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A Study on Factors Affecting Rice Production in Malaysia

Nor Lelawati Jamaludin1 Afizan Amer2 Helmy Fadlisham Bin Abu Hasan3
1
Faculty of Business Management, UiTM Shah Alam
2
Faculty of Business Management, UiTM Shah Alam,
3
UiTM Kampus Bandaraya Melaka,

Email: 2afizanamer@salam.uitm.edu.my,
3
helmyfadlisham@bdrmelaka.uitm.edu.my

ABSTRACT
The Rice cultivation in Malaysia was closely associated with the rural
population and traditional farmers. But in the last 30 years, rice was transformed
to a commercial crop. The once subsistence farming is now highly regulated and
subsidized. Thus, the market is only lingered in the area of survivability and there
is no room of improvement is yet to be done. The government action to practice
protectionism is undeniably a good step taken to protect the rice industry which
consists of the local farmers, manufacturers, wholesalers and consumers.
However, due to the protectionism practice the government had incurred a high
sum of money which is costly for the economy. This is because even there is a
large sum of money invested in the industry it is still inadequate to produce a par
level of rice production to cater the local consumption line. Thus, the government
need to a fork out a sum of money to import rice to cater the local consumption
and also need to spend a sum of money to implement the protectionism practice
which is essential for the industry yet costly and non-performing one. The main
question is how to increase the production of the rice in Malaysia?

Therefore, a basic research or study need to be done first which is to


analyze the factor that most affecting the rice production. This is because if the
specific factor or several strong factor that contribute to the production is
identified, it will save time and capital of investment if invested into a specified
but yet effective area to improve the production of the rice industry in Malaysia.
As a result, it will lower the cost incurred by the government and open up more
economic value to the industry. This is why this research paper is conducted and
focused on the factors related to the rice production.

Keywords: Rice Production, Rice Cultivation, Descriptive Analysis, Malaysia

MEDIA SUMMARY

This study is a significant research project since it investigates the factor


that affecting the rice production of the world generally and Malaysia. Through
assessing the production in comparison to the factors such as the land size of the
country that produce rice in the world, the technology used which determine the

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volume of rice produce per hectare, the size of labor working in producing the
rice which is determine from the population of the rice producing country in the
world and the demand of the rice which is determined by the consumption volume
of the country that consume and produce rice.

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Rice cultivation in Malaysia was closely associated with the rural


population and traditional farmers. But in the last 30 years, rice was transformed
to a commercial crop. The once subsistence farming is now highly regulated and
subsidized.

Being a security crop, the government encourages domestic production.


However, the national average yield is low at just over 3.0 tons per hectare. Local
production can only cater approximately 60-65% of domestic requirements.
Hence, the shortfall is supplemented by imported rice. About 40% of annual
imported rice is from Thailand. In 1999, Malaysia imported on average about
600,000 metric ton of rice from various countries i.
ii
Rice is mainly grown in the 8 granaries. These are gazette areas, where the
government makes available all infrastructures needs as well as water supply.
These areas constitute 57% of all planted area and produce 72% of the total
national rice production. The remaining is grown in non-irrigated areas, mainly in
East Malaysiaiii.

Policies on rice in Malaysia are closely associated with poverty elevation


and priorities for sectoral growth. Over the years the agriculture sector's
contribution to the GDP declined, although it remains an important sector in the
Malaysian economy. Since the 1970's the government invested heavily on
massive infrastructure development in the 8 granaries. Fertilizer subsidy, support
price and price subsidy are offered to rice farmers by the government to ensure a
good yield and sufficient and consistent income for the farmers, especially the
lower income group.

The 'support price' is fixed at RM550 (US$144) per ton. The farmer also
collects a price subsidy of RM248.10 (US$ 65) per ton. The farmer thus receives
RM798.10 (US$ 210) per ton of paddy. Payment is given after the rice is sampled
for impurities. iv A farmer can choose to sell its produce to either the private
miller or to 'BERNAS'. BERNAS buys the paddy at a fixed rate of RM550 per
ton.

'BERNAS', is the successor of Lembaga Padi Beras Negara (National


Paddy and Rice Board) a government body entrusted to regulate the paddy and
rice industry in Malaysia. The BERNAS Group operates through 36 mills, 49 go-
downs and employs more than 4,000 employees. Their rice is marketed by their

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seven subsidiaries namely Yew Heng Leong, Jasmine Food Corporation,


Serbawangi, Era Bayam Kota, Fajar Jerlun, Dayabest and Sazarice. Amongst the
established brands distributed by BERNAS Group are Jasmine, Saga, Sunwhite,
Sakura and Jati. The BERNAS Group handles approximately 700,000 to 900,000
metric ton of rice every year representing 40 - 50% of total rice supply in
Malaysia. BERNAS is not only involved in procuring, processing, importing,
trading and distributing rice, it also handles public funds for subsidies of rice
production. Since BERNAS is a government interest company, its rice imports are
often 'tied' to country-to-country trade deals. This renders unfair rice imports that
are not characteristics of free trade.

Consumers commonly buy rice at prices between RM1.60 to RM2.50 per


kilo at any retail markets. The prices are commonly matched with cheaper
imports. Farmers thus have no influence on the market lines or the pricing of rice
in Malaysia. The farm gate price is fixed and the government closely regulates
retail prices. Also, a survey of 33 farmers from 3 different villages in the
Seberang Perak in the state of Perak showed that there is a trend towards a larger
difference between Gross and Net Income among rice farmers. This results in a
decline in effective profits from rice farming for the average farmer. The average
gap between the gross and net income among farmers in the study area became
more significant in 1995 - 2000 periodv.

The majority of rice farmers are heavily dependent on support prices,


input subsidy, and government intervention in marketing and helpful rates of
deductions. Farmers are not yet seriously concerned with the implications of
AFTA, where they would no longer be heavily protected. The government may
'protect' the industry even after 2003, although efforts are being made to liberalize
the industry. Recent generous rice imports from neighboring countries caused the
domestic stockpile to exceed set levels, leading to protest from local producers.
This indicates the volatility of the domestic rice market, both in terms of
dependency and in managing stock levels.

The government of Malaysia is very protective of the rice industry. It


bears a major proportion of the cost of production, by spending a substantial
amount of money on subsidies. This may appear to be beneficial to farmers in
assuring a sizeable profit margin, consistent income and assurance of farm gate
price. But since the production of rice is not competitive due to high production
costs and low yield, the sustainability of such a structure with the advent of AFTA
is questionable. However consumer prices (wholesale and retail prices) are also
maintained low through price control measures, therefore there are no complaints
on pricing from the consumers.

Thus, the market is only lingered in the area of survivability and there is
no room of improvement is yet to be done. The government action to practice
protectionism is undeniably a good step taken to protect the rice industry which
consists of the local farmers, manufacturers, wholesalers and consumers.

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However, due to the protectionism practice the government had incurred a high
sum of money which is costly for the economy. This is because even there is a
large sum of money invested in the industry it is still inadequate to produce a par
level of rice production to cater the local consumption line. Thus, the government
need to a fork out a sum of money to import rice to cater the local consumption
and also need to spend a sum of money to implement the protectionism practice
which is essential for the industry yet costly and non-performing one. The main
question is how to increase the production of the rice in Malaysia?

Therefore, a basic research or study need to be done first which is to


analyze the factor that most affecting the rice production. This is because if the
specific factor or several strong factor that contribute to the production is
identified, it will save time and capital of investment if invested into a specified
but yet effective area to improve the production of the rice industry in Malaysia.
As a result, it will lower the cost incurred by the government and open up more
economic value to the industry. This is why this research paper is conducted and
focused on the factors related to the rice production.

LITERATURE REVIEW

(Source: COMMERCIALISING THE RICE INDUSTRY [2004], Malaysian


Institute of Economic Research)

Rice is a strategically important industry in Malaysia. Apart from being


the main source of food, the industry also provides the main livelihood to about
296,000 farmers of whom 116,000 are exclusively rice farmers. Utilitization of
land for rice production is currently close to 700,000 hectares, mainly by small-
scale farmers. The industry at one time being an integral part of rural poverty,
measures to improve the farmers living standards were implemented as a matter
of social and moral responsibility of the government. Thus, heavy investments
were committed to modernize the industry with a view to increasing productivity
and efficiency in the production of rice and therefore the income of the farmers.

Public investments were directed mainly at improving the physical


infrastructure, such as roads and drainage system, provision of production cost
subsidies, such as fertilizer, seedlings, etc to increase yields, and the adoption of
multiple cropping annually. viMechanization was also introduced as part of the
modernization programme. The governments direct intervention in the industry
was also seen in the areas of research and development (R&D) to seek high
yielding seeds and variety, provision of extension services as well as to provide
marketing channels through various institutions so as to prevent exploitation of
farmers by the middlemen, blamed for exploiting rice farmers through artificially
low prices that prevented farmers from earning higher income from their efforts.
Marketing institutions were established to enforce minimum price policy for rice.
As part of the scheme, a price control mechanism was put in place so as to ensure
that rice is affordable to every citizen. Thus, the rice industry is a highly regulated

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industry in Malaysia for reasons stated above. The industry is very dear to the
heart of the government. Public policy with regard to the industry was aimed at
ensuring a minimum self-sufficiency of 65 per cent; to increase the production of
higher quality, specialty and fragrant rice; and to maintain strategic quantity of
rice stockpile. These objectives justify direct government intervention in the
industry and the heavy investment committed.

The achievement of these objectives was reflected in the formulation and


implementation of relevant policies and strategies. Designating paddy producing
areas is one of the major strategies whereby the eight granary areas are designated
as permanent paddy producing areas, to realize a minimum self-sufficiency level
for rice of 65 per cent. Currently these areas cover only 36 per cent of the total
physical paddy land but constitute 57 per cent of the total area planted, and
produce 72 per cent of the total national rice production. These granary areas,
mostly in Peninsular Malaysia, utilize MARDIs generated varieties of MR84,
MR159, and MR167 with a national average yield of 3.315 tones per hectare.
Another strategy is the identification of suitable areas especially in Sabah and
Sarawak for large-scale commercial paddy production by the private sector. In
Sarawak, in particular, there is a great potential for developing the industry by
virtue of the fact that the current production contributes roughly 35 per cent self-
sufficiency level as against the 70 per cent targeted by the state government. This
was mainly due to the traditional method of paddy planting of local varieties such
as Biris, Kalas, Wangi, Bario, Rotan and Lemak, which are mostly of the long life
cycle, requiring 5-7 months for the grain to ripen for harvest. This was translated
into the very low yield average of Sarawaks paddy at 1.04 tones/ha, which was
even lower than the Sabah average of 2.97 tones/ha. The sea change for the rice
industry began in the 1960s when scientists succeeded in producing a miracle rice
variety in the form of IR 8. This finding has become the catalyst for the green
revolution in rice. Today, more than 60 per cent of the worlds rice fields are
planted with varieties whose origins came from IR 8. It was further improved into
another variety IR 36 which has the ability to withstand a wide range of pests,
setting a world record for the only single food crop planted on 27.5 million acres.
This entire scenario represents a challenge to Malaysia, considering the fact that
low cost producing countries are the major competitors for its highly regulated
rice industry.

(Source: Rural Entrepreneurship: The Case of Small Rice Mills in Malaysia


[2000], Richard W. A. Vokes)

In Asian countries, three basic types of rural industries can be identified


namely; i) primary processing industries (agro-processing, livestock and poultry,
forestry, fisheries, mining and quarry products); ii) agro-input industries; and iii)
rural consumer goods industries. Within this grouping, agro-processing industries
are normally the most important. For example, in the case of West Malaysia,
agricultural processing accounted for almost 37 percent of rural employment in
1970. viiThroughout Asia rice milling is one of the most widely spread and

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important of the rural based agro-processing industries. Although the milling of


paddy for market is frequently dominated by large-scale mills, there is many
thousands of small-scale rice mills located throughout the paddy growing areas of
Asia, which undertake to mill paddy retained by farmers for their own
consumption, as well as often engaging in commercial milling. Malaysia is no
exception in this respect. There has been a very rapid growth in the numbers of
small rice mills since the 1950s. The establishment of such mills at this time was
encouraged by the Co-operative Department of the Ministry of Agriculture, with
finance coming from the co-operative movement's own bank and with the
management and administration of the mills vested in representatives of the
membership of the individual co-operatives. While no special assistance or
training appears to have been given to the managers of such co-operative mills,
their operations proved profitable, largely because they proved very popular
among farming families, since they provided a release from the drudgery of the
traditional method of husking paddy using hand or foot operated pounders. By
1956, 210 Co-operative Rice Milling Societies (CRMSs) had been formed and by
1966, the number had risen to 397 [16: 99, 138]. However, the profitability of
these early co-operative ventures attracted private capital into the small rice mill
sector. By 1968 private mills outnumbered co-operative mills by approximately 3:
1 in the major paddy producing states (Perlis, Kedah, Perak, Penang, Selangor,
Kelantan) while the total number of service mills in the country at that time was
somewhere in excess of 1,800 (Calculated from U. Thet Zin 1969/1970. Survey
Report on Rice Processing in West Malaysia.). However, what is particularly
significant in the context of present government policy is that the majority of
owners and managers of small rice mills (SRMs) are Malay. This is in marked
contrast to the privately owned large rice mills (LRMs) which are almost
exclusively Chinese owned. Out of the 1800 SRMs in existence in 1968 the writer
has estimated that over 70 percent were either owned or operated by Malays. Not
all of the mills that have been set up have been operated efficiently and profitably,
because of excess capacity and poor management. As a result, many mills have
closed down. However, at the same time new units are being set up, while many
of the existing units continue to operate effectively, and have, at least until
recently, competed in commercial milling with large rice mills.

It is significant that in the case of the private mills only one, which was
Malay owned, reported receiving any assistance from the various agencies set up
to help small businesses. Indeed, one of the Malay owners even indicated that it
was difficult to get assistance from such bodies. However, only three of the
owners, all Malay, indicated that lack of capital had been a problem at the time of
setting up the mill. Six of the owners indicated that milling operations were
currently less profitable than before, due to the growth in the numbers of SRMs
and the resultant competition for paddy supplies. The other major problem
experienced in running their mills, reported by four of the owners, was the
difficulty of obtaining laborers. This would appear to be a somewhat unexpected
problem. However, it is now widely accepted that unskilled labor is generally in
short supply in this region of Malaysia. This is primarily due to out migration to

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industrial areas in Penang, and the reluctance of rural/urban youths to engage in


work in the rural areas. In spite of these problems, 12 of the private mill owners
and three of the co-operative managers, reported plans for further investment.
Half of the 12 indicated plans for further investment in plant and machinery, with
one of the Chinese owners indicating plans to purchase an artificial drier. For the
other half, the new investments were to centre on an expansion of the business
into commercial milling. This was especially true of the Malay owned mills. As
noted earlier, none of these were engaging in commercial milling at the time of
the survey, but five indicated their desire to expand into commercial milling. Two
of the co-operative mills and one of the Chinese owned mills were also keen to
obtain the necessary licenses to permit commercial milling.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

This study investigates the factors that affecting the production volume of
the Malaysia rice industry. The factors that considered as affecting Malaysian
rice industry are land size, technology, and labor volume. As a preliminary study,
the need to identify the main factor affecting the rice production is important to
the researcher to know the accurate field to develop and pump in the investment
fund. If the area is falsely identified then the development and investment fund is
injected, the consequences could be more severe as it would incurred much higher
cost and time to restructure and shift to the right area. Besides the researcher, this
study is also important to the development unit, fund player in and outside PNB
and as well as the farmers, wholesalers, and the government which is a major role
player in the rice industry.

ASSUMPTION

There are a few assumptions used in this study, the first assumption is the
land size estimated in this study is assumed as the total area of land available in
one country. The second assumption is the technology used is calculated based on
the yield of the rice per hectare, which means the higher the yield (tones/hectare),
the higher the score of the technology (better), the output per hectare is used as a
score for technology. The third assumption is the labor available for paddy is
calculated based on the total current population because it is assumed that all of
the population in one country is a prospect labor. Whilst, the last assumption is
the demand for the commodity (rice) is calculated based on the consumption of
the rice commodity in one country, this is because the demand for the rice is
assumed equal to the consumption level for the countries involved in this study.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

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It will be remarkable to see if the findings can be confirmed upon the use
of the given factors of production such as land size, technology, labor, and
demand of the commodity itself, then, the following hypotheses are proposed:

Land Size

H : There is no significant relationship between the land sizes


available with the rice production volume.
H : There is a significant relationship between the land sizes available
with the rice production volume.

Technologies used

H : There is no significant relationship between the technologies used


with the rice production volume.
H : There is a significant relationship between the technologies used
with the rice production volume.

Labor available

H : There is no significant relationship between the technologies used


with the rice production volume.
H : There is a significant relationship between the technologies used
with the rice production volume.

Demand of the commodities

H : There is no significant relationship between the technologies used


with the rice production volume.
H : There is a significant relationship between the technologies used
with the rice production volume.

METHODS

All the data and information was collected via Bloomberg L.P which is
information news and media company serving around the world. Besides the
Bloomberg L.P the information also gathered via the World Wide Web (www.)
search official and related site such as the IRRI, FAO and WTO.

The data collected involve a 10 years consensus period based on a yearly


basis starting from 1997 to 2007. The data was collected on a consensus method
which is done by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and Food and
Agriculture Organization (FAO).The researcher used the correlation analysis to
conduct the study. As, it is a research study conducted to identify the important
factors associated with the variables of interest.

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This study is mainly focused on determining the relationship between the


rice production volumes with the factors of production such as land size available,
technologies used labor available and the demand for the commodities itself. As a
preliminary study, the need to identify the main factor affecting the rice
production is important to the researcher to know the accurate field to develop
and pump in the investment fund. If the area is falsely identified then the
development and investment fund is injected, the consequences could be more
severe as it would incurred much higher cost and time to restructure and shift to
the right area. Besides the researcher, this study is also important to the
development unit, fund player in and outside PNB and as well as the farmers,
wholesalers, and the government which is a major role player in the rice industry.

The sample population is the country that is a major rice producers and
major rice consumers in the IRRI consensus for the past 10 years. This consist of
62 countries which involve these countries statistical data related to the
independent variables which is the land size, technological usage, labor available,
and the demand for the commodities.

This study is generally a correlation in nature, the data analysis methods


used are as follows: Correlation Coefficient Analysis, Descriptive Analysis, and
Regression Analysis.The unit of analysis in this study is the production of paddy
per year (tones/year) of 62 selected countries as dependent variables. The other
unit of analysis to be compared to the paddy production is the land size of the 62
countries (sq. km), the paddy yield (tones/hectare) of the 62 countries which is
assume as the quantitative score for the technology used, the population of these
62 countries sample is also taken as a medium of quantitative score for the labor
availability factor for production, and the demand of the rice commodities of
these 62 countries also analyze to find out the relationship with the production
output of these countries since the researcher wants to determine how strong the
land size, technology used, labor available and demand for the commodities
affecting the production output.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

REGRESSION ANALYSIS

Regression Analysis purposes is to analyze the relationship between one


variable (dependent variable) and asset of variables. The relationship is expressed
as an equation that predicts the dependent variable from a function of the
independent variables.

Regression model:

Y 0 1 X 1 2 X 2 3 X 3 4 X 4

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Explained:

Y Is a dependent variable (rice productions)

X 1 ,X 2 , X 3 , X 4 is the independent variable (land size, technology,

labor available, and demand for the commodities)

B 0 , B 1 , B 2 , B 3 , B 4 is unknown parameters (constants to be

estimated from the data)

Table 4.1: Descriptive Statistics table

Coefficientsa
Unstandardized Standardized
Coefficients Coefficients
Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
1 (Constant) 63947.874 1.933E6 .033 .974
Land_Size -1.137 .360 -.110 -3.161 .003
Technology .119 473.149 .000 .000 1.000
Labor_Availabl
.095 .012 .686 8.095 .000
e
Commodity_D
513.001 119.545 .346 4.291 .000
D
Descriptive Statistics
a. Dependent Variable: Rice_Production
Std.
N Minimum Maximum Mean Deviation
Rice_Production 62 18000
Table 2.E8
4.2: Regression 1.02E7 3.060E7
Output table
Land_Size 62 27750 2.E7 1.47E6 2962835.570
Technology 62 550.00 10600.00 3.7590E3 2026.21242
Labor_Available 62 475996 1.E9 8.58E7 2.218E8
Commodity_DD 62 34 128434 7185.81 20644.419

The Valid N table


62
4.2 (listwise)

showed that, the constant value (B0=63947.847) does not carry any particular
meaning as the scope does not include x1=x2=0

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The B1 value indicates that a difference of one unit in the land size results in
decrease of approximately 1.137 tones of rice production provided technology,
labor availability and commodity demand is still constant.

The B1 value indicates that a difference of one unit in the technology results in
increase of approximately 0.119 tones of rice production provided land size, labor
availability and commodity demand is still constant.

The B1 value indicates that a difference of one unit in the labor available results
in increase of approximately 0.095 tones of rice production provided technology,
land size and commodity demand is still constant.

The B1 value indicates that a difference of one unit in the demand for rice results
in increase of approximately 513.001 tones of rice production provided
technology, labor availability and land size is still constant.

CORRELATION ANALYSIS

Correlations
Rice_Production Land_Size Technology Labor_Available Commodity_DD
Rice_Production Pearson
1 .313* .148 .957** .943**
Correlation
Sig. (2-
.013 .250 .000 .000
tailed)
N 62 62 62 62 62
Land_Size Pearson
.313* 1 .278* .444** .343**
Correlation
Sig. (2-
.013 .029 .000 .006
tailed)
N 62 62 62 62 62
Technology Pearson
.148 .278* 1 .192 .137
Correlation
Sig. (2-
.250 .029 .135 .290
tailed)
N 62 62 62 62 62
Labor_Available Pearson
.957** .444** .192 1 .925**
Correlation

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Sig. (2-
.000 .000 .135 .000
tailed)
N 62 62 62 62 62
Commodity_DD Pearson
.943** .343** .137 .925** 1
Correlation
Sig. (2-
.000 .006 .290 .000
tailed)
N 62 62 62 62 62
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level
(2-tailed).
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table 4.3: Correlations table

The table 4.3 showed that there is a significant relationship (p-value=


0.000), and strong positive correlation (r=0.957) between Labor Availability and
Rice Production. The table also shows that there is a significant relationship
between the demand for the commodity (rice) with the rice production (p=0.000),
and strong positive relationship (r=0.943) between the demand for the commodity
(rice) with the rice production itself.

Meanwhile, the correlation between the land size and technology used
with the rice production volume has a low significant (p= 0.013 and 0.250)
respectively, and there is low positive relationship (r= 0.313 and 0.148) between
the rice production and land size and technology respectively.

MODEL SUMMARY

Model Summary
Adjusted R Std. Error of
Model R R Square Square the Estimate
1 .974a .949 .945 7152932.666
a. Predictors: (Constant), Commodity_DD, Technology,
Land_Size, Labor_Available

Table 4.4: Model Summary Table

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Table 4.3 showed that, the model explains 94.9% of the variation in Rice
Production volume is explained by the regression model using land size,
technology used, labor available and demand for the commodity as a predictors.
That means, other variables not included in the model are also related to the Rice
Production volume.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

The objective of the study is to find out whether there is any relationship
between the rice production output with the factors that is considered as affecting
the production level or volume such as the land size, technology, labor available,
and the demand for the commodity itself. After the study has been conducted, it is
founded that the land size and technology is not an important factor that affecting
any unit of differences in the rice production volume. However, these two factors
still have a positive relationship or interpreted as contribution to the rice
production level. As for the other two factors which are labor availability and the
demand for the commodity, after the study it is founded that the two factors has a
significant relationship with the rice production volume or output. Which mean
that, these factors has a high percentage ratio contributing to the rice production
output. In addition these two factors labor available and demand for the
commodity (rice) also has a strong positive relationship with the rice production
volume.

Thus, it can be concluded that the important factor of rice such as labor
availability and the demand for the commodity need to be distressed to improve
the production of rice where it can help the government to reduce expenses on
subsidies and reduce the import of rice to open up more room of survival for local
rice growers. The other factor of production in this study also can be taken into
account such as the technology and land size where the land size for paddy
cultivation can be expanded and the technology that is effectively implemented by
other country to maximize the rice production can be adopted. Besides, by
identifying the factors important to rice production PNB are able to pump in
investment in the right area and gain a profitable return in later stage

After the study has been conducted and the findings is already procured, it
is recommended an investment is to be made by the PNB into improving the value
of the labor involved in rice production such as providing them with a
professional training and also provides funding for research and development in
human resource area of the rice production line. However, an investment in the
technology and expanding the land size available for rice production also is
needed to enhance the production of rice and the rice industry as a whole.

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REFERENCES

i
www.consumersinternational.org
ii
De Datta S K. (1981). Principles and practices of rice production. New York:
John Wiley & Sons, 618.
iii
www.researchandmarkets.com/reports
iv
www.researchandmarkets.com/reports
v
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