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Experiment 2A: Effect of RTD on the Reaction in a CSTR


The objective of this study was to accomplish which are to do a saponification

response amongst NaOH and Et(Ac) in CSTR, to decide the impact of residence time
on the percentage of conversion and determine reaction rate constant. The analysis
was begin with preparation of sodium hydroxide (120g) and ethyl acetic acid derivation
(297.3L). Switch on the power supply and fill the sodium hydroxide at V1 and
ethylacetate at V2. After that let the reactor fill with both solution until the point that it
about full and blended it by switch on M1. The valve was acclimated to wanted flow
rate and the flow rate for the both valve must be kept up. After the conductivity value
and both flow rates has achieved the steady state, the conductivity value and both flow
rates has been recorded at regular intervals. Investigation was rehashed with various
flow rate which is 200ml/min and 300ml/min however with a similar temperature. All
through the experiment, it demonstrated that the flow rate of 200ml/min has most
noteworthy conversion. The lower flow rate has high productivity in changing over
reactant to item because of longer reverberation times given for the reactant to react.
For lower flow rate, a reaction of kinetic study of liquid stage reaction in a CSTR is
high. Thusly, stream rate of 200ml/min has given the most astounding conversion in
certain period time. It likewise showed that the rate of reaction increment as the flow
rate increment. There were couple of conceivable mistake which was wrong weight of
arrangement that might be affected the outcome.

Experiment 2A: Effect of RTD on the Reaction in a CSTR

Reactor volume= 10 L Flowrate = 200 mL/min
Table 1: Result of Experiment for Flowrate of 200 Ml/Min

Total flow rate Concentratio

of solutions, n of NaOH, Conversion,
Flow rate of Flow rate of F0 (mL/min), time, (min) Conductivity
Temperatur CNaOH (M) X (%)
Time NaOH, FNAOH Et(Ac), FEt
e (C) = FNAOH + FEt (Self (mS/cm)
(mL/min) (mL/min) (From (Self
calculation) calibration calculation)
calculation) curve)

0 33.3 205 205 410 24.39 9.81 0.03888 0

5 33.4 206 205 411 24.33 9.04 0.03375 13.19
10 33.5 201 204 405 24.69 8.39 0.03006 22.69
15 33.5 203 201 404 24.75 7.91 0.02733 29.71
20 33.5 200 201 401 24.94 7.50 0.0250 35.70
25 33.6 206 204 410 24.39 7.19 0.02296 40.95
30 33.6 199 202 401 24.94 6.88 0.02092 46.19
35 33.7 206 200 406 24.63 6.61 0.01914 50.77
avg = 24.69

Experiment 2A: Effect of RTD on the Reaction in a CSTR

Reactor volume= 10 L Flowrate = 300 mL/min

Table 2: Result of Experiment for Flowrate of 300 Ml/Min

Total flow rate Concentration

of solutions, Residence of NaOH, Conversion,
Flow rate of Flow rate of time,
Temperatur F0 (mL/min), Conductivity CNaOH (M) X (%)
Time NaOH, FNAOH Et(Ac), FEt (min)
e (C) = FNAOH + FEt (mS/cm)
(mL/min) (mL/min) (Self (From (Self
(Self calculation) calibration calculation)
calculation) curve)

0 33.6 303 305 608 16.45 6.34 0.01737 0

5 33.5 308 303 611 16.37 5.82 0.01395 19.69
10 33.5 303 306 609 16.42 5.48 0.01171 32.58
15 33.6 303 304 607 16.47 5.34 0.01079 37.88
20 33.5 300 303 603 16.58 5.28 0.01039 40.18
25 33.5 306 300 606 16.50 5.27 0.01033 40.53
30 33.5 302 300 602 16.61 5.25 0.01020 41.28
avg = 16.49

Experiment 2A: Effect of RTD on the Reaction in a CSTR

Table 3: Reaction Rate Constant and Rate of Reaction for Each of the Flowrate

Flowrate (mL/min) Reaction Rate Constant, K (1/s.M) Rate of Reaction, -rA (mol/L.s)

200 0.149 5.458 x 10-5

300 0.8724 9.076 x 10-5

Experiment 2A: Effect of RTD on the Reaction in a CSTR


50 46.19
Conversion, X (%)


30 y = 1.3837x + 5.685
R = 0.9656



0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Time, t (min)

Figure 1: Relationship between reaction time and conversion for 200 mL/min


40.18 40.53 41.28
Conversion, X (%)


30 y = 1.2366x + 11.757
R = 0.7558

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Time, t (min)

Figure 2: Relationship between reaction time and conversion for 300 mL/min

Experiment 2A: Effect of RTD on the Reaction in a CSTR

2.0 Analysis and Discussion

Continuous stirrer tank reactors (CSTRs) are a reactor that basically builds up
from a reactor and a mixer such as a propeller or stirrer. The additional of mixer is
intended to an instant blending of feed chemical. Two feed chemicals in this were
introduced simultaneously in the reactor for this experiment. The composition of the
mixture is uniform across whole reactor. Also, with the same properties at the outlet

The main objective of this saponification process between NaOH and Et(Ac)
are to determine the effect of RTD on the reaction in CSTR. Other than that, the effect
of different residence time on the conversion and the reaction rate constant are

The experiment was conducted with two different flow rates which are
200mL/min and 300mL/min. The concentration for NaOH then was finds using the
calibration curve. For flow rate 200mL/min, the NaOH maximum concentration
0.03888 M which at the minutes 0 and he lowest is at 35th minutes with value 0.01914
M. Meanwhile for 300L/min flow rate, the highest concentration is also at minutes 0
with concentration of 0.01737 M and lowest is at 30 th minutes with concentration of
0.01020 M. Both of the concentration was seems to decrease over time which shows
the NaOH had occurred saponification process and reduce in concentration.

Conversion, X is a way to determining way of quantifying how many moles of

reactant that had been reacted to product from the total initial inlet. By using the
obtained data in Table 1 and Table 2, conversion of reactant, X now can be calculated.
The highest conversion for flow rate 200mL/min is at minutes 35 with 50.77%.
Meanwhile for flow rate 300mL/min, is at 30th minutes with 41.28%. The last
conversion yield of the 200mL/min flow rate is higher compared to 300mL/min are
because the reaction is allowed to being reacted enough by a large time of average
residence time. Based on the graph conversion, X versus time, t the graph for
200mL/min increases with time. The graph for 300mL/min flow rate also increases with
time but with a more drastically rate. The conversion also increases over time.

Experiment 2A: Effect of RTD on the Reaction in a CSTR

Residence time is the average total time of a substances or material spends in

a particular system. It shows about how long that it takes for a concentration before
change into other form or products. If the system size were changed, the residence
time will change too. Average residence time for flow rate 200mL/min is 24.69minutes
and for the flow rate 300mL/min is 16.49minutes. For the rate of reaction, for
200mL/min flow rate is 5.45810-5 mol/L.s and for the 300mL/min flow rate is
9.07610-5 mol/L.s. The differences between this rate of reaction on the same
saponification process are actually regulates because of the flow rates. The increasing
in flow rates into the reactor cause a higher rate of reaction.

Experiment 2A: Effect of RTD on the Reaction in a CSTR

3.0 Conclusion And Reccomendation

As for the conclusion, this experiment had been proven for the effect of RTD on
the reaction in a CSTR affect the saponification reaction between NaOH and Et( Ac ),
residence time on the extent of conversion and the rate of constant. Based from the
results, the higher the flow rate, the shorter the time taken for the reaction to happen
until the point that it achieved a steady conductivity value. The k value is 0.149 1/s.M
at 200 mL/min while 0.8724 1/s.M for the k value at 300mL/min. The highest
conversion in this experiment was at minutes 35, for 200mL/min which is 50.77%. As
for the lowest was at 300mL/min at minutes 30 which is 41.28%. The average
residence time is higher at 200mL/min which is 24.69 minutes compared to
300mL/min, 16.49 minutes. As the residence time increase, the conversion also

As for the recommendation, there are a few aspects that need to be considered
as to make this experiment more efficient. Firstly, we need to make sure the solution
that been used measured properly as we want to prevent any error in the results. Our
eyes also need to be perpendicular to the scale as to avoid the parallax error. We also
need to make sure the feed stock is sufficient until the conductivity is constant. Last
but not least, we need to make sure as the flow rate always at the desired flow rate or
in range as for a better results due to the inconsistent of the valves.

Experiment 2A: Effect of RTD on the Reaction in a CSTR

4.0 Tutorial

5.1 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using PFR reactors in

chemical reaction. Describe an example of industrial applications that utilized
PFR reactors in its process.

Advantages Disadvantages
High in the volumetric unit of the Poor temperature control
Heat transfer rate increased using Undesired thermal gradient may exist in
more, thin tubes or fewer, thick tubes in the reactions
Can operate in longer time without Cost of the Maintenance is high than
maintenance Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor
The model can work for many fluids The capital cost is high
Can be used up for multiple reactions During exothermic reaction the hot
spots will occur
Automatic controlling that allows fast Low flexibility usually occur
response change in operating such as
feed rate and concentration

Plug Flow Reactor consist of high exothermic or explosive energy involved the
chemical reaction to be carried. The safe heat transfer occur between the instrument
and surrounding. The static mixing of components makes it commonly used in a
reaction. These reactor work under condition of constant density and balance
conditions of reactor. Plug Flow Reactor carry out many type of reactions which is
Catalytic Hydrogenation. Catalytic Hydrogenation is supported by catalyst. The
pressure and temperatures increases based on the catalyst itself. Catalyst loading is
lower than in laboratory batch hydrogenation

Experiment 2A: Effect of RTD on the Reaction in a CSTR

5.2 Write a one-paragraph summary of any journal article that studies chemical
reaction in a PFR. The article must have been published within the last 5 years.
Explain on the PFR reactor used in the study and its significance to the study

According to the journal written by Hadi Saroso,Study on Reaction Kinetics

Transesterification Coconut Oil by using the Catalyst NaOH in Plug Flow Reactor
(PFR), the experiment use Plug Flow Reactor (PFR) with Sodium Hydroxide
(NaOH) that act as catalyst and methanol and the palm oil act as the feedstock.
Transesterification process react the alcohol which is (methanol) with the
triglyceride oils in vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled greases, that forms
(biodiesel) and (glycerin). Transesterification typically use batch reactor. Besides,
the writer use Plug Flow Reactor (PFR) as the medium of its reaction to occur.
This research is to learn about production of biodiesel from palm oil. The problem
in this research is to investigate the reaction kinetics% FAME (Free Acid Methyl
Esther) and palm oil into (biodiesel) transesterification with feed flow rate and
concentration of methanol using Plug Flow Reactor. Transesterification process
conducted by flowing oil and methanol in reactor continuously in the form of a
hose pipe 17 m in water bath. The temperature used in the experiment is 60 C.
The feed flow rate and the concentration of methanol in the oil were being
manipulated in the process. The feed flow rate were 15 mL / min, 20 mL / min, 25
mL / min, the concentration of methanol in the oil is 20%, 25%, 30%, 35% (w / w
of oil). The products were analyzed by (GC) and from the result, the highest
FAME% is 90.75% at rate of 25mL / min while the methanol concentration of 25%
w / w of oil amounted to 90.75%.

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Experiment 2A: Effect of RTD on the Reaction in a CSTR

5.0 Reference
1. Ahmad, M. M. (2011). REACTION ENGINEERING School of bioprocess
engineering Course outcomes, (September).

2. Danish, M., Mesfer, M. K. Al, & Rashid, M. (2015). Effect of Operating Conditions
on CSTR performance: an Experimental Study. Journal of Engineering
Research and Applications, 5(2), 7478.

3. Dudukovic, M. P. (2004). Effect of Mixing on Reactor Performance for

Homogeneous Systems, (Che 512), 110.

4. Theodore, L. (2012). Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors. Chemical Reactor

Analysis and Applications for the Practicing Engineer, 181207.

5. Yong, I. (2015). Theory & Methodology, (1), 35.

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Experiment 2A: Effect of RTD on the Reaction in a CSTR

6.0 Appendices
Chemical Preparation
Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH
30L of NaOH, (0.1M)
MW of NaOH = 40g/mol
MNaOH = M2 x MW x V2
= (0.1mol/L) (40g/mol) (30L)
= 120g

Etyl Acetate, Et (Ac)

30L of Et (Ac), (0.1M)

1 = 10.102 /

0.1 30
= 10.10 /

= 297.3 L

Residence Time

Residence Time, t =
= 0.410 /

= 24.39 min

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Experiment 2A: Effect of RTD on the Reaction in a CSTR

Conversion, X

At 200 mL/min, when t = 5

0.03888 0.03375
= 100%

= 13.19

Reaction Rate Constant, k

At 200 mL/min

avg C 2A

= 1481.4 3.663 104

= 0.149 s.M

Rate of Reaction, -rA

-rA kC A2
= 0.149 s.M x 3.663 x 10-4 M

= 5.458 x 10-5 mol/L.s

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