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Possessive Case

O Possessive Case utilizado para demonstrar posse, ou seja, para declarar que um
sujeito possui algo. Para isso, faz-se necessrio o acrscimo de apstrofo + s (s) ao
substantivo.

Ex.: This is Marys book. (Este o livro da Mary).

That is Susans car. (Aquele o carro da Susan).

Those are Teds boots. (Aquelas so as botas do Ted).

* importante notar que quando o substantivo termina em s no necessrio


acrescentar s, acrescenta-se apenas o apstrofo.

Ex.: Chris apartment is very huge. (O apartamento do Chris imenso).

Charles father is so strict. (O pai do Charles to severo).

The girls backpacks are pink. (As mochilas das garotas so rosa).

* Quando h dois ou mais possuidores de um mesmo objeto, deve-se acrescentar o


apstrofo + s (s) apenas no ltimo possuidor.

Ex.: Mary and Toms daughter, Susan, is really smart. (A filha da Mary e do Tom, Susan,
muito esperta).

Bob and Jacks bedroom is a mess. (O quarto do Bob e do Jack est uma baguna). Obs.:
Nesse caso, o Bob e o Jack dividem o mesmo quarto.

Jack and Jills video game is on the floor. (O jogo de videogame do Jack e do Jill est no
cho). Obs.: Nesse caso, s h um jogo no cho e ele tem dois donos, que so o Jack e o
Jill.

* Quando houver dois possuidores e duas ou mais coisas possudas, usa-se apstrofo + s
(s) para todos os possuidores.

Ex.: Carols and Susans daughters study at the same college. (As filhas da Carol e da
Susan estudam na mesma universidade). Obs.: Nesse caso, tanto Carol quanto Susan
tm filhas.

Toms and Sams offices are on that building. (Os escritrios do Tom e do Sam so
naquele prdio). Obs.: Tom e Sam no dividem um escritrio no prdio, cada um tem o
seu.
http://brasilescola.uol.com.br/ingles/possessive-case.htm

Exercises

01 a 03 Passe para o Ingls:

01. Os sapatos de James so marrons.

02. A fora de Hrcules insupervel.

03. Os raios do sol so bons.

04. Whose coat is this? Its my _________________________________.

a) brother-in-laws b) brothers-in law c) brother-ins-law d) brother-in-law

e) todas so corretas

05. She bought the ______________ food.

a) dogs b) dog c) of dogs d) of the dog e) dogss

06. Have you seen those _________ dresses?

a) ladys b) ladies c) ladiess d) ladyes e) of ladies

07. I like _______ plays.

a) Sophocless b) Sophofocles c) Sophocles d) of Sophocles e) of Sophocles

08. Here you have _______ grades.

a) James b) of James c) Jamess d) James e) of James

09. There are my _______ toys.

a) children b) childrens c) childs d) of children e) b and c are corrects

10. The womens room is here, and the _______ one is there.

a) mans b) men c) mens d) menss e) of mens

Respostas: 01. Jamess shoes are brown.

02. Hercules strength is unbeatable.

03. The suns rays are good.


04. A 05. A 06. B 07. B

08. C 09. E 10. C

11. - Whose umbrella is it ? (the teacher) R: It's the teacher's umbrella.

12. - Whose bicycle is it ? (Old MacDonald) R: It's Old MacDonald's bicycle.

13. - Whose guitar is it ? (Frankie) R: It's Frankie's guitar.

14. - Whose watering can is it ? (Aunt Rosie) R: It's Aunt Rosie's watering can.

15. - Whose toys are they ? (your children) R: They're your children's toys.

16. - Whose marbles are they ? (these boys) R: They're these boys' marbles.

17. - Whose glasses are they ? (the doctor) R: They're the doctor's glasses.

18. - Whose suitcases are they ? (an Italian passenger) R: They're an Italian passenger's
suitcases.

19. - Whose watches are they ? (our friends) R: They're our friends' watches.

20. - Whose house is it ? (my grandparents) R: It's my grandparents' house.

21. - Whose guinea-pig is it ? (Alison's brothers) R: It's Alison's brothers' guinea-pig.

PREPOSITIONS

As preposies so partculas muito importantes na lngua inglesa e esto presentes em


praticamente todas as expresses e estruturas, sejam locues prepositivas ou simples
combinaes de duas palavras. Examples: at home, on business, in time

So muitas as preposies em ingls, e importante lembrar que devemos aprend-las


em pequenas expresses. A memorizao de preposies dessa forma ficar muito mais
fcil e a expresso far sentido.

Veja alguns exemplos:

* Quando nos referimos aos perodos do dia: in the morning; in the afternoon;

in the evening; at night.

"In" para expressar tempo: antes de meses, estaes do ano e de anos especficos:

in 1999; in November; in summer.


* "On" sempre vir anterior palavra day, seja qual for o dia, de semana, final de
semana, feriado ou aniversrio:

on Sunday; on 24th April; on a special day; on a holiday; on a summer day;

on my birthday.

* "At" sempre usada antes de horas, momentos especficos, tais como feriados:

at 9 oclock; at 10 p.m.; at midnight; at Christmas [no Natal];

at Easter [na Pscoa]. "In" e "at": para descrever espao.

* "in" geralmente refere-se a lugares maiores; - "at" geralmente refere-se a lugares mais
especficos.

in Brazil; in the American Continent; in Africa; in So Paulo; in Bahia;

in Salvador; at the cinema; at the bus stop; at the disco; at the restaurant;

at home.

* Some very common prepositions in English:

on; in; at; over; up; behind; between; in front of.

* As tradues para portugus normalmente consideram somente o significado da


preposio. Example:

in = dentro; on = sobre; at = no, na.

* Entretanto, se considerarmos esses significados dessa forma, somente o uso da


preposio desconectada do contexto e das combinaes naturais das colocaes, no
se conseguir compreender seu significado em vrias expresses.

Vejamos alguns casos de preposio em phrases; assim voc aprender expresses,


locues, e no simplemente signicados soltos, descontextualizados:

Prepositional phrase Translation On time -Na hora, pontualmente- In time -A tempo- At 2


oclock14h At home -Em casa- On business -A negcios- At the bus stop -No ponto do nibus- In
the morning -De manh- In the afternoon -De tarde- At noon -Ao meio-dia- At night -De noite-
On duty A servio Off dutyDe folga In peaceEm paz At ease Comfortavelmente, sossegado On the
telephone Ao telefone On the north coast Na costa norte
Se tentssemos traduzir as expresses citadas anteriormente considerando o significado
isolado, como, por exemplo, na expresso on the telephone seria em cima do telefone, sobre o
telefone, e no ao telefone.

Existe uma grande quantidade de expresses em ingls formadas por preposies.

importante que voc tenha acesso a dicionrios [impressos ou on-line] e a corpus [grandes
quantidades de textos virtuais disponveis na Web] para que possa aprender a expresso em
contexto.

*Lets check some other prepositional phrases:

Prepositional phrase Translation Under the bed Embaixo da cama

Outside the bank Fora do banco, ao sair do banco At the bottom of No final [de uma lista, de
uma srie] At the entrance of Na entrada In the east of A leste de On the corner No canto, na
esquina In the plane No avio By coach De nibus By train De trem On foot A p

Lets check some uses of prepositions with forms of transport:

*Prepositional phrases Translation

By train De trem By coach De nibus In an air-condition ed coach Em um nibus com ar-


condicionado Step (get) off the train Descer do trem Jump (get) out of the bus Descer do nibus
In a van De van By bicycle De bicicleta

*Main points about prepositions:

You normally use prepositional phrase to say where a person or thing is, or the direction to
where they move.

Many words are both prepositions and adverbs with little or no difference in meaning.

You generally use at to talk about a place as a point. You generally use in to talk about a
place as an area. You generally use on to talk about a place as a surface.5 10

*Now lets see some prepositional phrases in context:

I saw a taxi at the end of the street. We landed at a small airport.

She wanted to stay at home. Theres a telephone box on the corner. Il see you at Freds
house. It was very cold in the cinema.

I had a hard day at the offi ce. She kept the cards in a small box. She used to live in the east
of Scotland.

She got a job in Oxford Street. Mr. Ward happened to be getting into his lorry.
He got back into the train quickly, before Bratt could stop him.

They had to come by bus. He stepped off the train and walked quickly to the exit. I sat
down on the sofa.

15 A LETTER TO A PENPAL

Uma das primeiras produes escritas em ingls [ interessante tentar no incio do


aprendizado da lngua] escrever sobre voc mesmo, sobre sua rotina, sua vida.

muito comum exercitar isso por meio das relaes com pen pals [amigos de pases
estrangeiros com os quais mantemos correspondncia]. Hoje em dia essa prtica ainda
muito usual, porm adquiriu caractersticas digitais, como a insero de fotos por
exemplo.

http://www.ebah.com.br/content/ABAAAAwFcAH/ingles-uni-iii?part=2

Exercises

1- Peter is playing tennis on_on__Sunday.

2- My brother's birthday is _on__the 5th of November.

3- My birthday is _ in__ May.

4- We are going to see my parents _at__ the weekend.

5- __in_ 1666, a great re broke out in London.

6- I don't like walking alone in the streets _at__night.

7- What are you doing _in__ the afternoon?

8- My friend has been living in Canada _for__ two years.

9- I have been waiting for you _since__ seven o'clock.

10- I will have nished this essay _by__ Friday.

11. My best friend lives ______ Boretz Road.

a. in b. on c. at

12. I'll be ready to leave ____ about twenty minutes.

a. in b. on c. at
13. Since he met his new girlfriend, Juan never seems to be ______ home.

a. on b. in c. at

14. The child responded to his mother's demands ______ throwing a tantrum.

a. with b. by c. from

15. I think she spent the entire afternoon ______ the phone.

a. on b. in c. at

16. I will wait ______ 6:30, but then I'm going home.

a. from b. at c. until

17. The police caught the thief _____ the corner of Cascade and Plum Streets.

a. in b. at c. from

18. My ngers were injured so my sister had to write the note _____ me.

a. for b. with c. to

19. I am not interested _____ buying a new car now.

a. to b. for c. in

20. What are the main ingredients ______ this casserole?

a. about b. to c. of

21. My best friend, John, is named ______ his great-grandfather.

a. after b. to c. about

22. Grandpa stayed up ______ two in the morning.

a. since b. for c. until

23. My parents have been married ______ forty-nine years.

a. since b. for c. until

24. He usually travels to Philadelphia _______ train.

a. by b. at c. with

25. You frequently see this kind of violence ____ television.


a. with b. in c. on

Emprego de since/ for

Sobre as palavras since e for, a primeira coisa que voc deve aprender o significado de
cada uma delas. Portanto, anote a que since significa desde e for significa h. Para evitar
confuses, veja abaixo alguns exemplos do uso dessas palavras em portugus:

Eu estudo ingls h seis anos.

Eu estudo ingls desde 2004.

A gente se conhece h dez anos.

A gente se conhece desde 2000.

Eles esto juntos h dez meses.

Eles esto juntos desde janeiro.

Since e For com o Present PerfectNote como o modo em que expressamos o tempo diferente.
Porm, a ao descrita a mesma. Ou seja, so modos diferentes de dizer a mesma coisa. Caso
eu tenha de dizer isso em ingls, ficar assim:

Ive studied English for six years.

Ive studied English since 2004.

Weve known each other for ten years.

Weve known each other since 2000.

Theyve been together for ten years.

Theyve been together since January.

Compare as sentenas em portugus e ingls. Se voc traduzir as sentenas em ingls ao p da


letra, notar que o modo como dizemos diferente do modo como dito em ingls. Eu acredito
que voc no precisa entrar em desespero por conta disso. Ou seja, voc no precisa decorar as
regras gramaticais do Present Perfect para saber usar corretamente em ingls.

*Veja mais alguns exemplos:

Ive lived here for a long time. (Eu moro aqui h muito tempo. | Faz muito tempo que eu moro
aqui.)

Ive lived here since I was a kid. (Eu moro aqui desde que eu era criana.)

Weve been married for 15 years. (Estamos casados h 15 amos.)


Weve been married since 1997. (Ns estamos casados desde 1997.)

Hes worked there for ages. (Ele trabalha l h um tempo.)

Hes worked there since he was 19. (Ele trabalha l desde que tinha 19 anos.)

O uso das duas palavras junto com o Present Perfect passam a ideia de que a ao mencionada
continua acontecendo (sendo verdadeira) at o presente momento. Ao dizer Weve been
married for 15 years, eu estou informando s pessoas que continuo casado e esse fato se
mantm assim h 15 anos. O mesmo vale para qualquer uma das sentenas acima. A ao sendo
descrita continua sendo real, verdadeira.

Exercises

1. The earth ___ has_____ been in existence ___for_____ millions of years.

2. Cuba ___has____ been a socialist country __since____ 1959.

3. Korea and Germany __have____ been divided nations ___for_____ quite a few years.

4. Latin ___has___ been a dead language __since____ the decline of Rome.

5. Bill and his best friend ____have____ known each other ____for____ many years.

6. Life in China __has____ been very different __since___ the Peoples Revolution. The people
__have___ changed.

7. Israel __has______ been a state ___since___ 1948.

8. Canada and Australia ___have___ been a part of the British Commonwealth __for____ quite a
few years.

9. Islam ___has___ been the most important religion in the Middle East __for___ approximately
1,400 years.

10. Life __has____ been a magnificent puzzle ___since___ the beginning of time.

11. All of the students _have____ studied hard ___since___ the beginning of the course. The
class ___has__ been in session __since___ September 1.

12. Buddhism __has____ been a major religion in the Far East __for___ more than two thousand
years.

13. The sun __has___ been in the center of our solar system __for____ millions and millions of
years.

14. My parents _have____ had their house _for___ quite a few years.
15. Washington, D. C., _has____ been the capital of the United States _since__ 1800.

16. I ___have___ known my best friend __since____ I was six.

17. The Eiffel Tower _has____ been a famous tourist attraction __since___ the time of its
erection for the Paris Exhibition in 1889.

18. Relations between those two countries _have____ been bad __since___ the end of the last
war.

19. Christianity _has____ been an important religion __for___ almost two thousand years.

20. The Red Cross __has___ been an important international organization __since____ 1864. It
___has_____ helped people ___for___ many years.

21. The Soviet Union _has____ been a socialist state __since___ 1917.

https://inglesnoteclado.com.br/2016/11/exercicios-de-since-e-for.html

Also e too

Em ingls h trs maneiras de dizer tambm: also, too e as well. Para saber como
usar cada uma destas formas continue lendo (no pare!).

*ALSO Usado geralmente no meio da sentena. A melhor maneira de entender a sua


posiao em uma sentena atravs de muita ateno ao encontrar a palavra. Veja
alguns exemplos

Im cold, and Im also hungry and tired. (T com frio e tambm t com fome e cansado.)

She also writes books. (Ela tambm escreve livros.)

We can also help them. (A gente tambm pode ajudar eles. Ou como querem os
gramticos: Ns tambm podemos ajud-los.)

*TOO Usado sempre no final das sentenas:

Im cold, and Im hungry and tired too.

She writes books too.

We can help them too.

*AS WELL Mesma situao do too:

Im cold, and Im hungry and tired as well.


She writes books as well.

We can help them as well.

Em tudo isto a s tem um porm! Se a sentena for negativa o correto usar o either
com o sentido de tambm:

She doesnt drink and she doesnt smoke either. (Ela no bebe e tambm no fuma ou
Ela no bebe e nem fuma)

Exercises

1. Paul has got an English book. Dan has _also_ got an English book

2. Pam can swim. Brian can _also_ swim.

3. Davis is a big city. Berkeley is _also_ a big city.

4. Coffee is my favorite drink. Coffee is _also_ his favorite drink.

5.- I enjoy classical music. But I _also_ enjoy popular music.

6.- Richard is working now. Thomas is working now _also_.

7.- Richard is working now. Thomas is working now _too_.

8.- They watched television. We watched television ___too____.

9.- Frank collects stamps. He ___also___ collects interesting coins.

10.- She has already seen that movie. I've seen that movie __too_____.

11.- Dick plays tennis very well. He ____also__plays golf very well.

12.- Bettys going to go in your car. Im going to go with you __too___.

13.- I was in Europe last year. Were you in Europe last year __also__?.

14.- My friend Christians a very good cook ; and hes a very good athlete _too_

15.- On holiday, fish was cheap, and potatoes were inexpensive _too_. The rest was unaffordable

16.- The fruit crops are _also_ good this year, I saw so many orchards...

17.- Not only children, but grown-ups _too_ like climbing mountains.

18.- I was impressed by the landscape and appreciated it, and either of my friends did _too_...

19.- Eating salmon every day, and being given some on the plane was once _too_ often . I'm sick
of it now... I may become a vegan _too_

http://www.grammarbank.com/also-too-either.html

https://www.tolearnenglish.com/cgi2/myexam/voir2r.php?id=105985

Passive voice
A passive voice (voz passiva) um tipo de construo frasal onde salientado o que acontece
com o sujeito, no entanto, sem enfatiz-lo. Nesse caso, o sujeito paciente.

Ela mantm o foco no objeto do perodo, uma vez que ele recebe a ao. A passive voice
geralmente utilizada em textos formais e tcnicos.

Regras e Exemplos

A voz passiva pode ser utilizada em frases afirmativas, negativas e interrogativas. Sua formao
expressa por:

Objeto + verbo to be + particpio passado do verbo principal + complemento

Usamos esse tipo de construo quando o sujeito da frase indeterminado.

Ela pode ser utilizada em diversos tempos verbais do presente, do passado e do futuro. Confira
abaixo alguns exemplos:

*Presente (Present)

Simple Present: am/is/are + particpio

Affirmative Form: The school is painted by John.

Negative Form: The school isnt painted by John.

Interrogative Form: Is the school painted by Jonh?

Present Continuous: am/is/are being + particpio

Affirmative Form: The school is being painted by John.

Negative Form: The school isnt being painted by John.

Interrogative Form: Is the school being painted by John?

Present Perfect: has/have been + particpio

Affirmative Form: The school has been painted by John.

Negative Form: The school hasnt been painted by John.


Interrogative Form: Has the school been painted by John?

*Passado (Past)

Simple Past: was/were + particpio

Affirmative Form: The school was painted by John.

Negative Form: The school wasnt painted by John.

Interrogative Form: Was the school painted by John?

Past Continuous: was/were being + particpio

Affirmative Form: The school was being painted by John.

Negative Form: The school wasnt being painted by John.

Interrogative Form: Was the school being painted by John?

Past Perfect: had been + particpio

Affirmative Form: The school had been painted by John.

Negative Form: The school hadnt been painted by John.

Interrogative Form: Had the school been painted by John?

*Futuro (Future)

Simple Future: will be + particpio

Affirmative Form: The school will be painted by John.

Negative Form: The school wont be painted by John.

Interrogative Form: Will the school be painted by John?

Future Perfect: will have been + particpio

Affirmative Form: By next week, the school will have been painted by John.

Negative Form: By next week, the school wont have been painted by John.

Interrogative Form: Will the school have been painted by next week by John?

*Modal Verbs (Verbos Modais)

No caso do uso dos verbos modais, a construo feita da seguinte maneira:


Modal verb + be + particpio passado

- Os principais verbos modais so: will, would, can, could, must, should, may, might, ought to,
have to, etc.

*Active and Passive Voice

Diferente da passive voice, na active voice (voz ativa) o sujeito da ao posto em evidncia.
Confira abaixo alguns exemplos:

Exemplos Active Voice (Voz Ativa) Passive Voice (Voz Passiva)

Simple Present John paints the school every year. The school is painted by John every
year.

Simple Past John painted the school. The school was painted by Paul.

Simple Future John will paint the school. The school will be painted by Paul.

Exercises

1. (PUC- Rio) The passive voice is used in Orkut was quietly launched on January 22,
2004. Find the sentence that is also in the passive voice.

a) Communities have never rejected new members.

b) Good ideas took shape at the end of the session.

c) Some communities have been able to control their growth.

d) Several social groups could be connected by the Internet.

2. (UNESP) Sue asked Barbara: What movie do you want to see?

Sue asked her what movie ______________

a) did she want to see.

b) does she want to see.

c) to see.

d) she wanted to see.

e) she want to see.


3. (FATEC) She said: I had to leave. She said (that) ______.

a) she is leaving

b) she had leaving

c) she had to leaves

d) she had to leave

e) she had to leaving

4- (Unesp) Indique a alternativa que expressa o mesmo significado de: When children
watch TV, they encounter a wide range of places, people, and information.

a) When children watch TV, a wide range of places, people, and information will be
encounter

b) When children watch TV, a wide range of places, people, and information are
encountered.

c) When children watch TV, a wide range of places, people, and information is
encountered.

d) When TV was watched, a wide range of places, people, and information are
encountered by children.

e) A wide range of places, people, and information will be encountered when children
watched TV.

- Complete the sentences in the passive voice using the correct verb form:

5- They can take the book. The book ___ can be taken_______by them.

6- You must obey the rules. The rules _____must be obeyed____by you.

7- My friends broke the window. The window _____was broken_______.

8- We will give a lunch here. A lunch __will be given_______here.

9- They was cleaning the room. The room _____was being cleaned_____by them.

10. A voz passiva de Im reading the magazine :

a) The magazine is being read (by me).


b) The magazine was being read (by me).

c) The magazine has been read (by me).

d) The magazine had been read (by me).

e) The magazine were read (by me).

11. He said: Can you show me your passport?

a) He asked me can you show your passport?

b) He asked to show my passport.

c) He asked: show you passport.

d) He asked to me show you passport.

e) He asked me whether I could show him my passport.

12. He said: I am sweeping my floor.

a) He said he sweeps his floor. b) He said he was sweeping his floor.

c) He said that he was sweeping my floor. d) He said his floor sweeps.

e) He said that floors are to be swept.

13. She said to me: Go!

She told me_______________.

a) had b) going c) go d) to go e) has gone

14. They said to us: Dont go!

They told us ________________.

a) go to not b) not go c) not going d) not to go e) going not

15.I said to him: Ill leave soon.

I told him that I ______ soon.

a) will leave b) d left c) s left d) d leave e) am leaving

16. (FATEC) She said: I had to leave. She said (that) ______.
a) she is leaving b) she had leaving c) she had to leaves

d) she had to leave e) she had to leaving

17. (UNESP) Sue asked Barbara: What movie do you want to see?

Sue asked her what movie ______________

a) did she want to see. b) does she want to see. c) to see. d) she wanted to see. e) she
want to see.

18. He said: I have slept a lot.

a) He said: slept a lot, I have. b) He said: I have slept a lot.

c) He told slept a lot. d) He told me to sleep a lot.

e) He said he had slept a lot.

19. She said to me: Im washing my car.

a) She said that she washes cars. b) She said that she was washing her car.

c) She said to wash her car. d) She said to her car: wash!

e) She said she is washes cars.

http://exercicios.brasilescola.uol.com.br/exercicios-ingles/exercicios-sobre-passive-
voice.htm

http://www.coladaweb.com/exercicios-resolvidos/exercicios-resolvidos-de-
ingles/passive-voice

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