, 10 to 25 microns wide, is Proximity Printing
maintained between the wafer and the mask during exposure
176)228) Avoids mask damage
entirely. An image of the patterns on the mask is projected onto Projection Printing
the resist-coated wafer, which is many centimeters away
177)229) Projection printers that
Step-and-Repeat Systems
step the mask image over the wafer surface
178)230) Used by the exposure
Step-and-Repeat Technique
via projection
Scanning Projection
System
179)231) Two major classes of
Step-and-Repeat
projection lithography: (2)
Alignment/Exposur
e
180)232) Employs reflective
optics to project a slit of light from the mask onto the wafer as Scanning Projection System
the mask and wafer are moved simultaneously by the slit
181)233) Expose the wafer one
Step-and-Repeat Cameras
rectangular section (called the image field) at a time and can be
(Steppers)
1:1 or reduction
182)234) Is controlled by
Exposure Light Flux
production of light intensity and exposure time
183)235) Interference of the
Standing Wave Effect
incident and reflection lights
184)236) Often contained
Developer
sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
Windows
Islands
185)237) Visible patterns appear
Lines
on wafer: (5)
Text
Images
Development
186)238) Three basic steps in the
Rinse
developer: (3)
Dry
187)239) To make etch or
Development
implantation perfect
Batch Development
Spin Development
188)240) Different developer
Spray Development
application techniques: (4)
Puddle
Development
189)241) Was the predominant
Batch Development
development technique
190)242) Wafers are spun, using
equipment similar to that used for spin coating, and developer is Spin Development
poured onto the rotating wafer
191)243) Using a process
identical to spin development, the developer is sprayed, rather
Spray Development
than poured, on the wafer by using a nozzle that produces a fine
mist of developer over the wafer
192)244) Again using developers
specifically formulated for this process, the developer is poured
Puddle Development
onto a stationary wafer that is then allowed to sit motionless for
the duration of the development time
193)245) The features are
Good Lithography
straight, corners are even. Good exposure and development time
194)246) The features are Over exposed or Over
uneven and smaller. Too long of exposure or development time developed
195)247) The features are
Under exposed or Under
straight, but not all the PR has been cleared from the exposed
Developed
areas. Too short of exposure or development time
196)248) Is a process of
photolithography where the wafer undergo baking at higher Hard-baked (Post-bake)
temperature than soft baking
197)249) Drawback of hard- Under-bake
bake Over-baking
Run-out
Run-in
Reticle Rotation
Wafer Rotation
198)250) Misalignment cases: (6)
Misplacement in X-
direction
Misplacement in Y-
direction
Good CD
199)251) Critical dimension: (3) CD Loss
Sloped Edge
200)252) After the imaged wafer Photoresist Removal
has been processed the remaining photoresist must be removed (Stripping)
Wet Stripping:
Organic or
201)253) Classes of resist
Inorganic Solution
stripping techniques: (2)
Dry Stripping:
Plasma Process
202)254) For use on wafer that Wet Stripping: Organic or
have not been plasma etch Inorganic Solution
203)255) Leaving residues on the
Scumming
wafer
204)256) Most commercial
Phenol-based
organic strippers and better at avoiding scum formation
205)257) Most common wet Inorganic Acid-based
strippers for positive photoresist Systems
206)258) For use on wafers that Dry Stripping: Plasma
have been etched by plasma Process
207)259) It is also effective for
removing organic polymer debris
Plasma Etching with O2
208)260) The plasma creates
(Ashing)
reactive oxygen radicals (oxidization) that chemically etch the
resist polymer
Extreme UV (EUV)
Lithography
X-ray Lithography
Mark Less
209)261) Next generation
Lithography
lithography (NGL): (4)
(Electron Beam or
Ion Beam)
Immersion
Lithography
210)262) Is a photolithography
resolution enhancement technique for manufacturing ICs that Immersion Lithography
replaces the usual air gap