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Modeling and simulation performance of sucker rod beam pump

, , , ,
Annisa Aditsania , Silvy Dewi Rahmawati , Pudjo Sukarno , and Edy Soewono

Citation: 1677, 080008 (2015); doi: 10.1063/1.4930739


View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4930739
View Table of Contents: http://aip.scitation.org/toc/apc/1677/1
Published by the American Institute of Physics
Modeling and Simulation
Performance of Sucker Rod Beam Pump
Annisa Aditsania1,a), Silvy Dewi Rahmawati2,b),
Pudjo Sukarno2,c), Edy Soewono3,d)
1
Department of Computational Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung
2
Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung
3
Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung
a)
annisaaditsania@gmail.com
b)
silvyarahmawati@gmail.com
c)
psukarno@gmail.com
d)
esoewono@math.itb.ac.id

Abstract. Artificial lift is a mechanism to lift hydrocarbon, generally petroleum, from a well to surface. This is used in the case
that the natural pressure from the reservoir has significantly decreased. Sucker rod beam pumping is a method of artificial lift.
Sucker rod beam pump is modeled in this research as a function of geometry of the surface part, the size of sucker rod string, and
fluid properties. Besides its length, sucker rod string also classified into tapered and un-tapered. At the beginning of this research,
for easy modeling, the sucker rod string was assumed as un-tapered. The assumption proved non-realistic to use. Therefore, the
tapered sucker rod string modeling needs building. The numerical solution of this sucker rod beam pump model is computed
using finite difference method. The numerical result shows that the peak of polished rod load for sucker rod beam pump unit C-
456-D-256-120, for non-tapered sucker rod string is 38504.2 lb, while for tapered rod string is 25723.3 lb. For that reason, to
avoid the sucker rod string breaks due to the overload, the use of tapered sucker rod beam string is suggested in this research.

INTRODUCTION
In the early oil and gas production, the natural pressure from reservoir is strong enough to lift the fluid to the
surface. But the reservoir pressure will significantly decrease as the time passes. This results of the pressure decline
is decrease of fluid produced. At this stage, the oil and gas company will introduce an artificial lift method that is
needed and suitable to maintain the production rate.
Sucker rod beam pumping is one of artificial lift method widely used in Indonesia. In Duri field, for example,
more than twenty wells use sucker rod beam pump. It is efficient and practical to use. It can lift fluid from sandy
wells and flexible because its speed of pump and its stroke length can be adjusted and used in various tubing.
However the evaluation for its performance hasnt been supported by enough theories. To evaluate its performance
of this equipment at the subsurface gives a special difficulty.

SUCKER ROD BEAM PUMP MODEL

Sucker rod beam pump in this paper is modeled as a series of bars. The principle of this tool is the prime mover
which moves the crank bar. The movement of the rotating crank bar is changed to be vertical liner movement of the
rod string by the beam pump unit[1]. Sucker rod string is a bar relating the plunger to the surface tools. The
performance of sucker rod string greatly influence the fluid produced. The more fluid lifted the bigger stress on the

The 5th International Conference on Mathematics and Natural Sciences


AIP Conf. Proc. 1677, 080008-1080008-5; doi: 10.1063/1.4930739
2015 AIP Publishing LLC 978-0-7354-1324-5/$30.00

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sucker rod string will be. Therefore big stresses on the string should be avoided in order that the string will not
break.
Supposed the length of the rod string is ! unit of length. In this research the forces to observe are weight, friction
and force from Hookes Law[2]. The following is a force diagram of sucker rod string.
Internal force !(!) according to Hookes Law
!" !,!
is !" . If we assume that the segment
!"
length is really small (lim ! 0) and the
downward force is positive, according to third
Newton Laws,

! ! ! !, ! !!! ! ! ! !, !
!
= 144
!! ! !! !
(1)
!!! !" !, !
144
!" !"
FIGURE 1. Force diagram of sucker rod string + !
In the previous sucker rod string model,
friction was included. The assumed function force was calculated based on the local velocity relative to casing. But
in reality, the friction force is the result of the friction between sucker rod string and the fluid. To revise it, the
following equation is used
!"
!= . (2)
288!! !
!""!!!
From equation (1) we know that the velocity(!) of the rod string is . It doesnt involve the coupling of the
!
rod. If the coupling of rod is counted, the length of the rod increases. However the additional length is relatively
small compared with the whole length of the rod. The additional length can be approximated by increasing density
of the rod.
! ! (3)
!= !
2 !

Static and Dynamic Displacement

Sucker rod string displacement !(!, !) can be classified into dynamic displacement (dependent on time) and
static displacement (independent on time). That can be represented at equation (4)
! !, ! = ! !, ! + !(!) (4)
where !(!, !) is total displacement, !(!, !) is dynamic displacement (due to the rod movement) and !(!) is static
displacement.
If equation (2), (3), and (4) substitued to equation (1), we obtained equation (5) as the following equation:
(5)
! ! ! !, ! !"# ! ! (! !, ! + ! ! ) ! !"# !" !, !
= + !
!! ! ! !! ! 2! ! !"

Solution Static and Dynamic Displacement

Static and dynamics displacement solution is the one which is not related to each other. The static displacement
solution is calculated by
!"# ! ! !(!) (6)
+ ! = 0
! !! !
If equation (6) is counted using integral, the exact solution of static strain is
!! ! (7)
! ! = + !" + !
2!"

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! and ! is constant integration
To calculate !, see the sucker rod string in polished rod (! = 0). It is assumed the sucker rod string in polished
rod doesnt experience static displacement ! 0 = 0. So the value of ! is 0. To calculate !, see the Buoyant force at
plunger, The equation is
!" (8)
! !! + ! = !" +!
!"
!"!!" !
from the calculation above, we obtain ! = , therefore the exact solution for static displacement at each
!"
segment is
! !
! ! = [! ! !"(!)] (9)
!" 2
From equation (5) which is simplified by equation (9), we obtain
! ! ! !, ! !"# ! ! ! ! !"# !" !, !
= (10)
!! ! ! !! ! 2! ! !"
In this research the above equation will be solved using finite difference method. For that purpose, initial and
boundary condition are needed. The following are assumptions used to determine initial and boundary condition[3]
At the beginning of observation, sucker rod beam pump is
in static condition.
!" !, ! (11)
|(!,!) = 0
!"
At the initial condition, static stress is the only stress.
!" !, !
|(!,!) = 0 (12)
!"
The movement of sucker rod string depends on the surface
equipment. The scheme on the right is a simplified scheme.
That scheme show that
!! !"#$ !! + ! !!!
! 0, ! = !! sin!! + cos !!
2!! (13)
!(0)
!! !"# !
where ! = !"#$"%& FIGURE 2. Scheme of sucker rod beam pump
!"
The load of polished rod (! = !) changes in accordance with the movement of the sucker rod string. When the
sucker rod string moves down ward, it is assumed that no fluid is pumped in the sucker rod string. But when
the rod string goes nearest to the lowest point of pumping, the condition changes. At this stage the fluid
entering the pump and gradually adds the weight of the rod string. When the rod string reaches the lowest
point, it will move upward vertically bringing the !! constant weight. This load will decrease as the sucker rod
string goes nearer to the upper most point of the pumping. The decreasing load shows that the fluid has
successfully been lifted to the surface. The following is the mathematical equation of that assumption:
!! ! !, !! ! !, ! , !! ! !!
!!
!" !,! , !! ! !!
!"
= !!
. (14)
!"
!! [! !, ! !(!, !! )] , !! ! !!
!"
0 , !! ! !!
where !! is when the sucker rod is near the lowest point, !! is when the sucker rod is at the lowest point; !! is
when the sucker rod is near the highest point, and !4 is when the sucker rod is at the highest point.

Numerical Solution and Stability


The calculation of exact dynamic is difficult to do. In this research, the finite different method is used to
approximate the exact dynamic solution. According to Taylor Series, differential equation of dynamic displacement
can be written as

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! !, ! + ! 2! !, ! + ! !, ! ! ! ! + !, ! 2! !, ! + !(! !, !) !" ! !, ! + ! !(!, !)
= !!
! ! ! ! 2! ! (15)

!! !!
In which the notation ! !, ! is ! !, ! and to get the stability, choose ! or, ! = , which is ! . So
! !"
2 1 1
2 ! + ! ! !, ! + ! ! ! + 1, ! + ! ! ! 1, ! !(!, ! 1) !!
! !, ! + 1 = ! ! ! ; ! =
(16)
1+! 2!"

Tapered Rod Modeling

In reality, rod string generally used is in a form of tapered. At the previous rod
string model, the assumed diameter is homogenous. To make model more realistic,
we add the boundary condition at the point where rod diameter changes[4].
From third Newton Laws, we have
!!! !! , ! !!! !! , !
!!! = !!!!! (17)
!" !"
And for static strain, from buoyant force we have
!! ! !
!! ! = + !! ! + !! , ! = 1,2, ! (18)
2!! !!
FIGURE 3. Scheme of !!! ! !! !!! !!
sucker rod beam pump where !!! !! <!< !!! !! , !! =
!! !!
and ! = !!!! !(! 1)

SIMULATION AND VALIDATION SUCKER ROD BEAM PUMP MODEL


The following is simulation results of Sucker Rod Beam Pump unit C-456D-256-120.
1. Figure 4 shows distance between sucker rod string on polished
rod and highest position on of polished rod in one stroke
period. In this research, sucker rod beam pump moves from the
lowest point of pump condition.
The maximum distance of sucker rod polished rod at down-
stroke condition is represented by blue line. While the red line
represents the minimum distance of sucker rod at upstroke
condition

FIGURE 4. Position sucker rod string on polished


rod versus crank angle
2. Figure 5 shows that buoyant force at rod nearest plunger in
tapered condition is bigger than un-tapered condition. It is
because diameter of tapered rod is smaller than un-tapered rod.
Meanwhile buoyant weight of the highest rod for tapered rod is
smaller than buoyant weight for un-tapered rod. This is because
there is more surface of rod that contact with the fluid.
Figure.5 shows that tapered rod is a way to decrease the total
weight on sucker rod string.

FIGURE 5. Static rod load versus measured depth

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3.

FIGURE 6b. Dynamometer in plunger for tapered sucker


FIGURE 6a. Dynamometer in plunger for un-tapered
rod string
sucker rod string
Both graphs show that at down stroke condition, weight of rod is nearest to plunger is constant. Weight of rod in
plunger increases when the sucker rod string change the movement from down-stroke to upstroke. At that moment,
fluid enters the pump through plunger. But at upstroke condition, fluid entering through plunger is pumped by
sucker rod string upward. So, the weight at plunger constant. Weight in plunger decreases when the sucker string
changes the move from upstroke to down stroke. At that moment fluid transforms to surface so the weight of
plunger will decrease.
4.

FIGURE 7a. Dynamometer in polised rod un tapered FIGURE 7b. Dynamometer in polished rod for tapered
sucker rod string sucker rod string
Figure 7 show that the rod nearest to the polished rod has the biggest weight at upstroke condition. At tapered
condition maximum weight is 25723.3lb. That weight is the biggest for entire period and segment.
Validation

Validation data for un tapered rod string Validation data for tapered rod string
Theoretical Simulation Difference(%) Theoretical Simulation Difference(%)
Data result Data result
!!"# 216678.8 38504.2 77.61 13289.6 25723.3 93.55
!"#$ 6694.25 6603.62 1.35 3434.37 2056.06 40.13
!" 11950.8 12794.5 7.05 6131.23 6559.39 6.98
Both tables show that the result of our simulation are greatly different from Theoretical Data, due to a number of
assumption for simplifying the performance.

REFERENCES

[1] K. E. Brown, The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods, (PenWell Books Inc: Tulsa, Okhlahoma, USA, 1980).
[2] S. G. Gibbs, Rod pumping: Modern Methods of Design, Diagnosis and Surveillance, (Quantum Manifestation,
Tulsa, 2012), pp.34-49.
[3] R. M. Knapp, M.Sc. thesis, A Dynamic Investigation of Sucker Rod Pump, Kansas, 1963.
[4] S. D. L. Lekia. thesis, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, 1982.

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