Você está na página 1de 29

Supersonic Nozzle Design for

1m Laser Sources
Ali Khan
Bill ONeill
Innovative Manufacturing Research Centre (IMRC)
Centre for Industrial Photonics
Institute for Manufacturing, Department of Engineering,
University of Cambridge.
Email: ahk31@cam.ac.uk

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008
Contents
Laser Material Processing system Overview
Characteristics of sonic/conical nozzle
Characteristics of supersonic nozzle
Standard laser cutting (gas-jet interaction)
Annulus gas jet
Supersonic side-jet
Side-jet cutting trials
Kerf width and gas-jet relationship
Standard laser cutting trials (2mm Mild Steel)
Laser assisted Oxygen Cutting (LASOX) trials
Laser drilling trials
Entrance/Exit diameter with 1.5mm, 2.17mm sonic & 1.0mm supersonic
nozzle.
Average maximum recast/oxide analysis
1-D approach to supersonic nozzle design
Axisymmetric approach to supersonic nozzle design
Straight sonic line
Curved sonic line
Comparison with other commercially available code (case study)
Conclusion

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 2
Overview

Significant improvements
Laser output
Optical components
Cutting head
Very little improvement in nozzles

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 3
Sonic / Conical nozzle characteristics

Free stream characteristics


with inlet gas pressures
Impinging characteristics
with standoff distance

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 4
Supersonic nozzle characteristics

Free stream characteristics


with inlet gas pressures
Impinging characteristics
with standoff distance

Gas Inlet Pressure


8 bar oxygen

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 5
Standard laser cutting (gas-jets interaction)

Flow separation is a major problem


Flow separation is less sever for supersonic nozzle

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 6
Annulus gas-jet

Improvement in the flow separation

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 7
Supersonic side jet

Flow separation eliminated


But gas speed is less
AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 8
Side jet cutting trials

Good performance with Al

Little affect on Stainless Steel

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 9
Gas jet and kerf relationship

Flow separation minimised with smaller nozzle


Smaller nozzles difficult to manufacture and align
AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 1
Standard laser cutting trials
Laser 200W SPI redPOWER
Nozzles 1.0mm De-Laval, 1.0mm Sonic & 0.5mm De-Laval
Gas oxygen, 2 12 bar
Focal length 70mm
Focal position - +1
Standoff - 1mm
Material 2mm Mild Steel

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 1
Performance / Comparison (Nozzle type & Diameter)

Optimum performance at 8bar


1.0mm & 0.5mm De-Laval designed for 8bar

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 1
Cut quality assessment

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 1
Laser assisted O2 cutting (LASOX)

Sonic nozzle does not work !

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 1
Laser drilling (Diameter)
Laser PRIMA (JK704) single rod
Beam diameter ~ 14mm 15mm Consistent performance
Beam quality (M2) ~ 12 13 from Supersonic Nozzle.
Focal length = 200mm Larger entrance/exit diameter:
Gas = oxygen
Pressure = 6.2 bar (90PSI) Higher drilling rate.
Material 2mm Ni
Drilling angle 19o to the surface

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 1
Laser drilling (Recast & Oxide)

Supersonic nozzle produces lowest recast and oxide level

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 1
1-D approach to Supersonic Nozzle Design.

Quasi-One-Dimensional Theory
( +1)
( 1)
Ar 1 2 1 2
= 1 + M r
A M r + 1 2

Very difficult to obtain uniform flow

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 1
Families of Convergent-Divergent nozzles

De-Laval nozzle:- smooth and gradual expansion


Minimum length nozzle (MLN):- sudden expansion

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 1
Axisymmetric approach to Supersonic Nozzle Design.

Method of Characteristics
= tan ( )
dr
Characteristic
dx
Equation

d ( )
1 dr
=0
( )
M 1 cot r
2 Compatibility Equation

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 1
Nozzle contours (straight sonic line)
Gas oxygen
Pressure 8 bar
Throat dia. 2mm
MLN Mach No. 2.04
Centred Prandtl expansion

No centre expansion
Require sonic line extension
MLN

No centre expansion
Final geometry dependent on the
Throat radius curvature ratio Re
De-Laval

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 2
Curved sonic line

Mixed supersonic and subsonic flow at the throat


Sonic line position depends on the ratio (Re) of throat curvature to throat radius

Cuffel et at (1969), Transonic Flowfield in a Supersonic Nozzle with small Throat Radius of Curvature, AIAA, vol,7,
Dutton et al (1980), Transonic Flow in the Throat Region of Axisymmetric Nozzles, AIAA, vol 19

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 2
Complete nozzle contour

Subsonic Region: 1-D Ideal Gas Theory


Transonic Region: Perturbation Velocity Potential
Supersonic Region: Method of Characteristics

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 2
Computational Inlet Parameters.

Choose Gas Type (10 gas species and


their properties are in the data base).
Customise gas properties with Boundary
Layer Menu.
Specify Nozzle inlet parameters.

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 2
Two supersonic nozzle designs

De-Laval

MLN or Bell

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 2
Design validation (CFD)

Comparison with other available code


5

4
Nozzle type: MLN
Nozzle Radius, [mm]

Inlet pressure: 12 bar


3

Gas type: Nitrogen


2 Inlet temp.: 298K
M=1

M<1 M>1 Throat dia.: 5.3mm


1
MLN
de-laval_bell Exit Mach No. : 2.23
Throat location
0
-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Axisymmetric Nozzle Length, [mm]

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 2
CFD validation (Mach No. Contour)

Current MLN nozzle design is superior

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 2
Free stream gas jet performance
4.0 14

Centreline Total Pressure, [bar]


3.5
12
Centreline Mach Number, [-]

3.0
10

2.5
8
2.0
6
1.5

4
1.0

0.5 MLN Design 2 MLN Design


Laval-Bell Design Laval-Bell Design
0.0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Axial distance from nozzle exit, [mm] Axial distance from nozzle exit, [mm]

MLN under-expanded by 0.96% (accuracy of 99.04%).


Laval Bell over-expanded by 57.7% (accuracy of 42.3%).
Laval Bell design pressure 100% to 7mm, 80% to 80mm, and 30% to130mm.
MLN design pressure 100% > 120mm (>23 nozzle diameters).

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 2
Conclusion.
Supersonic nozzles can be beneficial in laser material processing
Flow from supersonic nozzle is more stable than sonic nozzle
Supersonic nozzle can provide better control than sonic nozzle
Supersonic nozzle is operable to >12 nozzle diameter compared to just 2
from sonic nozzle
Uniform expansion is only achieved with accurate nozzle design
Nozzle inlet geometry depends on the inlet pressure
Sonic line location depends on the radius of curvature
Final nozzle geometry depends on sonic line position
One supersonic nozzle for one pressure
MLN shows greater promise for laser material processing
Shorter length than De-Laval
Easier to manufacture
Cost the same as sonic / conical nozzle
Difficult to design
Smaller diameter nozzles may provide better process performance while
minimising gas consumption.

AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 2
AILU
Date 20th Feb 2008 2