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DOI:10.5545/sv-jme.2010.182 Paper accepted: 05.01.2011

Preglej, A. Karba, R. Steiner, I. krjanc, I.

Aleksander Preglej1,* Rihard Karba2 Igor Steiner1 Igor krjanc2

1 INEA d.o.o., Slovenia

2 University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Slovenia

This paper presents the mathematical modelling of the following autoclave processes: heating,

cooling and pressure changes. An autoclave is a pressure vessel of a cylindrical form where the composite

semi-products are placed on a metal plate above electrical heaters and heated at selected temperatures

and under a higher pressure. The purpose of the modelling is to build a mathematical model with which

the behaviour of the processes can be simulated and the temperature and pressure control in the autoclave

can be improved. Furthermore, using this mathematical model we intend to test advanced uni- and

multi-variable control algorithms. The mathematical model is built on the basis of the heat-transfer and

pressure-changing theories. While the pressure-changing process is not very complex, the heating and

cooling processes involve complex phenomena of heat conduction and convection. In the mathematical

model some simplifications were considered and so the heat-transfer correlations past flat plates were

used. Most of the data are real and obtained from the autoclave manufacturer, but where not possible,

the method of the models response fitting to the measured data with the criterion function of the sum of

squared errors was used. In this way, to a great extent simulated similarly to the real process responses

were obtained. It can be concluded that the obtained mathematical model is usable for the design of a

variety of process-control applications.

2011 Journal of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved.

Keywords: autoclave, mathematical model, heat transfer, convection, conduction, temperature,

pressure

transfer correlations for the flow in pipes, past

In the paper, the mathematical model of an flat plates, single cylinders, single spheres and

autoclave development is presented. The control for the flow in packed beds and tube bundles are

mechanism was already designed although it described. Most of the data are real and obtained

was not working well because the parameters from the autoclave manufacturer. However, in

of the controllers were not well tuned. The time cases where this was not possible, the method of

constants of the process are very long and so the the models response fitting to the measured data

tests of the controller parameter settings on the with the criterion function of the sum of squared

real-time process take a long time. That is why errors [7] was used. The other mathematically

it is reasonable to build a mathematical model treated process is pressure changing the basic

with which the control of the process in the principles of which can be found in [8]. Specific

Matlab environment can be simulated, where the theories about dimensionless numbers like the

execution time is very short which enables quick Nusselt, Reynolds and Prandtl numbers can be

and optimal settings of the controller parameters. found in [3] to [5] and [8] all various special heat-

Furthermore, using the developed mathematical transfer coefficients are listed.

model we also intend to test advanced uni- and Some papers proceed from basic heat

multi-variable control algorithms. transfer equations and deal with heat transfer

The basic principles of dynamic modelling coefficients, heat flow, conduction, convection,

are described in [1]. The main problem in the thermal resistance, Nusselt numbers, etc. in ice-

mathematical model of the autoclave is heat slurry flow [9], in the thermoregulatory responses

transfer, which has been extensively studied in of the foot [10] and during the gas quenching

many books, like [2] to [5], describing basic process [11]. While some papers like [12] to [14]

theories and theoretical models regarding various studied similar heat-transfer processes inside

types of heat transfer. A more restricted theory of autoclaves, their main focus was heat transfer

*Corr. Authors Address:

INEA d.o.o., Stegne 11, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, aleksander.preglej@inea.si

503

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)6, 503-516

and distribution within the composite material semi-products are placed on a metal plate

and determining the optimal temperature profile, above electrical heaters and heated at selected

otherwise known as the cure cycle. On the temperatures and under a higher pressure. These

other hand, our focus was the process inside the semi-products like boat moulds, kiosks, plane and

autoclave, which can be more simply described automobile parts, childrens playthings, flower

as heating, cooling and changing the pressure. pots, etc. are composed of composite materials

Similar work with heating and cooling processes like resin, metal, ceramics, glass, carbon, etc.

was reported in [15], where the convection which under the applied conditions become harder

coefficients were estimated experimentally. and therefore of a higher quality. In the autoclave

The radiation heat transfer was considered the working pressure is up to 7 bar and the

separately, which is not neglected in the presented working temperature is up to 180 C.

mathematical model, but considered in the Nusselt The autoclave is made of stainless steel

number coefficients. and isolated with mineral wool and an isolating

The definition of the modelling purpose aluminium coat. The length of the cylindrical

is highly significant [1] in the process of model coat is 2850 mm, where the useful length is only

development. In this case it is to gain more 2600 mm, the inner diameter is 1500 mm and the

accurate data and improve the temperature and thickness of the metal coat is 100 mm. The volume

pressure control in the autoclave. As temperature of the autoclave is 5600 litres.

and pressure are mutually closely connected by

physical laws, we would like to consider them

in a multi-variable manner which indicates

interactions between them will have to be taken

into account.

However, at the moment temperature and

pressure control are treated as two independent

control loops.

The temperature is controlled continuously

with two predictive functional controllers (PFC)

and pulse-width modulation of heating with

the electrical heaters and cooling with the water

cooler and the analog valve.

The pressure is discretely controlled with Fig. 1. The treated autoclave

pressure increasing through the on-off valve and

pressure decreasing through two on-off valves of The autoclave is heated with electrical

different sizes. heaters of power up to 110 kW (the temperature

The paper is organized in the following gradient is up to 3 C/min) and cooled with

way: in Section 1 the technological data of the an inner cooler of power up to 73 kW (the

autoclave are described. In Section 2 and 3 the temperature gradient is up to -2 C/min), where

modelling of the autoclave heating and cooling the cooling medium is water with a temperature

is presented and in Section 4 the modelling of of 15 C.

the pressure changes is given. The results of The pressure in the autoclave is increased

the modelling are collected in Section 5, while by a compressed air flow up to 100 kg/h and

the model validation is depicted in Section 6. decreased by the air flow up to 100 kg/h.

The optimization experiment is presented in the A centrifugal ventilating fan on the back

Appendix A. of the autoclave with a water-cooled mechanical

axle washer and an electromotor drive outside the

1 AUTOCLAVE TECHNOLOGICAL DATA autoclave of power up to 11 kW provide the air

circulation.

An autoclave is a pressure vessel of a The cooperative energy sources are

cylindrical form shown in Fig. 1, where composite compressed air of 7 bar pressure and a 300 kg/h

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)6, 503-516

flow, cooling water of pressure from 3 to 6 bar and Wen1 is the heat flow from the metal coat to

5 m3/h flow, and an electrical current at a 380 V the environment over the isolation and

voltage and 115 kW of attachable power. Wen2 is the heat flow from the metal coat to

the environment over the non-isolated metal.

2 MODELLING OF THE AUTOCLAVE Joining the heat flows W3 and Wen1 and

HEATING eliminating the coat temperature 3 was also

proposed. However, it did not work well, because

2.1 Description of the Process in that way quite a lot of the mass of the metal coat

was not taken into account.

The process can be presented as cylindrical

vessel seen in Fig. 2. The wall is composed of the 2.2 The Mathematical Model

inner metal coat, the isolation with mineral wool

and the exterior metal coat. On the back of the The heat flows [2] are as follows:

autoclave, where the ventilating fan is mounted,

there is just a layer of the exterior metal coat W1 = Qel , (1)

without isolating material as seen in Fig. 2. The

1 2

cooler, the ventilating fan and all the other metal W2 = K ame S ame (1 2 ) = , (2)

parts inside the vessel can be approximated as Rame

one vertical metal block. The composite material,

1 3

which is inserted into the autoclave, can be W3 = K ac S ac (1 3 ) = , (3)

represented as a horizontal block. Rac

1 4

W4 = K am S am (1 4 ) = , (4)

Ram

3 en

Wen1 = K ce S ce (1 en ) = , (5)

Rce

1 en

Wen 2 = K nim S nim (1 en ) = . (6)

Rnim

Fig. 2. Scheme for the heating process modelling 1 2 1 3

W1 1

In Fig. 2 the following notations are ma ca Rame Rac

(7)

presented: 1 4 1 en

1 [K] is the temperature of the air in the

Ram

Rnim

= 1 ,

autoclave,

2 is the temperature of the metal,

1 1 2

3 is the temperature of the metal coat,

mme cme Rame

= 2 , (8)

4 is the temperature of the composite

material,

en is the temperature of the environment, 1 1 3 3 en

W1 [W] is the heat flow from the heaters to

mc cc Rac

Rce

= 3 , (9)

the air in the autoclave,

W2 is the heat flow from the air in the 1 1 4 (10)

autoclave to the metal,

mm cm Ram

= 4 .

W3 is the heat flow from the air in the

autoclave to the metal coat, In Eqs. (1) to (10) (some notations are

W4 is the heat flow from the air in the presented in Fig. 2) the following notations are

autoclave to the composite material, included:

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)6, 503-516

Qel [W] is the electrical heaters power, mm is the material mass and

Kame [W/(m2K)] is the heat-transfer cm is the specific heat capacity of the material.

coefficient between the air in the autoclave

and the metal, 2.3 Calculation of the Parameters

Same [m2] is the area between the air in the

autoclave and the metal, In addition to the influence of the

Rame [K/W] is the resistance of the thermal conductance on the heat transfer, forced

conductivity between the air in the autoclave convection [3] is also significant. The air in the

and the metal, autoclave namely circulates as shown in Fig. 3.

Kac is the heat-transfer coefficient between

the air in the autoclave and the metal coat,

Sac is the area of the thermal conductivity

between the air in the autoclave and the metal

coat,

Rac is the resistance of the thermal

conductivity between the air in the autoclave

and the metal coat,

Kam is the heat-transfer coefficient between

the air in the autoclave and the material,

Sam is the area of the thermal conductivity

between the air in the autoclave and the

material, Fig. 3. Scheme for the air circulation modelling

Ram is the resistance of the thermal

conductivity between the air in the autoclave In the simplified case it can be presumed

and the material, that the air flow in every part of the autoclave is the

Kce is the heat-transfer coefficient between consequence of forced convection (in Figs. 4 to 6

the metal coat and the environment, marked with straight lines). Also the conductance

Sce is the area of the thermal conductivity through the layer of metal and material (in Figs.

between the metal coat and the environment, 4 to 6 marked with wavy line and the letter l) is

Rce is the resistance of the thermal assumed.

conductivity between the metal coat and the The cylindrical metal coat can be

environment, represented as flat plates, as seen in Fig. 4. The

Knim is the heat-transfer coefficient between part without the isolation also has different

the air in the autoclave and the environment convection, but the conductance is the same in the

over the non-isolated metal, whole metal coat.

Snim is the area of the thermal conductivity

between the air in the autoclave and the

environment over the non-isolated metal,

Rnim is the resistance of the thermal

conductivity between the air in the autoclave

and the environment over the non-isolated

metal,

ma [kg] is the mass of the air in the autoclave,

ca [J/(kgK)] is the specific heat capacity of

the air in the autoclave,

mme is the mass of the metal,

cme is the specific heat capacity of the metal,

mc is the mass of the metal coat,

cc is the specific heat capacity of the metal

coat, Fig. 4. Simplified air circulation

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)6, 503-516

The air flow next to the metal is considered me [W/(mK)] is the thermal conductivity of

only on the left-hand side and so the upper, lower the metal,

and right-hand air flows are neglected, but the hame [W/(m2K)] is the convection coefficient

conductance is present in the whole metal, as seen between the air in the autoclave and the metal,

in Fig. 5. lc is the metal coat thickness,

c is the metal coat thermal conductivity,

hac is the convection coefficient between the

air in the autoclave and the metal coat,

lw is the mineral wool thickness,

w is the mineral wool thermal conductivity,

hce is the convection coefficient between the

metal coat and the environment,

lm is the material thickness,

m is the material thermal conductivity,

Fig. 5. Simplified air flow next to the metal ham is the convection coefficient between the

air in the autoclave and the material,

The air flow next to the material is lnim is the non-isolated metal thickness,

considered only on the upper side, because the nim is the non-isolated metal thermal

material is placed on a straight basis. The side conductivity,

air flows are neglected, but conductance is again hanim is the convection coefficient between

present in the whole material as seen in Fig. 6. In the air in the autoclave and the non-isolated

Figs. 4 to 6 a, b, d, n and j are dimensions needed metal and

in the below equations. hnime is the convection coefficient between the

non-isolated metal and the environment.

Furthermore, we must calculate the

convection coefficients must be calculated :

hame = a Nume Lme , (16)

hac = a Nuac Lci , (17)

Fig. 6. Simplified air flow next to the material

hce = a Nuce Lce , (18)

We have to calculate the heat transfer

ham = a Nuam Lm , (19)

coefficients [4], which are the inverse values

of sums of the conductance and the convection hanim = a Nuanim Lnim , (20)

inverses need to be calculated:

hnime = a Nunime Lnim . (21)

K ame = 1 , (11)

( lme / me + 1 / hame ) In Eqs. (16) to (21) the following notations

K ac = 1 , (12) are included:

( lc / c + 1 / hac ) a is the air thermal conductivity,

K ce = 1 , (13) Lme [m] is the length of the characteristic

( lc / c + lw / w + 1 / hce ) metal,

Nume is the Nusselt number for the convection

K am = 1 , (14)

( lm / m + 1 / ham ) between the air in the autoclave and the metal,

Lci is the characteristic inner metal coat

K nim = 1 . (15) length,

( lnim / nim + 1 / hanim + 1 / hnime ) Nuac is the Nusselt number for the convection

In Eqs. (11) to (15) the following notations between the air in the autoclave and the inner

are included: metal coat,

lme [m] is the metal thickness, Lce is the characteristic exterior metal coat

length,

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)6, 503-516

Nuce is the Nusselt number for the convection In these Eqs. also the following notations

between the exterior metal coat and the are included:

environment, [kg/m3] is the air density,

Lm is the length of the characteristic material, u [m/s] is the velocity of the air circulation in

Nuam is the Nusselt number for the convection the autoclave,

between the air in the autoclave and the [kg/(ms)] is the air viscosity,

material, g [m/s2] is the gravitational acceleration,

Lnim is the length of the characteristic non- ce is the exterior metal cts temperature,

isolated metal, which is simplified 3,

Nuanim is the Nusselt number for the v is the velocity of the air circulation in the

convection between the air in the autoclave environment,

and the non-isolated metal and a.abs is the absolute air temperature, which is

Nunime is the Nusselt number for the the same as en, and

convection between the non-isolated metal nim is the non-isolated metal temperature,

and the environment. which is simplified 3.

The Nusselt numbers are calculated as The air density in the Nusselt numbers is

follows: changing as follows:

y z

Lme u ca = p ( R ) . (28)

Nume = x , (22)

g 1

y z

Lci u ca The air density depends on the pressure p [kg/

Nuac = x , (23) (ms2)] and the temperature 1 in the autoclave, so

a the Nusselt numbers are constantly changing.

w

g (ce en ) Lce 3 Finally, the characteristic lengths must be

Nuce = q

v a.abs

, (24) assumed and calculated for all cases where we use

the length of a flat plate. The material data is not

z

y yet defined, because no material was placed in the

Lm u ca

Nuam = x , (25) autoclave (in the below equations marked with not

a def.). Therefore, the data were set in a way to avoid

y z the problems with zero division. Material surface

Lnim u ca

Nuanim = x , (26) was set to zero so that multiplication returned zero.

a

w Lme= n= 1, (29)

g (nim en ) Lnim 3

Nunime = q

v a.abs

. (27)

Lci = 2 ( a + b ) d =

(30)

= 2 ( 2.85 + 1.5 ) 0.5 = 8.2,

In Eqs. (22) to (27) coefficients x, y, z, q

Lce = 2 ( e + f ) d =

and w are defined experimentally and so they are (31)

unique for every mathematical model [5]. For the = 2 ( 3.09 + 1.74 ) 0.5 = 9.16,

presumed theory of flat plates the recommended

Lm= j= not def . (32)

values for forced convection are x = 0.664,

y = 0.5 and z = 0.333, and for natural convection

Lnim= d= 0.5. (33)

q = 0.478 and w = 0.25 [6]. For the coefficients y,

z and w we used recommended values, while for In Eqs. (29) to (33) the meaning of the

the coefficients x and q the recommended values coefficients a, b, d, n and j is evident from Figs.

were not usable. Therefore, the models response 4 to 6. The values of the parameters Lme (n) and

fitting to the measured data described in Eq. (34) Lnim (d) were assumed and other values were

was used to obtain x = 431.6 and q = 310.7. It can calculated. The coefficients e and f are lengths a

be presumed that these values also consider the and b with the added mineral wool and exterior

radiation heat transfer. metal coat thickness.

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)6, 503-516

Some parameters were optimized with obtained from the various theories mentioned and

the method of the model response fitting to the from the physical equations of the process.

measured data with the criterion function of the By the real process step response the

sum of squared errors [7], described symbolically temperature rises after 30 s and this dead time was

as follows: also considered in the simulations.

p.set = argmin ( ( y process

ymodel )

2

) . (34) 3 MODELLING OF THE AUTOCLAVE

COOLING

In Eq. (34) the following notations are

included: 3.1 Description of the Process

p.set is the set of parameters,

yprocess is the real process output and

The cooling process is very similar to the

ymodel is the mathematical model output.

heating one. The only difference is the source,

The experiments with the mentioned

which is represented here by the cooler with its

optimization method are depicted in greater detail

own heat flow as seen in Fig. 7. All the other heat

in the Appendix A.

flows are the same as presented in Fig. 2.

2.4 Defined or Estimated Data

the pressure was approximately 3.23 bar (p =

323000 kg/(ms2)), the power of the heaters was

at 3% of the maximum value (W1 = 3300 W), the

environment temperature was at room temperature

(en = 23 C) and the initial air temperature in the

autoclave was in = 61.3 C.

Other data values are:

The specific heat capacities: ca = 725,

cme = 510, cc = 510, cm = not def.

The gas constant: Rg = 287.05.

The autoclave volume: V = 5.6 m3. Fig. 7. Scheme for the cooling process modelling

The thicknesses: lem = 0.5, lc = 0.01, lw = 0.1,

lm = not def., lnim = 0.01. In Fig. 7 the following notations are

The surfaces: Same = 3, Sac = 17, Sam = not presented:

def., Sce = 20, Snim = 0.75. 1 is the temperature of the air in the

The masses: ma = aV, mme = 1208, autoclave,

mc = 1198, mm = not def. cw is the temperature of the cooling water,

The thermal conductivities [8]: a = 0.025, cwi [m3/s] is the volume flow of the cooling

w = 0.04, me = 16.3, c = 16.3, m = not def. water,

The air circulation velocity by forced Wcw is the heat flow between the cooler and

convection is u = 3 and by natural convection the air in the autoclave,

is v = 0.3. in is the entry temperature of the cooling

The air viscosity: = 2.48410-5. water and

The acceleration due to gravity: g = 9.81. out is the exit temperature of the cooling

The metal and coat masses were first water.

estimated at 1500 kg and then optimized with the

above mentioned method of the models response 3.2 The Mathematical Model

fitting to the measured data. Additionally, the

values of the parameters lme, lw, Same, u and v The volume flow of the cooling water cwi

were first assumed and finally optimized with the is controlled by the entry valve and therefore, the

above mentioned method. Other parameters were coolers heat flow [2] is as follows:

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)6, 503-516

1 + cw

Wcw = K cwa S cwa (1 + cw ) = = hcwm = w Nucwm Lme , (38)

Rcwa

(35) hma = a Numa Lme . (39)

Wcw

1 + In Eqs. (38) and (39) (some meanings have

cw cwi 1 Wcw

= = + . already been presented in Eqs. (16) to (21)) the

Rcwa Rcwa Rcwa cw cwi following notations are included:

In Eq. (35) the temperatures are summed Lme is the characteristic length of the metal

because the coolers heat flow is given as a length,

negative value. Nucwm is the Nusselt number for the

The energy balance equation [2] is the convection between the cooling water and the

following: metal and

Numa is the Nusselt number for the convection

1 1 2 1 3 1 4 between the metal and the air in the autoclave.

ma ca Rame

Rac

Ram

Finally, the Nusselt numbers must be

(36) calculated as follows:

1 en 1 Wcw

= 1.

y z

L u c

Rnim Rcwa Rcwa cw cwi Nucwm = x w me w w w , (40)

w w

In Eqs. (35) and (36) (some meanings have

y z

already been presented in Figs. 2 and 7 and in Eqs. L u c

(7) to (10)) the following notations are included: Numa = x a me a . (41)

Kcwa is the heat-transfer coefficient between a

the cooling water and the air in the autoclave, In Eqs. (40) and (41) (some meanings

Scwa is the area of the thermal conductivity have already been presented in Eqs. (7) to (10),

between the cooling water and the air in the (22) to (27) and (36)) the following notations are

autoclave, included:

Rcwa is the resistance of the thermal w is the density of the water,

conductivity between the cooling water and uw is the velocity of the water motion and

the air in the autoclave and w is the viscosity of the water.

cw is the waters specific heat capacity. However, for the cooling process there is

much less disposable data than for the heating

3.3 Calculation of the Parameters one. For the given modelling purposes it is not

significant how the heat-transfer coefficient

The heat-transfer coefficient [4] can be between the cooling water and the air in the

calculated similarly as presented for the heating autoclave is calculated. We decided to use

process: the method of models response fitting to the

K cwa = 1 ( lw / w + 1 / hcwm + 1 / hma ) . (37) measured data described in (34).

In Eq. (37) the following notations are 3.4 Defined or Estimated Data

included:

lw is the thickness of the cooler filled with the In the real process of autoclave cooling the

cooling water, pressure was approximately 1.3 bar, the coolers

w is the thermal conductivity of the water, heat flow was at 20% of the maximum value

hcwm is the convection coefficient between the (Wcw = -14600 W), the environment temperature

cooling water and the metal and was at room temperature (en = 23 C) and the

hma is the convection coefficient between the initial air temperature in the autoclave was in =

metal and the air in the autoclave. 135.1 C.

Below let us calculate the convection Other data values are:

coefficients: The waters specific heat capacity: cw =

4181.3.

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)6, 503-516

The volume flow of the cooling water: p is the pressure in the autoclave,

estimated as cwi = 0.011. 1 is the temperature in the autoclave,

The cooler surface: estimated as Scwa = 0.31. is the air density,

The heat-transfer coefficient between the pin is the entry pressure,

cooling water and the air in the autoclave was Sin is the entry valve cross-section area,

estimated using the already-mentioned method: in [kg/s] is the entry mass flow of air,

Kcwa = 1905. pout is the exit pressure,

Because in Kcwa also some amount of the Sout is the exit valve cross-section area,

coolers metal was taken into account, which in mout is the exit mass flow of air and

the heating process was considered with all the V is the autoclave volume.

other metal in the autoclave, the values of the

surface Same and the metal thickness lme, which 4.2 The Mathematical Model

were defined by the heating process, must be

correspondingly reduced. The new values were The mass balance equation is described [8]

estimated as Same = 0.312 and lme = 0.002. as follows:

By the real process step response the min mout = V . (42)

temperature falls after 30 s and this dead time was

The air density described in Eq. (28) is

also considered in simulations.

pressure and temperature dependent, and so its

derivative is described as follows:

4 MODELLING OF THE PRESSURE

CHANGES dp d1

= + . (43)

p dt 1 dt

4.1 Description of the Process

Furthermore, the partial derivatives are:

p = 1 Rg1 , (44)

The pressure in the autoclave is increased

2

with compressed air through the entry on-off valve 1 = p Rg1 . (45)

and decreased by letting the air out through two

exit on-off valves of different sizes. Valves are Then the mass flows can be given in the

modelled as analog ones, where both exit valves form:

are considered as a single valve with a larger min = K in Sin pin , (46)

dimension. Fig. 8 shows the pressure changing

situation. mout = K out Sout pout ( p pout ) . (47)

In Eqs. (46) and (47) the following notations

are included:

Kin [s/m] is the entry valve constant and

Kout is the exit valve constant.

The final Eq. is given in the form:

Rg1

p = ( Kin Sin pin

V

(48)

)

K out Sout pout ( p pout ) + K nl

p

1

1.

Fig. 8. Scheme for the pressure changing considers interactions between the temperature

modelling and the pressure. Knl was estimated with already-

mentioned method of models response fitting to

In Fig. 8 the following notations are the measured data.

presented:

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)6, 503-516

4.3 Defined or Estimated Data 10, and in the middle, but responses do not differ

more than 2 C.

With the increasing pressure the

temperature in the autoclave increased by

approximately 5 C, from an initial 51 to 56 C, 62.8

63

temperature [C]

in the autoclave dropped by approximately 3.5 C, 62.4

62

The other data values are: 61.8

time [s]

200 250 300

The valve cross-section areas: Sin = (0.025 heating responses: real process (solid line) and

m/2)2 = 4.9110-4 and Sout = ((0.032 m +

mathematical model (dashed line)

0.015 m)/2)2 = 1710-4.

The valve constants: estimated as Kin =

5.2 Comparison of the Cooling Responses

1.0610-3 and Kout = 50.510-3.

By the real process step response the

pressure rises or falls after 1 s and this dead time Figs. 11 and 12 represent a comparison

was also considered in the simulations. of the mathematical model and the real process

of the autoclave cooling responses at the given

5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION conditions.

130

temperature [C]

110

of the mathematical model and the real process 100

conditions. 80

70

60

50

180

40

0 5000 10000 15000

160 time [s]

temperature [C]

140

Fig. 11. Cooling responses comparison: real

process (solid line) and mathematical model

120

100

(dashed line)

80

60

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Both responses again fit well as seen in

time [s] 5

x 10

Fig. 9. Heating responses comparison: real heating, which could be ascribed to the lack of real

process (solid line) and mathematical model

data of the autoclave cooling system, and for this

(dashed line)

reason used method of models response fitting to

Both responses fit very well, as seen the measured data. Because the cooling response

in Fig. 9. The real process response has has a similar course as the heating one, the

more nonlinearities, which are not seen in differences the most noticeable at the beginning,

the mathematical model response because of as seen in Fig. 12, but responses do not differ for

unmodelled dynamics. These differences are the more than 5 C. The error in the steady state is less

most noticeable at the beginning, as seen in Fig. than 0.53 C.

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)6, 503-516

135

ascribed to unmodelled dynamics, can be seen.

130

temperature [C]

120

115

110

The mathematical model of the heating was

250 300 350 400 450

time [s]

500 550 600 650 700 750

validated under different conditions as presented

in Fig. 15. The pressure was approximately 1

Fig. 12. A more detailed comparison of the bar, the power of the heaters was at 2% of the

cooling responses: real process (solid line) and maximum value (W1 = 2200 W), the environment

mathematical model (dashed line) temperature was at room temperature (en = 23

C) and the initial air temperature in the autoclave

5.3 Comparison of the Pressure Changing was in = 24.5 C.

Responses

160

the mathematical model and the real process temperature [C] 120

given conditions. 80

60

3 40

2.5 20

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

time [s] x 10

5

pressure [bar]

1.5

Fig. 15. Validation of the mathematical model

of the heating under different conditions: real

1

process (solid line) and mathematical model

0.5

(dashed line)

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

time [s]

In Fig. 15 it can be seen that both

Fig. 13. Pressure increasing responses responses have very similar courses, however

comparison: real process (solid line) and the fitting is worse than in Fig. 9, which can be

mathematical model (dashed line) the consequence of some simplifications with

different working conditions, the above mentioned

3.5 unmodelled dynamics and interactions between

3 the temperature and the pressure. The steady state

2.5

of both responses differs by approximately 3.5 C.

pressure [bar]

1.5

6.2 The Cooling Model Validation

1

0.5

The mathematical model of the cooling

0

0 50

time [s]

100 150 was also validated under different conditions

as presented in Fig. 16. The pressure was

Fig. 14. Pressure decreasing responses

approximately 3 bar, the coolers heat flow was at

comparison: real process (solid line) and

18% of the maximum value (Wcw = -13140 W), the

mathematical model (dashed line)

environment temperature was at room temperature

(en = 23 C) and the initial air temperature in the

The responses of the increasing and

autoclave was in = 151 C.

decreasing pressure fit very well, as seen in Fig.

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)6, 503-516

160

Figs. 17 and 18 show that both responses fit

140

relatively well. However, the fitting is (especially

for the pressure increasing) worse than in Figs.

temperature [C]

120

13 and 14, what can again be ascribed to some

100

simplifications with different working conditions,

to unmodelled dynamics and to interactions

80

60

between the temperature and the pressure.

40

0 5000 10000 15000

time [s]

5

Fig. 16. Validation of the mathematical model

of the cooling under different conditions: real 4

pressure [bar]

3

(dashed line)

2

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

logically worse than in Fig. 11, which can also be time [s]

contributed to some simplifications with different Fig. 18. Validation of the mathematical model of

working conditions, to unmodelled dynamics pressure decreasing under different conditions:

and to interactions between the temperature and real process (solid line) and mathematical model

the pressure. The steady state of both responses (dashed line)

differs by approximately 5 C.

7 CONCLUSIONS

6.3 The Pressure Changing Model Validation

For the needs of mathematical modelling

The mathematical model of the increasing of the autoclave processes (heating, cooling and

and decreasing pressure was again validated under pressure changing) first all the responses were

different conditions as presented in Figs. 17 and recorded, then the detailed mathematical models

18. With the increasing pressure, the temperature with physical descriptions were developed

in the autoclave increased by approximately 4 C, and finally simulated. Considering some

from an initial 48 to 52 C, and with the decreasing simplifications and using curve fitting procedure

pressure the temperature in the autoclave dropped

very similar simulated and real process responses

by approximately 6.5 C, from an initial 53 to 46.5

were obtained, what means that the designed

C.

model is usable for the design of a variety of

process control, including advanced uni- and

6 multi-variable control algorithms.

5 In the future also interactions between the

temperature and the pressure will have to be taken

pressure [bar]

3

into account to show whether the autoclave should

2

be controlled as two independent uni-variable

1

processes or as one multi-variable process.

In spite of the fact that the developed

0

0 50 100 150 200 250

time [s]

300 350 400 450 500

model works well for the given conditions, it will

have to be additionally validated also for the other

Fig. 17. Validation of the mathematical model of real operating conditions. Due to the very different

pressure increasing under different conditions: regimes of operation of multifaceted modelling

real process (solid line) and mathematical model including fuzzy approaches can be expected.

(dashed line)

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)6, 503-516

the criterion function Eq. (A1) 3.478104.

The operation part was financed by

the European Union, European Social Fund.

Operation implemented in the framework of the

Operational Programme for Human Resources

Development for the Period 2007-2013,

Priority axis 1: Promoting entrepreneurship and

adaptability, Main type of activity 1.1.: Experts

and researchers for competitive enterprises.

APPENDIX A:

OPTIMIZATION EXPERIMENT Fig. A1. Initial experiment of the fitting process:

real process (solid line) and mathematical model

The fitting of the parameters using Eq. (34) (dashed line)

is very critical to the success of the model. We

used this method for several parameters, but not

for all at the same time, because using a lot of the

parameters results in a lot of the model variations.

For the useful results of the optimization also

the initial values of the parameters are very

important. We have reasonably chosen a few of

the parameters at a time, then logically set their

assumed initial values and started the optimization

method.

It took a lot of time, effort and performed Fig. A2. Operation of the fitting process: real

optimization experiments to obtain the right process (solid line) and mathematical model

values of the parameters that gave satisfying (dashed line)

mathematical model responses. We used

environment Matlab and its function fminsearch. At the end the optimization returned

The goal of the optimization is to minimize the optimal values Same = 0.312, lme = 0.002 and

criterion function ISE (integral square error) Kcwa = 1905 with minimal value of the criterion

described as: function 268.62. That results returned already

presented responses in Figs. 11, 12 and 16.

( y process (t ) ymodel (t ) )

2

ISE = dt . (A1)

0 9 REFERENCES

The example of the fitting process of last [1] Shearer, J.L., Kulakowski, B.T. (1990).

three autoclave cooling parameters Kcwa, Same and Dynamic modelling and control of

lme is presented in Figs. A1 and A2. engineering systems. Macmillan Publishing

The initial values Same = 3 and lme = 0.5 Company, New York.

were set from the autoclave heating and initial [2] Russell, L.D., Adebiyi, G.A. (1993). Classical

value Kcwa = 500 was assumed, which returned the Thermodynamics, International Edition.

response presented in Fig. A1. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia.

The calculated value of the criterion [3] Incropera, F.P., De Witt, D.P. (1990).

function Eq. (A1) in the initial fitting process Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 3rd

experiment was 2.498105. ed. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey.

Somewhere in the operation the [4] Kutateladze, S.S., Borishanskii, V.M. (1966).

optimization process returned values Same = 1.1, A Concise Encyclopedia of Heat Transfer.

lme = 0.6167 and Kcwa = 750, which resulted in the Pergamon Press, London.

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[5] Perry, R.H., Green, D.W. (1997). Perrys Database Construction of Heat Transfer

Chemical Engineers Handbook, 7th ed. Coefficients of Gas Quenching. Strojniki

McGraw-Hill, New South Wales. vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering,

[6] Whitaker, S. (1972). Forced convection heat vol. 55, no. 3, p. 167-173.

transfer correlations for flow in pipes, past [12] Zeng, X., Raghavan, J. (2010). Role of tool-

flat plates, single cylinders, single spheres,

part interaction in process-induced warpage

and for flow in packed beds and tube bundles.

of autoclave-manufactured composite

AIChE Journal, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 361-371.

structures. Composites: Part A, doi:

[7] Isermann, I., Lachmann, K.H., Matko, D.

(1993). Adaptive Control Systems. Prentice 10.1016/j.compositesa.2010.04.017.

Hall, New York. [13] Dufour, P., Michaud, D.J., Toure, Y., Dhurjati,

[8] Sears, F.W., Zemansky, M.W., Young, H.D. P.S. (2004). A partial differential equation

(1991). College physics, 7th ed. Addison model predictive control strategy: application

Wesley, Massachusetts. to autoclave composite processing.

[9] arlah, A., Poredo, A., Kitanovski, A., Egolf, Computers & Chemical Engineering, vol. 28,

P. (2005). Heat Transfer in an Ice-Slurry Flow. p. 545-556.

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical [14] Razak, A.A., Salah, N.J., Majdi, H.S. (2007).

Engineering, vol. 51, no. 1, p. 3-12. Mathematical model of autoclave curing

[10] Babi, M., Lenari, J., lajpah, L., Taylor,

of epoxy resin based composite materials.

N.A.S., Mekjavi, I.B. (2008). A Device for

Engineering & Technology, vol. 25, no. 7, p.

Simulating the Thermoregulatory Response

of the Foot: Estimation of Footwear Insulation 828-835.

and Evaporative Resistance. Strojniki vestnik [15] Monaghan, P.F., Brogan, M.T., Oosthuizen,

- Journal of Mechanical Engineering, vol. 54, P.H. (1991). Heat transfer in an autoclave

no. 9, p. 628-638. for processing thermoplastic composites.

[11] Narazaki, M., Kogawara, M., Qin, M., Composited Manufacturing, vol. 2, no. 3-4, p.

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